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1

Survey Results Give us feedback  

E-print Network

.edu/course_report/index/2/14874?survey... 1 of 7 1/12/09 2:15 PM #12;6. I see myself as a motivated student in this course explained at a level students can comprehend. 4 8 8 31 4 0 3.42 4 1.07 27. The instructor motivated meCrsEval Survey Results CSCE101 Give us feedback Course Evaluation System Individual Course Report

Farritor, Shane

2

PS-1: Metastatic Pulmonary Liposarcoma: Complete Resection Gives Better Results?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary liposarcoma of the lung is extremely rare with only 11 cases reported worldwide. However, metastatic pulmonary liposarcoma was reported around 15% out of all metastatic pulmonary soft tissue sarcoma. Case report: A case of 53 year-old man who presented with mass at left scapular region was referred to our unit in June 2006. He had history of thigh liposarcoma 14 years back which was operated and received a course of radiotherapy. However, he denied of having chest pain, shortness of breath or any other respiratory symptom. Biopsy of the mass came back as liposarcoma (round cell type). CT scan showed presence of left pleural base mass. He underwent left posterolateral thoracotomy and excision of infrascapular as well as intrathoracic mass 3 months later. Post operatively was complicated by hypovolemic shock and anemia. He was put under intensive care monitoring and discharged well at day 52 post-operatively. He was supposed to come for oncology appointment in December 2006 for radiotherapy. Discussion & Conclusions: Pulmonary liposarcoma can be devided into 4 main subtypes; myxoid, round cell, well differentiated and pleomorphic, which have different post operative survival rate. Five years survival rate of metastatic liposarcoma varies from as high as 77% in myxoid type as low as 18 % in round cell type. Even though metastatic pulmonary liposarcoma has the worst prognosis compared to other soft tissue sarcomas, some studies and centres believe that complete resection will give better prognostic value in term of survival rate and recurrences.

Ikhwan, SM; Zulkarnain, H; Ziyadi, MG; Mahmood, Z

2008-01-01

3

Image Ambiguity and Fluency  

PubMed Central

Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

2013-01-01

4

Separation Anxiety and Oppositional Defiant Behavior: Perceived Comorbidity Resulting from Ambiguous Behavioral Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether ambiguous behavioral items contribute to the perceived co-occurrence between separation anxiety (SA) and\\u000a oppositional defiant (OD) problems. In Study 1, 72 mothers of 7–10 year old children (56% male) read descriptions of children\\u000a displaying either SA or OD behaviors and then rated the children on items categorized by judges as ambiguous or unambiguous\\u000a representations of SA and OD

Paul Hommersen; Charlotte Johnston

2010-01-01

5

Lost in Translation: Ambiguity in Nerve Sheath Tumor Nomenclature and Its Resultant Treatment Effect  

PubMed Central

There is much ambiguity surrounding the diagnosis of nerve sheath tumors, including atypical neurofibroma and low-grade MPNST, and yet, the distinction between these entities designates either benign or malignant behavior and thus carries presumed profound prognostic importance that often guides treatment. This study reviews the diagnostic criteria used to designate atypical neurofibroma from low-grade MPNSTs and reviews existing literature the natural history of each of these tumors to see if the distinction is, in fact, of importance. PMID:24216989

Bernthal, Nicholas M.; Jones, Kevin B.; Monument, Michael J.; Liu, Ting; Viskochil, David; Randall, R. Lor

2013-01-01

6

Ambiguous Genitalia  

MedlinePLUS

... being, future sexual function and fertility, and stable gender identity. ambiguous genitalia definitions • sex chromosomes: the X and ... the sex in which a child is raised. • gender identity: how people think of themselves—as male or ...

7

Charitable Giving for HIV and AIDS: Results from a Canadian National Survey  

PubMed Central

Background For the first time, a national survey of adults in Canada posed questions on charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. The objective of this analysis was to explore the behaviour and attitudes of this population in terms of charitable giving. Methods In 2011, individuals in Canada 16 years of age or older were recruited for a survey from an online panel supplemented by random digit dial telephone interviewing. The margin of error was +/?2.1 percentage points (95%). Chi-square tests were used to detect bivariate associations. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to compare those who had donated to HIV and AIDS in the past 12 months with those who had donated to other disease or illness charities. Results 2,139 participated. 82.5% had donated to a charitable cause in the past 12 months. 22.2% had ever donated to HIV and AIDS, with 7.8% doing so in the past 12 months. Individuals who had donated to HIV and AIDS versus other disease or illness charities tended to be younger (p<0.05), single (p<0.005), more highly educated (p<0.001) and to self-identify as a member of a sexual minority group (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed individuals who self-identified as a member of a sexual minority group were significantly much more likely to have donated to HIV and AIDS than to other disease or illness charities in the past 12 months (OR, 7.73; p<0.001; CI 4.32–13.88). Discussion Despite a generally philanthropic orientation, relatively few respondents had ever been involved in charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. Those who had could be understood relationally as individuals at closer social proximity to HIV and AIDS such as members of sexual minority groups. PMID:25153827

Allman, Dan; Calzavara, Liviana; Worthington, Catherine; Tyndall, Mark; Adrien, Alix; Walters, Melissa; White, Samantha; Jones, Marcella K.

2014-01-01

8

Risk, ambiguity, and insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments, economically sophisticated subjects, including professional actuaries, priced insurance both as consumers and as firms under conditions of ambiguity. Findings support implications of the Einhorn-Hogarth ambiguity model: (1) For low probability-of-loss events, prices of both consumers and firms indicated aversion to ambiguity; (2) As probabilities of losses increased, aversion to ambiguity decreased, with consumers exhibiting ambiguity

Robin M. Hogarth; Howard Kunreuther

1989-01-01

9

Processing coordination ambiguity.  

PubMed

We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel. Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase the pan will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume that interpretations are the result of a constraint-satisfaction process, which predicts that frequency or context can bias the parser to initially pursue a more complex interpretation.The results showed an initial preference for noun-phrase coordination, despite the fact that sentential coordination is more frequent in imperative structures. These data suggest that the parser uses a syntactic simplicity heuristic for building initial structural analyses. PMID:21313991

Engelhardt, Paul E; Ferreira, Fernanda

2010-01-01

10

Learning from Ambiguity  

E-print Network

There are many learning problems for which the examples given by the teacher are ambiguously labeled. In this thesis, we will examine one framework of learning from ambiguous examples known as Multiple-Instance learning. ...

Maron, Oded

1998-12-01

11

Impact on HIV test providers of giving a positive test result  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of a positive HIV antibody test result and the direction and support given to the test recipient are critical components of care and prevention. There has been little research that describes what happens in such interactions between recipient and provider. The impact on the test provider of delivering the HIV test result is an important issue to consider.

Ted Myers; Catherine Worthington; Jeffrey P. Aguinaldo; Dennis J. Haubrich; Karen Ryder; Brian Rawson

2007-01-01

12

Would All Statins Be Equally Capable of Giving the Results of Jupiter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jupiter was a trial of individuals without hyperlipidemia, but with elevated high-sensitivity C Reactive protein (CRP) levels. Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. The results suggest that elevated CRP may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events. A statin drug which lowers levels of CRP as well as cholesterol may have a favorable effect when given

Carlos Dujovne

13

Combination of statistical approaches for analysis of 2-DE data gives complementary results.  

PubMed

Five methods for finding significant changes in proteome data have been used to analyze a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis data set. We used both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (Partial Least Squares with jackknife, Cross Model Validation, Power-PLS and CovProc) methods. The gels were taken from a time-series experiment exploring the changes in metabolic enzymes in bovine muscle at five time-points after slaughter. The data set consisted of 1377 protein spots, and for each analysis, the data set were preprocessed to fit the requirements of the chosen method. The generated results were one list from each analysis method of proteins found to be significantly changed according to the experimental design. Although the number of selected variables varied between the methods, we found that this was dependent on the specific aim of each method. CovProc and P-PLS focused more on getting the minimum necessary subset of proteins to explain properties of the samples. These methods ended up with less selected proteins. There was also a correlation between level of significance and frequency of selection for the selected proteins. PMID:19367717

Grove, Harald; Jørgensen, Bo M; Jessen, Flemming; Søndergaard, Ib; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hollung, Kristin; Indahl, Ulf; Faergestad, Ellen M

2008-12-01

14

Willingness-to-pay and willingness-to-accept for risky and ambiguous lotteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former studies have shown that people tend to give buying prices that are lower than selling prices. In our study, we investigate if this willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay disparity is affected by ambiguity. Using a Becker, DeGroot, and Marschak procedure, we elicit buying, selling, short-selling, and short-buying prices. The results indicate that subjects clearly distinguish between risky and ambiguous lotteries and

Roselies Eisenberger; Martin Weber

1995-01-01

15

Vignettes of Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

Gotz, Ignacio L.

2010-01-01

16

Processing Coordination Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2010-01-01

17

Ambiguity and Transcendence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish that several classical context free languages are inherently ambiguous by proving that their counting generating functions, when considered as analytic functions, exhibit some characteristic form of transcendental behaviour.

Philippe Flajolet

1985-01-01

18

Nonperturbative Ambiguities and the Reality of Resurgent Transseries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a wide range of quantum theoretical settings—from quantum mechanics to quantum field theory, from gauge theory to string theory—singularities in the complex Borel plane, usually associated to instantons or renormalons, render perturbation theory ill-defined as they give rise to nonperturbative ambiguities. These ambiguities are associated to choices of an integration contour in the resummation of perturbation theory, along (singular) Stokes directions in the complex Borel plane (rendering perturbative expansions non-Borel summable along any Stokes line). More recently, it has been shown that the proper framework to address these issues is that of resurgent analysis and transseries. In this context, the cancelation of all nonperturbative ambiguities is shown to be a consequence of choosing the transseries median resummation as the appropriate family of unambiguous real solutions along the coupling-constant real axis. While the median resummation is easily implemented for one-parameter transseries, once one considers more general multi-parameter transseries the procedure becomes highly dependent upon properly understanding Stokes transitions in the complex Borel plane. In particular, all Stokes coefficients must now be known in order to explicitly implement multi-parameter median resummations. In the cases where quantum-theoretical physical observables are described by resurgent functions and transseries, the methods described herein show how one may cancel nonperturbative ambiguities, and define these observables nonperturbatively starting out from perturbation theory. Along the way, structural results concerning resurgent transseries are also obtained.

Aniceto, Inês; Schiappa, Ricardo

2014-10-01

19

VALUING AMBIGUITY: THE CASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED GROWTH ENHANCERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A split-valuation method is developed and implemented to elicit the willingness to pay to consume- or avoid consuming- a product of ambiguous quality. The split-valuation method uses experimental auction markets to separate and value the positive and negative attributes of the ambiguous good. The results show that the method can be used to successfully value a good ambiguous quality. Our

Brian L. Buhr; Dermot J. Hayes; Jason F. Shogren; James B. Kliebenstein

1993-01-01

20

Ambiguous Red Shifts  

E-print Network

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

Carl E. Wulfman

2010-10-11

21

Ambiguity in language networks  

E-print Network

Human language defines the most complex outcomes of evolution. The emergence of such an elaborated form of communication allowed humans to create extremely structured societies and manage symbols at different levels including, among others, semantics. All linguistic levels have to deal with an astronomic combinatorial potential that stems from the recursive nature of languages. This recursiveness is indeed a key defining trait. However, not all words are equally combined nor frequent. In breaking the symmetry between less and more often used and between less and more meaning-bearing units, universal scaling laws arise. Such laws, common to all human languages, appear on different stages from word inventories to networks of interacting words. Among these seemingly universal traits exhibited by language networks, ambiguity appears to be a specially relevant component. Ambiguity is avoided in most computational approaches to language processing, and yet it seems to be a crucial element of language architecture. ...

Solé, Ricard V

2014-01-01

22

The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the opportunity to close important…

Bern-Klug, Mercedes

2004-01-01

23

Facing ambiguous threats.  

PubMed

On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

2006-11-01

24

General Algorithms for Testing the Ambiguity of Finite Automata  

E-print Network

), and finite or polynomial ambigu- ity in time O(|A|3 E), where |A|E denotes the number of transitions of A- tersection of automata. We also give an algorithm to determine in time O(|A|3 E ) the degree of polynomial), and finite or polynomial ambiguity in time O(|A|3 E ). The main idea behind our algorithms is to make use

Tomkins, Andrew

25

The Ambiguity of the English Present Perfect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines grammatical and discourse-pragmatic reflexes of the existential and resultative readings of the English present perfect and presents negative and positive arguments regarding its ambiguity. It is suggested that the resultative verb represents a formal idiom and that mastery of aspectual grammar entails knowledge of form-meaning pairings.…

Michaelis, Laura A.

1994-01-01

26

Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

27

Lexical ambiguity and information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical ambiguity is a pervasive problem in natural language processing. However, little quantitative information is available about the extent of the problem or about the impact that it has on information retrieval systems. We report on an analysis of lexical ambiguity in information retrieval test collections and on experiments to determine the utility of word meanings for separating relevant from

Robert Krovetz; W. Bruce Croft

1992-01-01

28

Ambiguities in Spoken Australian English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronunciation of some sounds in Australian English causes ambiguities in cases where phonemes seem to have merged. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities arising from phonemic changes and provides examples of pronunciation variations in British and Australian English--mainly in vowels, but also in consonants and syllabification. Several…

Taylor, C. V.

1971-01-01

29

Deterministic parsing of ambiguous grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of describing the syntax of programming languages in ways that are more flexible and natural than conventional BNF descriptions are considered. These methods involve the use of ambiguous context-free grammars together with rules to resolve syntactic ambiguities. It is shown how efficient LR and LL parsers can be constructed directly from certain classes of these specifications.

Alfred V. Aho; Stephen C. Johnson; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1975-01-01

30

Deterministic parsing of ambiguous grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider methods of describing the syntax of programming languages in ways that are more flexible and natural than conventional BNF descriptions. These methods involve the use of ambiguous context-free grammars together with rules to resolve syntactic ambiguities. We show how efficient LL and LR parsers can be constructed directly from certain classes of these specifications.

Alfred V. Aho; Steven C. Johnson; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1973-01-01

31

The modeling of the connections per day with time series did not give good results (the errors in some case exceeded  

E-print Network

also in predicting such values. References [1] G. Box and M. Jenkins. Time Series Forecasting Analysis. Pren- tice Hall, 1963. [3] C. Chatfield. The Analysis of the Time Series. Chapman & HallRc, 1996. [4] AThe modeling of the connections per day with time series did not give good results (the errors

Di Penta, Massimiliano

32

Removal of pedestals and directional ambiguity of optical anemometer signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser Doppler anemometry permits, in principle, the measurement of both magnitude and direction of components of a particle's velocity vector. Most existing anemometers, however, permit measurements only with a directional ambiguity of 180 deg, resulting in errors in certain flow fields. Available methods of eliminating the directional ambiguity of laser Doppler anemometers are reviewed, covering frequency shifting of the incident

F. Durst; M. Zare

1974-01-01

33

The Ambiguity of the Child's "Voice" in Social Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the ambiguity of the child's "voice" in social research. Drawing on a recent research project on young children's communication difficulties, the author argues that the currently popular discourse on "listening to children" is beset with practical and ethical ambiguities that result from the "socialness" of human…

Komulainen, Sirkka

2007-01-01

34

Coding of level of ambiguity within neural systems mediating choice  

PubMed Central

Data from previous neuroimaging studies exploring neural activity associated with uncertainty suggest varying levels of activation associated with changing degrees of uncertainty in neural regions that mediate choice behavior. The present study used a novel task that parametrically controlled the amount of information hidden from the subject; levels of uncertainty ranged from full ambiguity (no information about probability of winning) through multiple levels of partial ambiguity, to a condition of risk only (zero ambiguity with full knowledge of the probability of winning). A parametric analysis compared a linear model in which weighting increased as a function of level of ambiguity, and an inverted-U quadratic models in which partial ambiguity conditions were weighted most heavily. Overall we found that risk and all levels of ambiguity recruited a common “fronto—parietal—striatal” network including regions within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and dorsal striatum. Activation was greatest across these regions and additional anterior and superior prefrontal regions for the quadratic function which most heavily weighs trials with partial ambiguity. These results suggest that the neural regions involved in decision processes do not merely track the absolute degree ambiguity or type of uncertainty (risk vs. ambiguity). Instead, recruitment of prefrontal regions may result from greater degree of difficulty in conditions of partial ambiguity: when information regarding reward probabilities important for decision making is hidden or not easily obtained the subject must engage in a search for tractable information. Additionally, this study identified regions of activity related to the valuation of potential gains associated with stimuli or options (including the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices and dorsal striatum) and related to winning (including orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum). PMID:24367286

Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Seger, Carol A.

2013-01-01

35

Resolution Of Phase Ambiguities In QPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses several techniques for resolution of phase ambiguities in detection and decoding of radio signals modulated by coherent quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and offset QPSK (OQPSK). Eight ambiguities: four associated with phase of carrier signal in absence of ambiguity in direction of rotation of carrier phase, and another four associated with carrier phase in presence of phase-rotation ambiguity.

Nguyen, Tien M.

1992-01-01

36

NonLocal Contexts Help Resolve Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses nonlocal context effects in the interpretation of ambiguous utterances in natural lan- guage. We examine equivocation as a form of discourse ambiguity and demonstrate that nonlocal contexts can resolve ambiguity by providing a method for exploring the effects of global context. Of particular relevance is that the locus of ambiguity within the texts analyzed is within and

Daniel Krugman; Carl Vogel

2006-01-01

37

Identification of syntactic ambiguities in Pashto text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural languages are inherently ambiguous. For a machine translation system, it is an essential task to resolve the ambiguities in the source language. Before resolution of ambiguities, their identification is an essential task. This research paper is about the classification and identification of syntactic ambiguities in Pashto text. Here, the identification is based on the parse trees build by the

Muhammad Bilal; Mohammad Abid Khan; Rahman Ali

2009-01-01

38

To mind the mind: An event-related potential study of word class and semantic ambiguity  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to jointly examine the effects of word class, word class ambiguity, and semantic ambiguity on the brain response to words in syntactically specified contexts. Four types of words were used: (1) word class ambiguous words with a high degree of semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘duck’); (2) word class ambiguous words with little or no semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘vote’); (3) word class unambiguous nouns (e.g., ‘sofa’); and (4) word class unambiguous verbs (e.g., ‘eat’). These words were embedded in minimal phrases that explicitly specified their word class: “the” for nouns (and ambiguous words used as nouns) and “to” for verbs (and ambiguous words used as verbs). Our results replicate the basic word class effects found in prior work (Federmeier, K.D., Segal, J.B., Lombrozo, T., Kutas, M., 2000. Brain responses to nouns, verbs and class ambiguous words in context. Brain, 123 (12), 2552–2566), including an enhanced N400 (250–450ms) to nouns compared with verbs and an enhanced frontal positivity (300–700 ms) to unambiguous verbs in relation to unambiguous nouns. A sustained frontal negativity (250–900 ms) that was previously linked to word class ambiguity also appeared in this study but was specific to word class ambiguous items that also had a high level of semantic ambiguity; word class ambiguous items without semantic ambiguity, in contrast, were more positive than class unambiguous words in the early part of this time window (250–500 ms). Thus, this frontal negative effect seems to be driven by the need to resolve the semantic ambiguity that is sometimes associated with different grammatical uses of a word class ambiguous homograph rather than by the class ambiguity per se. PMID:16516169

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2009-01-01

39

Resolving piston ambiguities when phasing a segmented mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavefront sensing in monochromatic light is insensitive to segment piston errors that are a whole number of waves. If the wavefront sensing is performed in several wavelengths, this ambiguity can be resolved. We give an algorithm for finding the correct phase, given multiple measurements in different wavelengths. Using this algorithm, the capture range of a wavefront sensor can be extended

Mats G. Lofdahl; Henrik Eriksson

2000-01-01

40

Ambiguities in the partial-wave analysis of pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguities in pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction, arising from incomplete experimental data, have analogs in pion-nucleon scattering. Amplitude ambiguities have important implications for the problems of amplitude extraction and resonance identification in partial-wave analysis. The effect of these ambiguities on observables is described. We compare our results with those found in earlier studies.

Keaton, Greg; Workman, Ron

1996-09-01

41

Dissociating frontotemporal contributions to semantic ambiguity resolution in spoken sentences.  

PubMed

Comprehension of sentences containing semantically ambiguous words requires listeners to select appropriate interpretations, maintain linguistic material in working memory, and to reinterpret sentences that have been misinterpreted. All these functions appear to involve frontal cortical regions. Here, we attempt to differentiate these functions by varying the relative timing of an ambiguous word and disambiguating information in spoken sentences. We compare the location, magnitude, and timing of evoked activity using a fast-acquisition semisparse functional magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) shows a strong response to sentences that are initially ambiguous (disambiguated by information that occurs either soon after the ambiguity or that is delayed until the end of the sentence). Response profiles indicate that activity, in both anterior and posterior LIFG regions, is triggered both by the ambiguous word and by the subsequent disambiguating information. The LIFG also responds to ambiguities that are preceded by disambiguating context. These results suggest that the LIFG subserves multiple cognitive processes including selecting an appropriate meaning and reinterpreting sentences that have been misparsed. In contrast, the left inferior temporal gyrus responds to the disambiguating information but not to the ambiguous word itself and may be involved in reprocessing sentences that were initially misinterpreted. PMID:21968566

Rodd, Jennifer M; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Davis, Matthew H

2012-08-01

42

Semantic Classes and Syntactic Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose to define selectional preference and semantic similarity as information-theoretic relationships involving conceptual classes, and we demonstrate the applicability of these definitions to the resolution of syntactic ambiguity. The space of classes is defined using WordNet [8], and conceptual relationships are determined by means of statistical analysis using parsed text in the Penn Treebank.

Philip S. Resnik

1993-01-01

43

De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia  

PubMed Central

Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. Results: The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. Conclusion: As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity. PMID:23565482

Thukral, Anubhav; Chitra, S; Chakraborty, Partho P.; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukherjee, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2012-01-01

44

Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.  

PubMed

Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

2014-02-01

45

GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution based on integrity restriction in ambiguity domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrier phase ambiguity resolution of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a key technology for high-precision navigation and positioning, and it is a challenge for applications which require both high accuracy and high integrity. This paper proposes efficient ambiguity resolution methods based on integrity restriction using Fixed Failure rate Ratio Test (FF-RT) and Doubly Non-central F-distribution Ratio Test (DNF-RT), and derives the related processing models and numerical algorithms compared with the traditional Ratio Test (RT) method. Firstly, the integer ambiguity resolution and validation procedures, especially the Least squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (LAMBDA) estimation and RT validation are analyzed. Then the quality evaluation using success rate, the FF-RT method using Integer Aperture (IA) estimation and the NDF-RT method are proposed. Lastly, the simulation and analysis for LAMBDA using RT, FF-RT and DNF-RT methods are performed. Simulation results show that in case of unbiased scenario FF-RT and DNF-RT have similar performances, which are significantly better than RT. In case of biased scenario it is difficult for FF-RT to predict the biased success rate thus it should not be used for bias detection, while DNF-RT can detect biases in most cases except for the biases are approximate or equal to integer, which has the important benefit for early detection of potential threat to the position solution.

Liu, Haiying; Chen, Zhiming; Ye, Weisong; Wang, Huinan

2014-04-01

46

Belief in Charity Giving (Sadqa) and its Role in Healing: Results of a Survey Conducted at a Teaching Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study patients’ belief and practice about Sadqa (charity) and its role in recovery from illness and restoration of health. This study will determine whether such belief and practice is related to any demographic factors such as sex, education, and religious sects. Methods A questionnaire was designed that included the demographic profile of patients and questions in accordance to the study objective. It was administered to 400 patients or their attendants against the calculated sample size of 385. There were very few refusals to participate with response rate of around 98%. The study objective was explained to all participants, written consent was obtained and full confidentiality was assured. Results The mean age of the study population was 34.33 years, majority of the patients were males with 65.6% having grade XII or higher education. The practice of giving sadqa/charity for healing was significantly associated with females (p<0.001); Ismaili sect (p=0.017); educational level of grade V (p=0.03); graduate (p=0.041); being housewives (p<0.001), students (p=0.048) and employees in private services (p<0.001). Approximately 85% of the study population gave sadqa/charity for healing diseases and 84.8% believed that sadqa/charity heals diseases. According to 97.5% of the participants, medical treatment should be combined along with sadqa/charity for healing. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of the patients’ attachment to charity giving and expectation that it will lead to recovery from illness. Future research in this area should be qualitative rather than quantitative to explore more about beliefs, attitude and behavior of the individuals. It is recommended that health care professionals should consider and also respect patients’ and relatives beliefs about sadqa and charity; clashing with their beliefs during provision of medial care should be avoided. PMID:22125711

Qidwai, Waris; Tabassum, Rumina; Hanif, Raheela; Khan, Fahad H.

2010-01-01

47

Performance analysis of multiple PRF technique for ambiguity resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For short wavelength spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ambiguity in Doppler centroid estimation occurs when the azimuth squint angle uncertainty is larger than the azimuth antenna beamwidth. Multiple pulse recurrence frequency (PRF) hopping is a technique developed to resolve the ambiguity by operating the radar in different PRF's in the pre-imaging sequence. Performance analysis results of the multiple PRF technique are presented, given the constraints of the attitude bound, the drift rate uncertainty, and the arbitrary numerical values of PRF's. The algorithm performance is derived in terms of the probability of correct ambiguity resolution. Examples, using the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-SAR parameters, demonstrate that the probability of correct ambiguity resolution obtained by the multiple PRF technique is greater than 95 percent and 80 percent for the SIR-C and X-SAR applications, respectively. The success rate is significantly higher than that achieved by the range cross correlation technique.

Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

1992-01-01

48

A neurocomputational approach to prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity resolution.  

PubMed

A neurocomputational model based on emergent massively overlapping neural cell assemblies (CAs) for resolving prepositional phrase (PP) attachment ambiguity is described. PP attachment ambiguity is a well-studied task in natural language processing and is a case where semantics is used to determine the syntactic structure. A large network of biologically plausible fatiguing leaky integrate-and-fire neurons is trained with semantic hierarchies (obtained from WordNet) on sentences with PP attachment ambiguity extracted from the Penn Treebank corpus. During training, overlapping CAs representing semantic similarities between the component words of the ambiguous sentences emerge and then act as categorizers for novel input. The resulting average resolution accuracy of 84.56% is on par with known machine learning algorithms. PMID:22428590

Nadh, Kailash; Huyck, Christian

2012-07-01

49

Reliability of partial ambiguity fixing with multiple GNSS constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable ambiguity resolution (AR) is essential to real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning and its applications, since incorrect ambiguity fixing can lead to largely biased positioning solutions. A partial ambiguity fixing technique is developed to improve the reliability of AR, involving partial ambiguity decorrelation (PAD) and partial ambiguity resolution (PAR). Decorrelation transformation could substantially amplify the biases in the phase measurements. The purpose of PAD is to find the optimum trade-off between decorrelation and worst-case bias amplification. The concept of PAR refers to the case where only a subset of the ambiguities can be fixed correctly to their integers in the integer least squares (ILS) estimation system at high success rates. As a result, RTK solutions can be derived from these integer-fixed phase measurements. This is meaningful provided that the number of reliably resolved phase measurements is sufficiently large for least-square estimation of RTK solutions as well. Considering the GPS constellation alone, partially fixed measurements are often insufficient for positioning. The AR reliability is usually characterised by the AR success rate. In this contribution, an AR validation decision matrix is firstly introduced to understand the impact of success rate. Moreover the AR risk probability is included into a more complete evaluation of the AR reliability. We use 16 ambiguity variance-covariance matrices with different levels of success rate to analyse the relation between success rate and AR risk probability. Next, the paper examines during the PAD process, how a bias in one measurement is propagated and amplified onto many others, leading to more than one wrong integer and to affect the success probability. Furthermore, the paper proposes a partial ambiguity fixing procedure with a predefined success rate criterion and ratio test in the ambiguity validation process. In this paper, the Galileo constellation data is tested with simulated observations. Numerical results from our experiment clearly demonstrate that only when the computed success rate is very high, the AR validation can provide decisions about the correctness of AR which are close to real world, with both low AR risk and false alarm probabilities. The results also indicate that the PAR procedure can automatically chose adequate number of ambiguities to fix at given high-success rate from the multiple constellations instead of fixing all the ambiguities. This is a benefit that multiple GNSS constellations can offer.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Yanming

2013-01-01

50

Resolving Phase Ambiguities In OQPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved design for modulator and demodulator in offset-quaternary-phase-key-shifting (OQPSK) communication system enables receiver to resolve ambiguity in estimated phase of received signal. Features include unique-code-word modulation and detection and digital implementation of Costas loop in carrier-recovery subsystem. Enchances performance of carrier-recovery subsystem, reduces complexity of receiver by removing redundant circuits from previous design, and eliminates dependence of timing in receiver upon parallel-to-serial-conversion clock.

Nguyen, Tien M.

1991-01-01

51

Informetric Distributions. III. Ambiguity and Randomness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines various kinds of uncertainty in information science. The notion of ambiguity is defined and contrasted with the more familiar notions of randomness and vagueness. Functional forms resistant to ambiguity are defined, and it is shown how to incorporate a random component, that is itself also resistant to ambiguity, into a resilient, but…

Bookstein, A.

1997-01-01

52

Productive Ambiguity in the Learning of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I take a positive view of ambiguity in the learning of mathematics. Following Grosholz (2007), I argue that it is not only the arts which exploit ambiguity for creative ends but science and mathematics too. By enabling the juxtaposition of multiple conflicting frames of reference, ambiguity allows novel connections to be made. I…

Foster, Colin

2011-01-01

53

A COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of carrier-phase ambiguity resolution is described. The new technique is a variation of the least- squares residual search technique in the ambiguity domain. It uses a very efficient algorithm to compute the residuals associated with each potential combination of ambiguities to be tested. Several other techniques are employed to simplify the calculations and to enhance the probability

Ron Hatch; Tenny Sharpe

54

Implications of Ambiguity for Scientometric Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essence of Scientomatics is precise measurement. Yet the measurements made in Scientometric research are steeped in ambiguity. This article explores the nature of ambiguity in measurement, probes for mechanisms that allow regularities to be discovered in an environment in which ambiguity is pronounced, and describes Lotka's law (often used to…

Bookstein, A.

2001-01-01

55

How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

2005-01-01

56

Customer Role Ambiguity in Community Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines challenges involved in managing product-centered communities. Using the notion of customer role ambiguity, the paper explores the ambiguity involved in balancing sound business modeling with voluntary customer participation in a computer gaming setting. The case study identifies three different customer role ambiguities - role absorption, business model violation, and non-organizational network elements - with important implications for

Helena Holmström; Ola Henfridsson

2002-01-01

57

Gifted and Giving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the growing trend of professional black athletes to include institutions of higher education in their charitable giving. Examines motivations for giving (such as honoring a loved one), examples of gifts by prominent athletes, the appeal for postsecondary giving, and giving by athletes who failed to graduates. (DB)

St. John, Eric

2000-01-01

58

Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities  

PubMed Central

Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

2014-01-01

59

Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities.  

PubMed

Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

2014-01-01

60

Giving an Academic Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jonathan Shewchuk gives his opinions on how to give an academic talk using presentation software. While the original article is for computer science or mathematics students, they are equally applicable to physics students.

Shewchuk, Jonathan

2010-03-03

61

On Ambiguities in SAR Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ambiguities are an aliasing effect caused by the periodic sampling of the scene backscatter inherent to pulsed radar systems such as Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR). In this paper we take a fresh look at the relationship between SAR range and azimuth ambiguity constraints on the allowable pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and the antenna length. We show that for high squint angles smaller antennas may be feasible in some cases. For some applications, the ability to form a synthetic aperture at high squint angles is desirable, but the size of the antenna causes problems in the design of systems capable of such operation. This is because the SAR system design is optimized for a side-looking geometry. In two examples design examples we take a suboptimum antenna size and examine the performance in terms of azimuth resolution and swath width as a function of squint angle. We show that for stripmap SARs, the swath width is usually worse for off-boresight squint angles, because it is severely limited by range walk, except in cases where we relax the spatial resolution. We consider the implications for the design of modest-resolution, narrow swath, scanning SAR scatterometers .

Freeman, Anthony

2006-01-01

62

Breaking the indexing ambiguity in serial crystallography.  

PubMed

In serial crystallography, a very incomplete partial data set is obtained from each diffraction experiment (a `snapshot'). In some space groups, an indexing ambiguity exists which requires that the indexing mode of each snapshot needs to be established with respect to a reference data set. In the absence of such re-indexing information, crystallographers have thus far resorted to a straight merging of all snapshots, yielding a perfectly twinned data set of higher symmetry which is poorly suited for structure solution and refinement. Here, two algorithms have been designed for assembling complete data sets by clustering those snapshots that are indexed in the same way, and they have been tested using 15,445 snapshots from photosystem I [Chapman et al. (2011), Nature (London), 470, 73-77] and with noisy model data. The results of the clustering are unambiguous and enabled the construction of complete data sets in the correct space group P63 instead of (twinned) P6322 that researchers have been forced to use previously in such cases of indexing ambiguity. The algorithms thus extend the applicability and reach of serial crystallography. PMID:24419383

Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

2014-01-01

63

Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous words (e.g., ball) or unambiguous words (e.g., athlete), and targets were either semantically related to the dominant (i.e., most frequent) meaning of the ambiguous prime word (e.g., soccer) or to the subordinate (i.e., less frequent) meaning (e.g., dance). Results showed increased activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for ambiguous related compared to unambiguous related stimulus pairs, demonstrating that prefrontal areas are activated even in an implicit task where participants are not required to explicitly analyze the semantic content of the stimuli and to make an overt selection of a particular meaning based on this analysis. Additionally, increased activation was found in the left IFG and the left cingulate gyrus for subordinate meaning compared to dominant meaning conditions, suggesting that additional resources are recruited in order to resolve increased competition demands in accessing the subordinate meaning of an ambiguous word. PMID:18702579

Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2010-01-01

64

Ambiguity in Reconstruction From Images of Six Points S. J. Maybank A. Shashua  

E-print Network

], [13], and more detailed results are given in [9], [11]. Experimental results are reported in [1], [6], [9], [11], [12]. It is shown in [9] that reconstruction from three im­ ages of six points is subject to a three way ambiguity. Our main result is the surprising fact that the three way ambiguity is preserved

Shashua, Amnon

65

Doppler centroid estimation ambiguity for synthetic aperture radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for estimation of the Doppler centroid of an SAR in the presence of large uncertainty in antenna boresight pointing is described. Also investigated is the image degradation resulting from data processing that uses an ambiguous centroid. Two approaches for resolving ambiguities in Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are presented: the range cross-correlation technique and the multiple-PRF (pulse repetition frequency) technique. Because other design factors control the PRF selection for SAR, a generalized algorithm is derived for PRFs not containing a common divisor. An example using the SIR-C parameters illustrates that this algorithm is capable of resolving the C-band DCE ambiguities for antenna pointing uncertainties of about 2-3 deg.

Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

1989-01-01

66

Synthetic aperture radar range - Azimuth ambiguity design and constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems concerning the design of a system for mapping a planetary surface with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are considered. Given an ambiguity level, resolution, and swath width, the problems are related to the determination of optimum antenna apertures and the most suitable pulse repetition frequency (PRF). From the set of normalized azimuth ambiguity ratio curves, the designer can arrive at the azimuth antenna length, and from the sets of normalized range ambiguity ratio curves, he can arrive at the range aperture length or pulse repetition frequency. A procedure based on this design method is shown in an example. The normalized curves provide results for a SAR using a uniformly or cosine weighted rectangular antenna aperture.

Mehlis, J. G.

1980-01-01

67

Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

2010-01-01

68

A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.

Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

69

Giving Medicine to Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... Watch video in English or Spanish When young children are sick and cranky, it can be tough ...

70

Giving Medication to Children  

MedlinePLUS

... the Right Medicine and the Right Amount Giving Medication to Children Search the Consumer Updates Section Printer- ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

71

Processing Deliberate Ambiguity in Newspaper Headlines: Double Grounding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the processing and appreciation of double grounding, a form of intentional ambiguity often used in the construction of headlines. For example, in "Russia takes the froth off Carlsberg results," the key element, "takes the froth off," is significant both metaphorically, where it refers to the detrimental impact of…

Brone, Geert; Coulson, Seana

2010-01-01

72

Ambiguous data association and entangled attribute estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to attribute estimation incorporating data association ambiguity. In modern tracking systems, time pressures often leave all but the most likely data association alternatives unexplored, possibly producing track inaccuracies. Numerica's Bayesian Network Tracking Database, a key part of its Tracker Adjunct Processor, captures and manages the data association ambiguity for further analysis and possible ambiguity reduction/resolution using subsequent data. Attributes are non-kinematic discrete sample space sensor data. They may be as distinctive as aircraft ID, or as broad as friend or foe. Attribute data may provide improvements to data association by a process known as Attribute Aided Tracking (AAT). Indeed, certain uniquely identifying attributes (e.g. aircraft ID), when continually reported, can be used to define data association (tracks are the collections of observations with the same ID). However, attribute data arriving infrequently, combined with erroneous choices from ambiguous data associations, can produce incorrect attribute and kinematic state estimation. Ambiguous data associations define the tracks that are entangled with each other. Attribute data observed on an entangled track then modify the attribute estimates on all tracks entangled with it. For example, if a red track and a blue track pass through a region of data association ambiguity, these tracks become entangled. Later red observations on one entangled track make the other track more blue, and reduce the data association ambiguity. Methods for this analysis have been derived and implemented for efficient forward filtering and forensic analysis.

Trawick, David J.; Du Toit, Philip C.; Paffenroth, Randy C.; Norgard, Gregory J.

2012-05-01

73

Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

2008-01-01

74

The Effects of Workload, Role Ambiguity and Social Support on Burnout among Social Workers in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine main effects of workload, role ambiguity, and social support on social workers' burnout in Turkey. Data were obtained from 222 social workers who were members of Association of Social Workers in Turkey. Results revealed that workload may predict emotional exhaustion, depersonalization sub-dimensions of burnout, but not personal accomplishment. Role ambiguity was positively

Senay Yürür; Muammer Sarikaya

2012-01-01

75

Stimulation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide gives consistent karyotypic results among laboratories: a CLL Research Consortium (CRC) Study.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic abnormalities are important prognostic indicators in CLL. Historically, only interphase cytogenetics was clinically useful in CLL, because traditional mitogens are not effective mitotic stimulants. Recently, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) stimulation has shown effectiveness in CLL cells. The CLL Research Consortium tested the effectiveness and reproducibility of CpG-ODN stimulation for detecting chromosomally abnormal clones by five laboratories. More clonal abnormalities were observed after culture of CLL cells with CpG-ODN than with the traditional pokeweed mitogen plus 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PWM+TPA). All clonal abnormalities in PWM+TPA cultures were observed in CpG-ODN cultures, whereas CpG-ODN identified some clones not found by PWM+TPA. CpG-ODN stimulation of one normal control sample and 12 CLL samples showed that, excepting clones of del(13q) in low frequencies and one translocation, results in all five laboratories were consistent, and all abnormalities were concordant with FISH. Abnormal clones in CLL were more readily detected with CpG-ODN stimulation than with traditional B-cell mitogens. With CpG-ODN stimulation, abnormalities were reproducible among cytogenetic laboratories. CpG-ODN did not appear to induce aberrations in cell culture, but did enhance detection of abnormalities and complexity in CLL. Because karyotypic complexity is prognostic and is not detectable by standard FISH analyses, stimulation with CpG-ODN is useful for identifying this additional prognostic factor in CLL. PMID:21156225

Heerema, Nyla A; Byrd, John C; Dal Cin, Paola S; Dell' Aquila, Marie L; Koduru, Prasad R K; Aviram, Ayala; Smoley, Stephanie A; Rassenti, Laura Z; Greaves, Andrew W; Brown, Jennifer R; Rai, Kanti R; Kipps, Thomas J; Kay, Neil E; Van Dyke, Daniel L

2010-12-01

76

Three to six ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy data fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several important ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy (IS) model data-fitting results are identified and illustrated by means of complex-nonlinear-least-squares (CNLS) fits of experimental and synthetic frequency response data. A well-known intrinsic ambiguity, following from Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations, arises from the indistinguishability in external measurements of conduction and displacement currents. Usual fit models for either dielectric or conductive-system situations, such as the Davidson-Cole one, only involve a strength parameter, a dielectric constant, a characteristic relaxation time, and a fractional exponent and lead to no additional ambiguities. But the situation is different for more powerful and useful general models, such as ordinary or anomalous diffusion Poisson-Nernst-Planck ones: PNP and PNPA, used here, whose historical background, current status, and applicability are described and discussed herein. They apply to two different kinds of experimental IS situations and involve several additional, potentially free fit parameters, such as the mobilities of positive and negative charge carriers, and generation-recombination parameters that determine the partial or complete dissociation of a neutral entity of concentration N0 into positive and negative charge carriers of equal concentration, c0. Then, several additional ambiguities appear that may require information about the material system involved for their adequate resolution.

Macdonald, J. Ross

2012-05-01

77

Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

78

A study of the ambiguity in the solutions to the Diophantine equation for Chern numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chern numbers for Hofstadter models with rational flux 2?p/q are partially determined by a Diophantine equation. A mod?q ambiguity remains. The resolution of this ambiguity is only known for the rectangular lattice with nearest neighbors hopping where it has the form of a ‘window condition’. We study a Hofstadter butterfly on the triangular lattice for which the resolution of ambiguity is open. In the model many pairs (p, q) satisfy a window condition which is shifted relative to the window of the square model. However, we also find pairs (p, q) where the Chern numbers do not belong to any contiguous window. This shows that the rectangular model and the one we study on the triangular lattice are not adiabatically connected: many gaps must close. Our results suggest the conjecture that the mod q ambiguity in the Diophantine equation generically reduces to a sign ambiguity.

Avron, J. E.; Kenneth, O.; Yehoshua, G.

2014-05-01

79

Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution: Are we there yet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise point positioning (PPP) has become a powerful tool for the analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in many geoscientific applications. By using the un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combination of the carrier phase observations together with precise satellite and Earth rotation products, sub-centimeter accuracies can be achieved when observing over 24 hours. One limiting factor for PPP, especially in obtaining similar accuracies over shorter observation time spans, was the inability in resolving the carrier phase integer ambiguities, when using data from a single station only, due to the presence of receiver- and satellite-dependent uncalibrated hardware delays (UHD). These offsets originate in the frequency oscillators and it is usually assumed that they are absorbed by the ambiguities in PPP data processing. However, recent studies show that if these UHD can be determined accurately in advance within a reference network, then PPP ambiguity resolution at a single station becomes possible. Similarly to Ge et al. (2007), we determine wide-lane and narrow-lane UHD by averaging the fractional parts of all involved single-difference (between satellites) wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguity estimates. We then apply these UHD products as ambiguity corrections to recover the integer property of the single-difference wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities during PPP. A refinement to the approach by Ge et al. (2007) benefits from the increased stability of the narrow-lane UHD computed from a regional rather than a global reference network. This allows the use of only one set of narrow-lane UHD estimates between a pair of satellites within each continuous tracking period of that pair by the regional network, as opposed to re-computing them at regular (for example 15 minute) intervals. Although this refinement may come with the restriction to a regional scale, the number of UHD parameters to be estimated is significantly reduced, making our approach also applicable to real-time applications if the required satellite orbit and clock, UHD, and Earth rotation products are disseminated in real-time. In this presentation we will show results obtained from our new strategy. In particular, we present statistics of daily and sub-daily PPP solutions with ambiguities resolved, investigate the extent to which our approach is useful in respect of the regionally-estimated UHD and apply the technique to investigate ocean loading deformations associated with a storm surge in the North Sea.

Teferle, F. N.; Geng, J.; Meng, X.; Dodson, A. H.; Ge, M.; Shi, C.; Liu, J.

2009-04-01

80

European starlings unriddle the ambiguous-cue problem.  

PubMed

The ambiguous-cue problem is deceptively simple. It involves two concurrently trained simultaneous discriminations (known as PA and NA trials), but only three stimuli. Stimulus A is common to both discriminations, but serves as non-reinforced stimulus (S-) on PA trials and as reinforced stimulus (S+) on NA trials. Typically, animals' accuracy is lower on PA trials-the ambiguous-cue effect. We conducted two experiments with European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using Urcuioli and Michalek's (2007, Psychon B Rev 14, 658-662) experimental manipulations as a springboard to test the predictions of two of the most important theoretical accounts of the effect: the interfering cue hypothesis and value transfer theory. Both experiments included two groups of birds, one trained with a regular ambiguous-cue problem (Group Continuous) and another trained with partial reinforcement on PA trials (Group PA-Partial). The experiments differed only in the number of sessions (18 vs. 36) and daily trials (360 vs. 60). As previously observed, we found faster acquisition on NA trials than on PA trials in both experiments, but by the end of training PA performance was surprisingly high, such that no ambiguous-cue effect was present in Group Continuous of either experiment. The effect was still present in both PA-Partial groups, but to a smaller degree than expected. These findings are inconsistent with the literature, in particular with the results of Urcuioli and Michalek (2007) with pigeons, and question the aforementioned theoretical accounts as complete explanations of the ambiguous-cue effect. In our view, to achieve such high levels of accuracy on PA trials, starlings must have attended to configural (i.e., contextual) cues, thus differentiating stimulus A when presented on PA trials from stimulus A when presented on NA trials. A post hoc simulation of a reinforcement-based configural model supported our assertion. PMID:25206346

Vasconcelos, Marco; Monteiro, Tiago

2014-01-01

81

Give or Take?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners work in pairs using their sensesâespecially touchâto learn more about individual trees. After reading and discussing Shel Silverstein's storybook "The Giving Tree," learners conduct a field study of different trees. Each learner explores and answers questions about a particular tree's bark, age, smell, roots, leaves, and fruit, and what wildlife is found in or near the tree. In a latter part of the activity, learners wear blindfolds and try to identify their tree without using their sense of sight.

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

82

at 85 kg live weight. This method, already experimented in 1968 and by means of which the labour is considerably saved, gives good results, satisfying food conversion and carcasses of  

E-print Network

the week preceding farrowing and during lactation, the spontaneous food intake was not sufficient enough determination of the food consumption time. The pigs fed the pelleted food took a longer time to eat than those is considerably saved, gives good results, satisfying food conversion and carcasses of excellent quality. Two

Boyer, Edmond

83

Clarity and ambiguity in psychoanalytic practice.  

PubMed

The author explores the presence and the essential tension between clarity and ambiguity as processes within our minds that become prominent in psychoanalysis. We learn from aesthetics and literary criticism that ambiguity can shade from taut disorganization to tolerating life's richness; clarity can range from a concrete fixity to a lucid grasp of one's state of mind. This article responds to Wallerstein's (1991) challenge to find common ground in psychoanalytic practice: We attempt this by avoiding metapsychological jargon and relying on more experience-near terms, such as clarity and ambiguity. The article also refers to Sandler's (1983) concept of implicit theory-that psychoanalysts use "preconscious, overlapping but not fully integrated models" (Sandler, 1988, p. 388)-in this case explicating how clarity and ambiguity are frequent but implicit phenomena in clinical work. Identifying these and the essential tension between them permits us to both improve training and identify our clinical efforts. The analyst's and analysand's tolerance of the tension between clarity and ambiguity facilitates increased structuralization and emotional robustness. PMID:21500957

Szajnberg, Nathan

2011-03-01

84

Death: 'nothing' gives insight.  

PubMed

According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

Ettema, Eric J

2013-08-01

85

Measuring the ambiguity tolerance of medical students: a cross-sectional study from the first to sixth academic years  

PubMed Central

Background Tolerance of ambiguity, or the extent to which ambiguous situations are perceived as desirable, is an important component of the attitudes and behaviors of medical students. However, few studies have compared this trait across the years of medical school. General practitioners are considered to have a higher ambiguity tolerance than specialists. We compared ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. Methods We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the ambiguity tolerance of 622 medical students in the first to sixth academic years. We compared this with the ambiguity tolerance of 30 general practitioners. We used the inventory for measuring ambiguity tolerance (IMA) developed by Reis (1997), which includes three measures of ambiguity tolerance: openness to new experiences, social conflicts, and perception of insoluble problems. Results We obtained a total of 564 complete data sets (return rate 90.1%) from medical students and 29 questionnaires (return rate 96.7%) from general practitioners. In relation to the reference groups defined by Reis (1997), medical students had poor ambiguity tolerance on all three scales. No differences were found between those in the first and the sixth academic years, although we did observe gender-specific differences in ambiguity tolerance. We found no differences in ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. Conclusions The ambiguity tolerance of the students that we assessed was below average, and appeared to be stable throughout the course of their studies. In contrast to our expectations, the general practitioners did not have a higher level of ambiguity tolerance than the students did. PMID:24405525

2014-01-01

86

Phase-ambiguity resolution for QPSK modulation systems. Part 2: A method to resolve offset QPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 2 presents a new method to resolve the phase-ambiguity for Offset QPSK modulation systems. When an Offset Quaternary Phase-Shift-Keyed (OQPSK) communications link is utilized, the phase ambiguity of the reference carrier must be resolved. At the transmitter, two different unique words are separately modulated onto the quadrature carriers. At the receiver, the recovered carrier may have one of four possible phases, 0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees, referenced to the nominally correct phase. The IF portion of the channel may cause a phase-sense reversal, i.e., a reversal in the direction of phase rotation for a specified bit pattern. Hence, eight possible phase relationships (the so-called eight ambiguous phase conditions) between input and output of the demodulator must be resolved. Using the In-phase (I)/Quadrature (Q) channel reversal correcting property of an OQPSK Costas loop with integrated symbol synchronization, four ambiguous phase conditions are eliminated. Thus, only four possible ambiguous phase conditions remain. The errors caused by the remaining ambiguous phase conditions can be corrected by monitoring and detecting the polarity of the two unique words. The correction of the unique word polarities results in the complete phase-ambiguity resolution for the OQPSK system.

Nguyen, Tien Manh

1989-01-01

87

Women and human services giving.  

PubMed

The first decades of the new century are expected to witness a dramatic increase in charitable giving. And women will be more influential than ever before in determining the beneficiaries of this giving. The purpose of the research reported in this article is to provide useful information for social workers involved in program fundraising by examining various factors that may influence women's future charitable giving to human services. Data for this study were taken from a representative national sample of 2,719 U.S. adults. The Gallup Organization conducted in-home face-to-face interviews in 1996 for the Independent Sector. The results of this secondary analysis indicate that people who give to human services, in contrast to those who do not, were more likely to be white women, have a higher income, and volunteer in human services. In addition, the analysis provides evidence that women are more committed to the role of charitable organizations in society and believe that they have the power to improve the welfare of others. PMID:10634084

Marx, J D

2000-01-01

88

Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion  

PubMed Central

Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

2014-01-01

89

Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.  

PubMed

Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

2014-01-01

90

Amplitude ambiguities in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of determining amplitudes from observables for the case of pseudoscalar meson photoproduction. We find a number of surprisingly simple constraints which give necessary conditions for a complete set of measurements. These results contradict one of the selection rules derived previously.

Keaton, Greg; Workman, Ron

1996-03-01

91

Crossdressing and Gender Ambiguity in Shakespeare's Comedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossdressing in Shakespeare 's comedies makes the heroines ' gender identity ambiguous: they are both men and women, owning both femininity and masculinity, thus crossdressing helps to deconstruct Renaissance gender stereotypes, the binary opposition of gender, and eventually, patriarchy. In Shakespeare 's most famous comedies, four women characters: Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594), Portia in The Merchant

Minzhen Jiang

92

Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

2009-01-01

93

The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

2011-01-01

94

Pm Numbers, Ambiguity, and Regularity Helen Cameron  

E-print Network

Pm Numbers, Ambiguity, and Regularity Helen Cameron Derick Wood Abstract We introduce the pseudo-m introduce the pseudo-m-ary (Pm) number system and show that the set of greedy representations and the set of representations of unambigu- ous numbers in the Pm number system are regular sets. For any fixed integer m > 1

Waterloo, University of

95

Ambiguity resolution analysis in incremental parsing of natural language.  

PubMed

Incremental parsing gains its importance in natural language processing and psycholinguistics because of its cognitive plausibility. Modeling the associated cognitive data structures, and their dynamics, can lead to a better understanding of the human parser. In earlier work, we have introduced a recursive neural network (RNN) capable of performing syntactic ambiguity resolution in incremental parsing. In this paper, we report a systematic analysis of the behavior of the network that allows us to gain important insights about the kind of information that is exploited to resolve different forms of ambiguity. In attachment ambiguities, in which a new phrase can be attached at more than one point in the syntactic left context, we found that learning from examples allows us to predict the location of the attachment point with high accuracy, while the discrimination amongst alternative syntactic structures with the same attachment point is slightly better than making a decision purely based on frequencies. We also introduce several new ideas to enhance the architectural design, obtaining significant improvements of prediction accuracy, up to 25% error reduction on the same dataset used in previous work. Finally, we report large scale experiments on the entire Wall Street Journal section of the Penn Treebank. The best prediction accuracy of the model on this large dataset is 87.6%, a relative error reduction larger than 50% compared to previous results. PMID:16121736

Costa, Fabrizio; Frasconi, Paolo; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Sturt, Patrick; Soda, Giovanni

2005-07-01

96

Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations. PMID:9923156

Houran, J; Williams, C

1998-12-01

97

Enhancing lexical ambiguity resolution by brain polarization of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported a hemispheric asymmetry in processing dominant (e.g., paper) and subordinate (e.g., farmer) associations of ambiguous words (pen). Here we applied sham and anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over Wernicke's area and its right homologue to test whether we can modulate the selective hemispheric expertise in processing lexical ambiguity. Ambiguous prime words were presented followed by target words that could be associated to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the prime in a semantic relatedness task. Anodal stimulation of the right Wernicke's area significantly decreased response time (RTs) to subordinate but not dominant associations compared to sham stimulation. There was also a complementary trend of faster responses to dominant associations following anodal stimulation of Wernicke's area. The results support brain asymmetry in processing lexical ambiguity and show that tDCS can enhance complex language processing even in a sample of highly literate individuals. PMID:22513342

Peretz, Yael; Lavidor, Michal

2013-04-01

98

Ambiguities in Quantizing a Classical System  

E-print Network

One classical theory, as determined by an equation of motion or set of classical trajectories, can correspond to many unitarily {\\em in}equivalent quantum theories upon canonical quantization. This arises from a remarkable ambiguity, not previously investigated, in the construction of the classical (and hence the quantized) Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. This ambiguity is illustrated for systems with one degree of freedom: An arbitrary function of the constants of motion can be introduced into this construction. For example, the nonrelativistic and relativistic free particles follow identical classical trajectories, but the Hamiltonians or Lagrangians, and the canonically quantized versions of these descriptions, are inequivalent. Inequivalent descriptions of other systems, such as the harmonic oscillator, are also readily obtained.

Ian Redmount; Wai-Mo Suen; Kenneth Young

1999-04-19

99

Sign ambiguity in the K Sigma channel  

E-print Network

Ambiguities of the signs of $N\\to \\Sigma K$ coupling constants are studied in a multichannel partial wave analysis of a large body of pion and photo-induced reactions. It is shown that the signs are not free from some ambiguities, and further experimental data are needed. Data on the reactions $\\pi^+p\\to \\Sigma^+K^+$ and $\\gamma p\\to K^+\\Sigma^0$ define rather well the isospin 3/2 contributions to these channels. However the lack of information on polarization observables for the reactions $\\pi^-p\\to \\Sigma^0K^0$, $\\pi^-p\\to \\Sigma^-K^+$ and $\\gamma p\\to K^0\\Sigma^+$ does not allow us to fix uniquely the signs of $N\\to \\Sigma K$ coupling constants. As a consequence, also the contributions of nucleon resonances to these channels remain uncertain.

A. V. Anisovich; E. Klempt; V. A. Nikonov; A. V. Sarantsev; U. Thoma

2013-10-14

100

GNSS ambiguity resolution with controllable failure rate for long baseline network RTK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many large-scale GNSS CORS networks have been deployed around the world to support various commercial and scientific applications. To make use of these networks for real-time kinematic positioning services, one of the major challenges is the ambiguity resolution (AR) over long inter-station baselines in the presence of considerable atmosphere biases. Usually, the widelane ambiguities are fixed first, followed by the procedure of determination of the narrowlane ambiguity integers based on the ionosphere-free model in which the widelane integers are introduced as known quantities. This paper seeks to improve the AR performance over long baseline through efficient procedures for improved float solutions and ambiguity fixing. The contribution is threefold: (1) instead of using the ionosphere-free measurements, the absolute and/or relative ionospheric constraints are introduced in the ionosphere-constrained model to enhance the model strength, thus resulting in the better float solutions; (2) the realistic widelane ambiguity precision is estimated by capturing the multipath effects due to the observation complexity, leading to improvement of reliability of widelane AR; (3) for the narrowlane AR, the partial AR for a subset of ambiguities selected according to the successively increased elevation is applied. For fixing the scalar ambiguity, an error probability controllable rounding method is proposed. The established ionosphere-constrained model can be efficiently solved based on the sequential Kalman filter. It can be either reduced to some special models simply by adjusting the variances of ionospheric constraints, or extended with more parameters and constraints. The presented methodology is tested over seven baselines of around 100 km from USA CORS network. The results show that the new widelane AR scheme can obtain the 99.4 % successful fixing rate with 0.6 % failure rate; while the new rounding method of narrowlane AR can obtain the fix rate of 89 % with failure rate of 0.8 %. In summary, the AR reliability can be efficiently improved with rigorous controllable probability of incorrectly fixed ambiguities.

Li, Bofeng; Shen, Yunzhong; Feng, Yanming; Gao, Weiguang; Yang, Ling

2014-02-01

101

Ambiguities in the up-quark mass.  

PubMed

It has long been known that no physical singularity is encountered as up-quark mass is adjusted from small positive to negative values as long as all other quarks remain massive. This is tied to an additive ambiguity in the definition of the quark mass. This calls into question the acceptability of attempts to solve the strong CP problem via a vanishing mass for the lightest quark. PMID:15169220

Creutz, Michael

2004-04-23

102

Cognitive psychology's ambiguities: Some suggested remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Points out that one of cognitive psychology's greatest handicaps has been the ambiguity of many of its concepts. One consequence has been less-than-adequate communication among experimental investigators. The new, common view that emphasizes information processing has offered a basis for the solution to this problem. The author's definition of intelligence and structure-of-intellect model offer, for general use, a systematic collection

J. P. Guilford

1982-01-01

103

Classification of ambiguity in new product development projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The “fuzzy front end” of new product development (NPD) is characterized by considerable uncertainty and ambiguity, but detailed studies of ambiguity specifically related to NPD are missing. This paper aims to establish a classification of ambiguity in NPD processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors' research design is a holistic multiple-case-study design with the NPD project as the unit of

Eric Brun; Alf Steinar Saetre; Martin Gjelsvik

2009-01-01

104

AMBIGUOUS STATUTES AND JUDICIAL DEFERENCE TO FEDERAL AGENCIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court's Chevron decision raises questions about why Congress passes ambiguous statutes and why courts defer to agencies rather than impose their own interpretations. This article presents a model of policymaking where the legislature chooses strategically between an ambiguous and explicit statute, and where rulemaking and judicial review follow. The analysis reveals that when statutes are ambiguous, judges gain

John R. Wright

2010-01-01

105

Interferometric GPS Ambiguity Resolution \\Lambda T. Craig Poling  

E-print Network

Interferometric GPS Ambiguity Resolution \\Lambda T. Craig Poling Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics. The Maximum a Posteriori Ambiguity Search (MAPAS) method for GPS ambiguity resolution first introduced in [8 is successfully applied to real GPS satellite data with cycle slips and satellite switches due to satellite

106

Novel algorithm for elimination of ghosts in ambiguous MTI radar  

E-print Network

Novel algorithm for elimination of ghosts in ambiguous MTI radar J R Hayes, IP Finley Qineti the number of ghosts produced by a medium pulse repetition frequency (PRF) MTI radar incorporating ambiguity resolution techniques. The paper introduces the concepts behind ambiguity resolution and ghost reduction

Haddadi, Hamed

107

The Effect of Role Ambiguity on Competitive State Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety among high school athletes playing field hockey. Surveys of male and female field hockey players in the United Kingdom indicated that ambiguity concerning the scope of one's offensive responsibilities was predictive cognitive state anxiety, while ambiguity

Beauchamp, Mark R.; Bray, Steven R.; Eys, Mark A.; Carron, Albert V.

2003-01-01

108

Why clowns taste funny: the relationship between humor and semantic ambiguity.  

PubMed

What makes us laugh? One crucial component of many jokes is the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings. In this functional MRI study of normal participants, the neural mechanisms that underlie our experience of getting a joke that depends on the resolution of semantically ambiguous words were explored. Jokes that contained ambiguous words were compared with sentences that contained ambiguous words but were not funny, as well as to matched verbal jokes that did not depend on semantic ambiguity. The results confirm that both the left inferior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in processing the semantic aspects of language comprehension, while a more widespread network that includes both of these regions and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally is involved in processing humorous verbal jokes when compared with matched nonhumorous material. In addition, hearing jokes was associated with increased activity in a network of subcortical regions, including the amygdala, the ventral striatum, and the midbrain, that have been implicated in experiencing positive reward. Moreover, activity in these regions correlated with the subjective ratings of funniness of the presented material. These results allow a more precise account of how the neural and cognitive processes that are involved in ambiguity resolution contribute to the appreciation of jokes that depend on semantic ambiguity. PMID:21715632

Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Davis, Matthew H; Rodd, Jennifer M; Owen, Adrian M

2011-06-29

109

GIVING  

Microsoft Academic Search

sther Katz Rosen recognized that misunderstanding gifted children is a problem: talented children often suffer, and society risks losing their potential contributions. In 1974, Dr. Rosen made a large gift to APF to enable researchers to apply psychology to study gifted children, and APF remains committed to this endeavor.

DAVID A. SBARRA

110

Giving \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, role playing games (RPGs) have enjoyed a growing popularity, not only with Western youth, but also with researchers in various academic fields. The interactive nature of RPGs, which involve participants actively in creating fictional plots and characters, makes them especially useful for exploring a given issue on several levels at once. We have attempted to verify these

JUSTYNA DESZCZ-TRYHUBCZAK; AGATA ZARZYCKA

111

Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that the GIF resolution hypothesis is completely valid for non-rotational periodic motions. Additionally, human perception of translation is impaired without visual or spatial reference. The performance of ground-base subjects in estimating tilt after brief training is comparable with that of crewmembers without training.

Zhang, Guan-Lu

2010-01-01

112

Athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and coaching competency in sport teams: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and two theoretically derived dimensions of coaching competency (i.e., game strategy and technique competencies). A total of 243 players from 26 teams representing various interdependent sports completed French versions of the Role Ambiguity Scale and the Coaching Competency Scale. Multilevel analyses supported the existence of relationships between the four dimensions of role ambiguity and the two dimensions of coaching competency at both individual and team levels. When the levels were considered jointly, athletes perceiving greater ambiguity in their role in both offensive and defensive contexts were more critical of their coach's capacities to lead their team during competitions and to diagnose or formulate instructions during training sessions. The results also indicated that the dimension of scope of responsibilities was the main contributor to the relationship with coaching competency at an individual level, whereas role evaluation was the main contributor to this relationship at a group level. Findings are discussed in relation to the role episode model, the role ambiguity dimensions involved in the relationships according to the level of analysis considered, and the salience of ambiguity perceptions in the offensive context. PMID:22691398

Bosselut, Grégoire; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Eys, Mark A; Fontayne, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe

2012-06-01

113

The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.  

PubMed

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

2014-01-01

114

A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

115

Ambiguity in quantum-theoretical descriptions of experiments  

E-print Network

This paper contributes to a burgeoning area of investigation, the ambiguity inherent in mathematics and the implications for physics of this ambiguity. To display the mathematical form of equations of quantum theory used to describe experiments, we make explicit the knobs by which the devices of an experiment are arranged and adjusted. A quantum description comes in two parts: (1) a statement of results of an experiment, expressed by probabilities of detections as functions of knob settings, and (2) an explanation of how we think these results come about, expressed by linear operators, also as functions of knob settings. Because quantum mechanics separates the two parts of any description, it is known that between the statements of results and the explanations lurks a logical gap: given any statement of results one has a choice of explanations. Here we work out some consequences of this openness to choice. We show how quantum theory as mathematical language in which to describe experiments necessarily involves multiple descriptions: multiple explanations of a given result, as well as multiple statements of results and multiple arrangement of knobs. Appreciating these multiplicities resolves what otherwise is a confusion in the concept of invariance. Implications of multiplicity of description for the security of quantum key distribution are noted.

John M. Myers; F. Hadi Madjid

2014-09-19

116

Gribov ambiguities at the Landau-maximal Abelian interpolating gauge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows one to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived.

Pereira, Antônio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.

2014-08-01

117

Gribov ambiguities at the Landau -- maximal Abelian interpolating gauge  

E-print Network

In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived.

A. D. Pereira Jr; R. F. Sobreiro

2014-02-14

118

Resolving the sign ambiguity in the singular value decomposition.  

SciTech Connect

Many modern data analysis methods involve computing a matrix singular value decomposition (SVD) or eigenvalue decomposition (EVD). Principal components analysis is the time-honored example, but more recent applications include latent semantic indexing, hypertext induced topic selection (HITS), clustering, classification, etc. Though the SVD and EVD are well-established and can be computed via state-of-the-art algorithms, it is not commonly mentioned that there is an intrinsic sign indeterminacy that can significantly impact the conclusions and interpretations drawn from their results. Here we provide a solution to the sign ambiguity problem and show how it leads to more sensible solutions.

Bro, Rasmus (University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark); Acar, Evrim (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

2007-10-01

119

Ambiguity and synonymy effects in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks: interactions between orthography, phonology, and semantics.  

PubMed

In this article, ambiguity and synonymy effects were examined in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks. Whereas the typical ambiguity advantage was observed in lexical decision and naming, an ambiguity disadvantage was observed in semantic categorization. In addition, a synonymy effect (slower latencies for words with many synonyms than for words with few synonyms) was observed in lexical decision and naming but not in semantic categorization. These results suggest that (a) an ambiguity disadvantage arises only when a task requires semantic processing, (b) the ambiguity advantage and the synonymy disadvantage in lexical decision and naming are due to semantic feedback, and (c) these effects are determined by the nature of the feedback relationships from semantics to orthography and phonology. PMID:12109762

Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J; Pexman, Penny M

2002-07-01

120

Single receiver phase ambiguity resolution with GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global positioning system (GPS) data processing algorithms typically improve positioning solution accuracy by fixing double-differenced phase bias ambiguities to integer values. These “double-difference ambiguity resolution” methods usually invoke linear combinations of GPS carrier phase bias estimates from pairs of transmitters and pairs of receivers, and traditionally require simultaneous measurements from at least two receivers. However, many GPS users point position a single local receiver, based on publicly available solutions for GPS orbits and clocks. These users cannot form double differences. We present an ambiguity resolution algorithm that improves solution accuracy for single receiver point-positioning users. The algorithm processes dual- frequency GPS data from a single receiver together with wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the global network of GPS receivers that were used to generate the orbit and clock solutions for the GPS satellites. We constrain (rather than fix) linear combinations of local phase biases to improve compatibility with global phase bias estimates. For this precise point positioning, no other receiver data are required. When tested, our algorithm significantly improved repeatability of daily estimates of ground receiver positions, most notably in the east component by approximately 30% with respect to the nominal case wherein the carrier biases are estimated as real values. In this “static” test for terrestrial receiver positions, we achieved daily repeatability of 1.9, 2.1 and 6.0 mm in the east, north and vertical (ENV) components, respectively. For kinematic solutions, ENV repeatability is 7.7, 8.4, and 11.7 mm, respectively, representing improvements of 22, 8, and 14% with respect to the nominal. Results from precise orbit determination of the twin GRACE satellites demonstrated that the inter-satellite baseline accuracy improved by a factor of three, from 6 to 2 mm up to a long-term bias. Jason-2/Ocean Surface Topography Mission precise orbit determination tests results implied radial orbit accuracy significantly below the 10 mm level. Stability of time transfer, in low-Earth orbit, improved from 40 to 7 ps. We produced these results by applying this algorithm within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) GIPSY/OASIS software package and using JPL’s orbit and clock products for the GPS constellation. These products now include a record of the wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the underlying global network of GPS stations. This implies that all GIPSY-OASIS positioning users can now benefit from this capability to perform single-receiver ambiguity resolution.

Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce; Harvey, Nate; Moore, Angelyn W.; Owen, Susan; Weiss, Jan P.

2010-05-01

121

The (IR-)relevance of the Gribov ambiguity in SU(2)×U(1) gauge theories with fundamental Higgs matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted that dealing with the Gribov ambiguity has a major impact on correlation functions in gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theories, in particular in the low momentum regime where standard perturbation theory based on the Faddeev-Popov approach fails. Recent results, derived from functional tools (Dyson-Schwinger equations or exact RG) or the effective Gribov-Zwanziger action method, pointed towards e.g. gauge boson correlation functions that are not compatible with the properties of observable degrees of freedom. Although such an observation is a welcome feature for gauge theories exhibiting confinement, it would be a discomfort for gauge theories supplemented with Higgs fields, cf. the experimental success of the electroweak model based on a SU(2)×U(1) gauge group. The purpose of this short note is to assure that the effective action resolution to the Gribov ambiguity reduces to the standard Faddeev-Popov method in the perturbative regime of sufficiently small coupling/large Higgs condensate, thereby not compromising the physical particle spectrum of massive gauge bosons and a massless photon for the SU(2)×U(1) gauge-Higgs model. The closer the theory gets to the limit of vanishing Higgs condensate, the more the Gribov problem resurfaces with all its consequences. We give some speculations w.r.t. the Fradkin-Shenker insights about the phase diagram.

Capri, M. A. L.; Dudal, D.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Justo, I. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Vercauteren, D.

2014-04-01

122

Does giving make us prosperous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonprofit economists have always assumed that income is a precursor to giving. In contrast, many philosophical and religious\\u000a teachings have asserted that it is giving that leads to prosperity. This article seeks to test the non-economic hypothesis,\\u000a using data from the 2000 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey. It identifies strong evidence that money giving does,\\u000a in fact, influence income. This

Arthur C. Brooks

2007-01-01

123

Ambiguity in the Brain: What Brain Imaging Reveals About the Processing of Syntactically Ambiguous Sentences  

E-print Network

interesting is because it presents the cognitive system with a choice, a fork in the road of parsing. A representation of any sentence is incrementally constructed as each successive word of a sentence is read. When a word in which the structural interpretation is ambiguous is encoun- tered, one of several plausible

124

The Roots of Minority Giving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of ways to increase minority giving to colleges and universities debunks the myth of "minorities don't give," and reports a recent study of minority philanthropy, which details philanthropic characteristics of four minority cultures: blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians. Specific strategies recommended include…

Abbe, M. Ann

2000-01-01

125

Conformational bias imposed by source microseeds results in structural ambiguity  

PubMed Central

The p38 MAP kinase pathway is an essential component of numerous cellular signalling networks which are usually activated in response to extracellular environmental stress conditions. In addition to the canonical activation, several alternative activation pathways have been identified for p38; one of these, in which p38 is initially phosphorylated on Tyr323 and consequently autoactivated, is exclusive to T cells and is induced by TCR activation. Intrinsically active and inactive mutants at position 323 have been developed in order to evaluate the structural changes that occur upon TCR-induced activation. In order to promote crystal growth, cross streak-seeding techniques were utilized. This technique has gained popularity in promoting crystal growth when spontaneous nucleation induces critical defects or is being entirely hindered. The crystal characteristics of some mutants were highly similar to those of the wild-type source seeds (form A). In contrast, other mutants crystallized spontaneously with a different space group and molecular packing (form B). One of the active mutants (Y323T) crystallized in both crystal forms, displaying different packing characteristics and significant differences in molecular conformation that were clearly dictated by the source seeds. This implies that the source seeds used in cross streak-seeding could, in some cases, impose bias on the structural outcome of the studied molecule. Such incidents could occur when the conformational freedom permits crystal packing while not reflecting the authentic structure. PMID:21821885

Tzarum, Netanel; Engelberg, David; Livnah, Oded

2011-01-01

126

Implicit awareness of ambiguity: a role in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The cognitive-behavioral model of obsessive-compulsive disorder proposes that obsessional symptoms are the consequence of the manner in which intrusive cognitions are interpreted [e.g., Salkovskis, P. M. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(35S), 53-63]. The present study suggests that this may be attributable to maladaptive implicit cognitive processing, a deficit that results in the explicit awareness of ambiguity in idiographic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stimuli. The present study examines decision-making responses of low and high OCD scorers in a non-clinical undergraduate sample. Via a computer console, participants were shown sentence statements for three levels of ambiguity. They were then presented with a propositional statement for which they had to indicate agreement or disagreement for sentences of varying ambiguity. After this, the participants indicated whether they were completely confident or unconfident as regards their previous agree-disagree decisions. Results indicate that the high compared to the low OCD scoring group had less agreement and subsequent less confidence in decisions made for sentences of varying ambiguity. Response latencies partially fitted the predicted hypotheses. Consequently, an addition to Salkovskis, Forester, and Richards' [1998. Cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(35S), 53-63] model of OCD is suggested: namely that an implicit ambiguity deficit mediates the likelihood of normally occurring intrusions developing into abnormal obsessions. Methodological limitations and future research are considered. PMID:18457814

Harkin, Benjamin L; Mayes, Gillian M

2008-07-01

127

Young children's ability to detect ambiguity in descriptions of location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated 3- to 5-year-olds' ability to detect ambiguity in descriptions of location. In Experiments 1 and 2, children received ambiguous (e.g., “it's in one of the bags”) and nonambiguous (e.g., “it's in the bag by the chair”) descriptions. Four- and 5-year-olds' search latencies were longer for ambiguous than for nonambiguous descriptions, but 3-year-olds' latencies were longer for nonambiguous

Jodie M. Plumert

1996-01-01

128

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

129

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth's gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

2005-01-01

130

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

2005-01-01

131

SciGirls Summer Camp is the result of a partnership between the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and our local public television station, WFSU. This camp gives middle school girls the opportunity to work with STEM professionals  

E-print Network

Laboratory and our local public television station, WFSU. This camp gives middle school girls the opportunity on the SciGirls program, please see our website: http:// www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/students/ programs

McQuade, D. Tyler

132

Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge  

E-print Network

1 Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge John L measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude

Crassidis, John L.

133

Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test for ambiguity resolution was derived which was the most powerful in the sense that it maximized the probability of a correct decision. When systematic error sources were properly included in the least squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution, the test reduced to choosing the solution which provided the smaller valuation of the least squares loss function. When systematic error sources were ignored in the least squares reduction, the most powerful test was a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudo-inverse of a reduced rank square matrix. A formula is presented for computing the power of the most powerful test. A numerical example is included in which the power of the test is computed for a situation which may occur during an actual satellite aided search and rescue mission.

Argentiero, P. D.; Marini, J. W.

1977-01-01

134

Risk, ambiguity and quantum decision theory  

E-print Network

In the present article we use the quantum formalism to describe the effects of risk and ambiguity in decision theory. The main idea is that the probabilities in the classic theory of expected utility are estimated probabilities, and thus do not follow the classic laws of probability theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to use consistently the classic expected utility formula, where the probability associated to the events are computed with the equation of quantum interference. Thus we show that the correct utility of a lottery can be simply computed by adding to the classic expected utility a new corrective term, the uncertainty utility, directly connected with the quantum interference term.

Riccardo Franco

2007-11-06

135

Studies in linguistic ambiguity and insecurity.  

PubMed

This article focuses on problems of cross-culture communication between patients and psychiatrists of varying socio-linguistic and foreign language backgrounds, in an in-patient psychiatric community facility. Issues of diagnosis, integration into the ward treatment program, and progress in the course of treatment can in some cases be traced to specific socio-linguistic problems, which have previously gone undiagnosed. The clinical impact of three types of communication breakdowns are evaluated: (1) overt language differences; (2) linguistic ambiguity; and (3) linguistic insecurity. A need exists for further research in identification and assessment of language insecurity, and for modification of therapeutic procedures to deal with inter-dialectic communication difficulties. PMID:10252606

Baxter, M; Bucci, W

1981-06-01

136

Giving Reasons for Terminating Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal review presented in this article, the writer says, should help administrators feel more comfortable with the task of formally evaluating teachers. He believes the practice of giving reasons for terminating employees will enhance the credibility of administrators.

J. P. Mahon

1979-01-01

137

How to Safely Give Acetaminophen  

MedlinePLUS

... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ... 160 mg/5 ml per dose). Continue Giving Acetaminophen Refer to the following dosage charts for the ...

138

Assessment of correct fixing rate for precise point positioning ambiguity resolution on a global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguity resolution (AR) for a single receiver has been a popular topic in Global Positioning System (GPS) recently. Ambiguity-resolution methods for precise point positioning (PPP) have been well documented in recent years, demonstrating that it can improve the accuracy of PPP. However, users are often concerned about the reliability of ambiguity-fixed PPP solution in practical applications. If ambiguities are fixed to wrong integers, large errors would be introduced into position estimates. In this paper, we aim to assess the correct fixing rate (CFR), i.e., number of ambiguities correctly fixing to the total number of ambiguities correctly and incorrectly fixing, for PPP user ambiguity resolution on a global scale. A practical procedure is presented to evaluate the CFR of PPP user ambiguity resolution. GPS data of the first 3 days in each month of 2010 from about 390 IGS stations are used for experiments. Firstly, we use GPS data collected from about 320 IGS stations to estimate global single-differenced (SD) wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs). The quality of UPDs is evaluated. We found that wide-lane UPD estimates have a rather small standard deviation (Std) between 0.003 and 0.004 cycles while most of Std of narrow-lane estimates are from 0.01 to 0.02 cycles. Secondly, many experiments have been conducted to investigate the CFR of integer ambiguity resolution we can achieve under different conditions, including reference station density, observation session length and the ionospheric activity. The results show that the CFR of PPP can exceed 98.0 % with only 1 h of observations for most user stations. No obvious correlation between the CFR and the reference station density is found. Therefore, nearly homogeneous CFR can be achieved in PPP AR for global users. At user end, higher CFR could be achieved with longer observations. The average CFR for 30-min, 1-h, 2-h and 4-h observation is 92.3, 98.2, 99.5 and 99.7 %, respectively. In order to get acceptable CFR, 1 h is a recommended minimum observation time. Furthermore, the CFR of PPP can be affected by diurnal variation and geomagnetic latitude variation in the ionosphere. During one day at the hours when rapid ionospheric variations occur or in low geomagnetic latitude regions where equatorial electron density irregularities are produced relatively frequently, a significant degradation of the CFR is demonstrated.

Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan

2013-06-01

139

Threat processing in generalized social phobia: an investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  

PubMed

Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

2014-06-30

140

"Not one of us": predictors and consequences of denying ingroup characteristics to ambiguous targets.  

PubMed

We investigated individual difference predictors of ascribing ingroup characteristics to negative and positive ambiguous targets. Studies 1 and 2 investigated events involving negative targets whose status as racial (Tsarnaev brothers) or national (Woolwich attackers) ingroup members remained ambiguous. Immediately following the attacks, we presented White Americans and British individuals with the suspects' images. Those higher in social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)-concerned with enforcing status boundaries and adherence to ingroup norms, respectively-perceived these low status and low conformity suspects as looking less White and less British, thus denying them ingroup characteristics. Perceiving suspects in more exclusionary terms increased support for treating them harshly, and for militaristic counter-terrorism policies prioritizing ingroup safety over outgroup harm. Studies 3 and 4 experimentally manipulated a racially ambiguous target's status and conformity. Results suggested that target status and conformity critically influence SDO's (status) and RWA's (conformity) effects on inclusionary versus exclusionary perceptions. PMID:24986839

Kteily, Nour; Cotterill, Sarah; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Bergh, Robin

2014-10-01

141

Is "?" purple or green? Bistable grapheme-color synesthesia induced by ambiguous characters.  

PubMed

People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered ambiguous upon rotation of the characters. Specifically, achromatic alphabetic letters (W/M) and digits (6/9) were presented at varying angles to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes. Results showed that grapheme identification and synesthetically perceived grapheme color covary with the orientation of the test stimulus and that synesthetes were slower naming the experienced color than identifying the character, particularly at intermediate angles where ambiguity was greatest. PMID:23871860

Kim, Suhkyung; Blake, Randolph; Kim, Chai-Youn

2013-09-01

142

U.S./Arab Reflections on Our Tolerance for Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors, a Midwestern American educational administration professor and a Middle Eastern Iraqi doctoral candidate, have continued to interact over the past 3 years, both have come to appreciate the importance of increasing their tolerance for ambiguity--ambiguities in examining cultural, linguistic, and religious customs and complexities in…

Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

2012-01-01

143

Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and School Principals' Job Robustness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships between role conflict, role ambiguity, and job robustness among school principals were examined. Job robustness was associated with low role ambiguity, low role conflict, and support from the principal's co-workers--staff, administrator colleagues, the superintendent, and the community. Principals generally viewed their jobs as…

Eisenhauser, John E.; And Others

1985-01-01

144

Convergence of Block Decorrelation Method for the Integer Ambiguity Fix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the integer-valued nature of carrier phase ambiguities, it is essential to fix the float estimates into integer values in order for high precision DGPS positioning. A decorrelation process is necessary to solve the problem since double-differenced ambiguities are highly correlated in general. In this paper, Block Decorrelation Method (BDM) is presented and tested for its convergence. BDM divides

Samsung Lim; Binh Quoc Tran

2004-01-01

145

Ambiguity, Accessibility, and a Division of Labor for Communicative Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

People talk to be understood, and so they should produce utterances that are easy for their listeners to understand. I begin this chapter by describing evidence showing that speakers rarely avoid sentences that are ambiguous, even though ambiguity is a factor that is well known to cause difficulty for listeners. Instead, speakers seem to choose utterances that are especially easy

Victor S. Ferreira

2008-01-01

146

Not So Black and White: Memory for Ambiguous Group Members  

PubMed Central

Exponential increases in multi-racial identities expected over the next century, creates a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as “own” or “other” race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the “own-race bias.” We hypothesized that perceivers would not be motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and would therefore have some difficulty remembering them. Both racially-ambiguous and other-race faces were misremembered more often than own-race faces (Study 1), though memory for ambiguous faces was improved among perceivers motivated to include biracial individuals in the in-group (Study 2). Racial labels assigned to racially ambiguous faces determined memory for these faces, suggesting that uncertainty provides the motivational context for discounting ambiguous faces in memory (Study 3). Finally, an inclusion motivation fostered cognitive associations between racially-ambiguous faces and the in-group. Moreover, the extent to which perceivers associated racially-ambiguous faces with the in-group predicted memory for ambiguous faces and accounted for the impact of motivation on memory (Study 4). Thus, memory for biracial individuals seems to involve a flexible person construal process shaped by motivational factors. PMID:19309203

Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R; Ivcevic, Zorana; Adams, Reginald B

2013-01-01

147

Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

2013-01-01

148

Factors Associated With Children's Anticipated Responses to Ambiguous Teases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used two studies involving 5th- and 6th-grade children to examine factors potentially associated with individual differences in children's perceptions of and anticipated responses to ambiguous teases. Study 1 assessed the extent to which the children would expect recipients to feel hurt in response to a series of ambiguous teases and whether the children would perceive those teases as

Mark A. Barnett; Natalie D. Barlett; Jennifer L. Livengood; Deborah L. Murphy; Katherine E. Brewton

2010-01-01

149

Memory Requirements and Local Ambiguities of Parsing Strategies  

E-print Network

Memory Requirements and Local Ambiguities of Parsing Strategies Introduction Memory requirements, however, memory requirements and local ambiguities of psycholinguistically interesting classes of parsing-embedded examples is stack overflow: parsing a sentence like the rat the cat the dog chased bit ate the cheese

Abney, Steven P.

150

Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our results suggest that restricting identifications to the family level is not a good method of resolving ambiguous taxa, whereas generating OTUs works well provided that documentation issues are addressed. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

Cuffney, T. F.; Bilger, M. D.; Haigler, A. M.

2007-01-01

151

The three Ts of giving.  

PubMed

The profession of dentistry is recognized as one of the most trusted, honest, and ethical professions by many sources. But are we the most generous with the three Ts of philanthropic giving: time, talent, and treasure? We are fortunate to be able to do what we do and are rewarded accordingly. No matter what stage of dentistry our career is in, we should be able to give back to our profession, our communities, and society in one, if not all three, of the Ts of philanthropy. PMID:19830997

Yarborough, Craig S

2009-04-01

152

Ambiguous Loss in a Non-Western Context: Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambiguous loss has become a standard theory for understanding the impact of situations where the presence of a family member is subject to ambiguity. A number of studies of ambiguous loss have been made in a range of situations of ambiguity, but almost all have been firmly located within a Western cultural context. Here, ambiguous loss is explored…

Robins, Simon

2010-01-01

153

The New Planned Giving Officer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

1994-01-01

154

HOW TO GIVE GOOD PRESENTATIONS  

E-print Network

HOW TO GIVE GOOD PRESENTATIONS Don't use this as a model: avoid bulleted lists, use graphics, avoid circumstances, talks should emphasize unpublished material Exposure outside of our specialized area ­ throw away material on the fly instead. Know in advance what material can be jettisoned. People

Jacob, Daniel J.

155

Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a windowed high-order ambiguity function (WHAF) method for the demodulation of fringe patterns recorded in holographic interferometry. It first obtains the analytic signal of the fringe pattern and models it as a piecewise polynomial phase signal. A parametric estimation procedure based on HAF is then employed to calculate the polynomial coefficients of the phase over each window of the segmented analytic signal. A salient feature of the proposed method is that it provides an accurate and direct estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution from a single fringe pattern, even when the pattern's phase is rapidly varying. WHAF's application to both digital and classical holographic interferometry is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results. PMID:19655945

Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod

2009-07-01

156

Lifting the Gribov ambiguity in Yang-Mills theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new one-parameter family of Landau gauges for Yang-Mills theories which can be formulated by means of functional integral methods and are thus well suited for analytic calculations, but which are free of Gribov ambiguities and avoid the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. The resulting gauge-fixed theory is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and, for what concerns the calculation of ghost and gauge field correlators, it reduces to a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. We study the renormalization group flow of this theory at one-loop and show that it has no Landau pole in the infrared for some - including physically relevant - range of values of the renormalized parameters.

Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.

2012-05-01

157

Lifting the Gribov ambiguity in Yang-Mills theories  

E-print Network

We propose a new one-parameter family of Landau gauges for Yang-Mills theories which can be formulated by means of functional integral methods and are thus well suited for analytic calculations, but which are free of Gribov ambiguities and avoid the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. The resulting gauge-fixed theory is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and, for what concerns the calculation of ghost and gauge field correlators, it reduces to a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. We study the renormalization group flow of this theory at one-loop and show that it has no Landau pole in the infrared for some - including physically relevant - range of values of the renormalized parameters.

Julien Serreau; Matthieu Tissier

2012-02-15

158

Resolving depth-measurement ambiguity with commercially available range imaging cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight range imaging is typically performed with the amplitude modulated continuous wave method. This involves illuminating a scene with amplitude modulated light. Reflected light from the scene is received by the sensor with the range to the scene encoded as a phase delay of the modulation envelope. Due to the cyclic nature of phase, an ambiguity in the measured range occurs every half wavelength in distance, thereby limiting the maximum useable range of the camera. This paper proposes a procedure to resolve depth ambiguity using software post processing. First, the range data is processed to segment the scene into separate objects. The average intensity of each object can then be used to determine which pixels are beyond the non-ambiguous range. The results demonstrate that depth ambiguity can be resolved for various scenes using only the available depth and intensity information. This proposed method reduces the sensitivity to objects with very high and very low reflectance, normally a key problem with basic threshold approaches. This approach is very flexible as it can be used with any range imaging camera. Furthermore, capture time is not extended, keeping the artifacts caused by moving objects at a minimum. This makes it suitable for applications such as robot vision where the camera may be moving during captures. The key limitation of the method is its inability to distinguish between two overlapping objects that are separated by a distance of exactly one non-ambiguous range. Overall the reliability of this method is higher than the basic threshold approach, but not as high as the multiple frequency method of resolving ambiguity.

McClure, Shane H.; Cree, Michael J.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Payne, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

159

Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of satellite-based Doppler positioning systems frequently requires the recovery of transmitter position from a single pass of Doppler data. The least-squares approach to the problem yields conjugate solutions on either side of the satellite subtrack. It is important to develop a procedure for choosing the proper solution which is correct in a high percentage of cases. A test for ambiguity resolution which is the most powerful in the sense that it maximizes the probability of a correct decision is derived. When systematic error sources are properly included in the least-squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution the test reduces to choosing the solution which provides the smaller valuation of the least-squares loss function. When systematic error sources are ignored in the least-squares reduction, the most powerful test is a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudoinverse of a reduced-rank square matrix. A formula for computing the power of the most powerful test is provided. Numerical examples are included in which the power of the test is computed for situations that are relevant to the design of a satellite-aided search and rescue system.

Argentiero, P.; Marini, J.

1979-01-01

160

Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.  

PubMed

Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

2013-01-01

161

Responding to Ambiguity, Responding to Change the Value of a Responsive Approach to Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the success of a palliative health care team in a Dutch health region. Results show that it is more appropriate to acknowledge ambiguity and facilitate its handling as part of dynamic learning processes. Discusses the usefulness of a responsive approach to evaluation, evaluation methodology, and learning experiences. (SLD)

Abma, T. A.

2000-01-01

162

Resolving the 180-degree ambiguity in vector magnetic field measurements: The 'minimum' energy solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I present a robust algorithm that resolves the 180-deg ambiguity in measurements of the solar vector magnetic field. The technique simultaneously minimizes both the divergence of the magnetic field and the electric current density using a simulated annealing algorithm. This results in the field orientation with approximately minimum free energy. The technique is well-founded physically and is simple to implement.

Metcalf, Thomas R.

1994-01-01

163

A Code for Reducing Figure-Ground Ambiguities in Tactile Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of six adults with blindness tested a code that facilitates the interpretation of tactile outline graphics by reducing potential ambiguities in figure-ground, slope, and curvature. Results found all subjects learned the code in less than two hours and successfully matched coded graphics to targeted objects. (Author/CR)

Campbell, J. S.

1997-01-01

164

Boundary ambiguity, coping patterns and depression in mothers caring for children with epilepsy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive correlational study was designed to examine the relationships between boundary ambiguity, coping strategies and depression in mothers caring for children with epilepsy. A total of 316 mothers were recruited from three medical centers in Taiwan. A pilot study established the reliability and validity of the Chinese language version of the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). Results showed

Pei-Fan Mu; Hsun-Chih Kuo; Kai-Ping Chang

2005-01-01

165

Chimpanzees and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Although recent research has investigated animal decision-making under risk, little is known about how animals choose under conditions of ambiguity when they lack information about the available alternatives. Many models of choice behaviour assume that ambiguity does not impact decision-makers, but studies of humans suggest that people tend to be more averse to choosing ambiguous options than risky options with known probabilities. To illuminate the evolutionary roots of human economic behaviour, we examined whether our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), share this bias against ambiguity. Apes chose between a certain option that reliably provided an intermediately preferred food type, and a variable option that could vary in the probability that it provided a highly preferred food type. To examine the impact of ambiguity on ape decision-making, we interspersed trials in which chimpanzees and bonobos had no knowledge about the probabilities. Both species avoided the ambiguous option compared with their choices for a risky option, indicating that ambiguity aversion is shared by humans, bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:21106573

Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

2011-01-01

166

Risk assessment for uncertain cash flows: Model ambiguity, discounting ambiguity, and the role of bubbles  

E-print Network

We study the risk assessment of uncertain cash flows in terms of dynamic convex risk measures for processes as introduced in Cheridito, Delbaen, and Kupper (2006). These risk measures take into account not only the amounts but also the timing of a cash flow. We discuss their robust representation in terms of suitably penalized probability measures on the optional sigma-field. This yields an explicit analysis both of model and discounting ambiguity. We focus on supermartingale criteria for different notions of time consistency. In particular we show how bubbles may appear in the dynamic penalization, and how they cause a breakdown of asymptotic safety of the risk assessment procedure.

Acciaio, Beatrice; Penner, Irina

2010-01-01

167

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN MULTI-ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS: INFLUENCE OF CAUSAL AND OUTCOME AMBIGUITIES  

E-print Network

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN MULTI-ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS: INFLUENCE OF CAUSAL AND OUTCOME AMBIGUITIES knowledge. This paper investigates the two knowledge transfer ambiguities in multi-organizational networks outcome ambiguity was found to be highly relevant. Keywords: Knowledge Management, Inter

Priestley, Jennifer Lewis

168

Decision under ambiguity: effects of sign and magnitude.  

PubMed

Decision under ambiguity (uncertainty with unknown probabilities) has been attracting attention in behavioral and neuroeconomics. However, recent neuroimaging studies have mainly focused on gain domains while little attention has been paid to the magnitudes of outcomes. In this study, we examined the effects of the sign (i.e., gain and loss) and magnitude of outcomes on ambiguity aversion and the additivity of subjective probabilities in Ellsberg's urn problem. We observed that (i) ambiguity aversion was observed in both signs, and (ii) subadditivity of subjective probability was not observed in negative outcomes. PMID:19922347

Inukai, Keigo; Takahashi, Taiki

2009-01-01

169

Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The current,study investigated the neural,correlates that underlie,the processing,of ambiguous,words,and,the poten- tial effects of semantic,competition,on that processing. Parti- cipants performed,speeded,lexical decisions,on semantically related and,unrelated,prime–target,pairs presented,in the auditory modality. The primes,were,either ambiguous,words (e.g., ball) or unambiguous words (e.g., athlete), and targets were either semantically related to the dominant (i.e., most frequent) meaning of the ambiguous prime word (e.g., soccer) or

Natalia Y. Bilenko; Christopher M. Grindrod; Emily B. Myers; Sheila E. Blumstein

2009-01-01

170

Ambiguity's aftermath: How age differences in resolving lexical ambiguity affect subsequent comprehension  

PubMed Central

When ambiguity resolution is difficult, younger adults recruit selection-related neural resources that older adults do not. To elucidate the nature of those resources and the consequences of their recruitment for subsequent comprehension, we embedded noun/verb homographs and matched unambiguous words in syntactically well-specified but semantically neutral sentences. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase whose head noun was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating past findings, younger but not older adults elicited sustained frontal negativity to homographs compared to unambiguous words. On the subsequent head nouns, younger adults showed plausibility effects in all conditions, attesting to successful meaning selection through suppression. In contrast, older adults showed smaller plausibility effects following ambiguous words and failed to show plausibility effects when the context picked out the homograph’s non-dominant meaning (i.e., they did not suppress the contextually-irrelevant dominant meaning). Meaning suppression processes, reflected in the frontal negativity, thus become less available with age, with consequences for subsequent comprehension. PMID:22321956

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2012-01-01

171

Irrelevance of Figural Identity for Resolving Ambiguities in Apparent Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the degree to which form perception affects the formation of apparent-motion experience, subjects were presented with nine ambiguous apparent-motion situations, where the elements of each single flash were various figures. (Editor)

Navon, David

1976-01-01

172

Ambiguity and Mistakes in the Pediatric Cardiology Vernacular  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The pediatric cardiology vernacular is replete with ambiguous and erroneous terminology. This article discusses several examples\\u000a in a plea to bring the accuracy and precision of the scientific method to the clinical pediatric cardiology vernacular.

M. S. Sklansky; J.-C. Loo; A. Rothman

2002-01-01

173

Prefrontal cortex neurons reflect categorical decisions about ambiguous stimuli  

PubMed Central

We examined whether prefrontal cortex (PFC) neuron activity reflects categorical decisions in monkeys categorizing ambiguous stimuli. A morphing system was used to systematically vary stimulus shape and precisely define category boundaries. Ambiguous stimuli were centered on a category boundary, i.e., they were a mix of 50% of two prototypes and therefore had no category information, so monkeys guessed at their category membership. We found that the monkey's trial-by-trial decision about the category membership of an ambiguous image was reflected in PFC activity. Activity to the same ambiguous image differed significantly depending on which category the monkey had assigned it to. This effect only occurred when that scheme was behaviorally relevant. These indicate that PFC activity reflects categorical decisions. PMID:24405188

Roy, Jefferson E.; Buschman, Timothy J.; Miller, Earl K.

2014-01-01

174

Mentalizing under Uncertainty: Dissociated Neural Responses to Ambiguous and Unambiguous Mental State Inferences  

PubMed Central

The ability to read the minds of others (i.e., to mentalize) requires that perceivers understand a wide range of different kinds of mental states, including not only others’ beliefs and knowledge but also their feelings, desires, and preferences. Moreover, although such inferences may occasionally rely on observable features of a situation, perceivers more typically mentalize under conditions of “uncertainty,” in which they must generate plausible hypotheses about a target's mental state from ambiguous or otherwise underspecified information. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to dissociate the neural bases of these 2 distinct social–cognitive challenges: 1) mentalizing about different types of mental states (beliefs vs. preferences) and 2) mentalizing under conditions of varying ambiguity. Although these 2 aspects of mentalizing have typically been confounded in earlier research, we observed a double dissociation between the brain regions sensitive to type of mental state and ambiguity. Whereas ventral and dorsal aspects of medial prefrontal cortex responded more during ambiguous than unambiguous inferences regardless of the type of mental state, the right temporoparietal junction was sensitive to the distinction between beliefs and preferences irrespective of certainty. These results underscore the emerging consensus that, rather than comprising a single mental operation, social cognition makes flexible use of different processes as a function of the particular demands of the social context. PMID:19478034

Mitchell, Jason P.

2010-01-01

175

Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test  

PubMed Central

The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D).1 In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53), the AST-D was presented via a web-based survey (N = 208). Participants imagined and rated each AST-D ambiguous scenario. As predicted, higher dysphoric mood was associated with lower pleasantness ratings (more negative bias), independent of mental imagery measures. In Study 2, self-report ratings were compared with objective ratings of participants’ imagined outcomes of the ambiguous scenarios (N = 41). Data were collected in the experimental context of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. Consistent with subjective bias scores, independent judges rated more sentences as negatively valenced for the high versus low dysphoric group. Overall, results suggest the potential utility of the AST-D in assessing interpretation bias associated with depressed mood. PMID:21822348

Berna, Chantal; Lang, Tamara J.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

2011-01-01

176

PRF Ambiguity Detrmination for Radarsat ScanSAR System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRF ambiguity is a potential problem for a spaceborne SAR operated at high frequencies. For a strip mode SAR, there were several approaches to solve this problem. This paper, however, addresses PRF ambiguity determination algorithms suitable for a burst mode SAR system such as the Radarsat ScanSAR. The candidate algorithms include the wavelength diversity algorithm, range look cross correlation algorithm, and multi-PRF algorithm.

Jin, Michael Y.

1998-01-01

177

Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime–target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous words (e.g., ball) or unambiguous words (e.g., athlete), and targets were either semantically related

Natalia Y. Bilenko; Christopher M. Grindrod; Emily B. Myers; Sheila E. Blumstein

2008-01-01

178

Antarctica Gives Mixed Signals on Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News investigates trends in the Antarctic Ice Cap that seem to give contradictory information about global warming. The results of various studies do not seem useful in predicting future climate development for the rest of the planet.

Trivedi, Bijal P.; News, National G.

179

The input ambiguity hypothesis and case blindness: an account of cross-linguistic and intra-linguistic differences in case errors.  

PubMed

English-acquiring children frequently make pronoun case errors, while German-acquiring children rarely do. Nonetheless, German-acquiring children frequently make article case errors. It is proposed that when child-directed speech contains a high percentage of case-ambiguous forms, case errors are common in child language; when percentages are low, case errors are rare. Input to English and German children was analyzed for percentage of case-ambiguous personal pronouns on adult tiers of corpora from 24 English-acquiring and 24 German-acquiring children. Also analyzed for German was the percentage of case-ambiguous articles. Case-ambiguous pronouns averaged 63·3% in English, compared with 7·6% in German. The percentage of case-ambiguous articles in German was 77·0%. These percentages align with the children's errors reported in the literature. It appears children may be sensitive to levels of ambiguity such that low ambiguity may aid error-free acquisition, while high ambiguity may blind children to case distinctions, resulting in errors. PMID:20202289

Pelham, Sabra D

2011-03-01

180

Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering. PMID:24331305

Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

2014-01-01

181

Expression vectors for quantitating in vivo translational ambiguity: their potential use to analyse frameshifting at the HIV gag-pol junction.  

PubMed

Translational errors are necessary so as to allow gene expression in various organisms. In retroviruses, synthesis of pol gene products necessitates either readthrough of a stop codon or frameshifting. Here we present an experimental system that permits quantification of translational errors in vivo. It consists of a family of expression vectors carrying different mutated versions of the luc gene as reporter. Mutations include both an in-frame stop codon and 1-base-pair deletions that require readthrough or frameshift, respectively, to give rise to an active product. This system is sensitive enough to detect background errors in mammalian cells. In addition, one of the vectors contains two unique cloning sites that make it possible to insert any sequence of interest. This latter vector was used to analyse the effect of a DNA fragment, proposed to be the target of high level slippage at the gag-pol junction of HIV. The effect of paromomycin and kasugamycin, two antibiotics known to influence translational ambiguity, was also tested in cultured cells. The results indicate that paromomycin diversely affects readthrough and frameshifting, while kasugamycin had no effect. This family of vectors can be used to analyse the influence of structural and external factors on translational ambiguity in both mammalian cells and bacteria. PMID:2087598

Cassan, M; Berteaux, V; Angrand, P O; Rousset, J P

1990-01-01

182

Reduction of Phase Ambiguity in an Offset-QPSK Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed modifications of an offset-quadri-phase-shift keying (offset-QPSK) transmitter and receiver would reduce the amount of signal processing that must be done in the receiver to resolve the QPSK fourfold phase ambiguity. Resolution of the phase ambiguity is necessary in order to synchronize, with the received carrier signal, the signal generated by a local oscillator in a carrier-tracking loop in the receiver. Without resolution of the fourfold phase ambiguity, the loop could lock to any of four possible phase points, only one of which has the proper phase relationship with the carrier. The proposal applies, more specifically, to an offset-QPSK receiver that contains a carrier-tracking loop like that shown in Figure 1. This carrier-tracking loop does not resolve or reduce the phase ambiguity. A carrier-tracking loop of a different design optimized for the reception of offset QPSK could reduce the phase ambiguity from fourfold to twofold, but would be more complex. Alternatively, one could resolve the fourfold phase ambiguity by use of differential coding in the transmitter, at a cost of reduced power efficiency. The proposed modifications would make it possible to reduce the fourfold phase ambiguity to twofold, with no loss in power efficiency and only relatively simple additional signal-processing steps in the transmitter and receiver. The twofold phase ambiguity would then be resolved by use of a unique synchronization word, as is commonly done in binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). Although the mathematical and signal-processing principles underlying the modifications are too complex to explain in detail here, the modifications themselves would be relatively simple and are best described with the help of simple block diagrams (see Figure 2). In the transmitter, one would add a unit that would periodically invert bits going into the QPSK modulator; in the receiver, one would add a unit that would effect different but corresponding inversions of bits coming out of the QPSK demodulator. The net effect of all the inversions would be that depending on which lock point the carrier-tracking loop had selected, all the output bits would be either inverted or non-inverted together; hence, the ambiguity would be reduced from fourfold to twofold, as desired.

Berner, Jeff; Kinman, Peter

2004-01-01

183

Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward-reward discrimination cognitive bias task.  

PubMed

Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward ('optimism') or punishment ('pessimism'). We investigated whether an automated Reward-Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively 'pessimistic', whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

Parker, Richard M A; Paul, Elizabeth S; Burman, Oliver H P; Browne, William J; Mendl, Michael

2014-11-01

184

Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward–reward discrimination cognitive bias task  

PubMed Central

Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward (‘optimism’) or punishment (‘pessimism’). We investigated whether an automated Reward–Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively ‘pessimistic’, whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

Parker, Richard M.A.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Burman, Oliver H.P.; Browne, William J.; Mendl, Michael

2014-01-01

185

Perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations: associations with cancer-related perceptions and behaviours in a US population survey  

PubMed Central

Background Health information reaching the public today is often characterized by what decision theorists have termed ‘ambiguity’ – i.e. uncertainty regarding the information’s reliability, credibility or adequacy. This is a critical problem, as growing research suggests that ambiguity has important effects–promoting pessimistic judgments about risks and potential outcomes of risk-reducing behaviours, and lowering adoption of these behaviours. However, little is known about the public’s perceptions of ambiguity in the health information domain, the effects of these perceptions, and the factors that influence these effects. Objective To examine associations between perceived ambiguity regarding cancer prevention recommendations and prevention-related perceptions and behaviours, and to explore how these associations differ by cancer type. Study design and participants Cross-sectional analysis of data on 4070 adults participating in the 2005 US Health Information National Trends Survey. Main variables and outcome measures We examined associations between perceived ambiguity about colon, skin and lung cancer prevention recommendations and two main outcome variables: (i) risk-related cognitions (perceived cancer risk and preventability, cancer-related worry) and (ii) risk-modifying behaviours (colon cancer screening, sunscreen use and smoking abstinence). Results Perceived ambiguity was inversely associated with perceptions of the preventability of all three cancers, and with cancer-specific risk-modifying behaviours including sigmoidoscopy–colonoscopy testing, sunscreen use and smoking abstinence. Relationships with cancer risk perceptions and worry varied across different cancer types. Conclusions Perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations has significant and predictable associations with cancer prevention-related cognitions and behaviours, and some associations differ by cancer type. These findings have implications for future research and communication efforts. PMID:17986069

Han, Paul K. J.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M. P.

2014-01-01

186

A contrast function for independent component analysis without permutation ambiguity.  

PubMed

This brief deals with the problem of blind source separation (BSS) via independent component analysis (ICA). We prove that a linear combination of the separator output fourth-order marginal cumulants (kurtoses) is a valid contrast function for ICA under prewhitening if the weights have the same sign as the source kurtoses. If, in addition, the source kurtoses are different and so are the linear combination weights, the contrast eliminates the permutation ambiguity typical to ICA, as the estimated sources are sorted at the separator output according to their kurtosis values in the same order as the weights. If the weights equal the source kurtoses, the contrast is a cumulant matching criterion based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The contrast can be maximized by means of a cost-efficient Jacobi-type pairwise iteration. In the real-valued two-signal case, the asymptotic variance of the resulting Givens angle estimator is determined in closed form, leading to the contrast weights with optimal finite-sample performance. A fully blind solution can be implemented by computing the optimum weights from the initial source estimates obtained by a classical ICA stage. An experimental study validates the features of the proposed technique and shows its superior performance compared to related previous methods. PMID:20350848

Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Phlypo, Ronald

2010-05-01

187

Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

2014-04-01

188

Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

Nguyen, Tien M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

189

Multisensory integration: resolving sensory ambiguities to build novel representations.  

PubMed

Multisensory integration plays several important roles in the nervous system. One is to combine information from multiple complementary cues to improve stimulus detection and discrimination. Another is to resolve peripheral sensory ambiguities and create novel internal representations that do not exist at the level of individual sensors. Here we focus on how ambiguities inherent in vestibular, proprioceptive and visual signals are resolved to create behaviorally useful internal estimates of our self-motion. We review recent studies that have shed new light on the nature of these estimates and how multiple, but individually ambiguous, sensory signals are processed and combined to compute them. We emphasize the need to combine experiments with theoretical insights to understand the transformations that are being performed. PMID:20471245

Green, Andrea M; Angelaki, Dora E

2010-06-01

190

NEUROBIOLOGY Giving Personal Magnetism a  

E-print Network

~ a g n e t s~ o u n dinHuman Brain!! May Cause Cancer!! That may sound like a head- line from darkspotson ages of human brains. And MRI images.matis it doing? then there is the matter of ures are 10Woodfordannounced they had found crystals of the mineral magnetite in human brain tissue. Their results are in press

191

Experimental validation of the use of Kramers-Kronig relations to eliminate the phase sheet ambiguity in broadband phase spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The technique of broadband phase spectroscopy proposed in 1978 by Sachse and Pao [J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4320-4327 (1978)] determines the phase velocity as a function of frequency from the Fourier transforms of a received reference and through-sample signal. Although quite successful, this approach can be influenced by an ambiguity in the phase velocity calculation which stems from the boundedness of the inverse tangent operation used to calculate phase. Several empirical approaches to resolve the phase ambiguity have been reported. An alternative approach that has not previously been considered appeals to the causal nature of the measurements. This article experimentally validates a method which uses the causally consistent Kramers-Kronig relations to eliminate the ambiguity in phase spectroscopy-derived phase velocity calculations. Broadband pulse and narrow-band tone burst measurements were performed on three gelatin-based phantoms containing different concentrations of graphite particles (0%, 10%, and 20% by volume). The phantoms were constructed to have attenuation coefficients which vary approximately linear-with-frequency, a dependence exhibited by many soft tissues. The narrow-band phase velocity measurements do not suffer from a phase ambiguity, and thus they serve as a "gold standard" against which the broadband phase velocity measurements are compared. The experimental results illustrate that using the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations in conjunction with phase spectroscopy-derived phase velocity measurements is an effective means by which to resolve the phase sheet ambiguity in broadband phase spectroscopy. PMID:11386574

Trousil, R L; Waters, K R; Miller, J G

2001-05-01

192

Position-dependent mass harmonic oscillator: classical-quantum mechanical correspondence and ordering-ambiguity  

E-print Network

We recycle Cruz et al.'s (Phys. Lett. A 369 (2007) 400) work on the classical and quantum position-dependent mass (PDM) oscillators. To elaborate on the ordering ambiguity, we properly amend some of the results reported in their work and discuss the classical and quantum mechanical correspondence for the PDM harmonic oscillators. We use a point canonical transformation and show that one unique quantum PDM oscillator Hamiltonian (consequently, one unique ordering-ambiguity parametric set j=l=-1/4 and k=-1/2) is obtained. To show that such a parametric set is not just a manifestation of the quantum PDM oscillator Hamiltonian, we consider the classical and quantum mechanical correspondence for quasi-free PDM particles moving under the influence of their own PDM force fields.

Omar Mustafa

2012-08-10

193

Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent Environments: Towards a More Reliable Context Managing System  

PubMed Central

Modeling and managing correctly the user context in Smart Environments is important to achieve robust and reliable systems. When modeling reality we must take into account its ambiguous nature. Considering the uncertainty and vagueness in context data information it is possible to attain a more precise picture of the environment, thus leading to a more accurate inference process. To achieve these goals we present an ontology that models the ambiguity in intelligent environments and a data fusion and inference process that takes advantage of that extra information to provide better results. Our system can assess the certainty of the captured measurements, discarding the unreliable ones and combining the rest into a unified vision of the current user context. It also models the vagueness of the system, combining it with the uncertainty to obtain a richer inference process. PMID:22666068

Almeida, Aitor; Lopez-de-Ipina, Diego

2012-01-01

194

[Never give negative pregnancy advice].  

PubMed

Many doctors still tell some patients that a (subsequent) pregnancy is contraindicated. Aside from the fact that the desire to have a (or another) child is often extremely strong, which often results in ignoring the message, this type of advice may have serious negative consequences. Women at high risk of cardiovascular complications may decide to delay in making their first appointment to avoid an angry doctor who might push them towards an abortion. Women may postpone a subsequent pregnancy out of fear of preeclampsia, while this in fact increases the recurrence risk. Doctors often scare patients with stories about drugs causing fetal anomalies, while only a small minority of drugs, and then only during a limited time in pregnancy, are truly teratogenic. Prepregnancy counselling should involve a well-informed, balanced discussion on risks, while acknowledging a woman's desire for childbearing and ensuring that she will receive all possible support when she does become pregnant. PMID:24330800

Oepkes, Dick

2013-01-01

195

Impairments of lexical-semantic processing in aphasia: evidence from the processing of lexical ambiguities.  

PubMed

Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics performed speeded lexical decisions on the third member of auditorily presented triplets consisting of two word primes followed by either a word or a nonword. In three of the four priming conditions, the second prime was a homonym with two unrelated meanings. The relation of the first prime and the target with the two meanings of the homonym was manipulated in the different priming conditions. The two readings of the ambiguous words either shared their grammatical form class (noun-noun ambiguities) or not (noun-verb ambiguities). The silent intervals between the members of the triplets were varied between 100, 500, and 1250 msec. Priming at the shortest interval is mainly attributed to automatic lexical processing, and priming at the longest interval is mainly due to forms of controlled lexical processing. For both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics overall priming effects were obtained at ISIs of 100 and 500 msec, but not at an ISI of 1250 msec. This pattern of results is consistent with the view that both types of aphasics can automatically access the semantic lexicon, but might be impaired in integrating lexical-semantic information into the context. Broca's aphasics showed a specific impairment in selecting the contextually appropriate reading of noun-verb ambiguities, which is suggested to result from a failure either in the on-line morphological parsing of complex word forms into a stem and an inflection or in the on-line exploitation of the syntactic implications of the inflectional suffix. In a final experiment patients were asked to explicitly judge the semantic relations between a subset of the primes that were used in the lexical decision study. Wernicke's aphasics performed worse than both Broca's aphasics and normal controls, indicating a specific impairment for these patients in consciously operating on automatically accessed lexical-semantic information. PMID:8358597

Hagoort, P

1993-08-01

196

Perceiving racism in ambiguous situations: who relies on easy-to-use information?  

PubMed

In situations that are ambiguous with regard to the presence of discrimination, how do people arrive at their conclusions that discrimination has (or has not) taken place? This question was examined from a motivated social cognition perspective via the interaction of two factors: the prototype effect--the notion that ambiguously discriminatory behavior is more likely to be perceived as discriminatory when the executor is prototypical and the need for cognitive closure--the tendency to jump hastily to and seize on an answer. Results provided replicating evidence of the prototype effect among European American participants but not among African American participants. Specifically, European Americans were likely to perceive ambiguously racist behavior enacted by a prototypical executor (i.e., a White person) as more discriminatory than the same behavior exhibited by a non-prototypical executor (i.e., a Black person). African American participants, on the other hand, showed no reliance on this simple cognitive heuristic. Furthermore, results showed that European Americans with a higher need for cognitive closure were more likely to rely on the easy-to-use information offered by prototypes. These findings are discussed from a motivated social cognition perspective. PMID:20575334

Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

2010-01-01

197

Ambiguous genitalia, gender-identity problems, and sex reassignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses general issues with regard to gender-identity problems, sex reassignment, and clinical management in patients with ambiguous genitalia, based on a detailed case history of a patient with penile agenesis who has been followed more than 20 years. After initial uncertainty, the patient began to grow up as a boy, lived from the fourth year of life as

Ralf W. Ditimann

1998-01-01

198

Expecting and Accepting: The Temporal Ambiguity of Recovery Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has two complementary agendas. One is to develop a formal analysis of temporal ambiguity in self-identification. This refers specifically to having two conflicting orientations toward the future with regard to one's identity (e.g., a temporary expecting orientation and a permanent accepting orientation). I use the recovery identity…

Howard, Jenna

2006-01-01

199

Semantic ambiguity within and across languages: An integrative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic ambiguity often occurs within a language (e.g., the word “organ” in English means both a body part and a musical instrument), but it can also cross a language boundary, such that a given word form is shared in two languages, but its meanings are different (e.g., the word “angel” means “sting” in Dutch). Bilingual individuals are therefore faced not

Tamar Degani; Natasha Tokowicz

2010-01-01

200

Violent Comic Books and Perceptions of Ambiguous Provocation Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of reading very violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situations, independent of trait hostility. 119 introductory psychology students read either a violent comic book, Curse of the Spawn, or a mildly violent comic book, Archie & Friends. After reading the comic books, participants read six shor t stories in

Steven J. Kirsh; Paul V. Olczak

2000-01-01

201

Ambiguities of arrival-time distributions in quantum theory  

E-print Network

We consider the definition that might be given to the time at which a particle arrives at a given place, both in standard quantum theory and also in Bohmian mechanics. We discuss an ambiguity that arises in the standard theory in three, but not in one, spatial dimension.

J. Finkelstein

1998-09-28

202

Managing ambiguity in reference generation: the role of surface structure.  

PubMed

This article explores the role of surface ambiguities in referring expressions, and how the risk of such ambiguities should be taken into account by an algorithm that generates referring expressions, if these expressions are to be optimally effective for a hearer. We focus on the ambiguities that arise when adjectives occur in coordinated structures. The central idea is to use statistical information about lexical co-occurrence to estimate which interpretation of a phrase is most likely for human readers, and to avoid generating phrases where misunderstandings are likely. Various aspects of the problem were explored in three experiments in which responses by human participants provided evidence about which reading was most likely for certain phrases, which phrases were deemed most suitable for particular referents, and the speed at which various phrases were read. We found a preference for ''clear'' expressions to ''unclear'' ones, but if several of the expressions are ''clear,'' then brief expressions are preferred over non-brief ones even though the brief ones are syntactically ambiguous and the non-brief ones are not; the notion of clarity was made precise using Kilgarriff's Word Sketches. We outline an implemented algorithm that generates noun phrases conforming to our hypotheses. PMID:22496107

Khan, Imtiaz H; van Deemter, Kees; Ritchie, Graeme

2012-04-01

203

Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

2012-01-01

204

Ambiguous Argument as Advocacy in Organizational Crisis Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posits that organizations in crisis situations must address multiple audiences with distinct needs. Analyzes the public communication offered by Jack in the Box restaurants during a food poisoning outbreak. Finds that ambiguity may provide organizations with a means for satisfying the divergent needs of their audiences--even where these distinct…

Sellnow, Timothy L.; Ulmer, Robert R.

1995-01-01

205

Psychoanalytic and Musical Ambiguity: the Tritone in Gee, Officer Krupke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout

Julie Jaffee Nagel

2010-01-01

206

Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

Degani, Tamar

2011-01-01

207

Resolving and Mediating Ambiguous Contexts for Pervasive Care Environments  

E-print Network

), context state (Si) and situation space (Ri), and attempts to incorporate various intuitions that should, a significant challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services for healthcare applications is the ability to deal with ambiguous contexts to prevent hazardous situations. In this work, we

Julien, Christine

208

Ambiguity, Accessibility, and a Division of Labor for Communicative Success  

PubMed Central

People talk to be understood, and so they should produce utterances that are easy for their listeners to understand. I begin this chapter by describing evidence showing that speakers rarely avoid sentences that are ambiguous, even though ambiguity is a factor that is well known to cause difficulty for listeners. Instead, speakers seem to choose utterances that are especially easy for them to say, specifically by producing more accessible, easy-to-think-of material sooner, and less accessible, harder-to-think-of material later. If speakers produce utterances that are easy to say but not utterances that are easy to understand, how is it that we understand each other? A third line of evidence shows that even when sentences are structurally ambiguous, they’re likely to include enough information for comprehenders to figure out what they mean. This suggests that speakers produce ambiguous utterances simply because they can -- because the grammar of their language will only let them produce utterances that are unambiguous enough to be understood most of the time anyway. And so, we understand each other because speakers produce utterances efficiently even if they’re not optimally understandable; addressees do what they need to to understand their speakers; and the grammar makes sure everything works out properly. PMID:19710948

Ferreira, Victor S.

2009-01-01

209

Syntactic Structure Guides Prosody in Temporarily Ambiguous Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pair of speaking and listening studies investigated the prosody of sentences with temporary Object/Clause and Late/Early Closure ambiguities. Speakers reliably produced prosodic cues that allowed listeners to disambiguate Late/Early Closure sentences, but only infrequently produced prosody that disambiguated Object/Clause sentences, as shown by…

Anderson, Catherine; Carlson, Katy

2010-01-01

210

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

211

The Resolution of Syntactic Ambiguity in Automatic Language Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how the problem of resolution of syntactic ambiguities is approached in the parser PHRASE, developed for use in experiments in automatic indexing and extracting. PHRASE is a multi-level parser for declarative sentences, in which the syntactic structure is built up in four stages. (10 references) (Author)

Earl, Lois L.

1972-01-01

212

Disclosing ambiguous gene aliases by automatic literature profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Retrieving pertinent information from biological scientific literature requires cutting-edge text mining methods which may be able to recognize the meaning of the very ambiguous names of biological entities. Aliases of a gene share a common vocabulary in their respective collections of PubMed abstracts. This may be true even when these aliases are not associated with the same subset of

Roney S Coimbra; Dana E Vanderwall; Guilherme C Oliveira

2010-01-01

213

Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

2013-01-01

214

Prosody and the Interpretation of Hierarchically Ambiguous Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although significant attention has been devoted to prosody in discourse production, relatively little is known about prosody's effect on discourse interpretation. This article explores the ability of synthetic manipulations of prosody to bias interpretation of discourse ambiguities where a first sentence is linked to two following sentences…

Tyler, Joseph

2014-01-01

215

Ambiguities in the effective action in Lorentz-violating gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the occurrence of ambiguities for the Lorentz-violating gravitational Chern-Simons term. It turns out that this term is accompanied by a coefficient depending on an undetermined parameter, due to an arbitrariness in the choice of the conserved current.

Gomes, M.; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.; Passos, E.; Petrov, A. Yu.; da Silva, A. J.

2008-07-01

216

Fear of Success Revisited: Introducing an Ambiguous Cue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M.S. Horner has been criticized for defining "success" to her subjects in her research on fear-of-success. The present study, which provided an ambiguous verbal lead, showed low incidence of fear-of-success, because subjects themselves were allowed to define "success." (GC)

Gravenkemper, Stephen A.; Paludi, Michele A.

1983-01-01

217

Duality, Ambiguity and Flexibility: A Proceptual View of Simple Arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the duality between process and concept in mathematics, in particular using the same symbolism to represent both a process (such as the addition of two numbers 3+2) and the product of that process (the sum 3+2). The ambiguity of notation allows the successful thinker the flexibility in thought to move between the process to carry

EDDIE M. GRAY; UK DAVID O. TALL

218

Investigation of Combined GPS/GALILEO Cascading Ambiguity Resolution Schemes  

E-print Network

Investigation of Combined GPS/GALILEO Cascading Ambiguity Resolution Schemes Wentao Zhang, M researches include GPS/GALILEO interoperability as well as GNSS receiver design. Paul Alves is a PhD student Engineering in May 2000. He has studied positioning and navigation with a focus on GPS and GALILEO integration

Calgary, University of

219

Ambiguities in Spatial Language Understanding in Situated Human Robot Dialogue  

E-print Network

Ambiguities in Spatial Language Understanding in Situated Human Robot Dialogue Changsong Liu@msu.edu Jacob Walker Department of Computer Science and Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI University East Lansing, MI 48824 jchai@cse.msu.edu Abstract In human robot dialogue, identifying intended

220

Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between creativity and tolerance of ambiguity. Participants were parents and their adolescent children. Three measures of creativity were used: a divergent thinking task, a story-writing task and self-evaluation of creative attitudes and behavior. Participants completed two self-report measures of tolerance of…

Zenasni, Franck; Besancon, Maud; Lubart, Todd

2008-01-01

221

Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

2009-01-01

222

Resolving Ambiguities in Biomedical Text With Unsupervised Clustering Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the effectiveness of unsupervised clustering techniques developed for general English in resolving semantic ambiguities in the biomedical domain. Methods that use first and second order representations of context are evaluated on the National Library of Medicine Word Sense Disambiguation Corpus. We show that the method of clustering second order contexts in similarity space is especially effective on

Guergana Savova; Ted Pedersen; Amruta Purandare; Anagha Kulkarni

223

Reading-Time Studies of Second Language Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a review of studies that have examined the ambiguity resolution strategies employed when processing a second language (L2). The way second language learners parse the L2 input has not yet been thoroughly investigated, although recently there has been an increasing interest in this area. The exploration of the mechanisms L2…

Papadopoulou, Despina

2005-01-01

224

Knowing what a novel word is not: Two-year-olds 'listen through' ambiguous adjectives in fluent speech  

PubMed Central

Three studies investigated how 24-month-olds and adults resolve temporary ambiguity in fluent speech when encountering prenominal adjectives potentially interpretable as nouns. Children were tested in a looking-while-listening procedure to monitor the time course of speech processing. In Experiment 1, the familiar and unfamiliar adjectives preceding familiar target nouns were accented or deaccented. Target word recognition was disrupted only when lexically ambiguous adjectives were accented like nouns. Experiment 2 measured the extent of interference experienced by children when interpreting prenominal words as nouns. In Experiment 3, adults used prosodic cues to identify the form class of adjective/noun homophones in string-identical sentences before the ambiguous words were fully spoken. Results show that children and adults use prosody in conjunction with lexical and distributional cues to ‘listen through’ prenominal adjectives, avoiding costly misinterpretation. PMID:16125688

Thorpe, Kirsten; Fernald, Anne

2011-01-01

225

Stimulating the brain's language network: syntactic ambiguity resolution after TMS to the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus.  

PubMed

The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic information and the IFG in unification operations that maintain, select, and integrate multiple sources of information over time. In the present investigation, we tested for causal evidence of this dissociation by modulating activity in IFG and MTG using an offline TMS procedure: continuous theta-burst stimulation. Lexical-syntactic retrieval was manipulated by using sentences with and without a temporarily word-class (noun/verb) ambiguity (e.g., run). In one group of participants, TMS was applied to the IFG and MTG, and in a control group, no TMS was applied. Eye movements were recorded and quantified at two critical sentence regions: a temporarily ambiguous region and a disambiguating region. Results show that stimulation of the IFG led to a modulation of the ambiguity effect (ambiguous-unambiguous) at the disambiguating sentence region in three measures: first fixation durations, total reading times, and regressive eye movements into the region. Both IFG and MTG stimulation modulated the ambiguity effect for total reading times in the temporarily ambiguous sentence region relative to the control group. The current results demonstrate that an offline repetitive TMS protocol can have influences at a different point in time during online processing and provide causal evidence for IFG involvement in unification operations during sentence comprehension. PMID:23767923

Acheson, Daniel J; Hagoort, Peter

2013-10-01

226

When language comprehension reflects production constraints: Resolving ambiguities with the help of past experience  

PubMed Central

A key assumption in language comprehension is that biases in behavioral data, such as the tendency to interpret John said that Mary left yesterday to mean that yesterday modifies the syntactically local verb left, not the distant verb said, reflect inherent biases in the language comprehension system. In the present article, an alternative production–distribution–comprehension (PDC) account is pursued; this account states that comprehension biases emerge from different interpretation frequencies in the language, which themselves emerge from pressures on the language production system to produce some structures more than others. In two corpus analyses and two self-paced reading experiments, we investigated these claims for verb modification ambiguities, for which phrase length is hypothesized to shape production. The results support claims that tendencies to produce short phrases before long ones create distributional regularities for modification ambiguities in the language and that learning over these regularities shapes comprehenders’ interpretations of modification ambiguities. Implications for the PDC and other accounts are discussed. PMID:19933460

MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Thornton, Robert

2014-01-01

227

Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.  

PubMed

In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism. PMID:23350876

Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

2013-09-01

228

Ambiguities in Bandt-Pompe’s methodology for local entropic quantifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bandt-Pompe (BP) prescription for building up probability densities [C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Permutation entropy: a natural complexity measure for time series, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 174102] constituted a significant advance in the treatment of time-series. However, as we show here, ambiguities arise in applying the BP technique with reference to the permutation of ordinal patterns. This happens if one wishes to employ the BP-probability density to construct local entropic quantifiers that would characterize time-series generated by nonlinear dynamical systems. Explicit evidence of this fact is presented by comparing two different procedures, frequently found in the literature, that generate sequences of ordinal patterns. In opposition to the case of global quantifiers in the orthodox Shannon fashion, the proper order of the pertinent symbols turns out to be not uniquely predetermined for local entropic indicators. We advance the idea of employing the Fisher-Shannon information plane as a tool to resolve the ambiguity and give illustrative examples.

Olivares, Felipe; Plastino, Angelo; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

2012-04-01

229

A Certain Ambiguity Reviewed by Danny Calegari  

E-print Network

, and just enjoys being mean". Writing a novel, especially a novel with serious philosophical aims, philosophical or mathematical grounds (however, read on). The result is more of a novelty than a novel to be one of the flagship creations of the human race. We have thought nothing more elegant or powerful

McReynolds, Ben

230

A Framework for Optimization under Ambiguity  

E-print Network

Nov 3, 2008 ... same atoms (to be more precise the measures Q and P have to have common atoms xi). ..... second marginal ˜P. This together with the moment conditions (11) ... Remark: It is obvious that the same results holds for the r-th ...

2008-11-03

231

PICS-Ord: unlimited coding of ambiguous regions by pairwise identity and cost scores ordination  

PubMed Central

Background We present a novel method to encode ambiguously aligned regions in fixed multiple sequence alignments by 'Pairwise Identity and Cost Scores Ordination' (PICS-Ord). The method works via ordination of sequence identity or cost scores matrices by means of Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA). After identification of ambiguous regions, the method computes pairwise distances as sequence identities or cost scores, ordinates the resulting distance matrix by means of PCoA, and encodes the principal coordinates as ordered integers. Three biological and 100 simulated datasets were used to assess the performance of the new method. Results Including ambiguous regions coded by means of PICS-Ord increased topological accuracy, resolution, and bootstrap support in real biological and simulated datasets compared to the alternative of excluding such regions from the analysis a priori. In terms of accuracy, PICS-Ord performs equal to or better than previously available methods of ambiguous region coding (e.g., INAASE), with the advantage of a practically unlimited alignment size and increased analytical speed and the possibility of PICS-Ord scores to be analyzed together with DNA data in a partitioned maximum likelihood model. Conclusions Advantages of PICS-Ord over step matrix-based ambiguous region coding with INAASE include a practically unlimited number of OTUs and seamless integration of PICS-Ord codes into phylogenetic datasets, as well as the increased speed of phylogenetic analysis. Contrary to word- and frequency-based methods, PICS-Ord maintains the advantage of pairwise sequence alignment to derive distances, and the method is flexible with respect to the calculation of distance scores. In addition to distance and maximum parsimony, PICS-Ord codes can be analyzed in a Bayesian or maximum likelihood framework. RAxML (version 7.2.6 or higher that was developed for this study) allows up to 32-state ordered or unordered characters. A GTR, MK, or ORDERED model can be applied to analyse the PICS-Ord codes partition, with GTR performing slightly better than MK and ORDERED. Availability An implementation of the PICS-Ord algorithm is available from http://scit.us/projects/ngila/wiki/PICS-Ord. It requires both the statistical software, R http://www.r-project.org and the alignment software Ngila http://scit.us/projects/ngila. PMID:21214904

2011-01-01

232

Wind scatterometry with improved ambiguity selection and rain modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although generally accurate, the quality of SeaWinds on QuikSCAT scatterometer ocean vector winds is compromised by certain natural phenomena and retrieval algorithm limitations. This dissertation addresses three main contributors to scatterometer estimate error: poor ambiguity selection, estimate uncertainty at low wind speeds, and rain corruption. A quality assurance (QA) analysis performed on SeaWinds data suggests that about 5% of SeaWinds data contain ambiguity selection errors and that scatterometer estimation error is correlated with low wind speeds and rain events. Ambiguity selection errors are partly due to the "nudging" step (initialization from outside data). A sophisticated new non-nudging ambiguity selection approach produces generally more consistent wind than the nudging method in moderate wind conditions. The non-nudging method selects 93% of the same ambiguities as the nudged data, validating both techniques, and indicating that ambiguity selection can be accomplished without nudging. Variability at low wind speeds is analyzed using tower-mounted scatterometer data. According to theory, below a threshold wind speed, the wind fails to generate the surface roughness necessary for wind measurement. A simple analysis suggests the existence of the threshold in much of the tower-mounted scatterometer data. However, the backscatter does not "go to zero" beneath the threshold in an uncontrolled environment as theory suggests, but rather has a mean drop and higher variability below the threshold. Rain is the largest weather-related contributor to scatterometer error, affecting approximately 4% to 10% of SeaWinds data. A simple model formed via comparison of co-located TRMM PR and SeaWinds measurements characterizes the average effect of rain on SeaWinds backscatter. The model is generally accurate to within 3 dB over the tropics. The rain/wind backscatter model is used to simultaneously retrieve wind and rain from SeaWinds measurements. The simultaneous wind/rain (SWR) estimation procedure can improve wind estimates during rain, while providing a scatterometer-based rain rate estimate. SWR also affords improved rain flagging for low to moderate rain rates. QuikSCAT-retrieved rain rates correlate well with TRMM PR instantaneous measurements and TMI monthly rain averages. SeaWinds rain measurements can be used to supplement data from other rain-measuring instruments, filling spatial and temporal gaps in coverage.

Draper, David Willis

233

Cesare Lombroso: Methodological ambiguities and brilliant intuitions.  

PubMed

This paper on Cesare Lombroso aims to assess his contribution to the criminological sciences. Although much praised worldwide, Lombroso was also the target of scathing criticism and unmitigated condemnation. Examination of Lombroso's method of data collection and analysis reveals his weakness. Indeed, his approach was extremely naive, simplistic and uncritical, aimed at irrefutably demonstrating the hypotheses that he championed, without exercising the methodological caution that was already beginning to characterize scientific research in his day. However, we must acknowledge that his biological theories of crime are undergoing new developments as a result of the recent success of biological psychiatry. On the other hand we should recognize that his work was not limited to his biological central theory; rather, it covered a range of cues and concepts, for the most part ignored, that demonstrate his interest in the economic, cultural and social factors that impact on crime. For these reasons, Lombroso appears to have anticipated many modern conceptions regarding delinquent behavior and criminal justice, such as those of restorative justice, the so-called "situational" theories of criminal behavior and white collar crime. PMID:22154472

Gatti, Uberto; Verde, Alfredo

2012-01-01

234

Thrombin-aptamer recognition: a revealed ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are structured oligonucleotides that recognize molecular targets and can function as direct protein inhibitors. The best-known example is the thrombin-binding aptamer, TBA, a single-stranded 15-mer DNA that inhibits the activity of thrombin, the key enzyme of coagulation cascade. TBA folds as a G-quadruplex structure, as proved by its NMR structure. The X-ray structure of the complex between TBA and human ?-thrombin was solved at 2.9-Å resolution, but did not provide details of the aptamer conformation and the interactions with the protein molecule. TBA is rapidly processed by nucleases. To improve the properties of TBA, a number of modified analogs have been produced. In particular, a modified TBA containing a 5?-5? polarity inversion site, mTBA, has higher stability and higher affinity toward thrombin with respect to TBA, although it has a lower inhibitory activity. We present the crystal structure of the thrombin–mTBA complex at 2.15-Å resolution; the resulting model eventually provides a clear picture of thrombin–aptamers interaction, and also highlights the structural bases of the different properties of TBA and mTBA. Our findings open the way for a rational design of modified aptamers with improved potency as anticoagulant drugs. PMID:21715374

Russo Krauss, Irene; Merlino, Antonello; Giancola, Concetta; Randazzo, Antonio; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

2011-01-01

235

Motivation Approximations Shift-Resolve Parsing Ambiguity Detection Conclusion Approximating Context-Free  

E-print Network

Motivation Approximations Shift-Resolve Parsing Ambiguity Detection Conclusion Approximating Context-Free Grammars for Parsing and Verification Sylvain Schmitz LORIA, INRIA Nancy - Grand Est October 18, 2007 #12;Motivation Approximations Shift-Resolve Parsing Ambiguity Detection Conclusion A Syntax

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Integer-ambiguity resolution in astronomy and geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent theoretical developments in astronomical aperture synthesis have revealed the existence of integer-ambiguity problems. Those problems, which appear in the self-calibration procedures of radio imaging, have been shown to be similar to the nearest-lattice point (NLP) problems encountered in high-precision geodetic positioning and in global navigation satellite systems. In this paper we analyse the theoretical aspects of the matter and propose new methods for solving those NLP~problems. The related optimization aspects concern both the preconditioning stage, and the discrete-search stage in which the integer ambiguities are finally fixed. Our algorithms, which are described in an explicit manner, can easily be implemented. They lead to substantial gains in the processing time of both stages. Their efficiency was shown via intensive numerical tests.

Lannes, A.; Prieur, J.-L.

2014-02-01

237

Infants' Use of Shared Linguistic Information to Clarify Ambiguous Requests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do infants use past linguistic information to interpret an ambiguous request for an object? When infants in this research were shown 2 objects, and asked for 1 with an indefinite request (e.g., "Can you get it for me?"), both 15- and 18-month-olds used the speaker's previous reference to an absent object to interpret the request. The 18-month-olds…

Ganea, Patricia A.; Saylor, Megan M.

2007-01-01

238

Infants' Use of Shared Linguistic Information to Clarify Ambiguous Requests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do infants use past linguistic information to interpret an ambiguous request for an object? When infants in this research were shown 2 objects, and asked for 1 with an indefinite request (e.g., ''Can you get it for me?''), both 15- and 18-month-olds used the speaker's previous reference to an absent object to interpret the request. The 18- month-olds did so

Patricia A. Ganea; Megan M. Saylor

2007-01-01

239

Relational coherence in ambiguous and unambiguous relational networks.  

PubMed

Clinical theories often appeal to general cognitive styles in explaining psychopathology, but without describing in detail how the patterns are formed. In the present investigation, two experiments were conducted to examine how individuals respond to ambiguous relational networks. In both experiments, the participants learned two 3-stimulus networks (A1 LESS THAN B1, A1 GREATER THAN C1 and A2 GREATER THAN B2, C2 LESS THAN A2). Participants were presented with test trials to examine if they classified the combinatorial relations (B1 ? C1 and B2 ? C2) as SAME or DIFFERENT and as GREATER THAN or LESS THAN. Although the B-C combinatorial relation in Network 1 is derivable in a readily coherent way (B1 GREATER THAN C1 and thus also B1 DIFFERENT C1), in Network 2 the combinatorial relation is ambiguous. When participants were required to specify the Network 2 B-C relation as either SAME or DIFFERENT, those who chose DIFFERENT, also consistently chose B2 as either GREATER THAN or LESS THAN C2. Conversely, those who classified the B-C relation as SAME were inconsistent within themselves in choosing B2 as GREATER THAN or LESS THAN C2. In Experiment 2, nonarbitrary multiple exemplar pretraining was used to bias SAME versus DIFFERENT as a response for ambiguous combinatorial relations. In accord with the pattern seen in Experiment 1, those biased toward DIFFERENT consistently chose a comparative relation between B2 and C2 while those biased toward SAME were inconsistent in their comparative choices. The findings provide support for the importance of history and coherence in establishing patterns of responding to ambiguous relational networks, providing a beginning behavioral model of cognitive styles and errors. PMID:24347511

Quinones, Jennifer L; Hayes, Steven C

2014-01-01

240

Measures of Ambiguity of Computational Verbs Based on Computational Verb Collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambiguity of computational verbs is measured by using Shannon entropy. The ambiguities in the states and in the dynamics of computational verbs are studied based on the simplest computational verb collapses; namely, samples of the evolving functions of computational verbs at the ends of life spans. The ambiguities in the states of computational verbs can be either increased or

Tao Yang; Yi Guo

2007-01-01

241

Impaired semantic inhibition during lexical ambiguity repetition in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Impairments of semantic processing and inhibition have been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), however, the consequences of faulty meaning selection and suppression have not been considered in terms of subsequent lexical processing. The present study employed a lexical ambiguity repetition paradigm where the first presentation of an ambiguity paired with a target biasing its dominant or subordinate meaning (e.g., bank - money or bank - river) was followed after several intervening trials by a presentation of the same ambiguity paired with a different target that biases the same (congruent) or a different (incongruent) meaning to that biased on the first presentation. Meaning dominance (dominant or subordinate weaker meanings) and interstimulus interval (ISI) were manipulated. Analyses conducted on the second presentation indicated priming of congruent meanings and no priming for the incongruent meanings at both short and long ISIs in the healthy controls, consistent with suppression of meanings competing with the representation biased in the first presentation. In contrast, the PD group failed to dampen activation for the incongruent meaning at the long ISI when the first presentation was subordinate. This pattern is consistent with an impairment of meaning suppression which is observed under controlled processing conditions and varies as a function of meaning dominance of the first presentation. These findings further refine our understanding of lexical-semantic impairments in PD and suggest a mechanism that may contribute to discourse comprehension impairments in this population. PMID:19393992

Copland, David A; Sefe, Gameli; Ashley, Jane; Hudson, Carrie; Chenery, Helen J

2009-09-01

242

Do Market Incentives Crowd Out Charitable Giving?  

PubMed Central

Donations and volunteerism can be conceived as market transactions with a zero explicit price. However, evidence suggests people may not view zero as just another price when it comes to pro-social behavior. Thus, while markets might be expected to increase the supply of assets available to those in need, some worry such financial incentives will crowd out altruistic giving. This paper reports laboratory experiments directly investigating the degree to which market incentives crowd out large, discrete charitable donations in a setting related to deceased organ donation. The results suggest markets increase the supply of assets available to those in need. However, as some critics fear, market incentives disproportionately influence the relatively poor. PMID:24348002

Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.

2013-01-01

243

Social anxiety and discomfort with friendly giving.  

PubMed

Individuals higher in social anxiety report more impaired friendship quality, which past research suggests may stem from constrained warmth. We examined three motivations for constrained warmth in friendships and determined how these motivations related to social anxiety and friendship impairment. To do so, we assessed the psychometric properties of the Favor Scale (FS), which measures an individual's response to friendly giving. Results indicated that the FS has three subscales: negative reactions to favors (NEG), positive reactions to favors (POS), and expectation of tit-for-tat behavior (E-TFT). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that social anxiety related directly to NEG, and indirectly to POS and E-TFT through NEG. POS related directly to friendship quality, indicating that friendships may be impaired in social anxiety disorder due to the cumulative effects of responding negatively to friendly behavior. PMID:21111570

Fernandez, Katya C; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

2011-04-01

244

Analysis of the ambiguity function for an FM signal derived from the Lorenz chaotic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In prior work, we showed that any one of the state variables of the Lorenz chaotic flow can be used effectively as the instantaneous frequency of an FM signal. We further investigated a method to improve chaotic-wideband FM signals for high resolution radar applications by introducing a compression factor to the Lorenz flow equations and by varying two control parameters, namely ? and ?, to substantially increase the bandwidth of the signal. In this paper, we obtain an empirical quadratic relationship between these two control parameters that yields a high Lyapunov exponent which allows the Lorenz flow to quickly diverge from its initial state. This, in turn, results in an FM signal with an agile center frequency that is also chaotic. A time-frequency analysis of the FM signal shows that variable time-bandwidth products of the order of 105 and wide bandwidths of approximately 10 GHz are achievable over short segments of the signal. Next, we compute the average ambiguity function for a large number of short segments of the signal with positive range-Doppler coupling. The resulting ambiguity surface is shaped as a set of mountain ridges that align with multiple range-Doppler coupling lines with low self-noise surrounding the peak response. Similar results are achieved for segments of the signal with negative range-Doppler coupling. The characteristics of the ambiguity surface are directly attributed to the frequency agility of the FM signal which could be potentially used to counteract electronic counter measures aimed at traditional chirp radars.

Pappu, Chandra S.; Flores, Benjamin C.; deBroux, Patrick

2012-06-01

245

Gift Giving and the Evolution of Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gift giving is a practice common to many societies. In an evolutionary model the social custom of giving gifts at the beginning of a relationship can lead to trust and cooperation. The evolutionary approach makes predictions about the character of the goods that can be used as gifts. For example, gift goods may have little use value even at low

H. Lorne Carmichael; W. Bentley MacLeod

1997-01-01

246

Situational ambiguity and gendered patterns of arrest for intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299

Durfee, Alesha

2012-01-01

247

Phantoms in the brain: Ambiguous representations of stimulus amplitude and timing in weakly electric fish  

PubMed Central

In wave-type weakly electric fish, two distinct types of primary afferent fibers are specialized for separately encoding modulations in the amplitude and phase (timing) of electrosensory stimuli. Time-coding afferents phase lock to periodic stimuli and respond to changes in stimulus phase with shifts in spike timing. Amplitude-coding afferents fire sporadically to periodic stimuli. Their probability of firing in a given cycle, and therefore their firing rate, is proportional to stimulus amplitude. However, the spike times of time-coding afferents are also affected by changes in amplitude; similarly, the firing rates of amplitude-coding afferents are also affected by changes in phase. Because identical changes in the activity of an individual primary afferent can be caused by modulations in either the amplitude or phase of stimuli, there is ambiguity regarding the information content of primary afferent responses that can result in ‘phantom’ modulations not present in an actual stimulus. Central electrosensory neurons in the hindbrain and midbrain respond to these phantom modulations. Phantom modulations can also elicit behavioral responses, indicating that ambiguity in the encoding of amplitude and timing information ultimately distorts electrosensory perception. A lack of independence in the encoding of multiple stimulus attributes can therefore result in perceptual illusions. Similar effects may occur in other sensory systems as well. In particular, the vertebrate auditory system is thought to be phylogenetically related to the electrosensory system and it encodes information about amplitude and timing in similar ways. It has been well established that pitch perception and loudness perception are both affected by the frequency and intensity of sounds, raising the intriguing possibility that auditory perception may also be affected by ambiguity in the encoding of sound amplitude and timing. PMID:18984041

Carlson, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

248

Disparate parametric branch-support values from ambiguous characters.  

PubMed

The greater power of parametric methods over parsimony is frequently observed in empirical phylogenetic analyses by providing greater resolution and higher branch support. This greater power is provided by several different factors, including some that are generally regarded as disadvantageous. In this study we used both empirical and (modified) simulated matrices to examine how Bayesian MCMC, maximum likelihood, and parsimony methods interpret ambiguous optimization of character states. We describe the information content in "redundant" terminals as well as a novel approach to help identify clades that cannot be unequivocally supported by synapomorphies in empirical matrices. Four of our main conclusions are as follows. First, the SH-like approximate likelihood ratio test is a more reliable indicator than the bootstrap of branches that are only ambiguously supported in likelihood analyses wherein only a single fully resolved optimal tree is presented. Second, bootstrap values generated by methods that only ever present a single fully resolved optimal tree are less robust to differences in taxon sampling than are those generated by more conservative methods. Third, PAUP(?) likelihood is more resilient to producing apparently unambiguous resolution and high support from ambiguous characters than is GARLI collapse 1 and MrBayes, which in turn are more resilient than PhyML. GARLI collapse 0, IQ-TREE, and RAxML are the least resilient bootstrapping methods examined. Fourth, frequent discrepancies with respect to resolution and/or branch support may be obtained by methods that only ever present a single fully resolved optimal tree in different contexts that are apparently unique to the specific program and/or method of quantifying branch support. PMID:24821621

Simmons, Mark P; Randle, Christopher P

2014-09-01

249

Resolution of the Distance Ambiguity for Galactic HII Regions  

E-print Network

We resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity for 266 inner Galaxy HII regions out of a sample of 291 using existing HI and 13CO sky surveys. Our sample contains all HII regions with measured radio recombination line (RRL) emission over the extent of the 13CO Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey (18 deg, < l < 55 deg. and |b| < 1) and contains ultra compact, compact, and diffuse HII regions. We use two methods for resolving the distance ambiguity for each HII region: HI emission/absorption (HIEA) and HI self-absorption (HISA). We find that the HIEA and HISA methods can resolve the distance ambiguity for 72% and 87% of our sample, respectively. When projected onto the Galactic plane, this large sample appears to reveal aspects of Galactic structure, with spiral arm-like features at Galactocentric radii of 4.5 and 6 kpc, and a lack of HII regions within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic center. Our HII regions are approximately in the ratio of 2 to 1 for far verses near distances. The ratio of far to near distances for ultra-compact HII regions is 2.2 to 1. Compact HII regions are preferentially at the near distance; their ratio of far to near distances is 1.6 to 1. Diffuse HII regions are preferentially at the far distance; their ratio of far to near distances is 3.8 to 1. This implies that the distinction between ultra compact and compact HII regions is due largely to distance, and that the large angular size of diffuse HII regions is not due solely to proximity to the Sun.

L. D. Anderson; T. M. Bania

2008-10-30

250

Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem  

SciTech Connect

Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

Lu, Hung Jung

1992-09-01

251

Decision Making Under Ambiguity: A Belief-function Perspective  

E-print Network

, [11]; Smets, [15,16]; Strat, [20,21]; and Yager, [24] for details). We use 1 Strat's approach [20,21] to develop a proposition for decision making under ambiguity. In essence, this proposition suggests that the decision maker (hereafter called DM...(x) = $5.50 which is lower than the fee and thus you will not be interested in playing the game. A similar approach can be used for determining the expected utility of the DM. 5 5.The expected value interval, [£»(JT),£""(*)], is given by (see, e.g., Strat...

Srivastava, Rajendra P.

1997-01-01

252

Multiple model approach - dealing wtih alignment ambiguities in protein modeling  

SciTech Connect

Sequence alignments for distantly homologous proteins are often ambiguous, which creates a weak link in structure prediction by homology. We address this problem by using several plausible alignments in a modeling procedure, obtaining many models of the target. All are subsequently evaluated by a threading algorithm. It is shown that this approach can identify best alignments and produce reasonable models, whose quality is now limited only by the extent of the structural similarity between the known and predicted protein. Using a similar approach the structure prediction for the oxidized dimer of S100A1 protein, for which the structure is not known, is presented. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Pawlowski, K.; Bierzynski, A. [Institute of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Warszawa (Poland); Jaroszewski, L. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Godzik, A. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

253

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

2007-01-01

254

Giving Leads to Happiness in Young Children  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models of cooperation require proximate mechanisms that sustain prosociality despite inherent costs to individuals. The “warm glow” that often follows prosocial acts could provide one such mechanism; if so, these emotional benefits may be observable very early in development. Consistent with this hypothesis, the present study finds that before the age of two, toddlers exhibit greater happiness when giving treats to others than receiving treats themselves. Further, children are happier after engaging in costly giving – forfeiting their own resources – than when giving the same treat at no cost. By documenting the emotionally rewarding properties of costly prosocial behavior among toddlers, this research provides initial support for the claim that experiencing positive emotions when giving to others is a proximate mechanism for human cooperation. PMID:22720078

Aknin, Lara B.; Hamlin, J. Kiley; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

2012-01-01

255

Thank you for joining: The Giving Decision  

E-print Network

Form 990 E-newsletters vs printed Social Media Updated and current #12;Management & Staff WEDGE on their giving strategies · 29 Parameters #12;Online Transparency and Communications Donor Privacy Statement

Vertes, Akos

256

Perceived Ambiguity About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Relationship to Perceptions of Cancer Preventability, Risk, and Worry  

PubMed Central

In this study, we apply the concept of “ambiguity,” as developed in the decision theory literature, to an analysis of potential psychological consequences of uncertainty about cancer prevention recommendations. We used Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003 data to examine how perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations relates to three other cognitive variables known to influence cancer-protective behavior: perceived cancer preventability, perceived cancer risk, and cancer-related worry. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested several predictions derived from a review of literature on the effects of ambiguity perceptions on decision making, cognitions, and emotions. We found perceived ambiguity to have a strong negative relationship with perceived cancer preventability, consistent with “ambiguity aversion”—a pessimistic bias in the interpretation of ambiguity. Cancer worry moderated this relationship; ambiguity aversion increased with higher levels of worry. At the same time, perceived ambiguity was positively related to both perceived cancer risk and cancer worry. Furthermore, perceived risk partially mediated the relationship between perceived ambiguity and worry. These findings suggest that perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations may have broad and important effects on other health cognitions. We discuss ethical implications of these findings for health communication efforts, and propose a tentative causal model to guide future research. PMID:16641074

Han, Paul K. J.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M. P.

2014-01-01

257

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

258

Social Capital, Volunteering, and Charitable Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of social capital—measured by social trust and social networks—on individual charitable giving\\u000a to religious and secular organizations. Using United States data from the national sample of the 2000 Social Capital Community\\u000a Benchmark Survey, we find that social trust, bridging social network, and civic engagement increase the amount of giving to\\u000a both religious and secular causes.

Lili Wang; Elizabeth Graddy

2008-01-01

259

Narrowing historical uncertainty: probabilistic classification of ambiguously identified tree species in historical forest survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems. Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set of this type is the Public Land Survey (PLS) of the United States General Land Office, which contains data on multiple tree species, sizes, and distances recorded at each survey point, located at half-mile (0.8 km) intervals on a 1-mi (1.6 km) grid. This survey method was begun in the 1790s on US federal lands extending westward from Ohio. Thus, the data have the potential of providing a view of much of the US landscape from the mid-1800s, and they have been used extensively for this purpose. However, historical data sources, such as those describing the species composition of forests, can often be limited in the detail recorded and the reliability of the data, since the information was often not originally recorded for ecological purposes. Forest trees are sometimes recorded ambiguously, using generic or obscure common names. For the PLS data of northern Wisconsin, USA, we developed a method to classify ambiguously identified tree species using logistic regression analysis, using data on trees that were clearly identified to species and a set of independent predictor variables to build the models. The models were first created on partial data sets for each species and then tested for fit against the remaining data. Validations were conducted using repeated, random subsets of the data. Model prediction accuracy ranged from 81% to 96% in differentiating congeneric species among oak, pine, ash, maple, birch, and elm. Major predictor variables were tree size, associated species, landscape classes indicative of soil type, and spatial location within the study region. Results help to clarify ambiguities formerly present in maps of historic ecosystems for the region and can be applied to PLS datasets elsewhere, as well as other sources of ambiguous historical data. Mapping the newly classified data with ecological land units provides additional information on the distribution, abundance, and associations of tree species, as well as their relationships to environmental gradients before the industrial period, and clarifies the identities of species formerly mapped only to genus. We offer some caveats on the appropriate use of data derived in this way, as well as describing their potential.

Mladenoff, D.J.; Dahir, S.E.; Nordheim, E.V.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

2002-01-01

260

Ambiguity of Data Quality in Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data "quality" is used in several different contexts in remote sensing data, with quite different meanings. At the pixel level, quality typically refers to a quality control process exercised by the processing algorithm, not an explicit declaration of accuracy or precision. File level quality is usually a statistical summary of the pixel-level quality but is of doubtful use for scenes covering large areal extents. Quality at the dataset or product level, on the other hand, usually refers to how accurately the dataset is believed to represent the physical quantities it purports to measure. This assessment often bears but an indirect relationship at best to pixel level quality. In addition to ambiguity at different levels of granularity, ambiguity is endemic within levels. Pixel-level quality terms vary widely, as do recommendations for use of these flags. At the dataset/product level, quality for low-resolution gridded products is often extrapolated from validation campaigns using high spatial resolution swath data, a suspect practice at best. Making use of quality at all levels is complicated by the dependence on application needs. We will present examples of the various meanings of quality in remote sensing data and possible ways forward toward a more unified and usable quality framework.

Lynnes, C.; Leptoukh, G. G.

2010-12-01

261

Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

2012-07-01

262

Stochastic exploration of ambiguities for nonrigid shape recovery.  

PubMed

Recovering the 3D shape of deformable surfaces from single images is known to be a highly ambiguous problem because many different shapes may have very similar projections. This is commonly addressed by restricting the set of possible shapes to linear combinations of deformation modes and by imposing additional geometric constraints. Unfortunately, because image measurements are noisy, such constraints do not always guarantee that the correct shape will be recovered. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a stochastic sampling approach to efficiently explore the set of solutions of an objective function based on point correspondences. This allows us to propose a small set of ambiguous candidate 3D shapes and then use additional image information to choose the best one. As a proof of concept, we use either motion or shading cues to this end and show that we can handle a complex objective function without having to solve a difficult nonlinear minimization problem. The advantages of our method are demonstrated on a variety of problems including both real and synthetic data. PMID:22547426

Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Fua, Pascal

2013-02-01

263

Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.  

PubMed

The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts. PMID:20234007

Jaffee Nagel, Julie

2010-02-01

264

Phase-wrapping ambiguity in along-track interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous SPIE paper we described several variations of along-track interferometry (ATI), which can be used for moving target detection and geo-location in clutter. ATI produces a phase map in range/Doppler coordinates by combining radar data from several receive channels separated fore-and-aft (along-track) on the sensor platform. In principle, the radial velocity of a moving target can be estimated from the ATI phase of the pixels in the target signature footprint. Once the radial velocity is known, the target azimuth follows directly. Unfortunately, the ATI phase is wrapped, i.e., it repeats in the interval [-?, ?], and therefore the mapping from ATI phase to target azimuth is non-unique. In fact, depending on the radar system parameters, each detected target can map to several equally-likely azimuth values. In the present paper we discuss a signal processing method for resolving the phase wrapping ambiguity, in which the radar bandwidth is split into a high and low sub-band in software, and an ATI phase map is generated for each. By subtracting these two phase maps we can generate a coarse, but unambiguous, radial velocity estimate. This coarse estimate is then combined with the fine, but ambiguous estimate to pinpoint the target radial velocity, and therefore its azimuth. Since the coarse estimate is quite sensitive to noise, a rudimentary tracker is used to help smooth out the phase errors. The method is demonstrated on Gotcha 2006 Challenge data.

Deming, Ross; Ilin, Roman; Best, Matthew

2013-05-01

265

Simulating bistable perception with interrupted ambiguous stimulus using self-oscillator dynamics with percept choice bifurcation.  

PubMed

A behavioral stochastic self-oscillator model is used for simulating interrupted ambiguous stimulus-induced percept reversals. The results provide further support for a dynamical systems foundation of cognitive and psychological problems as discussed in detail within the context of Gestalt psychology by Wagemans et al. (Concept Theor Found Psychol Bull 138(6):1218-1252, 2012), and for coordination dynamics of the brain (Kelso in Philos Trans R Soc B 367:906-918, 2012). Statistical evaluation of simulated reversal time series predicts a maximum of the percept reversal rate that conforms with a number of results in the literature. The macroscopic model is based on two inhibitorily coupled sets of three coupled nonlinear equations, one triplet for each percept. The derivation of our specific dynamics equations is based on a drastically simplified field theoretical approach using well-known phase synchronization for explaining brain dynamics on the macroscopic EEG level. The degree of coherence (contrast ?, 0 ? ? ? 1) of the superimposed fields required for onset of bistable dynamics is related to a phase synchronization index of EEG fields, and it is used in the present context as ambiguity control parameter. For quantitative agreement with the experimental data, the addition of a stochastic Langevin force term in the attention equation proved essential. Formal analysis leads to a quantification of well-known "cognitive inertia" and supports the interplay between percept choice (bifurcation) dynamics during stimulus onset and adaptive gain (attention fatigue) driven quasiperiodic percept reversals. PMID:25181991

Fürstenau, Norbert

2014-11-01

266

The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2012-01-01

267

Ambiguous Divorce-Related Communication, Relational Closeness, Relational Satisfaction, and Communication Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Communication Privacy Management theory, the study argues parents' ambiguity during divorce-related stressor conversations influence parents' and young adult children's relational closeness, satisfaction, and communication satisfaction. Thirty-nine parent–young adult child dyads discussed a divorce-related stressor and reported their thoughts. Hierarchical regression models indicated children's perceptions of parents' ambiguity predicted lower communication satisfaction; however, parents' use of ambiguity was unrelated to

Tara G. McManus; Jon Nussbaum

2011-01-01

268

Virtual baseline method for Beidou attitude determination - An improved long-short baseline ambiguity resolution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguity resolution (AR) is a critical step for successful attitude determination using carrier phase measurements of a satellite navigation system such as Beidou. This paper proposes an improved method for AR in support of Beidou attitude determination based on the concept of a "virtual baseline". In the traditional long-short baseline method, the short baseline is limited to a length less than half of the carrier wave length of the Beidou signals. In the proposed method, a virtual short baseline is formed by differencing two collinear baselines. The AR equations for virtual short and long baselines are derived and the factors impacting the AR accuracy are analysed. Numerical simulation studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed AR method. The simulation results confirmed that the proposed method is an improvement over the traditional approach -- not only is it easier to deploy collinear antennas but also it keeps the capability of epoch-by-epoch AR, which makes it immune to cycle slips and there is no need for initialisation of ambiguity searching.

Lu, Liangqing; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris

2013-03-01

269

A newborn with ambiguous genitalia and a complex X;Y rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females. Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated. Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity. PMID:25031580

Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Rossi, Elena; Vetro, Annalisa; Russo, Gianni; Hashemian, Zahra; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2014-01-01

270

Resolution of sensory ambiguities for gaze stabilization requires a second neural integrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to simultaneously move in the world and maintain stable visual perception depends critically on the contribution of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) to gaze stabilization. It is traditionally believed that semicircular canal signals drive compensatory responses to rotational head disturbances (rotational VOR), whereas otolith signals compensate for translational movements [translational VOR (TVOR)]. However, a sensory ambiguity exists because otolith afferents are activated similarly during head translations and reorientations relative to gravity (i.e., tilts). Extra-otolith cues are, therefore, necessary to ensure that dynamic head tilts do not elicit a TVOR. To investigate how extra-otolith signals contribute, we characterized the temporal and viewing distance-dependent properties of a TVOR elicited in the absence of a lateral acceleration stimulus to the otoliths during combined translational/rotational motion. We show that, in addition to otolith signals, angular head position signals derived by integrating sensory canal information drive the TVOR. A physiological basis for these results is proposed in a model with two distinct integration steps. Upstream of the well known oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator, the model incorporates a separate integration element that could represent the "velocity storage integrator," whose functional role in the oculomotor system has so far remained controversial. We propose that a key functional purpose of the velocity storage network is to temporally integrate semicircular canal signals, so that they may be used to extract translation information from ambiguous otolith afferent signals in the natural and functionally relevant bandwidth of head movements.

Green, Andrea M.; Angelaki, Dora E.

2003-01-01

271

Concealment of Give-Away Parts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The outline of an animal is not the only feature that might give it away. Often some part of it, perhaps its eyes or its legs or its tail, might also be a clue. In this activity, these parts are called giveaway parts . The function of the first activity is to consider the problem of eye concealment more carefully as students investigate the usefulness of an eye stripe. In the second activity, the frog's give-away parts will be inspected through a series of exercises.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

272

Semantic Similarity in a Taxonomy: An Information-Based Measure and its Application to Problems of Ambiguity in Natural Language  

E-print Network

This article presents a measure of semantic similarity in an IS-A taxonomy based on the notion of shared information content. Experimental evaluation against a benchmark set of human similarity judgments demonstrates that the measure performs better than the traditional edge-counting approach. The article presents algorithms that take advantage of taxonomic similarity in resolving syntactic and semantic ambiguity, along with experimental results demonstrating their effectiveness.

Resnik, P

2011-01-01

273

Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

2009-01-01

274

Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern. PMID:21175671

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2010-01-01

275

Evaluating palliative care: facilitating reflexive dialogues about an ambiguous concept.  

PubMed

Palliation is a relatively new concept that is used in connection with the integral care provided to those who are unable to recover from their illness. The specific meaning of the concept has not been clearly defined. This article explores the possibilities offered by a responsive approach to evaluation that can facilitate a reflexive dialogue on this ambiguous concept. In doing so it draws on a case study of a palliative care project in a Dutch health care authority. The article begins with an overview of the characteristics of a responsive approach to evaluation and addresses interpretative, representational and practical dilemmas. It goes on to present a series of dialogues between health professionals, informal caregivers, patients and evaluators. These dialogues take the form of juxtaposed stories, transcribed conversations and interpretations. Finally, the learning experiences are summarised and the appropriateness of the responsive approach to evaluate palliative care is discussed. PMID:11760226

Abma, T A

2001-01-01

276

Perineal reconstruction in ambiguous genitalia infants raised as females.  

PubMed Central

Sixty-six patients with ambiguous genitalia, representing a combined experience, underwent reconstruction of the perineum to achieve a feminine phenotype. These patients represent four major etiologic groups, adrenogenital syndrome, male pseudohermaphroditism, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and true hermaphroditism. If the patient is to be raised as a female, the perineum is reconstructed early in the neonatal period by doing a clitoral recession, labial reduction, and vaginal exteriorization. The latter is delayed if the vagina enters the urogenital sinus high, until 2 years. The factors affecting the choice of gender and the details and the timing of the surgical techniques are described. Images FIGS. 3A and B. Figs. 4A-F Figs 6A-E PMID:6465986

Donahoe, P K; Hendren, W H

1984-01-01

277

A rare case of congenital heart disease with ambiguous genitalia  

PubMed Central

Birth defects have become the important cause of mortality and morbidity in the perinatal period. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect which includes the varying forms of cardiac abnormalities and occurs with an incidence of 1 per 100 live births. In most of the cases, CHD is an isolated malformation, but about 33% have associated anomalies. Ambiguous genitalia are one such rare anomaly that is associated with CHD among other genital abnormalities. The possible causes for this association could be pseudohermaphroditism, which in turn, may be due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The government of any country should consider providing for its people a free prenatal diagnosis for susceptible disorders. PMID:21206707

Lingaiah, Kusuma; Parshwanath, Bharath A.; Mysore, Savitha R.; Krishnamurthy, Balasundaram; Ramachandra, Nallur B.

2010-01-01

278

How to Give Yourself a Shot  

E-print Network

. 9. Give the shot. Holding the needle straight against the pinched skin, push the needle all the way in. Then, push the plunger all the way in. Pull the needle straight out and let go of the pinched will be getting. Note: The term "provider" used in this brochure refers to the person who you see for your health

Feschotte, Cedric

279

How to give a Good Presentation  

E-print Network

the audience · Do not assume too much knowledge · but do not patronise either · Better to be too basic than tooHow to give a Good Presentation Karen Petrie #12;This is a Seminar not a lecture · How start creating slides · How to prepare the talk · Hints and tips for better slides · Practice makes

Oxford, University of

280

Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies,…

Skari, Lisa Ann

2014-01-01

281

How to Give an Effective Research Presentation  

E-print Network

/Acknowledgments ­ funding, coworkers, home institution ­ thank your host at the beginning · listen to the Questions · answer to read · simplicity/clarity not comprehensive/ detailed Overall · listen to the talks of others - and learn · presentations are fun - enjoy it! ­ lose no opportunity to give a talk ­ go to conferences

Michel, Robert G.

282

A Season of Giving. Learning with Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews elementary school books that help steer children away from the commercial aspects of gift giving and receiving during the holiday season and focus on the gifts of caring, generosity, selflessness, friendship, and tolerance. Teaching tips, class discussions, and literary tie-ins are included. (SM)

Freeman, Judy

1992-01-01

283

Range ambiguity resolution technique applying pulse-position modulation in time-of-flight scanning lidar applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight (ToF) range measurements rely on the unambiguous association of each received echo signal to its causative emitted pulse signal. This definite association is difficult when measuring long ranges at a high repetition rate, resulting in ambiguous range measurements. While methods and algorithms exist to overcome this fundamental problem of ToF measurement techniques like radar these may not be directly applied to lidar without adaptations. Especially, in airborne laser scanning, up to now it was a requirement to strictly avoid range ambiguities during data acquisition. We present a new method for resolving range ambiguities fully automatically in scanning lidar, enabling measurements exceeding the maximum unambiguous measurement range by far. As a theoretical foundation of our approach, we introduce a specific model of the lidar transmission path (i.e., emitter-target-receiver) accounting for the time-variability of consecutive measurements. Based on this model, we discuss the influence of intentional variation of the intervals between pulse emissions on the intervals of successively received echoes and delineate an algorithm for automated, definitive association of pulse emissions and their resulting echoes. Simulation results indicate a probability of incorrect associations of <10-5, which we positively proved by applying this technique to real-world scan data.

Rieger, Peter

2014-06-01

284

She looks sad, but he looks mad: the effects of age, gender, and ambiguity on emotion perception.  

PubMed

This study investigated how target sex, target age, and expressive ambiguity influence emotion perception. Undergraduate participants (N = 192) watched morphed video clips of eight child and eight adult facial expressions shifting from neutral to either sadness or anger. Participants were asked to stop the video clip when they first saw an emotion appear (perceptual sensitivity) and were asked to identify the emotion that they saw (accuracy). Results indicate that female participants identified sad expressions sooner in female targets than in male targets. Participants were also more accurate identifying angry facial expressions by male children than by female children. Findings are discussed in terms of the effects of ambiguity, gender, and age on the perception of emotional expressions. PMID:25154116

Parmley, Maria; Cunningham, Joseph G

2014-01-01

285

Recent work on the nature of syntactic ambiguity has focused on the properties of lexical items that may be relevant to resolving such ambiguities. A variety of lexical  

E-print Network

on the interplay of different types of information during parsing. Recent trends in the development of both sorts such verbs are encountered in sentences exhibiting a reduced-relative clause/main-verb ambiguity. However

286

Predicting atmospheric delays for rapid ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning (PPP) can shorten the initialization and re-initialization time, and ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions are also more reliable and accurate than ambiguity-float PPP solutions. However, signal interruptions are unavoidable in practical applications, particularly while operating in urban areas. Such signal interruptions can cause discontinuity of carrier phase arc, which introduces new integer ambiguities. Usually it will take approximately 15 min of continuous tracking to a reasonable number of satellites to fix new integer ambiguities. In many applications, it is impractical for a PPP user to wait for such a long time for the re-initialization. In this paper, a method for rapid ambiguity fixing in PPP is developed to avoid such a long re-initialization time. Firstly, the atmospheric delays were estimated epoch by epoch from ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions before the data gap or cycle slip occurs. A random walk procedure is then applied to predict the atmospheric delays accurately over a short time span. The predicted atmospheric delays then can be used to correct the observations which suffer from signal interruptions. Finally, the new ambiguities can be fixed with a distinct WL-LX-L3 (here LX denotes either of L1, L2) cascade ambiguity resolution strategy. Comprehensive experiments have demonstrated that the proposed method and strategy can fix zero-difference integer ambiguities successfully with only a single-epoch observation immediately after a short data gap. This technique works even when all satellites are interrupted at the same time. The duration of data gap bridged by this technique could be possibly extended if a more precise atmospheric delay prediction is found or on-the-fly (OTF) technology is applied. Based on the proposed method, real-time PPP with integer ambiguity fixing becomes more feasible in practice.

Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Guo, Fei

2014-09-01

287

Giving Presentations in Middle Schools: Best Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resources identifies best practices for giving presentations or talks in middle school classrooms and was developed to help scientists and engineers who have been asked to visit a middle school classroom. It provides helpful suggestions before, during, and after the presentation, as well questions for the teacher (e.g., what content do you want me to cover, what have students already learned about this content?).

288

Giving Presentations in Elementary Schools: Best Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resources identifies best practices for giving presentations or talks in elementary classrooms and was developed to help scientists and engineers who have been asked to visit an elementary classroom. It provides helpful suggestions before, during, and after the presentation, as well questions for the teacher (e.g., what content do you want me to cover, what have students already learned about this content?).

289

Giving up your personal information to researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with disability are increasingly involved in disability research. However, they are often involved as subjects or objects of research, rather than as active participants in the research process.\\u000aHow can researchers make sure that their research doesn’t take from disempowered and marginalised people without giving them back something of value?\\u000aRobert Strike has been involved in many pieces of

Robinson Sally; Robert Strike

2006-01-01

290

Real-time high-rate co-seismic displacement from ambiguity-fixed precise point positioning: Application to earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">Nowadays more and more high-rate real-time GPS data become available that provide a great opportunity to contribute to earthquake early warning (EEW) system in terms of capturing regional surface displacements, as an independent information source, useful for promptly estimating the magnitude of large destructive earthquake. In our study, we demonstrate the performance of the real-time <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-fixed precise point positioning (PPP) approach using 5 Hz GPS data collected during El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2, 4 April 2010). The PPP-based displacements show to agree with accelerometer-based displacement at centimeter level. The key for successfully obtaining high precision displacements is the efficient <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. PPP with <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> fixing can <span class="hlt">result</span> in correct permanent co-seismic offsets and correct recovery of moment magnitude and fault slip inversion at levels comparable to post-processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Bofeng; Wang, Rongjiang; Klotz, Jürgen; Wickert, Jens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27.2665K"> <span id="translatedtitle">A physical-model-based, field-wise and self-contained algorithm for removing directional <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> of ocean surface winds retrieved from scatterometer measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An algorithm is introduced to remove the directional <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in ocean surface winds measured by scatterometers, which requires scatterometer data only. It is based on two versions of PBL (planetary boundary layer) models and a low-pass filter. A pressure field is first derived from the median-filtered scatterometer winds, is then noise-filtered, and is finally converted back to the winds, respectively, by an inverted PBL model, a smoothing algorithm, and a PBL model. The derived wind field is used to remove the directional <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in the scatterometer data. This new algorithm is applied to Hurricane Eugene and produces <span class="hlt">results</span> comparable to those from the current standard <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> removal algorithm for NASA/JPL SeaWinds project, which requires external numerical weather forecast/analyses data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Young-Joon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19650395"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crossing the line: rites of passage, team aspects, and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of hazing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Framed within the psychosocial context of the sport ethic and social-approval goal orientation, 10 female and 11 male current collegiate or former high school athletes participated in individual interviews about their hazing experiences. Data analysis <span class="hlt">resulted</span> in seven lower order themes and two higher order themes. The higher order theme of the general aspects of hazing included types of factors influencing, reasons for and the effects of hazing. The higher order theme of hazing as deviant overconformity included rites of passage, hazing and the team, and the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of hazing. <span class="hlt">Results</span> indicated that athletes reported engaging in risky, hazing behaviors and that both the values of sport as well as the desire to be accepted by teammates encouraged hazing. PMID:19650395</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waldron, Jennifer J; Kowalski, Christopher L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=anxiety+AND+depression&pg=7&id=EJ789876"> <span id="translatedtitle">In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> word and scenario interpretations,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; McGuffin, Peter; Napolitano, Maria; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Clark, David M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ohio.edu/people/starzykj/network/Research/Papers/Recent%20conferences/Software-ambiguity%20groups_ECTTD1999.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A software program for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> group determination in low testability analog circuits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">^ * ECCS, School of Electrical Engineering andComputer Science, Ohio University, Atens, USA. ^ DIE location. These testing phases play an essential role in design validation and prototype characterization <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> groups. Roughly speaking, an <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> group is a set of components that, if considered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starzyk, Janusz A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1638914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolving manifold <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in direction-of-arrival estimation for nonuniform linear antenna arrays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper addresses the problem of <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in direction of arrival (DOA) estimation for nonuniform (sparse) linear arrays. Usually, DOA estimation <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> are associated with linear dependence among the points on the antenna array manifold, that is, the steering vectors degenerate so that each may be expressed as a linear combination of the others. Most nonuniform array geometries, including the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuri I. Abramovich; Nicholas K. Spencer; Alexei Y. Gorokhov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56979208"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel initialization approach for solving permutation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of frequency domain blind source separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the importance of speech signals in the recent years, many techniques have been proposed to solve the permutation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of blind source separation in frequency domain. Our goal in this paper is to present a new method based on initialization and navigation resources to solve the permutation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in blind source separation in the frequency domain. In this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daneshkar Morteza; Ebrahimi Atani Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~biorobotics/papers/icra05_greenfield_rizzi_choset.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in Frictional Rigid-body Systems with Application to Climbing via Bracing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dynamic <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in Frictional Rigid-body Systems with Application to Climbing via Bracing Aaron for the system dynamics requires a model of robot dynamics under contact and fric- tion. One common model, rigid-body dynamics with coulomb friction, unfortunately is both an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and inconsistent set of dynamic axioms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choset, Howie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ccp.ling.ualberta.ca/Downloads/Reviewed_articles/JEP_Jan09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting Degrees of Inflectional <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: Stem Form and the Time Course of Morphological Processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors compared sublexical and supralexical approaches to morphological processing with unambiguous and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> inflected words and words with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> stems in 3 masked and unmasked priming experiments in Finnish. Experiment 1 showed equal facilitation for all prime types with a short 60-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) but significant facilitation for unambiguous words only with a long 300-ms SOA. Experiment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juhani Järvikivi; Pirita Pyykkönen; Jussi Niemi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://comp.uark.edu/~aloysius/Papers/Working%20Papers/OBHDP_Multiple_Prospects_Framing.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple prospect framing and decision behavior: The mediational roles of perceived riskiness and perceived <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decision makers facing a multiple prospect, which is a bundle of single prospects, are influenced by whether outcome information is framed narrowly (segregated) or broadly (aggregated). The present research hypothesizes perceived riskiness and perceived <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> as two distinct mediators of the effect of broad versus narrow prospect framing on decision behavior. Perceived riskiness and perceived <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> were conceptually defined as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Srinivasan Venkatraman; John A. Aloysius; Fred D. Davis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=economic+AND+problems+AND+business&pg=7&id=ED541574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Midwestern Millennial University Students' Tolerance for <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in a Period of Complex World Conflicts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Though age and gender do not affect students' knowledge of global issues and associated <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, the academic major of undergraduates did. Students' combined perceptions on knowledge of these issues and their associated <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> varied among the four academic groups of majors. Unlike teacher education majors and in combined other majors…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahdi, Ghada S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=french&pg=2&id=EJ880799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is interesting to study possible transfer…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rah, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+Trade+AND+Center+AND+Attack&pg=2&id=EJ686621"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Loss Research, Theory, and Practice: Reflections after 9-11</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article contains an overview of three decades of research, theory development, and clinical application about <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss. Although the work includes both physical and psychological types of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss, the focus is the aftermath of 9-11 (September 11, 2001) when the World Trade Center collapsed following terrorist attacks. On the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Pauline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329914.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Readers' Prior Knowledge and Level of Involvement on Interpreting <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Text.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study investigated the role of prior knowledge in <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> text interpretation by directly measuring readers' knowledge of, and level of involvement with, three distinct topical domains that could be assigned during reading of an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> passage. Subjects, 52 athletes of average or above average reading ability competing in one of three…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henk, William A.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~mazen/AlbCX.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On "Decorrelation" in Solving Integer Least-Squares Problems for <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Determination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(RLS) estimators of the <span class="hlt">ambigu</span>- ities nor decreasing the condition number of the co- variance matrix of the RLS estimator of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> vector should be an objective of the reduction process. The new]. Its educational software (Fortran version and Matlab version) is available from Delft University</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toronto, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~chang/pub/AlbCX11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On "Decorrelation" in Solving Integer Least-Squares Problems for <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Determination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of real least squares (RLS) estimators of the <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> nor decreasing the condition number of the covariance matrix of the RLS estimator of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> vector should be an objective of the reduction software (Fortran version and Matlab version) is available from Delft University of Technology. Frequently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Xiao-Wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plan.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/papers/gnss2003_atightlycoupledgpsgalileo.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Tightly Coupled GPS/GALILEO Combination for Improved <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Tightly Coupled GPS/GALILEO Combination for Improved <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution Olivier JULIEN, University of Calgary, Canada Wentao ZHANG, University of Calgary, Canada 1 Abstract GALILEO and modernized, a new, tightly coupled, GPS and GALILEO combined model can be used to increase carrier phase <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calgary, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+of+AND+sport+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ802964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>, Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction among Physical Education Teachers in Greece</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines role conflict, role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and job satisfaction among Greek physical education teachers, and the extent to which role conflict and role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> predict job satisfaction. All members of the sample of 61 physical education teachers were employed in Greek "Sport for all" programs. The standard multiple regression analysis…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Nicholas; Goulimaris, Dimitris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TOC&id=ED507618"> <span id="translatedtitle">As Far As Words Go: Activities for Understanding <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Language and Humor, Revised Edition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> they encounter inside…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spector, Cecile Cyrul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57734333"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Loss and the Media Practices of Transnational Latina Teens: A Qualitative Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drawing on ethnographic data from a study with 17 working-class, transnational Latina teens, I examine the media practices they perform to cope with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss. According to Pauline Boss (1993, 1999, 2006), <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss refers to a distinct type of loss that defies closure, such as the feelings of the family of a missing person. My findings suggest that Latina</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lucila Vargas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914271.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role Conflict and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> as Predictors of Job Satisfaction in High School Counselors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24860122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mediation misgivings: <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> clinical and public health interpretations of natural direct and indirect effects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent methodological innovation is <span class="hlt">giving</span> rise to an increasing number of applied papers in medical and epidemiological journals in which natural direct and indirect effects are estimated. However, there is a longstanding debate on whether such effects are relevant targets of inference in population health. In light of the repeated calls for a more pragmatic and consequential epidemiology, we review three issues often raised in this debate: (i) the use of composite cross-world counterfactuals and the need for cross-world independence assumptions; (ii) interventional vs non-interventional identifiability; and (iii) the interpretational <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of natural direct and indirect effect estimates. We use potential outcomes notation and directed acyclic graphs to explain 'cross-world' assumptions, illustrate implications of this assumption via regression models and discuss ensuing issues of interpretation. We argue that the debate on the relevance of natural direct and indirect effects rests on whether one takes as a target of inference the mathematical object per se, or the change in the world that the mathematical object represents. We further note that public health questions may be better served by estimating controlled direct effects. PMID:24860122</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naimi, Ashley I; Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1574K"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of information content and error in an ill-posed satellite inversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to Rodgers (2000, stochastic approach), the averaging kernel (AK) is the representational matrix to understand the information content in a scholastic inversion. On the other hand, in deterministic approach this is referred to as model resolution matrix (MRM, Menke 1989). The analysis of AK/MRM can only <span class="hlt">give</span> some understanding of how much regularization is imposed on the inverse problem. The trace of the AK/MRM matrix, which is the so-called degree of freedom from signal (DFS; stochastic) or degree of freedom in retrieval (DFR; deterministic). There are no physical/mathematical explanations in the literature: why the trace of the matrix is a valid form to calculate this quantity? We will present an <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> between information and error using a real life problem of SST retrieval from GOES13. The stochastic information content calculation is based on the linear assumption. The validity of such mathematics in satellite inversion will be questioned because it is based on the nonlinear radiative transfer and ill-conditioned inverse problems. References: Menke, W., 1989: Geophysical data analysis: discrete inverse theory. San Diego academic press. Rodgers, C.D., 2000: Inverse methods for atmospheric soundings: theory and practice. Singapore :World Scientific.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koner, Prabhat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3072550"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive gene fusion detection using <span class="hlt">ambiguously</span> mapping RNA-Seq read pairs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivation: Paired-end whole transcriptome sequencing provides evidence for fusion transcripts. However, due to the repetitiveness of the transcriptome, many reads have multiple high-quality mappings. Previous methods to find gene fusions either ignored these reads or required additional longer single reads. This can obscure up to 30% of fusions and unnecessarily discards much of the data. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: We present a method for using paired-end reads to find fusion transcripts without requiring unique mappings or additional single read sequencing. Using simulated data and data from tumors and cell lines, we show that our method can find fusions with <span class="hlt">ambiguously</span> mapping read pairs without generating numerous spurious fusions from the many mapping locations. Availability: A C++ and Python implementation of the method demonstrated in this article is available at http://exon.ucsd.edu/ShortFuse. Contact: mckinsel@ucsd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21330288</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinsella, Marcus; Harismendy, Olivier; Nakano, Masakazu; Frazer, Kelly A.; Bafna, Vineet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved high-order <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-function method for the estimation of phase from interferometric fringes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interferometers often encode the information on the measurand in the phase of a fringe pattern, which is usually recorded by an imaging device. Accuracy of measurements carried out by interferometric techniques is thus strongly dependent on the accuracy with which the underlying phase distribution of these fringe patterns is estimated. Fringe analysis methods, which have been developed to accomplish this task, are in general characterized by their performance in terms of both accuracy of phase estimation and associated computational complexity. We propose an improved high-order <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-function-based fringe-analysis method that is demonstrated to provide an accurate and direct estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution in a highly computationally efficient manner. Presented simulation and experimental <span class="hlt">results</span> in digital holographic interferometry depict the potential utility of the proposed method. PMID:19724494</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJS..154..553S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolution of Distance <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> of Inner Galaxy Massive Star Formation Regions. II.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report simultaneous H110? and H2CO line observations with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope toward 72 H II regions in the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE survey area (|l|=10deg-65deg and |b|<=1deg). We used the H110? line to establish the velocity of the H II regions and H2CO absorption lines to distinguish between near and far distances. Accurate distances are crucial for the determination of physical properties of massive star formation regions. We resolved the distance <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of 44 H II regions. We detected multiple H II regions along 18 lines of sight located in the longitude interval 12°-31°, primarily a <span class="hlt">result</span> of the relatively large telescope beam width. We could not resolve distance <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> for lines of sight with multiple H II regions, since we could not determine which H2CO lines were being absorbed against which H II region. We examined the projected location of H II regions whose distance <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> have been resolved (in this work and other similar studies) in the Galactic plane and in a longitude-velocity diagram for a recognizable spiral arm pattern. Although the highest density of points in the position-position plot approximately follows the spiral arms proposed by Taylor & Cordes, the dispersion is still about as large as the separation between their proposed arms. The longitude-velocity plot shows an increase in the density of sources at the points where the spiral arm loci proposed by Taylor & Cordes are approaching the locus of tangent point velocities and a lower density between the arm loci. However, it is not possible to trace spiral arms over significant segments of Galactic longitude in the longitude-velocity plot. We conclude that a very large number of H II regions in combination with more sophisticated Galactic rotation models will be required to obtain a more continuous spiral pattern from kinematic studies of H II regions than from fully sampled surveys of H I or CO.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sewilo, M.; Watson, C.; Araya, E.; Churchwell, E.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4066879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Sequence <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> of the HIV-1 pol gene as a Method to Identify Recent HIV-1 Infection in Transmitted Drug Resistance Surveys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. In this analysis, we explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining the percentage of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> base calls in sequences derived from standard genotyping of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. Sequences from 691 recently infected (?1 year) and chronically infected (>1 year) individuals from Sweden, Vietnam and Ethiopia were analyzed for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. A significant difference (p <0.0001) in the proportion of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases was observed between sequences from individuals with recent and chronic infection in both HIV-1 subtype B and non-B infection, consistent with previous studies. In our analysis, a cutoff of <0.47% <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> base calls identified recent infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.8% and 74.6% respectively. 1,728 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from 36 surveys of transmitted HIV drug resistance performed following World Health Organization guidance were analyzed for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. The 0.47% <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> cutoff was applied and survey sequences were classified as likely derived from recently or chronically infected individuals. 71% of patients were classified as likely to have been infected within one year of genotyping but <span class="hlt">results</span> varied considerably amongst surveys. This bioinformatics approach may provide supporting population-level information to identify recent infection but its application is limited by infection with more than one viral variant, decreasing viral diversity in advanced disease and technical aspects of population based sequencing. Standardization of sequencing techniques and base calling and the addition of other parameters such as CD4 cell count may address some of the technical limitations and increase the usefulness of the approach. PMID:23583545</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sonnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4213005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocking or Rolling - Perception of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Motion after Returning from Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The central nervous system must resolve the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive an accurate representation of spatial orientation. Adaptive changes during spaceflight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions after return to Earth. The purpose of this study was to compare tilt and translation motion perception in astronauts before and after returning from spaceflight. We hypothesized that these stimuli would be the most <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> in the low-frequency range (i.e., at about 0.3 Hz) where the linear acceleration can be interpreted either as a translation or as a tilt relative to gravity. Verbal reports were obtained in eleven astronauts tested using a motion-based tilt-translation device and a variable radius centrifuge before and after flying for two weeks on board the Space Shuttle. Consistent with previous studies, roll tilt perception was overestimated shortly after spaceflight and then recovered with 1–2 days. During dynamic linear acceleration (0.15–0.6 Hz, ±1.7 m/s2) perception of translation was also overestimated immediately after flight. Recovery to baseline was observed after 2 days for lateral translation and 8 days for fore–aft translation. These <span class="hlt">results</span> suggest that there was a shift in the frequency dynamic of tilt-translation motion perception after adaptation to weightlessness. These <span class="hlt">results</span> have implications for manual control during landing of a space vehicle after exposure to microgravity, as it will be the case for human asteroid and Mars missions. PMID:25354042</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940025236&hterms=Doppler+Characteristics+Clutter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DDoppler%2BCharacteristics%2BClutter"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution in range-Doppler measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for resolving range and Doppler target <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> when the target has substantial range or has a high relative velocity in which a first signal is generated and a second signal is also generated which is coherent with the first signal but at a slightly different frequency such that there exists a difference in frequency between these two signals of Delta f(sub t). The first and second signals are converted into a dual-frequency pulsed signal, amplified, and the dual-frequency pulsed signal is transmitted towards a target. A reflected dual-frequency signal is received from the target, amplified, and changed to an intermediate dual-frequency signal. The intermediate dual-frequency signal is amplified, with extracting of a shifted difference frequency Delta f(sub r) from the amplified intermediate dual-frequency signal done by a nonlinear detector. The final step is generating two quadrature signals from the difference frequency Delta f(sub t) and the shifted difference frequency Delta f(sub r) and processing the two quadrature signals to determine range and Doppler information of the target.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heymsfield, Gerald M. (inventor); Miller, Lee S. (inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11363939"> <span id="translatedtitle">STD exclusion in insurance policy seen as <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A three-judge panel of the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals vacated a judgement against General Star Indemnity Company after finding that its policy excluding claims arising from sexually transmitted disease (STDs) was <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>. The lower court was directed to conduct a hearing to determine whether the STD exclusion barred coverage for any claim involving AIDS, or just those in which HIV was transmitted through sexually contact. The insurance dispute originated from a lawsuit filed by a patron against the 12th Street Gym in Philadelphia, PA. [Name removed], who had AIDS, claimed he was ejected from the gym based on his illness. [Name removed] sued the gym for deprivation of rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The gym agreed to settle with [name removed]'s estate, but the insurer, General Star, refused to pay to defend the suit or cover any judgment because of the policy's STD exclusion. The court found that because [name removed]'s claims were based on the fact that he had AIDS and not any allegation that he exposed someone to the virus through sexual contact, the gym could expect its insurer to pay. PMID:11363939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=l2a&pg=7&id=EJ829154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing Subject-Object <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in the L2: A Self-Paced Reading Study with German L2 Learners of Dutch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">results</span> of two self-paced reading experiments are reported, which investigated the online processing of subject-object <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in Dutch relative clause constructions like "Dat is de vrouw die de meisjes heeft/hebben gezien" by German advanced second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Native speakers of both Dutch and German have been shown…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Havik, Else; Roberts, Leah; van Hout, Roeland; Schreuder, Robert; Haverkort, Marco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37821441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chinese cultural values and gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report the <span class="hlt">results</span> of a study undertaken to investigate the gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> behavior of consumers in the People's Republic of China (PRC) during the Chinese New Year and the influence exerted by Chinese cultural values on such behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a survey among a large sample of people in the city</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang Qian; Mohammed Abdur Razzaque; Kau Ah Keng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rsscse-edu.org.uk/tsj/bts/shahani1/text.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reasonable Averages That <span class="hlt">Give</span> Wrong Answers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion <span class="hlt">gives</span> an insight into the nature of the error.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69Q1635."> <span id="translatedtitle">NFS <span class="hlt">gives</span> Career Awards to Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five geophysicists are among 38 women who received a total of $1.64 million in Career Advancement Awards in November from the National Science Foundation through its Research Opportunities for Women (ROW) initiative. Individual awards are as large as $60,000 and <span class="hlt">give</span> recipients opportunities to work with other investigators and develop new lines of research.Patricia M. Costanzo of the State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo, is studying dehydrated kaolinites. At the University of Alaska's Institute of Geophysics, Joan P. Gosink is applying remote sensing to snow, ice and permafrost research. Mary Kraus of the University of Colorado, Boulder, is combining field studies and remote sensing to work out the depositional history of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. The research of Cecile Penland of the University of California, Los Angeles, is on variability in northern hemisphere geopotential heights. Judith B. Weinstein-Lloyd of SUNY College at Old Westbury is studying the chemistry of hydrogen peroxide in cloudwater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.usask.ca/jsgs/_documents/_resource_documents/02-27-12%20-%20Iryna%20Kryvoruchko%20-%20Does%20Foundaton%20Giving%20Stimulate%20or%20Suppress%20Private%20Giving.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does Foundation <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Stimulate or Suppress Private <span class="hlt">Giving</span>? Evidence from Canadian</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in Canada February 27, 2012 1 / 36 #12;Motivation Classic Public Economics Question How does the behaviour, education, social welfare, community, other. Iryna Kryvoruchko (McMaster) Foundation and Private <span class="hlt">Giving</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saskatchewan, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3842161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Substrate <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Enzymes within the Escherichia coli Proteome Offer Different Evolutionary Solutions to the Same Problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many enzymes exhibit some catalytic promiscuity or substrate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. These weak activities do not affect the fitness of the organism under ordinary circumstances, but can serve as potential evolutionary precursors of new catalytic functions. We wondered whether different proteins with the same substrate <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> activity evolve differently under identical selection conditions. Patrick et al. (Patrick WM, Quandt EM, Swartzlander DB, Matsumura I. 2007. Multicopy suppression underpins metabolic evolvability. Mol Biol Evol. 24:2716–2722.) previously showed that three multicopy suppressors, gph, hisB, and ytjC, rescue ?serB Escherichia coli cells from starvation on minimal media. We directed the evolution of variants of Gph, histidinol phosphatase (HisB), and YtjC that complemented ?serB more efficiently, and characterized the effects of the amino acid changes, alone and in combination, upon the evolved phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) activity. Gph and HisB are members of the HAD superfamily of hydrolases, but they adapted through different, kinetically distinguishable, biochemical mechanisms. All of the selected mutations, except N102T in YtjC, proved to be beneficial in isolation. They exhibited a pattern of antagonistic epistasis, as their effects in combination upon the kinetic parameters of the three proteins in reactions with phosphoserine were nonmultiplicative. The N102T mutation exhibited sign epistasis, as it was deleterious in isolation but beneficial in the context of other mutations. We also showed that the D57N mutation in the chromosomal copy of hisB is sufficient to suppress the ?serB deletion. These <span class="hlt">results</span> in combination show that proteomes can offer multiple mechanistic solutions to a molecular recognition problem. PMID:23728795</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yip, Sylvia Hsu-Chen; Matsumura, Ichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23893850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Altered emotional and BOLD responses to negative, positive and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> performance feedback in OCD.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While abnormal processing of performance feedback has been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), neural responses to different kinds of feedback information, especially to <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> feedback are widely unknown. Using fMRI and a performance adaptive time-estimation task, we acquired blood oxygenation level-dependant responses and emotional ratings to positive, negative and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> performance feedback in patients and healthy controls. Negative and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> feedback led to increased levels of anxiety, guilt and shame in patients. Both negative and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> feedback, as compared to positive feedback, induced increased activation of the insular cortex in patients. Furthermore, patients showed no differential activation to negative feedback in the putamen and to <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> feedback in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Finally, negative feedback induced increased activation in the midcingulate cortex in patients compared to controls. Findings indicate that both negative and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> performance feedbacks are associated with abnormal negative emotions and altered brain activation, in particular increased insula activation, while activation in the putamen and VMPFC does not differentiate between feedback types in OCD patients. This suggests a parallel pattern of increased and decreased neural sensitivity to different kinds of feedback information and a general emotional hyperresponsivity to negative and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> performance feedback in OCD. PMID:23893850</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becker, Michael P I; Nitsch, Alexander M; Schlösser, Ralf; Koch, Kathrin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Wagner, Gerd; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890016009&hterms=phase+shift+keying&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dphase%2Bshift%2Bkeying"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution for QPSK modulation systems. Part 1: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Part 1 reviews the current phase-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution techniques for QPSK coherent modulation systems. Here, those known and published methods of resolving phase <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for QPSK with and without Forward-Error-Correcting (FEC) are discussed. The necessary background is provided for a complete understanding of the second part where a new technique will be discussed. An appropriate technique to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is recommended for consideration in future standards on phase-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution for QPSK coherent modulation systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, Tien Manh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740030260&hterms=laser+doppler+velocimetry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlaser%2Bdoppler%2Bvelocimetry"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pipe flow measurements of turbulence and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> using laser-Doppler velocimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The laser-Doppler <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> predicted by George and Lumley (1973) have been verified experimentally for turbulent pipe flows. Experiments were performed at Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 15,000 at the center line and near the wall. <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> levels were measured from power spectral densities of FM demodulated laser signals and were compared with calculations based on the theory. The turbulent spectra for these water flows after accounting for the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> were equivalent to hot-film measurements at similar Reynolds numbers. The feasibility of laser-Doppler measurements very close to the wall in shear flows is demonstrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berman, N. S.; Dunning, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0607158v3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ordering <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> revisited via position dependent mass pseudo-momentum operators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ordering <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> associated with the von Roos position dependent mass (PDM) Hamiltonian is considered. An affine locally scaled first order differential introduced, in Eq.(9), as a PDM-pseudo-momentum operator. Upon intertwining our Hamiltonian, which is the sum of the square of this operator and the potential function, with the von Roos d-dimensional PDM-Hamiltonian, we observed that the so-called von Roos <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> parameters are strictly determined, but not necessarily unique. Our new <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> parameters' setting is subjected to Dutra's and Almeida's [11] reliability test and classified as good ordering.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omar Mustafa; S. Habib Mazharimousavi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Base-Pairs by Genetic Transformation with XNA Templates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The templating potential of anhydrohexitol oligonucleotides bearing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases was studied in vivo, by using a selection screen for mosaic heteroduplex plasmids in Escherichia coli. 1,5-Anhydro-2,3-dideoxy-2-(5-nitroindazol-1-yl)-D-arabino-hexitol showed the greatest <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> among the three nucleosides tested. At most two successive <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases could be tolerated on hexitol templates read in bacterial cells. Hexitol nucleosides bearing simplified heterocycles thus stand as promising monomers for generating random DNA sequences in vivo from defined synthetic oligonucleotides. PMID:25158283</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pezo, Valérie; Schepers, Guy; Lambertucci, Catia; Marlière, Philippe; Herdewijn, Piet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22028269"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> concept of predialysis: proposal for a model].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2009, 90% of nephrology centers in Lombardy declared to have a ''predialysis'' outpatient department, without, however, specifying its meaning. Research carried out in 2008 among nephrology centers in Piemonte showed how <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> this term was. According to the 2007 EDTA-ERA Registry, about 68% of European nephrology centers stated that they had an outpatient department for stage 4-5 CKD patients, but no information was available about the role of patients in the choice of dialysis. It is known that when the predialysis phase is poorly managed, the patient's rehabilitation will be more difficult. Dissatisfaction with dialysis often leads to withdrawal from dialysis, as several registries have shown. For this reason, we created a predialysis course at our center, involving a nephrologist, a nurse, and a dietician. The nephrologist helps the patient choose the most suitable therapeutic strategy, which means that doctor and patient share the responsibility for the treatment choice. The offered options are hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, preemptive kidney transplant, and a conservative dietary-pharmacological program. The nurse plans at least 4 meetings: 1) to talk with the patient in order to get to know him or her and his/her family; 2) to provide information about the dialysis procedure and establish the patient's preferences; 3) to clear any doubts about the treatment and deliver a booklet with information about the chosen dialysis procedure; 4) to explain the chosen dialysis procedure; 5) to meet the patient after their preparation for dialysis (vascular access or peritoneal catheter). The dietician manages the dietary programs both for patients who are close to starting dialysis and those on a longlasting conservative program. The predialysis course includes a meeting among all those involved with the patient (nephrologists, nurses, dieticians) to exchange information with the purpose of shared evaluation and decision-making. PMID:22028269</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alberghini, Elena; Gambirasio, Maria Cristina; Sarcina, Cristina; Biazzi, Cecilia; Ferrario, Francesca; Corghi, Enzo; Baragetti, Ivano; Buzzi, Laura; Visciano, Bianca; Terraneo, Veronica; Santagostino, Gaia; Pozzi, Claudio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19256102"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Columbine study: <span class="hlt">giving</span> voice, hearing meaning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by <span class="hlt">giving</span> voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience. PMID:19256102</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mears, Carolyn Lunsford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ864279.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can <span class="hlt">give</span> students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brecke, Ronald; Jensen, Jacy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110013610&hterms=semiconductor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsemiconductor"> <span id="translatedtitle">Semiconductor Bolometers <span class="hlt">Give</span> Background-Limited Performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that <span class="hlt">give</span> background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/78069"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design criteria for purposefully <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> expression : proposal for a theater / performing arts school in Kenmore Square</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inclusion of zones which possess sufficient <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> to provide multiple use, character and meaning, generating an environment supporting freedom of interpretation and expression, is explored in this thesis. Conceptually, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verhulst, Catharina A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4207435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictors of Perceived <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Sociodemographic Factors and Mass Media Exposures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cancer prevention recommendations reaching the public today are often <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>—that is, of uncertain reliability, credibility, or adequacy—yet little is known about the factors that influence public perceptions of this <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. We used data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to explore how sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported mass media exposures relate to perceptions of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> regarding recommendations for the prevention of colon, skin, and lung cancer. Various sociodemographic characteristics (age, education, race) and mass media exposures (television, radio, Internet, health news) were found to be associated with perceived <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> about cancer prevention recommendations, and many of these associations varied by cancer type. These findings have important implications for future health communication research and practice. PMID:20183385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Paul K. J.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M. P.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Dunlavy, Andrea C.; Hesse, Bradford W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/81163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partially coherent <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> functions for depth-variant point spread function design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function (AF) provides a convenient way to model how a camera with a modified aperture responds to defocus. We use the AF to design an optimal aperture distribution, which creates a depth-variant point spread ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horstmeyer, Roarke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90079"> <span id="translatedtitle">What difference does a robot make? managing <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in distributed knowledge work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What difference does robotic telepresence make to the management of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in distributed knowledge work? We examined this question in a post-surgical intensive care where remote medical workers struggled to coordinate ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beane, Matthew I. (Matthew Ian)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p3p140q1x8wh1546.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories\\u000a of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive\\u000a style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> word and scenario interpretations, anxiety and depression symptoms\\u000a in 300 8-year-old twin pairs. There were significant correlations between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thalia C. Eley; Alice M. Gregory; Jennifer Y. F. Lau; Peter McGuffin; Maria Napolitano; Fruhling V. Rijsdijk; David M. Clark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11986427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Event-related potential and reaction time evidence for inhibition between alternative meanings of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effects of two primes that converged onto the same semantic target representation (e.g., LION–STRIPES–TIGER) or diverged onto different semantic target representations (e.g., KIDNEY–PIANO–ORGAN). Balota and Paul (1996) showed that the RT effects of two related primes in naming and lexical decision are additive, both for unambiguous and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words. Only in a relatedness judgment task <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dorothee J. Chwilla; Herman H. J. Kolk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/743656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implicit <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution using incremental clustering in cross-language information retrieval</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method to implicitly resolve <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> using dynamic incremental clustering in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) such as Korean-to-English and Japanese-to-English CLIR. The main objective of this paper shows that document clusters can effectively resolve the <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> tremendously increased in translated queries as well as take into account the context of all the terms in a document. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kyung-soon Lee; Kyo Kageura; Key-sun Choi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1208.1095v4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classical and quantum quasi-free position dependent mass; Pöschl-Teller and ordering-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We argue that the classical and quantum mechanical correspondence may play a basic role in the fixation of the ordering-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> parameters. We use quasi-free position-dependent masses in the classical and quantum frameworks. The effective P\\"oschl-Teller model is used as a manifested reference potential to elaborate on the reliability of the ordering-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> parameters available in the literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Habib Mazharimousavi; Omar Mustafa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ASPC..415..365L"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Automated <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>-Resolution Code for Hinode/SP Vector Magnetic Field Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fast, automated algorithm is presented for use in resolving the 180° <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-resolved data for the general user community. Here we generally describe the released code (available at http://www.cora.nwra.com/AMBIG), examples of its performance and usage for Hinode/SP data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Crouch, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMP....43.2965A"> <span id="translatedtitle">A note on the improvement <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of the stress tensor and the critical limits of correlation functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I study various properties of the critical limits of correlators containing insertions of conserved and anomalous currents. In particular, I show that the improvement term of the stress tensor can be fixed unambiguously, studying the RG interpolation between the UV and IR limits. The removal of the improvement <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is encoded in a variational principle, which makes use of sum rules for the trace anomalies a and a'. Compatible <span class="hlt">results</span> follow from the analysis of the RG equations. I perform a number of self-consistency checks and discuss the issues in a large set of theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anselmi, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+exchange+AND+theory&pg=4&id=ED518968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Doctoral Alumni <span class="hlt">Giving</span>: Motivations for Donating to the University of Pennsylvania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study sought to ascertain the specific motivations behind doctoral alumni <span class="hlt">giving</span>. Most U.S. colleges and universities depend on alumni <span class="hlt">giving</span> to supplement revenues from tuition and governmental support; however, relatively little alumni <span class="hlt">giving</span> is generated from PhD graduates. The <span class="hlt">result</span> is untapped revenue for doctoral-granting institutions.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mastroieni, Anita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydraulic&pg=3&id=EJ769151"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Give</span> Better Feedback on Engineering Drawings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most, if not all, systems have a mechanism that collects information to facilitate monitoring performance. This information is primarily used to modify the system to make it more efficient in performing desired tasks and, thus, attaining desired <span class="hlt">results</span>. Similar to electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic systems, the feedback mechanism in an…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cobb, Robert, Jr.; Graham, Tony; Kapur, Arjun; Rhodes, Craig; Blackwell, Ellinor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rubella&pg=5&id=EJ467531"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Pediatric Immunizations the Priority They Deserve.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stresses the need for increased federal, state, and local support for child immunizations <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from the alarming increases in the incidence of rubella and other infectious diseases, and endorses the Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices recently published in the "Journal of the American Medical Association." (MDM)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shalala, Donna E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mathematica&pg=6&id=EJ831325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Edge to 2 Math Programs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reports that two programs for teaching mathematics in the early grades--Math Expressions and Saxon Math--emerged as winners in early findings released last week from a large-scale federal experiment that pits four popular, and philosophically distinct, math curricula against one another. But the <span class="hlt">results</span> don't promise to end the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viadero, Debra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49576896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online identity: <span class="hlt">Giving</span> it all away?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With a wealth of personal data now residing across various locations online, individuals can find themselves at increasing risk of too much information being exposed. This in turn may increase the potential for threats such as cyber-snooping, social engineering, and identity theft based upon the gathered details. In many cases the exposure occurs as a <span class="hlt">result</span> of what individuals directly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. M. Furnell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21047767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for relative disparity matching in the perception of an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> stereogram.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To compute depth from binocular disparity, the visual system must correctly link corresponding points between two images, given multiple possible correspondences. Typically, model solutions to this problem use some form of local spatial smoothing, with many physiologically inspired models doing so implicitly, through the use of local cross-correlation-like procedures. In this paper we show that implicit smoothing, without the explicit consideration of relative disparity, cannot account for biases in the perception of a novel <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> stereo stimulus. Observers viewed a stereogram consisting of multiple strips of periodic random-dot patterns, perceived as either a slanted surface, or a triangular wedge in depth, and reported their perception in a 4AFC task. Biases in the perception of this stimulus are shown to depend upon the stimulus configuration in its entirety, and cannot be accounted for by low-level preferences for disparity sign. Such <span class="hlt">results</span> are not consistent with local smoothing effects arising solely at the level of cross-correlation-like absolute disparity detectors. Instead, our <span class="hlt">results</span> suggest the presence of smoothing constraints that consider the differences in disparity between neighboring image regions. These <span class="hlt">results</span> further suggest that such smoothing generally biases matching toward solutions that minimize relative disparity, regardless of the presence of changes in disparity sign. PMID:21047767</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goutcher, Ross; Hibbard, Paul B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/news/press/jhighlight_archives/2005/jh050601.html#6"> <span id="translatedtitle">Saharan dust <span class="hlt">gives</span> clues to weather patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on convection over the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa was investigated using satellite measurements of atmospheric temperature and moisture and of dust concentrations in the SAL. <span class="hlt">Results</span> suggest that dust is not an effective proxy to track the SAL as it moves west and that other tracking techniques are required to track the air mass as it moves far from the continent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.; Agu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887509"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separable responses to error, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and reaction time in cingulo-opercular task control regions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC), along with the closely affiliated anterior insula/frontal operculum, have been demonstrated to show three types of task control signals across a wide variety of tasks. One of these signals, a transient signal that is thought to represent performance feedback, shows greater activity to error than correct trials. Other work has found similar effects for uncertainty/<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> or conflict, though some argue that dACC activity is, instead, modulated primarily by other processes more reflected in reaction time. Here, we demonstrate that, rather than a single explanation, multiple information processing operations are crucial to characterizing the function of these brain regions, by comparing operations within a single paradigm. Participants performed two tasks in an fMRI experimental session: (1) deciding whether or not visually presented word pairs rhyme, and (2) rating auditorily presented single words as abstract or concrete. A pilot was used to identify <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> stimuli for both tasks (e.g., word pair: BASS/GRACE; single word: CHANGE). We found greater cingulo-opercular activity for errors and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> trials than clear/correct trials, with a robust effect of reaction time. The effects of error and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> remained when reaction time was regressed out, although the differences decreased. Further stepwise regression of response consensus (agreement across participants for each stimulus; a proxy for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>) decreased differences between <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and clear trials, but left error-related differences almost completely intact. These observations suggest that trial-wise responses in cingulo-opercular regions monitor multiple performance indices, including accuracy, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and reaction time. PMID:24887509</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neta, Maital; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2832637"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> away used injection equipment: missed prevention message?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Our objective was to examine factors associated with distributive injection equipment sharing and how needle exchange programs (NEPs) can help reduce distributive sharing among injection drug users (IDUs). Methods 145 English speaking Canadian IDUs ages 16 years and over who had injected in the past 30 days were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours, social support, drug treatment readiness, program satisfaction, health and social service use and NEP drug use. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to characterize the population and examine correlates of sharing behaviour. <span class="hlt">Results</span> More IDUs reported distributive sharing of cookers (45%) than needles (36%) or other types of equipment (water 36%; filters 29%; swabs 8%). Regression analyses revealed the following factors associated with distributing used cookers: a history of cocaine/crack injection, an Addiction Severity Index (ASI) score indicative of a mental health problem, and older than 30 years of age. Factors associated with <span class="hlt">giving</span> away used water included: male, injected methadone, injected other stimulants and moved 3+ times in the past 6 months. Factors associated with <span class="hlt">giving</span> away used filters included: injected cocaine/crack or stayed overnight on the street or other public place. Factors associated with <span class="hlt">giving</span> away swabs included: an ASI mental health score indicative of a mental health problem, and HCV negative status. Conclusions Our findings show that more IDUs <span class="hlt">give</span> away cookers than needles or other injection equipment. While the <span class="hlt">results</span> showed that correlates of sharing differed by piece of equipment, each point to distributive sharing by the most marginalized IDUs. Targeting prevention efforts to reduce equipment sharing in general, and cookers in particular is warranted to reduce use of contaminated equipment and viral transmission. PMID:20181128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020052"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent <span class="hlt">results</span> sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical <span class="hlt">results</span> indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in the interpretation of test data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lessoff, S. C.; Konikow, L. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1242521"> <span id="translatedtitle">The surgical management of infants and children with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> genitalia. Lessons learned from 25 years.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over a 25-year period, 91 children with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> genitalia have received surgical management. Female sex assignment was made for 79. Of these, 60 patients underwent extensive clitoral reconstruction consonant with the female assignment. Forty-two patients had vaginal reconstruction. Factors relating to success include: (1) prompt and appropriate sex assignment; (2) early and accurate diagnosis; (3) conservative reconstruction of the clitoris at an early age (less than 1 year); and (4) choice of vaginal reconstruction based on the severity of the malformation. Long-term follow-up demonstrates satisfactory anatomic and functional <span class="hlt">results</span> when clitoral surgery alone was required. Functional <span class="hlt">results</span> for patients with extensive vaginal reconstruction have been compromised. Physicians caring for children with congenital intersexual anomalies can expect to encounter a wide spectrum of anatomic and physiologic derangements. Cosmetic appearance alone is an inadequate measure of success because endocrinologic, social, psychological, and sexual factors must be blended into comprehensive evaluation of these patients. The management plan must be flexible and individualized, incorporating long-term follow-up to adulthood. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 8. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 10. FIG. 11. PMID:1632686</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newman, K; Randolph, J; Anderson, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AmJPh..77.1028H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> students the run of sprinting models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A biomechanical study of sprinting is an interesting task for students who have a background in mechanics and calculus. These students can work with real data and do practical investigations similar to the way sports scientists do research. Student research activities are viable when the students are familiar with tools to collect and work with data from sensors and video recordings and with modeling tools for comparing simulation and experimental <span class="hlt">results</span>. This article describes a multipurpose system, named COACH, that offers a versatile integrated set of tools for learning, doing, and teaching mathematics and science in a computer-based inquiry approach. Automated tracking of reference points and correction of perspective distortion in videos, state-of-the-art algorithms for data smoothing and numerical differentiation, and graphical system dynamics based modeling are some of the built-in techniques that are suitable for motion analysis. Their implementation and their application in student activities involving models of running are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heck, André; Ellermeijer, Ton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955355"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> preschoolers choice increases sharing behavior.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Young children are remarkably prosocial, but the mechanisms driving their prosociality are not well understood. Here, we propose that the experience of choice is critically tied to the expression of young children's altruistic behavior. Three- and 4-year-olds were asked to allocate resources to an individual in need by making a costly choice (allocating a resource they could have kept for themselves), a noncostly choice (allocating a resource that would otherwise be thrown away), or no choice (following instructions to allocate the resource). We measured subsequent prosociality by allowing children to then allocate new resources to a new individual. Although the majority of children shared with the first individual, children who were given costly alternatives shared more with the new individual. <span class="hlt">Results</span> are discussed in terms of a prosocial-construal hypothesis, which suggests that children rationally infer their prosociality through the process of making difficult, autonomous choices. PMID:23955355</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chernyak, Nadia; Kushnir, Tamar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611593O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reduction of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of karst aquifer modeling through pattern matching of groundwater flow and transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Distributive numerical simulations are an effective, process-based method for predicting groundwater resources and quality. They are based on conceptual hydrogeological models that characterize the properties of the catchment area and aquifer. Karst systems play an important role in water supply worldwide. Conceptual models are however difficult to build because of the highly developed heterogeneity of the systems. The geometry and properties of highly conductive karst conduits are generally unknown and difficult to characterize with field experiments. Due to these uncertainties numerical models of karst areas usually cannot simulate the hydraulic head distribution in the area, spring discharge and tracer breakthrough curves simultaneously on catchment scale. Especially in complex hydrogeological systems, this approach would reduce model <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, which is prerequisite to predict groundwater resources and pollution risks. In this work, a distributive numerical groundwater flow and transport model was built for a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south-western Germany. For this aim, a solute transport interface for one-dimensional pipes was implemented in the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the standard three-dimensional solute transport interface for domains. The model was calibrated and hydraulic parameters could be obtained. The simulation was matched to the steady-state hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyze their influence in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. <span class="hlt">Results</span> show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area to be employed as a prognostic tool but that the combined use of groundwater flow and transport parameters greatly reduces model <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. The approach provides basic information about the conduit network not accessible for direct geometric measurements. The conduit network volume for the main karst spring in the study area could be narrowed down to approximately 100 000 m3, even though standard tracer test evaluations predicted a volume of up to 200 000 m3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oehlmann, Sandra; Geyer, Tobias; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23022992"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the subjective value of risky and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> options using experimental economics and functional MRI methods.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most of the choices we make have uncertain consequences. In some cases the probabilities for different possible outcomes are precisely known, a condition termed "risky". In other cases when probabilities cannot be estimated, this is a condition described as "<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>". While most people are averse to both risk and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>(1,2), the degree of those aversions vary substantially across individuals, such that the subjective value of the same risky or <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> option can be very different for different individuals. We combine functional MRI (fMRI) with an experimental economics-based method(3 )to assess the neural representation of the subjective values of risky and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> options(4). This technique can be now used to study these neural representations in different populations, such as different age groups and different patient populations. In our experiment, subjects make consequential choices between two alternatives while their neural activation is tracked using fMRI. On each trial subjects choose between lotteries that vary in their monetary amount and in either the probability of winning that amount or the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> level associated with winning. Our parametric design allows us to use each individual's choice behavior to estimate their attitudes towards risk and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and thus to estimate the subjective values that each option held for them. Another important feature of the design is that the outcome of the chosen lottery is not revealed during the experiment, so that no learning can take place, and thus the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> options remain <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and risk attitudes are stable. Instead, at the end of the scanning session one or few trials are randomly selected and played for real money. Since subjects do not know beforehand which trials will be selected, they must treat each and every trial as if it and it alone was the one trial on which they will be paid. This design ensures that we can estimate the true subjective value of each option to each subject. We then look for areas in the brain whose activation is correlated with the subjective value of risky options and for areas whose activation is correlated with the subjective value of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> options. PMID:23022992</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levy, Ifat; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior; Manson, Kirk; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic processor allows rapid HER2 immunohistochemistry of breast carcinomas and significantly reduces <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> (2+) read-outs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomarker analysis is playing an essential role in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction. Quantitative assessment of immunohistochemical biomarker expression on tumor tissues is of clinical relevance when deciding targeted treatments for cancer patients. Here, we report a microfluidic tissue processor that permits accurate quantification of the expression of biomarkers on tissue sections, enabled by the ultra-rapid and uniform fluidic exchange of the device. An important clinical biomarker for invasive breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [(HER2), also known as neu], a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that connotes adverse prognostic information for the patients concerned and serves as a target for personalized treatment using the humanized antibody trastuzumab. Unfortunately, when using state-of-the-art methods, the intensity of an immunohistochemical signal is not proportional to the extent of biomarker expression, causing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> outcomes. Using our device, we performed tests on 76 invasive breast carcinoma cases expressing various levels of HER2. We eliminated more than 90% of the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> <span class="hlt">results</span> (n = 27), correctly assigning cases to the amplification status as assessed by in situ hybridization controls, whereas the concordance for HER2-negative (n = 31) and -positive (n = 18) cases was 100%. Our <span class="hlt">results</span> demonstrate the clinical potential of microfluidics for accurate biomarker expression analysis. We anticipate our technique will be a diagnostic tool that will provide better and more reliable data, onto which future treatment regimes can be based. PMID:23479638</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Gijs, Martin A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23793044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rate-gyro-integral constraint for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search stage. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations. PMID:23793044</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035723&hterms=PRF&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPRF"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of the multiple PRF technique to resolve Doppler centroid estimation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for spaceborne SAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimation of the Doppler centroid <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is a necessary element of the signal processing for SAR systems with large antenna pointing errors. Without proper resolution of the Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, the image quality will be degraded in the system impulse response function and the geometric fidelity. Two techniques for resolution of DCE <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for the spaceborne SAR are presented; they include a brief review of the range cross-correlation technique and presentation of a new technique using multiple pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). For SAR systems, where other performance factors control selection of the PRF's, an algorithm is devised to resolve the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> that uses PRF's of arbitrary numerical values. The performance of this multiple PRF technique is analyzed based on a statistical error model. An example is presented that demonstrates for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) C-band SAR, the probability of correct <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution is higher than 95 percent for antenna attitude errors as large as 3 deg.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145712"> <span id="translatedtitle">High fives motivate: the effects of gestural and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> verbal praise on motivation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The type of praise children receive influences whether children choose to persist after failure. One mechanism through which praise affects motivation is through the causal attributions inferred from language. For example, telling a child “You got an A on the test because you’re smart,” provides an explicit link between possessing a trait and an outcome, specifically that intelligence causes success. Nonetheless, most praise given to children is <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>, or lacks explicit attributions (e.g., “yea” or a thumbs up). To investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> praise on motivation, we randomly assigned 95 5–6-year-old children to a praise condition (verbal trait; verbal effort; verbal <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>; or gestural) and measured motivation using task persistence, self-evaluations, and eye fixations on errors. <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> praise, similar to verbal effort praise, produced higher persistence and self-evaluations, and fewer fixations on error after failure compared to verbal trait praise. Interestingly, gestures produced the highest self-evaluations. Thus, praise without explicit attributions motivated as well or better than praise explicitly focused on effort, which may suggest that children interpret <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> praise in the most beneficial manner. PMID:25221532</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morris, Bradley J.; Zentall, Shannon R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tolerance for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>: an ethics-based criterion for medical student selection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Planned changes to the MCAT exam and the premedical course requirements are intended to enable the assessment of humanistic characteristics and, thus, to select students who are more likely to become physicians who can communicate and relate with patients and engage in ethical decision making. Identifying students who possess humanistic and communication skills is an important goal, but the changes being implemented may not be sufficient to evaluate key personality traits that characterize well-rounded, thoughtful, empathic, and respectful physicians. The author argues that consideration should be given to assessing prospective students' tolerance for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> as part of the admission process. Several strategies are proposed for implementing and evaluating such an assessment. Also included in this paper is an overview of the conceptual and empirical literature on tolerance for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> among physicians and medical students, its impact on patient care, and the attention it is given in medical education. This evidence suggests that if medical schools admitted students who possess a high tolerance for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, quality of care in <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> conditions might improve, imbalances in physician supply and practice patterns might be reduced, the humility necessary for moral character formation might be enhanced, and the increasing <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in medical practice might be better acknowledged and accepted. PMID:23524934</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geller, Gail</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3720121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rate-Gyro-Integral Constraint for <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution in GNSS Attitude Determination Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search stage. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations. PMID:23793044</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3117667"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contextual Variation in Automatic Evaluative Bias to Racially-<span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Faces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three studies examined the implicit evaluative associations activated by racially-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> Black-White faces. In the context of both Black and White faces, Study 1 revealed a graded pattern of bias against racially-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> faces that was weaker than the bias to Black faces but stronger than that to White faces. Study 2 showed that significant bias was present when racially-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> faces appeared in the context of only White faces, but not in the context of only Black faces. Study 3 demonstrated that context produces perceptual contrast effects on racial-prototypicality judgments. Racially-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> faces were perceived as more prototypically Black in a White-only than mixed-race context, and less prototypically Black in a Black-only context. Conversely, they were seen as more prototypically White in a Black-only than mixed context, and less prototypically White in a White-only context. The studies suggest that both race-related featural properties within a face (i.e., racial <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>) and external contextual factors affect automatic evaluative associations. PMID:21691437</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, Tiffany A.; Willadsen-Jensen, Eve C.; Kaye, Jesse T.; Park, Bernadette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16632383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distinct neural mechanisms of risk and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>: a meta-analysis of decision-making.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Converging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that decision-making relies upon a distributed neural network based in the frontal lobes. In particular, models of decision-making emphasize the involvement of orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) and the medial wall. While decision-making has been studied broadly as a class of executive function, recent models have suggested the differentiation between risky and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> decision-making. Given recent emphasis on the role of OFC in affectively laden "hot" executive function and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in more purely cognitive "cool" executive function, we hypothesize that the neural substrates of decision-making may differ depending on the nature of the decision required. To test this hypothesis, we used recently developed meta-analytic techniques to examine the existent functional neuroimaging literature. An initial meta-analysis of decision-making, both risky and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>, found significantly elevated probabilities of activation in frontal and parietal regions, thalamus, and caudate. <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> decision-making was associated with activity in DLPFC, regions of dorsal and subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and parietal cortex. Risky decision-making was associated with activity in OFC, rostral portions of the ACC, and parietal cortex. Direct statistical comparisons revealed significant differences between risky and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> decision-making in frontal regions, including OFC, DLPFC, and ACC, that were consistent with study hypotheses. These findings provide evidence for the dissociation of neural circuits underlying risky and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> decision-making, reflecting differential involvement of affective "hot" and cognitive "cool" processes. PMID:16632383</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krain, Amy L; Wilson, Amanda M; Arbuckle, Robert; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4205160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aversion to <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Regarding Medical Tests and Treatments: Measurement, Prevalence, and Relationship to Sociodemographic Factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aversion to “<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>”—uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of risk-related information—is an important problem that may influence judgments and decisions about medical interventions. <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> aversion (AA) varies among individuals, however, and has been understudied in the health domain. To explore this phenomenon further, we developed a new theory-based measure of aversion to <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> regarding medical tests and treatments, and examined the prevalence and association of AA with sociodemographic factors. The “AA-Med” scale was developed using a large survey sample of the U.S. public (n = 4,398), and scale psychometric properties and the population distribution of AA were evaluated. The scale demonstrated acceptable reliability (? = .73) and validity as ascertained by association with respondents’ interest in a hypothetical <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> cancer screening test. <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> aversion (AA) was associated with older age, non-White race, lower education and income, and female sex. The AA-Med scale is a promising new measure, and AA is associated with several sociodemographic factors. We discuss implications of these findings and potential applications of the scale for future research. PMID:19731127</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HAN, PAUL K. J.; REEVE, BRYCE B.; MOSER, RICHARD P.; KLEIN, WILLIAM M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005nrao.pres...11."> <span id="translatedtitle">Old Star's "Rebirth" <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Astronomers Surprises</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising <span class="hlt">results</span> have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the outburst of Sakurai's Object is the first such blast seen in modern times. Stellar outbursts observed in 1670 and 1918 may have been caused by the same phenomenon. Astronomers expect the Sun to become a white dwarf in about five billion years. A white dwarf is a dense core left after a star's normal, fusion-powered life has ended. A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 10 tons. White dwarfs can have masses up to 1.4 times that of the Sun; larger stars collapse at the end of their lives into even-denser neutron stars or black holes. Computer simulations indicated that heat-spurred convection (or "boiling") would bring hydrogen from the star's outer envelope down into the helium shell, driving a brief flash of new nuclear fusion. This would cause a sudden increase in brightness. The original computer models suggested a sequence of observable events that would occur over a few hundred years. "Sakurai's object went through the first phases of this sequence in just a few years -- 100 times faster than we expected -- so we had to revise our models," Zijlstra said. The revised models predicted that the star should rapidly reheat and begin to ionize gases in its surrounding region. "This is what we now see in our latest VLA observations," Zijlstra said. "It's important to understand this process. Sakurai's Object has ejected a large amount of the carbon from its inner core into space, both in the form of gas and dust grains. These will find their way into regions of space where new stars form, and the dust grains may become incorporated in new planets. Some carbon grains found in a meteorite show isotope ratios identical to those found in Sakurai's Object, and we think they may have come from such an event. Our <span class="hlt">results</span> suggest this source for cosmic carbon may be far more important than we suspected before," Zijlstra added. The scientists continue to observe Sakurai's Object to take advantage of the rare opportunity to learn about the process of re-ignition. They are making new VLA observations just </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3554646"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Body Movements on Children's Perception of Music with an <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Expressive Character</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The theory of embodied music cognition states that the perception and cognition of music is firmly, although not exclusively, linked to action patterns associated with that music. In this regard, the focus lies mostly on how music promotes certain action tendencies (i.e., dance, entrainment, etc.). Only recently, studies have started to devote attention to the reciprocal effects that people’s body movements may exert on how people perceive certain aspects of music and sound (e.g., pitch, meter, musical preference, etc.). The present study positions itself in this line of research. The central research question is whether expressive body movements, which are systematically paired with music, can modulate children’s perception of musical expressiveness. We present a behavioral experiment in which different groups of children (7–8 years, N?=?46) either repetitively performed a happy or a sad choreography in response to expressively <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> music or merely listened to that music. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of our study show indeed that children’s perception of musical expressiveness is modulated in accordance with the expressive character of the dance choreography performed to the music. This finding supports theories that claim a strong connection between action and perception, although further research is needed to uncover the details of this connection. PMID:23358805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358805"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of body movements on children's perception of music with an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> expressive character.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The theory of embodied music cognition states that the perception and cognition of music is firmly, although not exclusively, linked to action patterns associated with that music. In this regard, the focus lies mostly on how music promotes certain action tendencies (i.e., dance, entrainment, etc.). Only recently, studies have started to devote attention to the reciprocal effects that people's body movements may exert on how people perceive certain aspects of music and sound (e.g., pitch, meter, musical preference, etc.). The present study positions itself in this line of research. The central research question is whether expressive body movements, which are systematically paired with music, can modulate children's perception of musical expressiveness. We present a behavioral experiment in which different groups of children (7-8 years, N = 46) either repetitively performed a happy or a sad choreography in response to expressively <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> music or merely listened to that music. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of our study show indeed that children's perception of musical expressiveness is modulated in accordance with the expressive character of the dance choreography performed to the music. This finding supports theories that claim a strong connection between action and perception, although further research is needed to uncover the details of this connection. PMID:23358805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/90/92/62/PDF/ACR2012_DelBucchia.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">"How about <span class="hlt">giving</span> my things away over the Internet?" When Internet makes it easier to <span class="hlt">give</span> things away</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 "How about <span class="hlt">giving</span> my things away over the Internet?" When Internet makes it easier to <span class="hlt">give</span> things Away Over the Internet? When the Internet Makes It Easier to <span class="hlt">Give</span> Things Away", in NA - Advances of Management, France [ to cite ]: Valérie Guillard and Céline Del Bucchia (2012) ,"How About <span class="hlt">Giving</span> My Things</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24743074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated detection of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in BI-RADS assessment categories in mammography reports.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An unsolved challenge in biomedical natural language processing (NLP) is detecting <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in the reports that can help physicians to improve report clarity. Our goal was to develop NLP methods to tackle the challenges of identifying <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> descriptions of the laterality of BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories in mammography radiology reports. We developed a text processing system that uses a BI-RADS ontology we built as a knowledge source for automatic annotation of the entities in mammography reports relevant to this problem. We used the GATE NLP toolkit and developed customized processing resources for report segmentation, named entity recognition, and detection of mismatches between BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories and mammogram laterality. Our system detected 55 mismatched cases in 190 reports and the accuracy rate was 81%. We conclude that such NLP techniques can detect <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in mammography reports and may reduce discrepancy and variability in reporting. PMID:24743074</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bozkurt, Selen; Rubin, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2040764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bias in interpretation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> sentences related to threat in anxiety.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the 1st of 2 experiments, currently clinically anxious, recovered clinically anxious, and normal control subjects were presented with a mixture of unambiguous and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> sentences; both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations were possible for the latter. A subsequent recognition-memory test indicated that the currently anxious subjects were more likely than normal control and recovered anxious subjects to interpret the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> sentences in a threatening fashion rather than in a nonthreatening fashion. This suggests that the biased interpretation of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> found in currently anxious subjects reflected their anxious mood state. A 2nd experiment established that the difference in interpretative processes between currently anxious and control subjects was not due to response bias and that the interpretative bias was a reasonably general one. PMID:2040764</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eysenck, M W; Mogg, K; May, J; Richards, A; Mathews, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3089973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intact performance on feature <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> discriminations in rats with lesions of the perirhinal cortex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel behavioral paradigm for the rat made it possible to separate the evaluation of memory functions from the evaluation of perceptual functions. Animals were given extensive training on an automated two-choice discrimination task and then maintained their memory performance at a high level while interpolated probe trials tested visual perceptual ability. The probe trials systematically varied the degree of feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> between the stimuli, such that perceptual functions could be tested across fourteen different levels of difficulty. As feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> increased, performance declined in an orderly, monotonic manner (from 87% correct to chance, 50% correct). Bilateral lesions of the perirhinal cortex fully spared the capacity to make feature <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> discriminations, and the performance of lesioned and intact animals was indistinguishable at every difficulty level. In contrast, the perirhinal lesions did impair recognition memory. The findings suggest that the perirhinal cortex is important for memory and not for perceptual functions. PMID:21482362</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, Robert E.; Reinagel, Pamela; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Flister, Erik D.; Squire, Larry R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient decomposition of cosmic microwave background polarization maps into pure E, pure B, and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Separation of the B component of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization map from the much larger E component is an essential step in CMB polarimetry. For a map with incomplete sky coverage, this separation is necessarily hampered by the presence of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> modes which could be either E or B modes. I present an efficient pixel-space algorithm for removing the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> modes and separating the map into pure E and B components. The method, which works for arbitrary geometries, does not involve generating a complete basis of such modes and scales the cube of the number of pixels on the boundary of the map.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0403106v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inflationary Cosmology and Quantization <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in Semi-Classical Loop Quantum Gravity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In loop quantum gravity, modifications to the geometrical density cause a self-interacting scalar field to accelerate away from a minimum of its potential. In principle, this mechanism can generate the conditions that subsequently lead to slow-roll inflation. The consequences for this mechanism of various quantization <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> arising within loop quantum cosmology are considered. For the case of a quadratic potential, it is found that some quantization procedures are more likely to generate a phase of slow--roll inflation. In general, however, loop quantum cosmology is robust to <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in the quantization and extends the range of initial conditions for inflation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Bojowald; James E. Lidsey; David J. Mulryne; Parampreet Singh; Reza Tavakol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/ill/teen_health_care.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Caring for a Seriously or Chronically Ill Child > <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Print A A A ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_149319.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">World War I Soldier <span class="hlt">Gives</span> New Clues to Fighting Dysentery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. World War I Soldier <span class="hlt">Gives</span> New Clues to Fighting ... of dysentery almost a century ago, but a World War I soldier is <span class="hlt">giving</span> today's scientists important ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088402&hterms=human+anatomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Banatomy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human otolith-ocular reflexes during off-vertical axis rotation: effect of frequency on tilt-translation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and motion sickness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine how the modulation of tilt and translation otolith-ocular responses during constant velocity off-vertical axis rotation varies as a function of stimulus frequency. Eighteen human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 30 degrees off-vertical at stimulus frequencies between 0.05 and 0.8 Hz. The modulation of torsion decreased while the modulation of horizontal slow phase velocity (SPV) increased with increasing frequency. It is inferred that the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of otolith afferent information is greatest in the frequency region where tilt (torsion) and translational (horizontal SPV) otolith-ocular responses crossover. It is postulated that the previously demonstrated peak in motion sickness susceptibility during linear accelerations around 0.3 Hz is the <span class="hlt">result</span> of frequency segregation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> otolith information being inadequate to distinguish between tilt and translation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37491249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Doctors' decision-making on <span class="hlt">giving</span> information to cancer patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A major focus in the literature about doctor-patient communication is information-<span class="hlt">giving</span>. In the case of cancer patients, one significant issue is which factors determine whether and how, general practitioners and oncologists <span class="hlt">give</span> information to their patients. Whatever may be the content of information, the most important choice for the doctor is to <span class="hlt">give</span> information or not. Our research group at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesús Rodríguez-Marín; Sofía López-Roig; María A. Pastor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22985116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Who <span class="hlt">gives</span>? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PMID:22985116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=object+AND+recognition&pg=2&id=EJ781698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perirhinal Cortex Resolves Feature <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Configural Object Recognition and Perceptual Oddity Tasks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The perirhinal cortex (PRh) has a well-established role in object recognition memory. More recent studies suggest that PRh is also important for two-choice visual discrimination tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that PRh contains conjunctive representations that help resolve feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, which occurs when a task cannot easily be…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartko, Susan J.; Winters, Boyer D.; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60012920"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Bodies and Deviant Sexualities hermaphrodites, homosexuality, and surgery in the United States, 1850-1904</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">74 ABSTRACT While the necessity of normalizing surgery on intersexed individu- als is a topic of ongoing debate in the 21st century, the origins of surgery as a thera- peutic practice for <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> or unusual genitalia lie in the 19th century. The first re- port of corrective surgery published in the United States appeared in the American Journal of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rima Apple; Alice Dreger; Judith Houck; Elizabeth Reis; Micaela Sullivan-Fowler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+impact+OR+effects+OR+influence+AND+psychology&pg=6&id=EJ756527"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Exploration of Aspects of Boundary <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> among Young, Unmarried Fathers during the Prenatal Period</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research represents an exploration of patterns of boundary <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> among poor, young, unmarried men and their reproductive partners. Interviews were conducted with men and their partners during the third trimester of pregnancy. Interviews focused on patterns of men's physical and psychological presence in relationships with their partners…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leite, Randall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48358832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> measures for 1,944 words</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> measures for 1,944 words of varying length and frequency\\u000a of occurrence are presented. The words can all be used as nouns. Intergroup reliabilities are satisfactory on all attributes.\\u000a Correlations with previous word lists are significant, and the intercorrelations between measures match previous findings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Gilhooly; R. H. Logie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=airlines&pg=3&id=EJ898957"> <span id="translatedtitle">Embedded Promotions in Online Services: How Goal-Relevance <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Shapes Response and Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brasel, S. Adam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=child+AND+advertisement&pg=4&id=EJ378819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explanation of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Advertisements: A Developmental Study with Children and Adolescents.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forty students aged 9-18 were asked to explain the meanings of lexically <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> advertisements from magazines, newspapers, and brochures. Older subjects explained the meanings correctly more frequently than younger subjects. The psychological meanings of the ads were found to be more difficult to explain than the physical meanings. (Author/JDD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=toy&pg=2&id=EJ897181"> <span id="translatedtitle">Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Toys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.victoria.ac.nz/psyc/staff/maryanne-garry-files/2007/2007%20Chronic%20and%20temporary%20aggression.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic and Temporary Aggression Causes Hostile False Memories for <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Chronic and temporarily aggressive people show a phenomenon known as the hostile attribution bias (HAB), in which access to hostile schemas leads them to interpret <span class="hlt">ambiguously</span> hostile information in a hostile way. Can these people also be induced to remember unambiguously hostile, yet completely false information? To address this question, we investigated the effect of both chronic and temporary</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MELANIE K. T. TAKARANGI; DEVON L. L. POLASCHEK; ANDREW HIGNETT; MARYANNE GARRY</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36867850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of work load, role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and Type A personality on anxiety, depression, and heart rate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studied Type A personality (hard driving, persistent, involved in work) as a conditioner of the effects of quantitative work load and role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> (stresses) on anxiety, depression, resentment, and heart rate (strains) among 73 male users (mean age, 23 yrs) of a university computer system that was approaching a 23-day shutdown. Each respondent was his own control. Stress, personality, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert D. Caplan; Kenneth W. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sustainable+AND+environment&pg=4&id=EJ884307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concern-Focused Evaluation for <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Governance+AND+Africa&id=EJ778811"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span>, Contested Terrain: Governance Models for a New South African Education System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the development of education governance in South Africa during the 1990s. It outlines <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> within and between competing policies, tracing the historical trajectory and explaining its outcome. Apartheid governance, the attempts to reform it, policy options originating within the anti-apartheid movement, and the law passed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weber, Everard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www2.binghamton.edu/philosophy-politics-and-law/pdfs/tanenbaum-2012-burke.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">March 1, 2012 | Michael T. Burke Domestic Violence Courts: Emerging <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> within the American Legal System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">March 1, 2012 | Michael T. Burke Domestic Violence Courts: Emerging <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> within the American Legal System Shifting Paradigms of DV Prosecution Domestic violence courts are a new kind of specialized to be criminal. In domestic violence court, one prosecutor at the Suffolk County District Attorney's office where</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Masatsugu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hundred+AND+years%27&pg=6&id=EJ1005334"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's Trait and Emotion Attributions in Socially <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> and Unambiguous Situations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children's attributions about story characters in <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and unambiguous social situations were assessed. One hundred and forty-four 6-7-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds heard about actors who slighted a recipient intentionally or for an undetermined reason and then made causal attributions about the events, an emotion attribution about the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boseovski, Janet J.; Lapan, Candace; Bosacki, Sandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=improve+AND+communication+AND+children&pg=4&id=EJ1004002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Preschoolers' Understanding of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Communication: A Training Study on Misunderstandings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding knowledge acquisition involves a comprehension of the relationship between a person's access to relevant information and that person's subsequent knowledge. This report investigates how preschoolers improve in their ability to evaluate the effects of two distinct types of messages--<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and informative--on a listener's…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carmiol, Ana M.; Vinden, Penelope G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biochem.wisc.edu/faculty/raines/lab/pdfs/Miller2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstitution of a Defunct Glycolytic Pathway via Recruitment of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Sugar Kinases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">such as the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria, the bioremediation of man-made pollutants by soil a common intermediate or related mechanistic step (4-7). Biological catalysts that display significant to catalyze the transformation of multiple, structurally related substrates is termed substrate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raines, Ronald T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37430989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finding meaning in art: Preferred levels of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in art appreciation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uncertainty is typically not desirable in everyday experiences, but uncertainty in the form of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> may be a defining feature of aesthetic experiences of modern art. In this study, we examined different hypotheses concerning the quantity and quality of information appreciated in art. Artworks were shown together with auditorily presented statements. We tested whether the amount of information, the amount</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martina Jakesch; Helmut Leder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57650059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role Satisfaction Mediates the Relation between Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Social Loafing among Elite Women Handball Players</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aims of the study were to develop a questionnaire on self-reported social loafing (SRSLQ), and then to examine its relations with role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and role satisfaction in a sample of 110 women handball players competing at the elite level in Norway. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the SRSLQ was a psychometrically sound measure. In line with the expectations,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rune Høigaard; Susanne Fuglestad; Derek M. Peters; Bert De Cuyper; Maarten De Backer; Filip Boen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39105731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to different mouth shapes influences visual perception of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> lip speech</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effects of adaptation to mouth shapes associated with different spoken sounds (sustained \\/m\\/ or \\/u\\/) on visual perception of lip speech. Participants were significantly more likely to label <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> faces on an \\/m\\/ to \\/u\\/ continuum as saying \\/u\\/ following adaptation to \\/m\\/ mouth shapes than they were in a pre-adaptation test. By contrast, participants were significantly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benedict C. Jones; David R. Feinberg; Patricia E. G. Bestelmeyer; Lisa M. DeBruine; Anthony C. Little</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metonymy&pg=2&id=EJ977283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Not All <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Words Are Created Equal: An EEG Investigation of Homonymy and Polysemy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time-course of meaning activation of different types of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words. Unbalanced homonymous ("pen"), balanced homonymous ("panel"), metaphorically polysemous ("lip"), and metonymically polysemous words ("rabbit") were used in a visual single-word priming delayed lexical decision task.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Pike, G. Bruce; Steinhauer, Karsten; Gracco, Vincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22mci%22&pg=3&id=EJ756530"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dimensions of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Loss in Couples Coping with Mild Cognitive Impairment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We applied the theory of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.; Wilcox, Karen L.; Barham, Elizabeth J.; Winston, Brianne L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/admin/publication_files/resource-2487-2007.04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pure science or policy involvement? <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> boundary-work for Swedish carbon cycle science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pure science or policy involvement? <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> boundary-work for Swedish carbon cycle science Eva Lo). In this paper, I explore how this claim relates to basic carbon cycle research, conducted in traditional in 1997, carbon cycle scientists have worked in tandem with government negotiators in order to come up</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colorado at Boulder, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043002"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span>-cue interpretation is biased under stress- and depression-like states in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Negative cognitive bias-the tendency to interpret <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> situations pessimistically-is a central feature of stress-related disorders such as depression. The underlying neurobiology of this bias, however, remains unclear, not least because of a lack of translational tools. We established a new <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>-cue interpretation paradigm and, with respect to the etiology of depression, evaluated if environmental and genetic factors contribute to a negative bias. Rats were trained to press a lever to receive a food reward contingent to one tone and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot-shock. In the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>-cue test, the lever-press responses to tones with frequencies intermediate to the trained tones were taken as indicators for the rats' expectation of a positive or negative event. A negative response bias because of decreased positive and increased negative responding was found in congenitally helpless rats, a genetic animal model of depression. Moreover, treatment with a combined noradrenergic-glucocorticoid challenge, mimicking stress-related changes in endogenous neuromodulation, biased rats away from positive responding. This response shift was accompanied by neuronal activation in dentate gyrus and amygdala. Thus, environmental and genetic risk factors for depression induce a response bias, which resembles the pessimistic bias of patients suffering from depression. The behavioral paradigm described constitutes a useful tool to study the neuronal basis of decision making under <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> conditions and may promote innovative pharmaco- and psychotherapy for depression. PMID:20043002</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enkel, Thomas; Gholizadeh, Donya; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Hurlemann, Rene; Spanagel, Rainer; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57517985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foul or dive? Motor contributions to judging <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> foul situations in football</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Football (soccer) referees frequently face situations in which they have to distinguish dives and fouls. Yet, little is known about the contributing factors that characterise the ability to judge these <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> situations correctly. To this end, in the current article we tested the hypothesis that motor experience of observers contributes to the visual identification of deceptive actions. Thereto, we asked</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter G. Renden; Sander Kerstens; Raôul R. D. Oudejans; Rouwen Cañal-Bruland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=age+AND+gender+AND+language&pg=2&id=EJ804141"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolving <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: A Psycholinguistic Approach to Understanding Prosody Processing in High-Functioning Autism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individuals with autism exhibit significant impairments in prosody production, yet there is a paucity of research on prosody comprehension in this population. The current study adapted a psycholinguistic paradigm to examine whether individuals with autism are able to use prosody to resolve syntactically <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> sentences. Participants were 21…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diehl, Joshua J.; Bennetto, Loisa; Watson, Duane; Gunlogson, Christine; McDonough, Joyce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=treatment+AND+rule&pg=6&id=EJ848119"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Semantic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Instruction to Improve Third Graders' Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Comprehension: An Experimental Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experiment examined whether metalinguistic awareness involving the detection of semantic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> can be taught, and whether this instruction improves students' reading comprehension. Lower SES third graders from a variety of cultural backgrounds (M = 8 yr. 7 mo., N = 46) were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Those receiving…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zipke, Marcy; Ehri, Linnea C.; Cairns, Helen Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2400414"> <span id="translatedtitle">Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying: <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> And Multipath with Global Positioning System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the recent launching of several satellites of the global positioning system (GPS), a variety of schemes based on radio interferometry have been proposed for the accurate determination of relative positions of receiving terminals on the ground. Provided that the integer-cycle <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> of the interferometric phase observations can be correctly resolved, the baseline vector extending from the antenna of one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles C. Counselman; Sergei A. Gourevitch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.msu.edu/user/eisthen/lab/pubs/GCE2012.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in the relationship between gonadal steroids and reproduction in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in the relationship between gonadal steroids and reproduction in axolotls (Ambystoma Testosterone a b s t r a c t Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) are aquatic salamanders that are widely used in research. Axolotls have been bred in laboratories for nearly 150 years, yet little is known about the basic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eisthen, Heather L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1237010"> <span id="translatedtitle">Making space for stories: <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in the design of personal communication systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pervasive personal communication technologies offer the potential for important social benefits for individual users, but also the potential for significant social difficulties and costs. In research on face-to-face social interaction, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is often identified as an important resource for resolving social difficulties. In this paper, we discuss two design cases of personal communication systems, one based on fieldwork of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul M. Aoki; Allison Woodruff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=martin+AND+cooper&pg=5&id=ED132598"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Behavioral Objectives and Tolerance of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> on Achievement in English Skills.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifteen inner-city senior English classes in a New York City high school participated in this study of the effect of behavioral objectives on achievement in English sentence skills. Students were pretested with a measure of tolerance of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and a test consisting of correct sentences, sentence fragments, and run-on sentences. Teachers then…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44513098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role Conflict and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>:An Empirical Investigation of Nursing Personnel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of the nursing literature provides a number of hypotheses regarding levels among nurses of role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> (uncertainty regarding others' expectations) and role conflict (incompatible demands from various role senders or from multiple roles held simultaneously). Questionnaire data collected from 504 registered staff nurses, licensed practical nurses, nurses aides and head nurses\\/supervisors in five hospitals failed to provide much</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph G. Rosse; Pamela Hyder Rosse</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Elements+AND+same+AND+group&pg=3&id=EJ1023270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capstone and Building Block: Helping Students Manage <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> about their Futures through Writing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Encouraging students to engage with principles and ideas is one way to address <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> with consistent, effective approaches in situations made up of "gray area." This includes the looming post-college world where students may be unsure about choosing between job offers, geographic locations, or even communication fields. Such…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Love, Brad; Mackert, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognate+AND+words&id=EJ1035275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognate and Word Class <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Effects in Noun and Verb Processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49079584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seeing love, or seeing lust: How people interpret <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> romantic situations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interpreting <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> situations is a task individuals face on a daily basis. In romantic contexts the accurate interpretation of these situations is of particular importance. In the present set of studies we investigated how level of construal guides individual perception in these cases. When a high level of construal was induced participants likely interpreted a given interpersonal situation as the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kai Epstude; Jens Förster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Porter&pg=2&id=EJ915154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Situations: Evidence for a Dissociation between Social and Physical Threat in Williams Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with an unusual profile of anxiety, characterised by increased rates of non-social anxiety but not social anxiety (Dodd and Porter, J Ment Health Res Intellect Disabil 2(2):89-109, "2009"). The present research examines whether this profile of anxiety is associated with an interpretation bias for <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dodd, Helen F.; Porter, Melanie A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nlp.ipipan.waw.pl/~adamp/Papers/2004-lrec/fcqp.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Search Tool for Corpora with Positional Tagsets and <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> Adam Przepirkowski</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Search Tool for Corpora with Positional Tagsets and <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> Adam Przepiórkowski , Zygmunt-of-speech (POS) tagsets more structured than those assumed for English (e.g., CLAWS 7 used in the British into atomic symbols. Such more structured or `positional' tagsets are used, e.g., within the 1 POLish Indexing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Przepiórkowski, Adam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=control&pg=4&id=EJ906346"> <span id="translatedtitle">LIFG-Based Attentional Control and the Resolution of Lexical <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in Sentence Context</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of attentional control in lexical <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=branding&pg=7&id=EJ640801"> <span id="translatedtitle">University Administration and the Language of Management: Seven Types of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Considers that the prevalence of excellence may reveal more about the spread of sloganeering in support of brands otherwise indistinguishable to consumers than it does any change in institutional philosophies or management techniques. Offers a sample of seven types of management <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> with brief exegeses; branding, market share, success, core…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papp, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/845532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coping with Syntactic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> or How to Put the Block in the Box on the Table</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sentences are far more <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> than one might have thought. There may be hundreds, perhaps thousands, of syntactic parse trees for certain very natural sentences of English. This fact has been a major problem confronting natural language processing, especially when a large percentage of the syntactic parse trees are enumerated during semantic\\/pragmatic processing. In this paper we propose some methods</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth Ward Church; Ramesh S. Patil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plan.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/papers/04ntmojulien.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved Triple-Frequency GPS/GALILEO Carrier Phase <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution Using a</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Improved Triple-Frequency GPS/GALILEO Carrier Phase <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution Using a Stochastic researches include GPS/GALILEO interoperability as well as GNSS receiver design. Paul Alves is a Ph.Sc. in Geomatics Engineering in May 2000. He current research focuses on GPS and GALILEO integration and Network</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calgary, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/personal/matt.davis/pubs/davis.garden-path.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leading Up the Lexical Garden Path: Segmentation and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Spoken Word Recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leading Up the Lexical Garden Path: Segmentation and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Spoken Word Recognition Matthew H Gaskell University of York Two gating studies, a forced-choice identification study and 2 series of cross-modal repetition priming experiments, traced the time course of recognition of words with onset embeddings (captain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Matt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=n18&pg=7&id=EJ1009983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Reference</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/92/04/23/PDF/JDMDH_turenne.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clustering and Relational <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: from Text Data to Natural Data. Nicolas Turenne*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 Clustering and Relational <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: from Text Data to Natural Data. Nicolas Turenne* INRA, Sen Turenne nturenne_inra@yahoo.fr 22 / 08 / 2013 Abstract Text data is often seen as "take-away" materials technology, secondly texts, seen as verified but meaningless, can spoil content of a corpus; it may lead</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+authority&pg=5&id=EJ1025191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inheritance, Heritage, and the Disinherited: <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> of Religious Pedagogy in the Moroccan Public School</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article investigates how Moroccan public high-school students experience religious pedagogy. Probing the linguistic ideology that underpins their religious training, the article exposes the <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> inherent in educational Arabization, a project set on safeguarding the state's sacredness while mediating an agenda of indigenous…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boutieri, Charis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ipm.montana.edu/cropweeds/montguides/Montguide%20-%20from%20converional%20to%20organic-%20mt200901AG.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">What is organic agriculture? Although the term "organic" may sound <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">for organic farming. Specifically, the organic crop production certification standards require that: · Land agriculture inherently sustainable? The USDA NOSB requires that a certified organic farm and/or ranch shouldWhat is organic agriculture? Although the term "organic" may sound <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>, the USDA National</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maxwell, Bruce D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction+AND+industry&pg=4&id=EJ857095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tinkering with Material Resources: Operating under <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Conditions in Rock Construction Work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Ethnographic studies of, for instance, laboratory work show that practices never reach a full closure but are always open to contingencies and <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>, making it possible to accommodate new empirical findings. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that this is true also for less "high-brow" work in, for example, the construction…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Styhre, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42385356"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Cultures Exist in the Tattooing Collectivity? <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>, Membership and Participation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explores the presence of cultures in the apprenticed and self?taught collectivities of tattooists. Adopting a fragmentationist perspective of culture we accept and explore <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> within and across these collectivities. Distinguishing between membership and participation enhances our understanding of culture in at least three ways. Firstly, individual tattooists can be members of single (for example, self?taught or apprenticed) or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Wicks; Gina Grandy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19660000385&hterms=staircase&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dstaircase"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel line raster eliminates <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in reading timing of pulses less than 500 microseconds apart</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parallel horizontal line raster is used for precision timing of events occurring less than 500 microseconds apart for observation of hypervelocity phenomena. The raster uses a staircase vertical deflection and eliminates <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in reading timing of pulses close to the end of each line.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horne, A. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42642664"> <span id="translatedtitle">MARGINALITY, ADVOCACY, AND THE <span class="hlt">AMBIGUITIES</span> OF MULTICULTURALISM: NOTES ON ROMANI ACTIVISM IN CENTRAL EUROPE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Activists who take up the cause of marginalized and discriminated cultural groups often find themselves in an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> position in relation to the very people whose interests they seek to represent. Inspired by the ideas of multiculturalism, minority advocates turn the cultural identity of marginalized and discriminated minorities into the central focus of a political struggle for recognition. By so</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Vermeersch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+of+AND+general+AND+psychology&pg=2&id=EJ856659"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Working Memory and Implicit Prosody in the Resolution of Adjunct Attachment <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An eye-movement monitoring experiment investigated readers' response to temporarily <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> sentences. The sentences were <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> because a relative clause could attach to one of two preceding nouns. Semantic information disambiguated the sentences. Working memory considerations predict an overall preference for the second of the two nouns, as…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Traxler, Matthew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15577723"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> the influenza jab: a review of the law.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">District nursing sister June Harris recently completed the administration of 30 'flu jabs to frail older residents of a local care home. June encountered a number of problems when administering the vaccinations. Relatives of five residents with advanced dementia did not want them to have the injection, mainly because they had heard that it would <span class="hlt">give</span> the recipient the 'flu. An 85-year-old resident has complained that while she agreed to have a 'flu jab it now appears she also had a pneumococcal vaccination as well that no one told her about. More seriously, June has recently heard that one resident is in hospital having contracted Guillian-Barre Syndrome as a <span class="hlt">result</span> of the vaccination. June remembers that this reluctant resident specifically asked if the 'flu jab would leave her paralysed and June had laughingly replied that she had not paralysed anyone to date. The residents and their families are now threatening legal action. PMID:15577723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffiths, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24925810"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nutrition and the brain: what advice should we <span class="hlt">give</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The knowledge base of nutrition and the brain is steadily expanding. Much of the research is aimed at ways to protect the brain from damage. In adults, the major causes of brain damage are aging and dementia. The most prominent dementia, and the condition that grabs the most public attention, is Alzheimer's disease. The assumption in the field is that possibly some change in nutrition could protect the brain and prevent, delay, or minimize Alzheimer's disease damage. Presented here is a framework for understanding the implications of this research. There is a gap between publishing research <span class="hlt">results</span> and change in public nutrition behavior. Several influencing elements intervene. These include regulatory agencies and all the organizations and people who advise the public, all with their own perspectives. In considering what advice to <span class="hlt">give</span>, advisors may consider effectiveness, research model, persuasiveness, and risks, among other factors. Advice about nutrition and Alzheimer's disease today requires several caveats. PMID:24925810</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, James K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sentence complexity and working memory effects in <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two self-paced reading experiments using a paraphrase decision task paradigm were performed to investigate how sentence complexity contributed to the relative clause (RC) attachment preferences of speakers of different working memory capacities (WMCs). Experiment 1 (English) showed working memory effects on relative clause processing in both offline RC attachment preferences and in online reading time measures, but no effects of syntactic complexity. In Experiment 2 (Korean), syntactic complexity due to greater distance between integrating heads, as measured by the dependency locality theory (Gibson in Cognition 68:1-76, 1998), significantly increased the proportion of attachment to NP1. However, no effects of working memory were found. The difference in <span class="hlt">results</span> between English and Korean is proposed to be due to head-directionality effects. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of our study support the conclusion that working memory-based accounts provide a better explanation than previous language-dependent accounts for differences in RC attachment preferences. We propose that previous language dependent-accounts of cross-linguistic differences in RC processing have overlooked the interaction between individual WMC and a language's general structure, which is a central factor in RC attachment. PMID:22752849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=confidence+AND+differences&pg=2&id=EJ913971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Voices from the Unvoiced: A Comparative Study of Hidden Values and Attitudes in Opinion-<span class="hlt">Giving</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper explores difficulties students may experience in <span class="hlt">giving</span> opinions in class, drawing on data gleaned from the administration of questionnaires and interviews to Japanese and British students. The <span class="hlt">results</span> show that the students from both groups regard highly of <span class="hlt">giving</span> and exchanging opinions in class; however, there is a marked difference…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murata, Kumiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50946045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individual Donors' <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Intention and Behavior: Effect of Their Perceptual Determinants on the Nonprofit Organization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dimensions of each construct of individual perception on nonprofit organization and their effects on individual <span class="hlt">giving</span> intention and behavior were studied by using survey to selected 393 valid respondents. The authors report the <span class="hlt">result</span> that three distinct categories of two perceptual level (nonprofit organization specific and cause specific) can impact on <span class="hlt">giving</span> intention and behavior, namely perceptions of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jundong Hou; Jun Lu; Lanying Du</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6718263"> <span id="translatedtitle">Better turbodrilling can <span class="hlt">give</span> dramatic reductions in drilling costs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A field performance analysis of turbine-driven bits assumes that the rate of bit penetration is roughly proportional to the mechanical power available from the turbine. The variations in bit performance can then be explained by variations in turbine power output, which is a function of torque and rotational speed and thus is controlled by weight on bit (WOB). The data show that natural diamond bits <span class="hlt">give</span> their best performance at high WOB, whereas polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits perform best at low WOB. The data further suggest that at optimum WOB the rate of penetration could be improved by 200-300%. A turbine tachometer could enable drilling to be performed at exactly the rpm at which the turbine develops its maximum power and thus <span class="hlt">gives</span> the highest rate of penetration. Calculations show that the cost per metre drilled may thus be reduced by as much as 50%. The drilling rate can further be increased by improving the hydraulic capabilities and efficiency of the rig, using: Larger drillpipe, e.g. 5 1/2'' instead of 5'', to take advantage of the larger bore. Drill collars and Hevi-Wate drillpipe with larger inside diameter. A minimum amount of drill collars and Hevi-Wate drillpipe for the maximum WOB. Higher standpipe pressures (max. 500 psi). The reduction of frictional losses in the hydraulic system of the rig thus obtained, together with the higher standpipe pressure allowed, would enable the operator to run turbines with more stages and to circulate more mud, <span class="hlt">resulting</span> in up to 50% higher turbine output. Calculations show that in this way a further reduction of perhaps 25% can be obtained on the cost per metre drilled.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Bruijn, H.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22512643"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> or <span class="hlt">giving</span> back: new psychosocial insights from sperm donors in France.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the growing importance of the international scientific literature concerning donor insemination, studies of French samples are rare. We recently had the opportunity to conduct a nationwide study on psychosocial issues related to semen donation in France. In this article, we present the main <span class="hlt">results</span> of an analysis of the narratives of 33 sperm donors. We examine the meaning they attribute to this experience, their motivations, the social ramifications of their action, and their perspective on the principles of sperm donation in France. We highlight our <span class="hlt">results</span> by comparing them to those derived from other recent international studies in different legislative contexts. Finally, we suggest a hypothesis regarding donor motivations based on recent literature in social sciences regarding the fundamental role of gift and reciprocity. These issues, particularly the anonymity of gamete donation, are currently at the heart of a national debate related to the expected revision of the French bioethics law. PMID:22512643</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalampalikis, Nikos; Haas, Valérie; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Doumergue, Marjolaine; Deschamps, Gaëlle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cba.uh.edu/mark/papers/saad_gill.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An evolutionary psychology perspective on gift <span class="hlt">giving</span> among young adults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With evolutionary psychology used as the theoretical framework, two aspects of gift <span class="hlt">giving</span> among young adults are investigated: (a) sex differences in motives for <span class="hlt">giving</span> gifts to a romantic partner, and (b) the allocation of gift expenditures among various relations, including romantic partners, close friends, close kin, and distant kin members. As per the evolved sex differences in mating strategies,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gad Saad; Tripat Gill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=best+AND+ideas+AND+marketing&pg=3&id=ED184492"> <span id="translatedtitle">CASE Planned <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Ideas. The Best of CASE CURRENTS.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collected are articles by planned <span class="hlt">giving</span> (deferred <span class="hlt">giving</span>) experts on institutional commitment, policies, and programs to encourage various types of gifts to higher education institutions: bequests, unitrusts, annuity trusts, charitable income trusts (lead trusts), pooled income funds, gifts of land and so on. A major article covers how to hire…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Garigan, Catherine S., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.med.upenn.edu/shorterlab/Papers/HowToGiveAGoodTalk.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Cell How To <span class="hlt">Give</span> a Good Talk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular Cell Forum How To <span class="hlt">Give</span> a Good Talk Uri Alon1,* 1Department Molecular Cell Biology members in talks. However, few scientists are taught the well-established principles of <span class="hlt">giving</span> good talks a talk prepared with a single premise and delivered with good eye contact is clear and enjoyable. Anyone</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shorter, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gift-giving&pg=3&id=EJ342914"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Can Community Colleges Do to Increase Private <span class="hlt">Giving</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four college administrators who are well acquainted with the resource development process (Lora Conrad, Bill Davis, Edward Duffy, and Jayne Whitehead) suggest ways that two-year colleges can stimulate private gift <span class="hlt">giving</span>, focusing on corporate <span class="hlt">giving</span>, philanthropic foundations, and community support. (DMM)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conrad, Lora; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Shel+AND+Silverstein&id=EJ720879"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Tree Teachers: Women and the National Board Certification Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shel Silverstein's children's book "The <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Tree" imparts a useful metaphor for thinking about the role of teachers--women teachers in particular. The book's namesake is the epitome of altruism, providing branches, fruit, and even her trunk so that her beloved boy might have what he desires. And so it goes for women; endless <span class="hlt">giving</span>, nurturing,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Tara Star; Bruce, Mary; Graham, Peg; Oliver, Steve; Oppong, Nicholas; Park, Soonhye; Mansberger, Dorann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/44/45/48/PDF/review_of_when_truth_gives_out.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">book review Mark Richard, When Truth <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Out</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">book review Mark Richard, When Truth <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Out Oxford University Press (2008), 184 pages by Isidora Stojanovic Institut Jean Nicod - CNRS-ENS-EHESS Richard's When Truth <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Out, written in an engaging and accessible style, develops around the idea that the notion of truth, contrary to a lot of received wisdom</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2963057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reinforcement <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Novelty Do Not Account for Transitive Inference Deficits in Schizophrenia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The capacity for transitive inference (TI), a form of relational memory organization, is impaired in schizophrenia patients. In order to disambiguate deficits in TI from the effects of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> reinforcement history and novelty, 28 schizophrenia and 20 nonpsychiatric control subjects were tested on newly developed TI and non-TI tasks that were matched on these 2 variables. Schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse than controls on the TI task but were able to make equivalently difficult nontransitive judgments as well as controls. Neither novelty nor reinforcement <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> accounted for the selective deficit of the patients on the TI task. These findings implicate a disturbance in relational memory organization, likely subserved by hippocampal dysfunction, in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19460878</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coleman, Michael J.; Titone, Debra; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Huang, Zhuying; Mendell, Nancy R.; Eichenbaum, Howard; Levy, Deborah L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2746917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individual differences in syntactic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution: Readers vary in their use of plausibility information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments investigated the relation between individual differences in working memory capacity and differences in the efficiency of syntactic processing. In one experiment, readers comprehended sentences containing main-verb/reduced-relative <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> that all resolved to the reduced-relative interpretation. High-span (but not low-span) readers processed sentences more slowly when the sentences were biased to the preferred, main-verb interpretation than when they were biased to the reduced-relative interpretation. Moreover, high-span (but not low-span) readers used information about the plausibility of the different interpretations even though low-span readers appeared to possess the requisite knowledge. In Experiment 2, readers received intensive exposure to sentences with main-verb/reduced-relative <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>. Exposure enhanced low-span readers’ use of plausibility information. Moreover, the effect of exposure generalized to sentences that were not included in the training materials. PMID:18426067</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1461513"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> of large scale temperature reconstructions from artificial tree growth in millennial climate simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of temperature reconstructions is assessed using pseudo tree growth series in the virtual reality of two simulations of the climate of the last millennium. The simple, process-based Vaganov-Shashkin-Lite (VS-Lite) code calculates tree growth responses controlled by a limited number of climatic parameters. Growth limitation by different ambient climate conditions allows for possible nonlinearity and non-stationarity in the pseudo tree growth series. Statistical reconstructions of temperature are achieved from simulated tree growth for random selections of pseudo-proxy locations by simple local regression and composite plus scaling techniques to address additional <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in paleoclimate reconstructions besides the known uncertainty and shortcomings of the reconstruction methods. A systematic empirical evaluation shows that the interrelations between simulated target and reconstructed temperatures undergo strong variations with possibly pronounced misrepresentations of temperatures. Thus (i) c...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bothe, Oliver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Execution model for limited <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> rules and its application to derived data update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel execution model for rule application in active databases is developed and applied to the problem of updating derived data in a database represented using a semantic, object-based database model. The execution model is based on the use of `limited <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> rules` (LARs), which permit disjunction in rule actions. The execution model essentially performs a breadth-first exploration of alternative extensions of a user-requested update. Given an object-based database scheme, both integrity constraints and specifications of derived classes and attributes are compiled into a family of limited <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> rules. A theoretical analysis shows that the approach is sound: the execution model returns all valid `completions` of a user-requested update, or terminates with an appropriate error notification. The complexity of the approach in connection with derived data update is considered. 42 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, I.M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Hull, R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McLeod, D. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37401046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Young children’s classification, stereotyping and play behaviour for gender neutral and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> toys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> toys in 31 three? to five?year?old children’s play behaviour and understanding about gender. Overall, children did not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Isabelle D. Cherney; Jessica Dempsey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40100631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Heritage: Classical Myths in the Works of Nineteenth-Century American Writers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">American writers of the nineteenth century display deeply <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> attitudes towards classical culture, regarded both as\\u000a the fountainhead of the American republic and as an outdated, elitist, and alien mode. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville,\\u000a Elizabeth Stoddard, Harold Frederic, Henry James, and Sarah Orne Jewett are among the authors to use significant allusions\\u000a to classical myths, thus placing American self-identity within</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elzbieta Foeller-Pituch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34486847"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Encoding of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Child Behavior in High and Low Risk for Child Physical Abuse Parents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent theory and research suggest that physically abusive parenting behavior might be understood as originating from: 1)\\u000a greater accessibility of hostile\\/negative schema, and\\/or 2) lower accessibility of benign\\/positive schema. This study examined\\u000a whether parents at high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed in the extent to which they spontaneously encoded\\u000a <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> caregiving contexts in negative versus positive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julie L. Crouch; Joel S. Milner; John J. Skowronski; Magdalena M. Farc; Lauren M. Irwin; Angela Neese</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50455456"> <span id="translatedtitle">A systems approach to diagnostic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> reduction in naval avionic systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are inefficiencies in the current United States (U.S.) Navy maintenance system. These inefficiencies waste resources and manpower. Platform-level diagnostics is relegated primarily to built-in-test (BIT). However, BIT is not entirely reliable. Enhanced Organizational level (0-level) diagnostic functionality is needed to reduce <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> between multiple weapons Replaceable Assemblies (wRA's) and interconnects; thus markedly reducing rates of \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell Shannon; J. Quiter; A. D'Annunzio; R. Meseroll; R. Lebron; V. Sieracki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47897868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's Gender Orientation and Perceptions of Female, Male, and Gender-<span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Animal Characters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of preadolescent children's gender orientation on their social perception of animal characters whose gender was clearly female, clearly male, or gender-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>. Nine- to 12-year-old middle-class Israeli children who had completed a Hebrew version of Boldizar's scale for gender orientation in children assigned gender to the animal characters and indicated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rachel Karniol; Shiri Reichman; Liat Fund</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pitt.edu/~plumlab/papers/Tokowicz_Kroll2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Number of meanings and concreteness: Consequences of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> within and across languages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the effects of concreteness and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> on language processing. In Experiment 1, English–Spanish bilinguals translated words with a single translation. Contrary to past findings, we observed no concrete-word advantage in translation latency. In Experiment 2, English–Spanish bilinguals translated words with one and more than one translation. Words with multiple translations were translated more slowly and showed the typical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natasha Tokowicz; Judith F. Kroll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13997423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consensus of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: Theory and Application of Active Learning for Biomedical Image Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Supervised classifiers require manually labeled training samples to classify unlabeled objects. Active Learning (AL) can be\\u000a used to selectively label only “<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>” samples, ensuring that each labeled sample is maximally informative. This is invaluable\\u000a in applications where manual labeling is expensive, as in medical images where annotation of specific pathologies or anatomical\\u000a structures is usually only possible by an expert</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott Doyle; Anant Madabhushi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://agecon2.tamu.edu/people/faculty/shaw-douglass/AERE11-15.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three Ships that Pass in the Night: Risk, <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and the WTP/WTA Disparity W. Douglass Shaw and Richard T. Woodward, Texas A&M University</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">knows sports) can overcome <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> (Joe bets on football game outcomes). Others on The <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> that allow for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> via a second order probability density function (SOP).2 The Rank-Dependent Expected of the likelihood of ix and its ranking position. The function q() generalizes EU analysis. If q(F)=F, then RDEU</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaw, W. Douglass</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeod..87..709L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of the clock-phase biases of GNSS networks: the closure-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the problem of retrieving clock-phase biases from network data has a basic rank defect. We analyse the different ways of removing this rank defect, and define a particular strategy for obtaining these phase biases in a standard form. The minimum-constrained problem to be solved in the least-squares (LS) sense depends on some integer vector which can be fixed in an arbitrary manner. We propose to solve the problem via an undifferenced approach based on the notion of closure <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. We present a theoretical justification of this closure-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> approach (CAA), and the main elements for a practical implementation. The links with other methods are also established. We analyse all those methods in a unified interpretative framework, and derive functional relations between the corresponding solutions and our CAA solution. This could be interesting for many GNSS applications like real-time kinematic PPP for instance. To compare the methods providing LS estimates of clock-phase biases, we define a particular solution playing the role of reference solution. For this solution, when a phase bias is estimated for the first time, its fractional part is confined to the one-cycle width interval centred on zero; the integer-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> set is modified accordingly. Our theoretical study is illustrated with some simple and generic examples; it could have applications in data processing of most GNSS networks, and particularly global networks using GPS, Glonass, Galileo, or BeiDou/Compass satellites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lannes, A.; Prieur, J.-L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19645876"> <span id="translatedtitle">How vestibular neurons solve the tilt/translation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. Comparison of brainstem, cerebellum, and thalamus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinations of tilt and translation. We focus primarily on cerebellar cortex responses, as nodulus/uvula Purkinje cells reliably encode translation rather than net gravito-inertial acceleration. In contrast, neurons in the vestibular and rostral fastigial nuclei, as well as the ventral lateral and ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus represent a continuum, with some encoding translation and some net gravito-inertial acceleration. This review also outlines how Purkinje cells use semicircular canal signals to solve the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> problem and how this solution fails at low frequencies. We conclude by attempting to bridge the gap between the proposed roles of nodulus/uvula in tilt/translation discrimination and velocity storage. PMID:19645876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angelaki, Dora E; Yakusheva, Tatyana A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...602..446G"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Resolution of the Azimuthal <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Vector Magnetograms of Solar Active Regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce a ``structure minimization'' technique to resolve the azimuthal <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of 180°, intrinsic in solar vector magnetic field measurements. We resolve the 180° <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> by minimizing the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the magnetic field vector. This relates to a minimization of the sheath currents that envelope the solar magnetic flux tubes, thus allowing for more space-filling and less complex magnetic fields. Structure minimization proceeds in two steps: First, it derives a local solution analytically, by means of a structure minimization function. Second, it reaches a global solution numerically, assuming smoothness of the magnetic field vector. Structure minimization (i) is disentangled from any use of potential or linear force-free extrapolations and (ii) eliminates pixel-to-pixel dependencies, thus reducing exponentially the required computations. We apply structure minimization to four active regions, located at various distances from disk center. The minimum structure solution for each case is compared with the ``minimum energy'' solution obtained by the slower simulated annealing algorithm. We find correlation coefficients ranging from significant to excellent. Moreover, structure minimization provides an <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-free vertical gradient of the magnetic field strength that reveals the variation of the magnetic field with height. The simplicity and speed of the method allow a near real-time processing of solar vector magnetograms. This task was not possible in the past and may be of interest to both existing and future solar missions and ground-based magnetographs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgoulis, Manolis K.; LaBonte, Barry J.; Metcalf, Thomas R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2151019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perirhinal cortex resolves feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in configural object recognition and perceptual oddity tasks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The perirhinal cortex (PRh) has a well-established role in object recognition memory. More recent studies suggest that PRh is also important for two-choice visual discrimination tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that PRh contains conjunctive representations that help resolve feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, which occurs when a task cannot easily be solved on the basis of features alone. However, no study has examined whether the ability of PRh to resolve configural feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is related to its role in object recognition. Therefore, we examined whether bilateral excitotoxic lesions of PRh or PPRh (perirhinal plus post-rhinal cortices) in the rat would cause deficits in a configural spontaneous object recognition task, and a configural simultaneous oddity discrimination task, in which the task could not be solved on the basis of features, but could only be solved using conjunctive representations. As predicted by simulations using a computational model, rats with PPRh lesions were impaired during a minimal-delay configural object recognition task. These same rats were impaired during a zero-delay configural object recognition task. Furthermore, rats with localized PRh lesions were impaired in a configural simultaneous oddity discrimination task. These findings support the idea that PRh contains conjunctive representations for the resolution of feature <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and that these representations underlie a dual role for PRh in memory and perception. PMID:18086825</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartko, Susan J.; Winters, Boyer D.; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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The child may have parts of both male and female genitals. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD). This is an intersex condition, in which there are some male structures (gonad, testis), as well as a uterus, vagina, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mn0116.photos.092492p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">54. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, <span class="hlt">GIVING</span> A DETAIL ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">54. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, <span class="hlt">GIVING</span> A DETAIL VIEW OF THE CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mn0116.photos.092491p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">53. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, <span class="hlt">GIVING</span> A DETAIL ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">53. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, <span class="hlt">GIVING</span> A DETAIL VIEW OF THE CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19670000248&hterms=velocity+factor&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvelocity%2Bfactor"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rectilinear display <span class="hlt">gives</span> acceleration load factor and velocity information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spacecraft entry monitoring system /EMS/ <span class="hlt">gives</span> a rectilinear display of acceleration load factor and velocity information. This allows an astronaut to respond with manual spacecraft attitude corrective maneuver commands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frank, A. J.; Johnson, B. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_147467.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene Study <span class="hlt">Gives</span> New Insight into Puberty in Girls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... this page, please enable JavaScript. Gene Study <span class="hlt">Gives</span> New Insight Into Puberty in Girls Findings may also ... hundreds, and possibly thousands, of gene variations, a new study suggests. Researchers have identified over 100 regions ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gradresed.case.edu/bstp/mentoring-JAMA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMMENTARIES Academic Mentoring--How to <span class="hlt">Give</span> It</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">COMMENTARIES Academic Mentoring--How to <span class="hlt">Give</span> It and How to Get It Allan S. Detsky, MD, PhD, FRCPC the direction provided by aca- demic mentors and research supervisors. The litera- ture contains numerous</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Sichun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol2-sec404-704.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for <span class="hlt">giving</span> evidence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence...consider any evidence you <span class="hlt">give</span> us. If your evidence is a foreign-language record or document, we can have it translated for you....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec404-704.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for <span class="hlt">giving</span> evidence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence...consider any evidence you <span class="hlt">give</span> us. If your evidence is a foreign-language record or document, we can have it translated for you....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">469</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol2-sec404-704.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for <span class="hlt">giving</span> evidence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence...consider any evidence you <span class="hlt">give</span> us. If your evidence is a foreign-language record or document, we can have it translated for you....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">470</div> <div class="resultBody element">