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1

Ambiguous Results in Functional Neuroimaging Data Analysis Due to Covariate Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we draw attention to a source of potential ambiguity in functional neuroimaging results when data analysis is based on the resolution of a linear model. This ambiguity arises whenever there exists correlation between the model covariates. A single-subject PET activation experiment helps to illustrate to what extent correlation can affect statistical results interpretation, possibly leading to misinterpretation

Alexandre Andrade; Anne-Lise Paradis; Stéphanie Rouquette; Jean-Baptiste Poline

1999-01-01

2

Study Finds Charter Networks Give No Clear Edge on Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on a national study of middle school students in 40 charter networks which finds that, when it comes to having an impact on student achievement, results vary and, overall, charter students do not learn dramatically more than their counterparts in regular public schools. The findings from the research group Mathematica and the…

Shah, Nirvi

2011-01-01

3

Lost in Translation: Ambiguity in Nerve Sheath Tumor Nomenclature and Its Resultant Treatment Effect  

PubMed Central

There is much ambiguity surrounding the diagnosis of nerve sheath tumors, including atypical neurofibroma and low-grade MPNST, and yet, the distinction between these entities designates either benign or malignant behavior and thus carries presumed profound prognostic importance that often guides treatment. This study reviews the diagnostic criteria used to designate atypical neurofibroma from low-grade MPNSTs and reviews existing literature the natural history of each of these tumors to see if the distinction is, in fact, of importance.

Bernthal, Nicholas M.; Jones, Kevin B.; Monument, Michael J.; Liu, Ting; Viskochil, David; Randall, R. Lor

2013-01-01

4

Ambiguous genitalia  

MedlinePLUS

... the ambiguity varies. In very rare instances, the physical appearance may be fully developed as the opposite of the genetic sex. For example, a genetic male may have developed the appearance of a normal ...

5

Impact on HIV test providers of giving a positive test result.  

PubMed

The provision of a positive HIV antibody test result and the direction and support given to the test recipient are critical components of care and prevention. There has been little research that describes what happens in such interactions between recipient and provider. The impact on the test provider of delivering the HIV test result is an important issue to consider. The discomfort experienced by some health providers in giving a positive test result may have adverse effects on the client interaction or may carry over into subsequent client interactions. Utilizing a thematic analysis on interview data from 24 HIV test providers, we describe the impact of delivering a positive test result on HIV test providers, identify the factors that influence this impact, and describe strategies used to manage the impact. As with other health care professionals communicating "bad news,"HIV test providers experience a variety of impacts. While a small number of providers indicated little or no impact of delivering the HIV positive test result because the diagnosis is ''not the end of the world,'' most indicated it was difficult as it was anticipated that the test recipient would (or did) find the news distressing. Several coping strategies were identified. PMID:17851998

Myers, Ted; Worthington, Catherine; Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P; Haubrich, Dennis J; Ryder, Karen; Rawson, Brian

2007-09-01

6

On Syntactic Ambiguity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The source of syntactic ambiguity and facts concerning the resolution of such ambiguity are discussed in this paper. The attitude of qenerative linguists towards ambiguity is examined, and a working distinction is drawn between vaqueness and ambiguity. The consequences of this distinction are then examined for syntactic ambiguity and an ordering…

van Oirsouw, Robert R.

7

Variable pressure cornual resection. Does radical hysteroscopic surgery give better results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radicality of the resective technique at transcervical endometrial resection (TCRE) may affect both the safety and efficacy. We evaluated both a more and a less extreme technique and compared results with our standard TCRE. A nonrandomised, prospective cohort study of three standardised endometrial resection\\/ablation techniques, each with differing tissue destruction profiles, was performed on 270 patients. Percentage reduction in

J. T. Mc H. Clark; L. Dupuch; I. Balchin; D. L. Byrne; J. M. Frappell

2006-01-01

8

Ambiguity of Reference and Listeners' Reaction in a Naturalistic Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the extent to which preschool children use pronoun ambiguity in a naturalistic setting, the circumstances in which ambiguity arises, and how the preschool children respond to such ambiguity. Results show that ambiguity of reference frequently occurs, especially when verbal disambiguation only is possible. Ambiguity did not influence…

Van Hekken, Suus M. J.; And Others

1980-01-01

9

Ambiguity Function in Fourier Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theory of Fresnel diffraction and Fourier optics results is presented, involving merely coordinate transformations of the independent variables of the aperture ambiguity function. As an application, a simple expression for the width of the diffracted be...

A. Papoulis

1973-01-01

10

Penalized GNSS Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the process of resolving the carrier phase ambiguities as integers. It is the key to fast and high precision GNSS positioning and it applies to a great variety of GNSS models which are currently in use in navigation, surveying, geodesy and geophysics. A new principle of carrier phase ambiguity resolution

P. J. G. Teunissen

2004-01-01

11

Selfless giving.  

PubMed

In four studies, we show that people who anticipate more personal change over time give more to others. We measure and manipulate participants' beliefs in the persistence of the defining psychological features of a person (e.g., his or her beliefs, values, and life goals) and measure generosity, finding support for the hypothesis in three studies using incentive-compatible charitable donation decisions and one involving hypothetical choices about sharing with loved ones. PMID:23973466

Bartels, Daniel M; Kvaran, Trevor; Nichols, Shaun

2013-11-01

12

Processing Coordination Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2010-01-01

13

Quantifying Ambiguity Surrounding Subjective Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ambiguity is a measure of the level of discomfort one feels about the accuracy of the probability of an uncertain event; ambiguity is separate from the uncertainty itself. Our research has developed techniques that extend decision theory so that ambiguity...

R. S. Strait P. A. Morris

1989-01-01

14

Ionosphere-free and geometry-free triple-frequency combinations for ambiguity resolution: theory and first results with real data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most recent GPS Block IIF satellites SVN62 and SVN63 and the GALILEO satellites GIOVE-A, GIOVE-B, PFM and FM2 already provide tracking data on more than two frequencies, and in the near future, all GNSS will transmit at least on three frequencies (GPS III, GLONASS KM, Galileo, COMPASS). The development of ambiguity resolution algorithms considering three (or more) frequencies is thus of crucial importance in the future. We will present a simplified general method for ambiguity resolution using triple-frequency geometry-free (GF) and ionosphere-free (IF) linear combinations with minimized noise level. Different scaling factors for the code noise on the three frequencies were introduced. Three linearly independent linear combinations are required to resolve the ambiguities on all three frequencies. Typically, ambiguity resolution on two linear combinations can easily be performed. For the third linear combination, which is the core problem of the triple-frequency ambiguity resolution, a general method using the ambiguity-corrected phase observations without any constraints was developed to search for the optimal GF and IF linear combination. We analytically demonstrated that the noise level of this third linear combination is only a function of the three frequencies and does not depend on the coefficients of the linear combination. This frequency-dependent noise factor was investigated for GPS, Galileo and COMPASS frequency triplets. The theoretical derivations were verified using real triple-frequency GPS (L1, L2, L5 from SVN62 and SVN63) and Galileo (E1, E5b, E5a from GIOVE-A, GIOVE-B, PFM and FM2) data from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) campaign of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The formal errors of the estimated ambiguities of the third linear combination using Galileo E1, E5b and E5a, which is expected to show the worst performance among all the GNSS frequency triplets, decrease in most cases to below 0.2 cycles after 400 observation epochs. A similar behavior is seen for the GPS ambiguities. An improvement of a factor of two to three can be expected, if more triple-frequency GPS satellites or if Galileo E6 signal tracking will become available for more stations in the future. This work is part of the project "Satellite and Station Clock Modeling for GNSS", which is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA).

Wang, K.; Rothacher, M.

2012-12-01

15

Management of ambiguities in magnetostratigraphic correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetostratigraphy is a powerful tool to provide absolute dating of sediments enabling robust and detailed chronostratigraphic correlations. It is based on the correlation of a magnetic polarity column, observed and measured in a given sediment section, to a magnetic polarity reference scale where polarity changes are well dated via other independent methods. However, magnetostratigraphic correlations are loose as they are only constrained by binary magnetic chrons (i.e. normal or reversal) and their thickness, which are both defined from depth variations of the magnetic remanent directions. The thickness of a given magnetic polarity zone is a function of time and sediment accumulation rate, which may not be stationary, leading to ambiguities when performing the correlations. To address these ambiguities, a numerical method based on the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm is proposed. Magnetostratigraphic correlations are computed in order to minimise the local variation of the accumulation rate. The main advantage of the proposed method is to automatically provide a set of reasonably likely correlations. This set can then be scrutinised for further analysis and interpretation. However, the likelihood of a correlation should be handled carefully as it depends on the information content of the magnetostratigraphic section itself and remain ultimately valid by ancillary constraint. Nevertheless, the method gives consistent results on difficult synthetic cases that simulate abrupt variations of the sedimentation rate. Insights on true sections debated by previous authors are also given.

Lallier, Florent; Antoine, Christophe; Charreau, Julien; Caumon, Guillaume; Ruiu, Jeremy

2013-06-01

16

Boundary Ambiguity in Stepfamilies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family boundary ambiguity refers to a lack of clarity as to who is in and who is out of the family system. Few studies have examined this concept in the stepfamily context, which is problematic because such definitional problems hinder our understanding of close relationships in stepfamilies. Based on a nationally representative sample of…

Stewart, Susan D.

2005-01-01

17

Ambiguity aversion and ambiguity content in decision making under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Subjectively Weighted Linear Utility (SWLU) model for decision making under uncertainty can accommodate non-neutral attitudes toward ambiguity. We first characterize ambiguity aversion in terms of the SWLU model parameters. In addition, we show that ambiguity content may reasonably be regarded as residing in the decision maker's subjective probability distribution of induced utility. In particular, (a) a special kind of

Gordon B. Hazen

1989-01-01

18

Easy English: Addressing Structural Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

EasyEnglish is an authoring tool which is part of IBM’s internal SGML editing environment, Information Development Workbench.\\u000a EasyEnglish is used as a preprocessing step for machine-translating IBM manuals. Although Easy English does some traditional\\u000a grammar checking, its focus is on problems of structural ambiguity. Such problems include ambiguous attachment of participles,\\u000a ambiguous scope in coordination, and ambiguous attachment of the

Arendse Bernth

1998-01-01

19

Ambiguous red shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bia?ynicki-Birula.

Wulfman, Carl E.

2010-12-01

20

Facing ambiguous threats.  

PubMed

On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

2006-11-01

21

Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

22

The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions…

Paul, Jim; Strbiak, Christy A.

1997-01-01

23

Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

Weber, W. J., III

1979-01-01

24

Giving an insulin injection  

MedlinePLUS

To give an insulin injection, you need to fill the right syringe with the right amount of medicine, decide where to give the ... of each medicine to give. The type of insulin should match the type of syringe: U-100 ...

25

The Ambiguity of the Child's "Voice" in Social Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the ambiguity of the child's "voice" in social research. Drawing on a recent research project on young children's communication difficulties, the author argues that the currently popular discourse on "listening to children" is beset with practical and ethical ambiguities that result from the "socialness" of human…

Komulainen, Sirkka

2007-01-01

26

How Does Ambiguity Affect Insurance Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with effects of ambiguity on insurance decisions. After citing real-life situations where ambiguity about probability and/or losses would appear to have affected insurance decisions, we outline effects of ambiguity on insurers predicted b...

H. Kunreuther R. M. Hogarth

1990-01-01

27

Visual word ambiguity.  

PubMed

This paper studies automatic image classification by modeling soft assignment in the popular codebook model. The codebook model describes an image as a bag of discrete visual words selected from a vocabulary, where the frequency distributions of visual words in an image allow classification. One inherent component of the codebook model is the assignment of discrete visual words to continuous image features. Despite the clear mismatch of this hard assignment with the nature of continuous features, the approach has been successfully applied for some years. In this paper, we investigate four types of soft assignment of visual words to image features. We demonstrate that explicitly modeling visual word assignment ambiguity improves classification performance compared to the hard assignment of the traditional codebook model. The traditional codebook model is compared against our method for five well-known data sets: 15 natural scenes, Caltech-101, Caltech-256, and Pascal VOC 2007/2008. We demonstrate that large codebook vocabulary sizes completely deteriorate the performance of the traditional model, whereas the proposed model performs consistently. Moreover, we show that our method profits in high-dimensional feature spaces and reaps higher benefits when increasing the number of image categories. PMID:20489229

van Gemert, Jan C; Veenman, Cor J; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

2010-07-01

28

Hemispheric asymmetries in the resolution of lexical ambiguity.  

PubMed

The linguistic phenomenon of lexical ambiguity has been intensively investigated as a means of gaining insight into general mechanisms of lexical access. It is now evident that both context and meaning frequency are significant factors in the determination of lexical outcomes. This suggests that hemispheric processes may be relevant to the resolution of lexical ambiguity, because both factors have been shown to have differential implications for the processing of language in the hemispheres. This study set out to examine the effects of context and meaning frequency on the resolution of ambiguous word meanings within the hemispheres. Sentences presented at the beginning of each trial embodied contexts which expressed either the dominant or subordinate meaning of a terminating homographic prime. Laterally presented target words reflected senses of the prime which were either consistent with, or inconsistent with, the context created by the preceding sentence. The most interesting results were observed at short prime-target intervals where it was found that although dominant meanings of the target did not give rise to visual field differences, subordinate meanings evoked facilitated responses only in the left visual field. This result suggests that the right hemisphere immediately and exhaustively activates the various meanings associated with a word, while in the left hemisphere initial access is selectively restricted to the dominant meaning. It is proposed that this reflects a model of language comprehension in which the right hemisphere plays a supportive role by making available a set of alternative and less probable word meanings, thus freeing the left hemisphere to focus cognitive resources upon the most probable meaning of a word in a given context. PMID:10678693

Coney, J; Evans, K D

2000-01-01

29

Gifted and Giving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the growing trend of professional black athletes to include institutions of higher education in their charitable giving. Examines motivations for giving (such as honoring a loved one), examples of gifts by prominent athletes, the appeal for postsecondary giving, and giving by athletes who failed to graduates. (DB)

St. John, Eric

2000-01-01

30

Incoherent Optical Ambiguity Function Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes an electro-optical system for performing the computation of the radar ambiguity function, or other similar mathematical functions, using the parallel processing capability of optical systems including a photo-responsive, r...

R. P. Bocker

1978-01-01

31

Identification of syntactic ambiguities in Pashto text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural languages are inherently ambiguous. For a machine translation system, it is an essential task to resolve the ambiguities in the source language. Before resolution of ambiguities, their identification is an essential task. This research paper is about the classification and identification of syntactic ambiguities in Pashto text. Here, the identification is based on the parse trees build by the

Muhammad Bilal; Mohammad Abid Khan; Rahman Ali

2009-01-01

32

Asymmetry and Ambiguity in Newsvendor Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional decision-making framework for newsvendor models is to assume a distribution of the underlying demand. However, the resulting optimal policy is typically sensitive to the choice of the distribution. A more conservative approach is to assume that the distribution belongs to a set parameterized by a few known moments. An ambiguity-averse newsvendor would choose to maximize the worst-case profit.

Karthik Natarajan; Melvyn Sim; Joline Uichanco

33

Universality and ambiguities of the conformal anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-loop structure of the trace anomaly is investigated using different regularizations and renormalization schemes: dimensional, proper time and Pauli Villars. The universality of this anomaly is analysed from a very general perspective. The Euler and Weyl terms of the anomalous trace of the stress tensor are absolutely universal. The pure derivative squR term is shown to be universal only if the regularization breaks conformal symmetry softly. If the breaking of conformal symmetry by the regularization method is hard the coefficient of this term might become arbitrary which points out the presence of an ambiguous \\int\\sqrt{-g} R^2 term in the effective quantum action. These ambiguities arise in some prescriptions of dimensional and Pauli Villars regularizations. We discuss the implications of these results for anomaly-induced inflationary scenarios and AdS/CFT correspondence.

Asorey, M.; Gorbar, E. V.; Shapiro, I. L.

2004-01-01

34

Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

2010-11-01

35

Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.  

PubMed

Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

2014-02-01

36

Giving Medicine to Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... la batalla. back to top - For More Information Pediatrics Medicines in My Home (MIMH) 10 tips for ... Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Children and Asthma: The Goal Is Control Know Active Ingredients in ...

37

GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution based on integrity restriction in ambiguity domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrier phase ambiguity resolution of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a key technology for high-precision navigation and positioning, and it is a challenge for applications which require both high accuracy and high integrity. This paper proposes efficient ambiguity resolution methods based on integrity restriction using Fixed Failure rate Ratio Test (FF-RT) and Doubly Non-central F-distribution Ratio Test (DNF-RT), and derives the related processing models and numerical algorithms compared with the traditional Ratio Test (RT) method. Firstly, the integer ambiguity resolution and validation procedures, especially the Least squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (LAMBDA) estimation and RT validation are analyzed. Then the quality evaluation using success rate, the FF-RT method using Integer Aperture (IA) estimation and the NDF-RT method are proposed. Lastly, the simulation and analysis for LAMBDA using RT, FF-RT and DNF-RT methods are performed. Simulation results show that in case of unbiased scenario FF-RT and DNF-RT have similar performances, which are significantly better than RT. In case of biased scenario it is difficult for FF-RT to predict the biased success rate thus it should not be used for bias detection, while DNF-RT can detect biases in most cases except for the biases are approximate or equal to integer, which has the important benefit for early detection of potential threat to the position solution.

Liu, Haiying; Chen, Zhiming; Ye, Weisong; Wang, Huinan

2014-04-01

38

Performance analysis of multiple PRF technique for ambiguity resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For short wavelength spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ambiguity in Doppler centroid estimation occurs when the azimuth squint angle uncertainty is larger than the azimuth antenna beamwidth. Multiple pulse recurrence frequency (PRF) hopping is a technique developed to resolve the ambiguity by operating the radar in different PRF's in the pre-imaging sequence. Performance analysis results of the multiple PRF technique are presented, given the constraints of the attitude bound, the drift rate uncertainty, and the arbitrary numerical values of PRF's. The algorithm performance is derived in terms of the probability of correct ambiguity resolution. Examples, using the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-SAR parameters, demonstrate that the probability of correct ambiguity resolution obtained by the multiple PRF technique is greater than 95 percent and 80 percent for the SIR-C and X-SAR applications, respectively. The success rate is significantly higher than that achieved by the range cross correlation technique.

Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

1992-01-01

39

Reliability of partial ambiguity fixing with multiple GNSS constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable ambiguity resolution (AR) is essential to real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning and its applications, since incorrect ambiguity fixing can lead to largely biased positioning solutions. A partial ambiguity fixing technique is developed to improve the reliability of AR, involving partial ambiguity decorrelation (PAD) and partial ambiguity resolution (PAR). Decorrelation transformation could substantially amplify the biases in the phase measurements. The purpose of PAD is to find the optimum trade-off between decorrelation and worst-case bias amplification. The concept of PAR refers to the case where only a subset of the ambiguities can be fixed correctly to their integers in the integer least squares (ILS) estimation system at high success rates. As a result, RTK solutions can be derived from these integer-fixed phase measurements. This is meaningful provided that the number of reliably resolved phase measurements is sufficiently large for least-square estimation of RTK solutions as well. Considering the GPS constellation alone, partially fixed measurements are often insufficient for positioning. The AR reliability is usually characterised by the AR success rate. In this contribution, an AR validation decision matrix is firstly introduced to understand the impact of success rate. Moreover the AR risk probability is included into a more complete evaluation of the AR reliability. We use 16 ambiguity variance-covariance matrices with different levels of success rate to analyse the relation between success rate and AR risk probability. Next, the paper examines during the PAD process, how a bias in one measurement is propagated and amplified onto many others, leading to more than one wrong integer and to affect the success probability. Furthermore, the paper proposes a partial ambiguity fixing procedure with a predefined success rate criterion and ratio test in the ambiguity validation process. In this paper, the Galileo constellation data is tested with simulated observations. Numerical results from our experiment clearly demonstrate that only when the computed success rate is very high, the AR validation can provide decisions about the correctness of AR which are close to real world, with both low AR risk and false alarm probabilities. The results also indicate that the PAR procedure can automatically chose adequate number of ambiguities to fix at given high-success rate from the multiple constellations instead of fixing all the ambiguities. This is a benefit that multiple GNSS constellations can offer.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Yanming

2013-01-01

40

Interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of ambiguous figures.  

PubMed

Ambiguous figures reverse their appearance during prolonged viewing and can be perceived in two (or more) available interpretations. Both physical stimulus manipulations and cognitive control influence the perception of ambiguous figures, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, the perception of an ambiguous figure was manipulated by adaptation to unambiguous figures and/or placing the ambiguous figure into a context of unambiguous figures. Our results indicate that both adaptation and context can effectively modulate perception of the ambiguous figure. When manipulated together, adaptation and context processes showed additive effects upon the perception of the ambiguous figure implying the independent mechanisms. Thus, top-down and bottom-up processes seem to influence the perception of the ambiguous figures independently and neither seems to be uniquely responsible for the generation of perceptual changes. PMID:23851264

Intait?, Monika; Noreika, Valdas; Šoli?nas, Alvydas; Falter, Christine M

2013-08-30

41

LIFG-based attentional control and the resolution of lexical ambiguities in sentence context  

PubMed Central

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively unimpaired. Experiment 2 showed that all three patients did as well as normal controls in using biasing sentence context to resolve lexical ambiguities involving balanced ambiguous words, but only the LIFG patients took an abnormally long time on lexical ambiguities that resolved toward a subordinate meaning of biased ambiguous words. Taken together, the results suggest that attentional control plays an important role in the resolution of certain lexical ambiguities – those that induce strong interference from context-inappropriate meanings (i.e., dominant meanings of biased ambiguous words).

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2010-01-01

42

Where Does Sociopragmatic Ambiguity Come From?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sociopragmatic ambiguity (SPA) is claimed here to differ from other, better-known types of ambiguity, in terms of its locus, cause, and effect. SPA is characteristic of whole-discourse features rather than of lexical items or phrases. The ambiguity is one of social rather than ideational or semantic meaning. It is claimed that SPA arises through…

Burt, Susan Meredith

43

Productive Ambiguity in the Learning of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I take a positive view of ambiguity in the learning of mathematics. Following Grosholz (2007), I argue that it is not only the arts which exploit ambiguity for creative ends but science and mathematics too. By enabling the juxtaposition of multiple conflicting frames of reference, ambiguity allows novel connections to be made. I…

Foster, Colin

2011-01-01

44

Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used

Matzen; Laura E

2009-01-01

45

Quantization ambiguities in isotropic quantum geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some typical quantization ambiguities of quantum geometry are studied within isotropic models. Since this allows explicit computations of operators and their spectra, one can investigate the effects of ambiguities in a quantitative manner. It is shown that these ambiguities do not affect the fate of the classical singularity, demonstrating that the absence of a singularity in loop quantum cosmology is

Martin Bojowald

2002-01-01

46

Implications of Ambiguity for Scientometric Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essence of Scientomatics is precise measurement. Yet the measurements made in Scientometric research are steeped in ambiguity. This article explores the nature of ambiguity in measurement, probes for mechanisms that allow regularities to be discovered in an environment in which ambiguity is pronounced, and describes Lotka's law (often used to…

Bookstein, A.

2001-01-01

47

Customer Role Ambiguity in Community Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines challenges involved in managing product-centered communities. Using the notion of customer role ambiguity, the paper explores the ambiguity involved in balancing sound business modeling with voluntary customer participation in a computer gaming setting. The case study identifies three different customer role ambiguities - role absorption, business model violation, and non-organizational network elements - with important implications for

Helena Holmström; Ola Henfridsson

2002-01-01

48

Where to Give Birth  

PubMed Central

In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses choices mothers make when deciding on where to give birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

Budin, Wendy C.

2013-01-01

49

Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads) are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

2011-01-01

50

The currently used commercial DNA-extraction methods give different results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations derived from human fecal samples.  

PubMed

Recently several human health-related microbiota studies have had partly contradictory results. As some differences may be explained by methodologies applied, we evaluated how different storage conditions and commonly used DNA-extraction kits affect bacterial composition, diversity, and numbers of human fecal microbiota. According to our results, the DNA-extraction did not affect the diversity, composition, or quantity of Bacteroides spp., whereas after a week's storage at -20 °C, the numbers of Bacteroides spp. were 1.6-2.5 log units lower (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the numbers of predominant bacteria, Eubacterium rectale (Erec)-group, Clostridium leptum group, bifidobacteria, and Atopobium group were 0.5-4 log units higher (P < 0.05) after mechanical DNA-extraction as detected with qPCR, regardless of storage. Furthermore, the bacterial composition of Erec-group differed significantly after different DNA-extractions; after enzymatic DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera detected were Roseburia (39% of clones) and Coprococcus (10%), whereas after mechanical DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera were Blautia (30%), Coprococcus (13%), and Dorea (10%). According to our results, rigorous mechanical lysis enables detection of higher bacterial numbers and diversity from human fecal samples. As it was shown that the results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations are highly dependent on the DNA-extraction methods applied, the use of different DNA-extraction protocols may explain the contradictory results previously obtained. PMID:22098067

Maukonen, Johanna; Simões, Catarina; Saarela, Maria

2012-03-01

51

Healing of large midline wounds in infants: unlike in adults, does conservative approach give better results? Two case reports and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The case of two infants with large midline wounds, one with an omphalocele and the other with a lumbosacral wound secondary to ruptured meningocele, is reported wherein the advantages of leaving such wounds in infants to heal spontaneously over surgical intervention are shown. In this report, the cases are discussed and the literature is reviewed. It is concluded that the midline wounds in infants yield better results if left to heal spontaneously. PMID:16984581

Suliman, M Taifour

2006-09-01

52

Autologous transplantation gives encouraging results for young adults with favorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia, but is not improved with gemtuzumab ozogamicin  

PubMed Central

We report the results of a prospective, randomized phase 3 trial evaluating the use of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in an intensive consolidation approach in 657 patients 17-60 years of age. Patients in first complete remission (CR1) after cytarabine and standard- or high-dose daunorubicin induction received 2 cycles of consolidation with high-dose cytarabine followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell collection. The 352 patients who entered consolidation were randomized to receive GO (n = 132) or not (n = 138) and then proceeded to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). GO was given to 67 patients. Median follow-up was 50.9 months. Results of the intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated a 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 33.6% versus 35.9% (P = .54) and an overall survival (OS) of 41.3% versus 41.9% (P = .52) for those randomized to receive GO versus no GO, respectively. Patients with favorable- and intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with high-dose daunorubicin and autologous HCT had 4-year DFS rates of 60% and 40% and OS rates of 80% and 49.3%, respectively. For younger AML patients in CR1, autologous HCT should be considered in favorable- and intermediate-cytogenetic risk patients who do not have an allogeneic donor. The addition of a single dose of GO in this setting did not improve outcomes. This trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00049517.

Sun, Zhuoxin; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; Paietta, Elisabeth M.; Racevskis, Janis; Dewald, Gordon; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Tallman, Martin S.

2011-01-01

53

Stimulation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide gives consistent karyotypic results among laboratories: a CLL Research Consortium (CRC) Study.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic abnormalities are important prognostic indicators in CLL. Historically, only interphase cytogenetics was clinically useful in CLL, because traditional mitogens are not effective mitotic stimulants. Recently, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) stimulation has shown effectiveness in CLL cells. The CLL Research Consortium tested the effectiveness and reproducibility of CpG-ODN stimulation for detecting chromosomally abnormal clones by five laboratories. More clonal abnormalities were observed after culture of CLL cells with CpG-ODN than with the traditional pokeweed mitogen plus 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PWM+TPA). All clonal abnormalities in PWM+TPA cultures were observed in CpG-ODN cultures, whereas CpG-ODN identified some clones not found by PWM+TPA. CpG-ODN stimulation of one normal control sample and 12 CLL samples showed that, excepting clones of del(13q) in low frequencies and one translocation, results in all five laboratories were consistent, and all abnormalities were concordant with FISH. Abnormal clones in CLL were more readily detected with CpG-ODN stimulation than with traditional B-cell mitogens. With CpG-ODN stimulation, abnormalities were reproducible among cytogenetic laboratories. CpG-ODN did not appear to induce aberrations in cell culture, but did enhance detection of abnormalities and complexity in CLL. Because karyotypic complexity is prognostic and is not detectable by standard FISH analyses, stimulation with CpG-ODN is useful for identifying this additional prognostic factor in CLL. PMID:21156225

Heerema, Nyla A; Byrd, John C; Dal Cin, Paola S; Dell' Aquila, Marie L; Koduru, Prasad R K; Aviram, Ayala; Smoley, Stephanie A; Rassenti, Laura Z; Greaves, Andrew W; Brown, Jennifer R; Rai, Kanti R; Kipps, Thomas J; Kay, Neil E; Van Dyke, Daniel L

2010-12-01

54

An Improved Approach to Network Ambiguity Validation by Applying Outlier Detection to the Baseline Measurement Errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prerequisite of network differential global positioning system applications, the network ambiguity must be determined. Ambiguity resolution and validation are important aspects of this process. However, validation theory is still under investigation. This paper presents an improved network ambiguity validation method that incorporates additional knowledge measured from the network. This process involves the detection of outliers of the baseline measurement errors. By breaking the spatial correlation, incorrectly fixed ambiguities cause the corresponding baseline measurement errors to appear as outliers, which may be discovered and identified with the proposed outlier detection algorithm and outlier identification algorithm, respectively. These detection and identification procedures are iteratively performed until all of the wrong baseline ambiguities are corrected. Because the validation procedure is unconnected to the initial integer ambiguity estimation process, any available ambiguity resolution method may be used to obtain the initial integers, without algorithm correction. When the network ambiguity combinations do not pass the validation algorithm, the method uses a direct estimation algorithm to obtain the correct ambiguity. By using a direct estimation algorithm rather than a search process, this new method consumes less computational time than conventional methods. This study compares the performance of this new method with those of the conventional F-ratio and W-ratio test validation algorithms by using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results from a field experiment conducted on data from the United States continuously operating reference stations (US-CORS) reveal that this validation algorithm accelerates the convergence process of ambiguity determination.

Li, Xian; Wu, Meiping; Zhang, Kaidong; He, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yangming

2013-03-01

55

Give Me... Your Huddled Masses...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ambiguity in the attitudes of the U. S. and Canadian governments toward what are perceived as "real" refugees and more dubious asylum seekers. Outlines policies toward asylum seekers, points out inconsistencies, and notes some recently proposed changes in immigration law. (SLD)

Wilkinson, Ray

2000-01-01

56

SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

1993-01-01

57

Breaking the indexing ambiguity in serial crystallography.  

PubMed

In serial crystallography, a very incomplete partial data set is obtained from each diffraction experiment (a `snapshot'). In some space groups, an indexing ambiguity exists which requires that the indexing mode of each snapshot needs to be established with respect to a reference data set. In the absence of such re-indexing information, crystallographers have thus far resorted to a straight merging of all snapshots, yielding a perfectly twinned data set of higher symmetry which is poorly suited for structure solution and refinement. Here, two algorithms have been designed for assembling complete data sets by clustering those snapshots that are indexed in the same way, and they have been tested using 15,445 snapshots from photosystem I [Chapman et al. (2011), Nature (London), 470, 73-77] and with noisy model data. The results of the clustering are unambiguous and enabled the construction of complete data sets in the correct space group P63 instead of (twinned) P6322 that researchers have been forced to use previously in such cases of indexing ambiguity. The algorithms thus extend the applicability and reach of serial crystallography. PMID:24419383

Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

2014-01-01

58

Selection of optimum median-filter-based ambiguity removal algorithm parameters for NSCAT. [NASA scatterometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Scatterometer, NSCAT, is an active spaceborne radar designed to measure the normalized radar backscatter coefficient (sigma0) of the ocean surface. These measurements can, in turn, be used to infer the surface vector wind over the ocean using a geophysical model function. Several ambiguous wind vectors result because of the nature of the model function. A median-filter-based ambiguity removal algorithm will be used by the NSCAT ground data processor to select the best wind vector from the set of ambiguous wind vectors. This process is commonly known as dealiasing or ambiguity removal. The baseline NSCAT ambiguity removal algorithm and the method used to select the set of optimum parameter values are described. An extensive simulation of the NSCAT instrument and ground data processor provides a means of testing the resulting tuned algorithm. This simulation generates the ambiguous wind-field vectors expected from the instrument as it orbits over a set of realistic meoscale wind fields. The ambiguous wind field is then dealiased using the median-based ambiguity removal algorithm. Performance is measured by comparison of the unambiguous wind fields with the true wind fields. Results have shown that the median-filter-based ambiguity removal algorithm satisfies NSCAT mission requirements.

Shaffer, Scott; Dunbar, R. Scott; Hsiao, S. Vincent; Long, David G.

1989-01-01

59

Generalized integer aperture estimation for partial GNSS ambiguity fixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In satellite navigation, the key to high precision is to make use of the carrier-phase measurements. The periodicity of the carrier-phase, however, leads to integer ambiguities. Often, resolving the full set of ambiguities cannot be accomplished for a given reliability constraint. In that case, it can be useful to resolve a subset of ambiguities. The selection of the subset should be based not only on the stochastic system model but also on the actual measurements from the tracking loops. This paper presents a solution to the problem of joint subset selection and ambiguity resolution. The proposed method can be interpreted as a generalized version of the class of integer aperture estimators. Two specific realizations of this new class of estimators are presented, based on different acceptance tests. Their computation requires only a single tree search, and can be efficiently implemented, e.g., in the framework of the well-known LAMBDA method. Numerical simulations with double difference measurements based on Galileo E1 signals are used to evaluate the performance of the introduced estimation schemes under a given reliability constraint. The results show a clear gain of partial fixing in terms of the probability of correct ambiguity resolution, leading to improved baseline estimates.

Brack, Andreas; Günther, Christoph

2014-05-01

60

Possible ambiguities in the equation of state for neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We addressed possible ambiguities on the properties of neutron stars (NSs) estimated in theoretical sides. First, roles of hyperons inside the NS are discussed through various relativistic mean field (RMF) theories. In particular, the extension of SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry to SU(3) flavor symmetry is shown to give rise to the increase of hyperon threshold density, similarly to the Fock term effects in RMF theories. As a result, about 2.0 solar mass is obtained with the hyperons. Second, the effect by the modified f(R) gravity, which leaves a room for the dark energy in the Einstein equation to be taken into account, is discussed for the NS in a strong magnetic field (MF). Our results show that the modified gravity with the Kaluza-Klein electro-magnetism theory expanded in terms of a length scale parameter may reasonably describe the NS in strong MF, so called magnetar. Even the super-soft equation of state is shown to be revived by the modified f(R) gravity.

Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi; Ryu, C. Y.; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can; Kele?, Vildan; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

2014-05-01

61

Scheme-scale ambiguity in analysis of QCD observable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scheme-scale ambiguity that has plagued perturbative analysis in QCD remains on obstacle to making precise tests of the theory. Many attempts have been done to resolve the scale ambiguity. In this regard the BLM, EC, PMS and CORGI approaches are more distinct. We try to employ these methods to fix the scale ambiguity at NLO, NNLO and even in more higher order approximations. By optimizing the renormalization scale, there will be a possibility to predicate higher order terms. We present general results for predicted terms at any order, using different optimization methods. Some observable as specific examples will be used to indicate the validity of scale fixing to predicate the higher order terms.

Mirjalili, A.; A. Kniehl, B.

2010-09-01

62

Synthetic aperture radar range - Azimuth ambiguity design and constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems concerning the design of a system for mapping a planetary surface with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are considered. Given an ambiguity level, resolution, and swath width, the problems are related to the determination of optimum antenna apertures and the most suitable pulse repetition frequency (PRF). From the set of normalized azimuth ambiguity ratio curves, the designer can arrive at the azimuth antenna length, and from the sets of normalized range ambiguity ratio curves, he can arrive at the range aperture length or pulse repetition frequency. A procedure based on this design method is shown in an example. The normalized curves provide results for a SAR using a uniformly or cosine weighted rectangular antenna aperture.

Mehlis, J. G.

1980-01-01

63

Doppler centroid estimation ambiguity for synthetic aperture radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for estimation of the Doppler centroid of an SAR in the presence of large uncertainty in antenna boresight pointing is described. Also investigated is the image degradation resulting from data processing that uses an ambiguous centroid. Two approaches for resolving ambiguities in Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are presented: the range cross-correlation technique and the multiple-PRF (pulse repetition frequency) technique. Because other design factors control the PRF selection for SAR, a generalized algorithm is derived for PRFs not containing a common divisor. An example using the SIR-C parameters illustrates that this algorithm is capable of resolving the C-band DCE ambiguities for antenna pointing uncertainties of about 2-3 deg.

Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

1989-01-01

64

Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading.  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, we tested 3 possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first 2 characters and the last 2 characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that words in different positions are processed simultaneously and independently, and the word segmentation ambiguity cannot be settled without the help of sentence context. The competition hypothesis assumes that all of the words compete for a single winner. The results support a competition account that the characters in the perceptual span activate all of the words they can constitute, and any word can win the competition if its activation is high enough. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24417292

Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

2014-06-01

65

A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.

Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

66

Raising Expectations, Giving Hope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Hold school!" was the directive that Principal Patricia Ashmore received from the deputy superintendent of Madison County Schools when she was appointed to Velma Jackson Magnet High School five years ago. The explicit instruction came as a direct result of looking at student achievement, attendance, and graduation data that confirmed the need to…

Principal Leadership, 2005

2005-01-01

67

Recommendations for Reducing Ambiguity in Written Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written ...

L. E. Matzen

2009-01-01

68

Evidence against Competition during Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report three eye-movement experiments that investigated whether alternative syntactic analyses compete during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Previous research (Traxler, Pickering, & Clifton, 1998; Van Gompel, Pickering, & Traxler, 2001) has shown that globally ambiguous sentences are easier to process than disambiguated sentences, suggesting…

van Gompel, R.P.G.; Pickering, M.J.; Pearson, J.; Liversedge, S.P.

2005-01-01

69

Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

2010-01-01

70

Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relation- ship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to

Pascal Mamassian

2008-01-01

71

Ambiguities in the Regularization of the Spiked Harmonic Oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that the machinery of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics can be utilized to regularize certain singular potentials. In this contribution I point out that different regularizations lead to different results. In a particular model, that of the spiked harmonic oscillator, I use a symmetry inherent in the model to cast some light on this ambiguity.

Snyman, I.

2004-01-01

72

Pricing Insurance and Warranties: Ambiguity and Correlated Risks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports the results of a study of pricing decisions made by professional actuaries. The study formed part of a mail survey of members of the Casualty Actuarial Society conducted to investigate the effects of ambiguity -- in the form of uncertai...

H. Kunreuther R. M. Hogarth

1988-01-01

73

Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

2008-01-01

74

Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws  

SciTech Connect

The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto [Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2008-03-15

75

Disclosing ambiguous gene aliases by automatic literature profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Retrieving pertinent information from biological scientific literature requires cutting-edge text mining methods which may be able to recognize the meaning of the very ambiguous names of biological entities. Aliases of a gene share a common vocabulary in their respective collections of PubMed abstracts. This may be true even when these aliases are not associated with the same subset of documents. This gene-specific vocabulary defines a unique fingerprint that can be used to disclose ambiguous aliases. The present work describes an original method for automatically assessing the ambiguity levels of gene aliases in large gene terminologies based exclusively in the content of their associated literature. The method can deal with the two major problems restricting the usage of current text mining tools: 1) different names associated with the same gene; and 2) one name associated with multiple genes, or even with non-gene entities. Important, this method does not require training examples. Results Aliases were considered “ambiguous” when their Jaccard distance to the respective official gene symbol was equal or greater than the smallest distance between the official gene symbol and one of the three internal controls (randomly picked unrelated official gene symbols). Otherwise, they were assigned the status of “synonyms”. We evaluated the coherence of the results by comparing the frequencies of the official gene symbols in the text corpora retrieved with their respective “synonyms” or “ambiguous” aliases. Official gene symbols were mentioned in the abstract collections of 42 % (70/165) of their respective synonyms. No official gene symbol occurred in the abstract collections of any of their respective ambiguous aliases. In overall, querying PubMed with official gene symbols and “synonym” aliases allowed a 3.6-fold increase in the number of unique documents retrieved. Conclusions These results confirm that this method is able to distinguish between synonyms and ambiguous gene aliases based exclusively on their vocabulary fingerprint. The approach we describe could be used to enhance the retrieval of relevant literature related to a gene.

2010-01-01

76

Three to six ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy data fitting.  

PubMed

Several important ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy (IS) model data-fitting results are identified and illustrated by means of complex-nonlinear-least-squares (CNLS) fits of experimental and synthetic frequency response data. A well-known intrinsic ambiguity, following from Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, arises from the indistinguishability in external measurements of conduction and displacement currents. Usual fit models for either dielectric or conductive-system situations, such as the Davidson-Cole one, only involve a strength parameter, a dielectric constant, a characteristic relaxation time, and a fractional exponent and lead to no additional ambiguities. But the situation is different for more powerful and useful general models, such as ordinary or anomalous diffusion Poisson-Nernst-Planck ones: PNP and PNPA, used here, whose historical background, current status, and applicability are described and discussed herein. They apply to two different kinds of experimental IS situations and involve several additional, potentially free fit parameters, such as the mobilities of positive and negative charge carriers, and generation-recombination parameters that determine the partial or complete dissociation of a neutral entity of concentration N(0) into positive and negative charge carriers of equal concentration, c(0). Then, several additional ambiguities appear that may require information about the material system involved for their adequate resolution. PMID:22481085

Macdonald, J Ross

2012-05-01

77

Characteristics of velocity ambiguity for CINRAD-SA Doppler weather radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity ambiguity in Doppler weather radars has inhibited the application of wind field data for long time. One effective solution is software-based velocity dealiasing algorithm. In this paper, in order to better design, optimize and validate velocity dealiasing algorithms for CINRAD-SA, data from operational radars were used to statistically characterize velocity ambiguity. The analyzed characteristic parameters included occurrence rate, and inter-station, inter-type, temporal, and spatial distributions. The results show that 14.9% of cloud-rain files and 0.3% of clear-air files from CINRADSA radars are ambiguous. It is also found that echoes of weak convections have the highest occurrence rate of velocity ambiguity than any other cloud types, and the probability of ambiguity is higher in winter than in summer. A detailed inspection of the occurrence of ambiguity in various cases indicates that ambiguous points usually occur in areas with an elevation angle of 6.0°, an azimuth of 70° or 250°, radial distance of 50-60 km, and height of 5-6 km, and that 99.4% of ambiguous points are in the 1st-folding interval. Suggestions for performing dealiasing at different locations and different time points are provided.

Chu, Zhigang; Yin, Yan; Gu, Songshan

2014-02-01

78

Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. We utilized a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which biology majors spontaneously used lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Three categories of language were identified and examined in this study: terms with Dual Ambiguity, Incompatible Ambiguity, and Unintended Ambiguity. In the sample of 1282 initial evolutionary explanations, 81 % of students spontaneously incorporated lexically ambiguous language at least once. Furthermore, the majority of these initial responses were judged to be inaccurate from a scientific point of view. While not significantly related to gender, age, or reading/writing ability, students' use of contextually appropriate evolutionary language ( pressure and adapt) was significantly associated with academic performance in biology. Comparisons of initial responses to follow-up responses demonstrated that the majority of student explanations were not reinterpreted after consideration of the follow-up response; nevertheless, a sizeable minority was interpreted differently. Most cases of interpretation change were a consequence of resolving initially ambiguous responses, rather than a change of accuracy, resulting in an increased understanding of students' evolutionary explanations. We discuss a series of implications of lexical ambiguity for evolution education.

Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

2013-06-01

79

A study of the ambiguity in the solutions to the Diophantine equation for Chern numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chern numbers for Hofstadter models with rational flux 2?p/q are partially determined by a Diophantine equation. A mod?q ambiguity remains. The resolution of this ambiguity is only known for the rectangular lattice with nearest neighbors hopping where it has the form of a ‘window condition’. We study a Hofstadter butterfly on the triangular lattice for which the resolution of ambiguity is open. In the model many pairs (p, q) satisfy a window condition which is shifted relative to the window of the square model. However, we also find pairs (p, q) where the Chern numbers do not belong to any contiguous window. This shows that the rectangular model and the one we study on the triangular lattice are not adiabatically connected: many gaps must close. Our results suggest the conjecture that the mod q ambiguity in the Diophantine equation generically reduces to a sign ambiguity.

Avron, J. E.; Kenneth, O.; Yehoshua, G.

2014-05-01

80

Charitable giving expenditures and the faith factor.  

PubMed

Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity good at all levels of income, while other categories of giving are generally found to be luxury goods. Further, those who gave to religion were found to give more to education and charity then those not giving to religion, and higher education households were more likely to give to religion than households with less education. This analysis suggests that there may be more to religious giving behavior than has been assumed in prior studies and underscores the need for further research into the motivation for religious giving. Specifically, these findings point to an enduring, internal motivation for giving rather than an external, “What do I get for what I give,” motive. PMID:21322897

Showers, Vince E; Showers, Linda S; Beggs, Jeri M; Cox, James E

2011-01-01

81

Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.  

PubMed

The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships. PMID:22897079

Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

2012-06-01

82

Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

83

The velocity-depth ambiguity in seismic traveltime data  

SciTech Connect

An observed disturbance in seismic traveltimes to a reflector can be caused either by an anomalous velocity zone between the surface and the reflector or by a structural variation in the reflector itself. This velocity-depth ambiguity is formulated in terms of linear estimation theory. Such a formulation allows integration of various published results in velocity-depth ambiguity and suggests improved methods of stabilizing the solution of a depth-conversion problem. By solving a relatively simple problem that is amenable to analysis -- a single reflector beneath an overburden with a variable velocity -- the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The velocity-depth ambiguity is caused by traveltime errors and can be quantitatively related to those errors by closed-form expressions if the velocities do not vary laterally. Among other things, those expressions show that for small spread lengths (shorter than half the depth) the errors in velocity and depth are inversely proportional to the square of the spread length. Errors can thus be reduced more effectively at small spread lengths by increasing the maximum offset rather than by including more offsets. Laterally varying velocities can be estimated accurately at all but isolated points in their spatial frequency spectrum, called ''wavelengths of maximum ambiguity.'' If these ambiguous wavelengths are stabilized by damping them rather than by more traditional lateral smoothing techniques, structural or velocity features smaller than a spread length need not be smeared laterally. (3) A deep velocity anomaly is estimated with lower accuracy than is a shallow one. The theory presented here is a complement to more general methods of velocity inversion, such as tomography, which can be used to solve very complex problems beyond the scope of this analysis.

Ross, W.S. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-05-01

84

Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are around 1 mm. In either case, we conclude that the efficiency of ambiguity resolution in triple-frequency PPP is much higher than that in dual-frequency PPP.

Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

2013-05-01

85

The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GPS double difference carrier phase measurements are ambiguous by an unknown integer number of cycles. High precision relative GPS positioning based on short observational timespan data, is possible, when reliable estimates of the integer double difference ambiguities can be determined in an efficient manner. In this contribution a new method is introduced that enables very fast integer least-squares estimation

P. J. G. Teunissen

1995-01-01

86

Phalloplasty in complete aphallia and ambiguous genitalia.  

PubMed

The most common indications for phalloplasty in children include aphallia, micropenis/severe penile inadequacy, ambiguous genitalia, phallic inadequacy associated with epispadias/bladder exstrophy and female to male gender reassignment in adolescents. There are many surgical options for phalloplasty; both local pedicled tissue as well as free tissue transfer. The advantages of local tissue include a more concealed donor site, less complex operation and potentially faster recovery. However, pedicled options are generally less sensate, making placement of a penile prosthesis more risky and many children with bladder exstrophy have been previously operated upon making the blood supply for local pedicled flaps less reliable. This Here the authors discuss free tissue transfer, including the radial forearm, the anterolateral thigh, the scapula and latissimus, and the fibula free flaps, as well as local rotational flaps from the abdomen, groin, and thigh. The goal of reconstruction should be an aesthetic and functional (ability to penetrate) phallus, which provides tactile and erogenous sensation, and the ability to urinate standing. Ideally, the operation should be completed in one to two operations with minimal donor site morbidity. There are advantages and disadvantages of each of flap and thus the choice of donor site should be a combination of the patient's preference and surgeon's ability to produce a consistent result. PMID:22851911

Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Redett, Richard J

2011-08-01

87

Computational Nonlinear Dynamics Model of Percept Switching with Ambiguous Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation results of bistable perception due to ambiguous visual stimuli are presented which are obtained with a nonlinear\\u000a dynamics model using delayed perception–attention–memory coupling. Percept reversals are induced by attention fatigue with\\u000a an attention bias which balances the relative percept duration. Periodic stimulus simulations as a function of stimulus off-time\\u000a yields the reversal rate variation in surprisingly good quantitative agreement

Norbert Fürstenau

2009-01-01

88

Phase-ambiguity resolution for QPSK modulation systems. Part 2: A method to resolve offset QPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 2 presents a new method to resolve the phase-ambiguity for Offset QPSK modulation systems. When an Offset Quaternary Phase-Shift-Keyed (OQPSK) communications link is utilized, the phase ambiguity of the reference carrier must be resolved. At the transmitter, two different unique words are separately modulated onto the quadrature carriers. At the receiver, the recovered carrier may have one of four possible phases, 0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees, referenced to the nominally correct phase. The IF portion of the channel may cause a phase-sense reversal, i.e., a reversal in the direction of phase rotation for a specified bit pattern. Hence, eight possible phase relationships (the so-called eight ambiguous phase conditions) between input and output of the demodulator must be resolved. Using the In-phase (I)/Quadrature (Q) channel reversal correcting property of an OQPSK Costas loop with integrated symbol synchronization, four ambiguous phase conditions are eliminated. Thus, only four possible ambiguous phase conditions remain. The errors caused by the remaining ambiguous phase conditions can be corrected by monitoring and detecting the polarity of the two unique words. The correction of the unique word polarities results in the complete phase-ambiguity resolution for the OQPSK system.

Nguyen, Tien Manh

1989-01-01

89

Children's understanding of ambiguous idioms and conversational perspective-taking.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that conversational perspective-taking is a determinant of unfamiliar ambiguous idiom comprehension. We investigated two types of ambiguous idiom, decomposable and nondecomposable expressions, which differ in the degree to which the literal meanings of the individual words contribute to the overall idiomatic meaning. We designed an experiment to assess the relationship between the acquisition of figurative comprehension and conversational perspective-taking. Our sample of children aged 5-7 years performed three conversational perspective-taking tasks (language acts, shared/unshared information, and conversational maxims). They then listened to decomposable and nondecomposable idiomatic expressions presented in context before performing a multiple-choice task (figurative, literal, and contextual responses). Results indicated that decomposable idiom comprehension was predicted by conversational perspective-taking scores and language skills, whereas nondecomposable idiom comprehension was predicted solely by language skills. We discuss our findings with respect to verbal and pragmatic skills. PMID:22542058

Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stéphanie; Bernard, Stéphane; Deleau, Michel; Brulé, Lauriane

2012-08-01

90

Smelling directions: Olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception  

PubMed Central

Senses of smells are often accompanied by simultaneous visual sensations. Previous studies have documented enhanced olfactory performance with concurrent presence of congruent color- or shape- related visual cues, and facilitated visual object perception when congruent smells are simultaneously present. These visual object-olfaction interactions suggest the existences of couplings between the olfactory pathway and the visual ventral processing stream. However, it is not known if olfaction can modulate visual motion perception, a function that is related to the visual dorsal stream. We tested this possibility by examining the influence of olfactory cues on the perceptions of ambiguous visual motion signals. We showed that, after introducing an association between motion directions and olfactory cues, olfaction could indeed bias ambiguous visual motion perceptions. Our result that olfaction modulates visual motion processing adds to the current knowledge of cross-modal interactions and implies a possible functional linkage between the olfactory system and the visual dorsal pathway.

Kuang, Shenbing; Zhang, Tao

2014-01-01

91

Improving the estimation of fractional-cycle biases for ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguity resolution dedicated to a single global positioning system (GPS) station can improve the accuracy of precise point positioning. In this process, the estimation accuracy of the narrow-lane fractional-cycle biases (FCBs), which destroy the integer nature of undifferenced ambiguities, is crucial to the ambiguity-fixed positioning accuracy. In this study, we hence propose the improved narrow-lane FCBs derived from an ambiguity-fixed GPS network solution, rather than the original (i.e. previously proposed) FCBs derived from an ambiguity-float network solution. The improved FCBs outperform the original FCBs by ensuring that the resulting ambiguity-fixed daily positions coincide in nature with the state-of-the-art positions generated by the International GNSS Service (IGS). To verify this improvement, 1 year of GPS measurements from about 350 globally distributed stations were processed. We find that the original FCBs differ more from the improved FCBs when fewer stations are involved in the FCB estimation, especially when the number of stations is less than 20. Moreover, when comparing the ambiguity-fixed daily positions with the IGS weekly positions for 248 stations through a Helmert transformation, for the East component, we find that on 359 days of the year the daily RMS of the transformed residuals based on the improved FCBs is smaller by up to 0.8 mm than those based on the original FCBs, and the mean RMS over the year falls evidently from 2.6 to 2.2 mm. Meanwhile, when using the improved rather than the original FCBs, the RMS of the transformed residuals for the East component of 239 stations (i.e. 96.4% of all 248 stations) is clearly reduced by up to 1.6 mm, especially for stations located within a sparse GPS network. Therefore, we suggest that narrow-lane FCBs should be determined with ambiguity-fixed, rather than ambiguity-float, GPS network solutions.

Geng, Jianghui; Shi, Chuang; Ge, Maorong; Dodson, Alan H.; Lou, Yidong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

2012-08-01

92

Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion  

PubMed Central

Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

2014-01-01

93

Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.  

PubMed

Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

2014-01-01

94

Reactions to ambiguous stimuli among paranoid personalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological literature on paranoia and paranoid schizophrenia is extensive, particularly in the area of perceptual and cognitive processing. However, there has been a relative neglect of paranoid personality. The present study investigates whether paranoid personalities differed from controls in their responses to ambiguous or incomplete stimuli. Paranoid personalities (PP), other personality controls (OP), and normal subjects (NR) were exposed

Susan K. Thompson-Pope; Ira Daniel Turkat

1988-01-01

95

[Hereditary congenital lymphedema with pseudosexual ambiguity].  

PubMed

A case of uncommon genital lymphedema in a newborn girl like a pseudo sexual ambiguity is reported. The karyotype was 46, XX. Lymphedema of the lower limbs in the patient and in the mother's family confirmed a None-Milroy disease. Different considerations about genetic counseling in hereditary lymphedema, isolated or associated with others anomalies, are developed. PMID:3221210

Sarda, P; Jalaguier, J; Montoya, F; Bonnet, H

1988-08-01

96

The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

2011-01-01

97

Ambiguity as Strategy in Organizational Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues against overemphasizing clarity in the research and teaching of organizational communication because clarity and openness are neither the norm nor sensible standards to gauge communication competence or organizational effectiveness. Defines strategic ambiguity and explores its use in organizations to accomplish goals. Presents suggestions…

Eisenberg, Eric M.

1984-01-01

98

MATLAB code for plotting ambiguity functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MATLAB code capable of plotting ambiguity functions of many different radar signals is presented. The program makes use of MATLAB's sparse matrix operations, and avoids loops. The program could be useful as a pedagogical tool in radar courses teaching pulse compression.

E. Mozeson; N. Levanon

2002-01-01

99

Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations. PMID:9923156

Houran, J; Williams, C

1998-12-01

100

Kriging helps solving ambiguity resolution in space-based geodesic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of ambiguity resolution techniques it has been possible to improve the accuracies of Differential GPS from the meter to subdecimetric level. For short baselines, less than tens of km, and quiet geomagnetic conditions RTK may be applied offering accurate results. Nevertheless for greater distances, the successful resolution of ambiguities will rely in the goodness of the interpolation method applied in the determination of the ionospheric refraction that affects the GPS signal. This work presents an interpolation scheme based on geostatistics, more concretely kriging, to obtain the ionosphere contribution in order to compute the double differences of the STEC with an error below 2.7 cm, that it is the requirement to resolve the rover ambiguities allowing the subdecimetric navigation. With this method it is possible to obtain a high degree of successful resolved ambiguities (more than 90%) for baselines about 100km.

Orus, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, M.; Sanz, J.

2003-04-01

101

The New Planned Giving Officer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

1994-01-01

102

Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

Jarc, Jerry A.

1985-01-01

103

Anxiety and Outcome Evaluation: The Good, the Bad and the Ambiguous  

PubMed Central

Previous research has indicated that anxious individuals are more prone to evaluate ambiguous information as negative compared to non-anxious individuals. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) component of event-related brain potential (ERP) has been shown to be sensitive to outcome evaluation. The current ERP study aimed to test the hypothesis that the FRNs associated with ambiguous outcomes and negative outcomes are different between high trait-anxiety (HTA) and low trait-anxiety (LTA) individuals. The FRN was measured as a difference wave created across conditions. We found significantly different FRN responses between high-anxious and low-anxious participants in ambiguous outcome condition, as well as in negative outcome condition. Moreover, the HTA group’s FRN responses under the ambiguous outcome condition were larger than the negative outcome condition. Nevertheless, the FRN following neutral outcome did not show any difference between the two groups. The present results support the idea that there is link between individual differences in anxiety and ambiguous outcome evaluation, which possibly reflects the adaptive function of anxiety. Additionally, the results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the evaluation of neutral outcomes and ambiguous outcomes might be different from each other.

Gu, Ruolei; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Yang; Luo, Yue-jia

2014-01-01

104

Why clowns taste funny: the relationship between humor and semantic ambiguity.  

PubMed

What makes us laugh? One crucial component of many jokes is the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings. In this functional MRI study of normal participants, the neural mechanisms that underlie our experience of getting a joke that depends on the resolution of semantically ambiguous words were explored. Jokes that contained ambiguous words were compared with sentences that contained ambiguous words but were not funny, as well as to matched verbal jokes that did not depend on semantic ambiguity. The results confirm that both the left inferior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in processing the semantic aspects of language comprehension, while a more widespread network that includes both of these regions and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally is involved in processing humorous verbal jokes when compared with matched nonhumorous material. In addition, hearing jokes was associated with increased activity in a network of subcortical regions, including the amygdala, the ventral striatum, and the midbrain, that have been implicated in experiencing positive reward. Moreover, activity in these regions correlated with the subjective ratings of funniness of the presented material. These results allow a more precise account of how the neural and cognitive processes that are involved in ambiguity resolution contribute to the appreciation of jokes that depend on semantic ambiguity. PMID:21715632

Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Davis, Matthew H; Rodd, Jennifer M; Owen, Adrian M

2011-06-29

105

The probability distribution of the ambiguity bootstrapped GNSS baseline  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The purpose of carrier phase ambiguity resolution is to improve upon the quality of the estimated global navigation satellite\\u000a system baseline by means of the integer ambiguity constraints. However, in order to evaluate the quality of the ambiguity\\u000a resolved baseline rigorously, its probability distribution is required. This baseline distribution depends on the random characteristics\\u000a of the estimated integer ambiguities, which

P. J. G. Teunissen

2001-01-01

106

Statistical GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Navigation Satellite System carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision positioning and navigation. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer carrier phase ambiguity estimation. Various ambiguity estimators are discussed. Among them are the estimators of integer rounding, integer bootstrapping, integer least-squares and the Bayesian solution. We also discuss the

P. J. G. Teunissen

2001-01-01

107

Promoting Tolerance for Ambiguity in Counselor Training Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors-in-training are challenged with the ambiguity inherent in skill acquisition and development processes. This article explores the concept of ambiguity and ambiguity tolerance in counselors-in-training. A framework is provided for conceptualizing the inherent challenges of counselor training and how they may be addressed.

Levitt, Dana Heller; Jacques, Jodi D.

2005-01-01

108

The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination.  

PubMed

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

2014-01-01

109

A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

110

Cognitive psychology's ambiguities: Some suggested remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Points out that one of cognitive psychology's greatest handicaps has been the ambiguity of many of its concepts. One consequence has been less-than-adequate communication among experimental investigators. The new, common view that emphasizes information processing has offered a basis for the solution to this problem. The author's definition of intelligence and structure-of-intellect model offer, for general use, a systematic collection

J. P. Guilford

1982-01-01

111

Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain  

PubMed Central

Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as a “human body” can change the observer's perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the “high body” condition than in the “low body” condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the “high body” condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual's perceptions.

Ishizu, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

112

Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain.  

PubMed

Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as a "human body" can change the observer's perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the "high body" condition than in the "low body" condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the "high body" condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual's perceptions. PMID:24009570

Ishizu, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

113

Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that the GIF resolution hypothesis is completely valid for non-rotational periodic motions. Additionally, human perception of translation is impaired without visual or spatial reference. The performance of ground-base subjects in estimating tilt after brief training is comparable with that of crewmembers without training.

Zhang, Guan-Lu

2010-01-01

114

Human brain activity during spontaneously reversing perception of ambiguous figures.  

PubMed Central

Looking at ambiguous figures results in rivalry with spontaneous alternation between two percepts. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we localized transient human brain activity changes during perceptual reversals. Activation occurred in ventral occipital and intraparietal higher-order visual areas, deactivation in primary visual cortex and the pulvinar. Thus, without any physical stimulus changes, salient perceptual flips briefly engage widely separated specialized cortical areas, but are also associated with intermittent activity breakdown in structures putatively maintaining perceptual stability. Together, the dynamics of integrative perceptual experience are reflected in rapid spatially differentiated activity modulation within a cooperative set of neural structures.

Kleinschmidt, A; Buchel, C; Zeki, S; Frackowiak, R S

1998-01-01

115

The (IR-)relevance of the Gribov ambiguity in SU(2)×U(1) gauge theories with fundamental Higgs matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted that dealing with the Gribov ambiguity has a major impact on correlation functions in gauge-fixed Yang–Mills theories, in particular in the low momentum regime where standard perturbation theory based on the Faddeev–Popov approach fails. Recent results, derived from functional tools (Dyson–Schwinger equations or exact RG) or the effective Gribov–Zwanziger action method, pointed towards e.g. gauge boson correlation functions that are not compatible with the properties of observable degrees of freedom. Although such an observation is a welcome feature for gauge theories exhibiting confinement, it would be a discomfort for gauge theories supplemented with Higgs fields, cf. the experimental success of the electroweak model based on a SU(2)×U(1) gauge group. The purpose of this short note is to assure that the effective action resolution to the Gribov ambiguity reduces to the standard Faddeev–Popov method in the perturbative regime of sufficiently small coupling/large Higgs condensate, thereby not compromising the physical particle spectrum of massive gauge bosons and a massless photon for the SU(2)×U(1) gauge–Higgs model. The closer the theory gets to the limit of vanishing Higgs condensate, the more the Gribov problem resurfaces with all its consequences. We give some speculations w.r.t. the Fradkin–Shenker insights about the phase diagram.

Capri, M. A. L.; Dudal, D.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Justo, I. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Vercauteren, D.

2014-04-01

116

Carrier phase ambiguity resolution for the Global Positioning System applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for resolving the ambiguities in the GPS carrier phase data (which are biased by an integer number of cycles) is described which can be applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km in length and can be used with dual-frequency P code receivers. The results of such application demonstrated that a factor of 3 improvement in baseline accuracy could be obtained, giving centimeter-level agreement with coordinates inferred by very-long-baseline interferometry in the western United States. It was found that a method using pseudorange data is more reliable than one using ionospheric constraints for baselines longer than 200 km. It is recommended that future GPS networks have a wide spectrum of baseline lengths (ranging from baselines shorter than 100 km to those longer than 1000 km) and that GPS receivers be used which can acquire dual-frequency P code data.

Blewitt, Geoffrey

1989-01-01

117

Ambiguous idiom processing in Parkinson's disease patients.  

PubMed

Patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) can provide crucial information about the involvement of the motor system and prefrontal cortex in processing idioms including action verbs, since dopamine modulates the activity of these structures, and, consequently, different levels of this neurotransmitter can induce different cognitive impairments. In order to investigate the ability to process ambiguous idioms containing an action verb in patients, we asked 15 PD patients, in both OFF- and ON-phases, and 15 healthy matched participants to judge the plausibility of literal and idiomatic sentences, each presented at a self-paced rate. Patients in OFF-phase were faster in reading idiomatic than literal sentences, supporting the view that the motor system is not involved in online idiom processing. However, patients during OFF-phase were impaired in judging the plausibility of idiomatic ambiguous sentences, possibly due to the reduction of dopamine in prefrontal regions. The involvement of the motor system was evident in the ON-phase for literal sentences, suggesting that motor activation is strictly dependent on the context. PMID:24479736

Papagno, Costanza; Mattavelli, Giulia; Cattaneo, Zaira; Romito, Luigi; Albanese, Alberto

2013-01-01

118

Coherence-driven resolution of referential ambiguity: a computational model.  

PubMed

We present a computational model that provides a unified account of inference, coherence, and disambiguation. It simulates how the build-up of coherence in text leads to the knowledge-based resolution of referential ambiguity. Possible interpretations of an ambiguity are represented by centers of gravity in a high-dimensional space. The unresolved ambiguity forms a vector in the same space. This vector is attracted by the centers of gravity, while also being affected by context information and world knowledge. When the vector reaches one of the centers of gravity, the ambiguity is resolved to the corresponding interpretation. The model accounts for reading time and error rate data from experiments on ambiguous pronoun resolution and explains the effects of context informativeness, anaphor type, and processing depth. It shows how implicit causality can have an early effect during reading. A novel prediction is that ambiguities can remain unresolved if there is insufficient disambiguating information. PMID:18035629

Frank, Stefan L; Koppen, Mathieu; Noordman, Leo G M; Vonk, Wietske

2007-09-01

119

Ambiguity resolution in systems using Omega for position location  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lane ambiguity problem prevents the utilization of the Omega system for many applications such as locating buoys and balloons. The method of multiple lines of position introduced herein uses signals from four or more Omega stations for ambiguity resolution. The coordinates of the candidate points are determined first through the use of the Newton iterative procedure. Subsequently, a likelihood function is generated for each point, and the ambiguity is resolved by selecting the most likely point. The method was tested through simulation.

Frenkel, G.; Gan, D. G.

1974-01-01

120

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth's gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

2005-01-01

121

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

2005-01-01

122

Ambiguous and forbidden parameter combinations for aqueous plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of forbidden and ambiguous oxidation-state distributions for plutonium are easier to understand when presented graphically. This note describes two diagrams that illustrate the phenomena.

Silver, Gary L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

123

Resolution of Ambiguous HLA Genotyping in Korean by Multi-Group-Specific Sequence-Based Typing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate a multi-group-specific sequence-based typing (SBT) method for resolving ambiguous results from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. Materials and Methods A total of 50 samples that showed ambiguous genotypes for at least two HLA loci from HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 by the conventional SBT assay were evaluated using a new SBT test, the AVITA plus assay. The most likely HLA genotypes for the respective samples considering allele frequencies in Korean were concordant between the AVITA and conventional SBT assays. Results An average of 3.3 loci among the HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 loci per sample gave results with two or more possible allele combinations with the conventional SBT, and 48 (96.0%) out of 50 showed reduced numbers of possible genotypes for at least one HLA locus with the AVITA. A total of 41, 43, 42, and 38 cases among the 50 samples showed ambiguous results for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 typing by the conventional SBT, respectively. The average numbers of possible allele combinations for the respective four HLA loci were 8.2, 6.7, 5.9, and 3.2, and they were reduced to 1.5, 2.2, 4.4, and 1.8, respectively, by the AVITA. Ambiguity was resolved by the AVITA in 33 (80.5%), 31 (72.1%), 17 (40.5%) and 28 (73.7%) samples among the ambiguous cases from the conventional SBT for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 typing, respectively. Conclusion The multi-group-specific SBT method considerably reduced the number of ambiguous results, and thus may be useful for accurate HLA typing in clinical laboratories.

Park, Yongjung; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kwon, Oh-Joong; Kim, Yu-Seun

2014-01-01

124

Assessment of correct fixing rate for precise point positioning ambiguity resolution on a global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguity resolution (AR) for a single receiver has been a popular topic in Global Positioning System (GPS) recently. Ambiguity-resolution methods for precise point positioning (PPP) have been well documented in recent years, demonstrating that it can improve the accuracy of PPP. However, users are often concerned about the reliability of ambiguity-fixed PPP solution in practical applications. If ambiguities are fixed to wrong integers, large errors would be introduced into position estimates. In this paper, we aim to assess the correct fixing rate (CFR), i.e., number of ambiguities correctly fixing to the total number of ambiguities correctly and incorrectly fixing, for PPP user ambiguity resolution on a global scale. A practical procedure is presented to evaluate the CFR of PPP user ambiguity resolution. GPS data of the first 3 days in each month of 2010 from about 390 IGS stations are used for experiments. Firstly, we use GPS data collected from about 320 IGS stations to estimate global single-differenced (SD) wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs). The quality of UPDs is evaluated. We found that wide-lane UPD estimates have a rather small standard deviation (Std) between 0.003 and 0.004 cycles while most of Std of narrow-lane estimates are from 0.01 to 0.02 cycles. Secondly, many experiments have been conducted to investigate the CFR of integer ambiguity resolution we can achieve under different conditions, including reference station density, observation session length and the ionospheric activity. The results show that the CFR of PPP can exceed 98.0 % with only 1 h of observations for most user stations. No obvious correlation between the CFR and the reference station density is found. Therefore, nearly homogeneous CFR can be achieved in PPP AR for global users. At user end, higher CFR could be achieved with longer observations. The average CFR for 30-min, 1-h, 2-h and 4-h observation is 92.3, 98.2, 99.5 and 99.7 %, respectively. In order to get acceptable CFR, 1 h is a recommended minimum observation time. Furthermore, the CFR of PPP can be affected by diurnal variation and geomagnetic latitude variation in the ionosphere. During one day at the hours when rapid ionospheric variations occur or in low geomagnetic latitude regions where equatorial electron density irregularities are produced relatively frequently, a significant degradation of the CFR is demonstrated.

Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan

2013-06-01

125

Resolving GPS carrier phase ambiguities for a low Earth orbit spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of GPS carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution to low Earth orbit spacecraft missions has been a topic of great interest in recent years. This advanced processing technique may make it possible to achieve higher orbit accuracy for spacecraft that carry GPS receivers. The research described here addresses a number of aspects of GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution as applied to the Jason-1 altimetric mission. When GPS carrier phase ambiguities are correctly resolved, the phase measurements will effectively act as very precise pseudorange measurements. This leads to improvement in the GPS derived orbit solutions for Jason-1. The advanced-codeless BlackJack GPS receiver, onboard Jason-1, that enables the retrieval of pseudorange and carrier phase observables on the L1 and L2 frequencies promises the possibility of applying such a technique. Both the orbits of Jason-1 and the GPS satellites are estimated simultaneously in the orbit determination process. Carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution is applied to the best determined reduced-dynamic Jason-1 and dynamic GPS satellite orbit solutions. The ambiguity resolution approach first resolves the wide-lane integer phase ambiguities. The narrow-lane phase ambiguities are then constrained to integers using the resolved wide-lane integer phase biases. This approach does not require a search process. Instead it uses the error covariance matrix to select the best determined set of double-differenced phase biases. A confidence test procedure is implemented to resolved the wide-lane and narrow-lane phase biases to correct integers. The performance of the GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution method is evaluated through a few orbit accuracy assessment tests. These assessment tests include the orbit overlap differences, intercomparison with SLR-DORIS based solutions, the high elevation SLR bias analysis and the sea surface height crossover residuals. An error budget study is created to investigate the effects of incorrectly fixed phase biases and the GPS orbit errors on Jason-1 orbit solutions. The results from 29 days of data analysis show modest improvement of 11% in Jason-1 radial orbit accuracy after resolving carrier phase ambiguities. The crosstrack and alongtrack orbit overlap components exhibit slightly better improvement of 25% and 12% respectively. The orbit offset with the SLR-DORIS based orbits show sub-centimeter level influence after ambiguity resolution. The overall effect is hardly noticeable which probably reflects the dominance of SLR-DORIS orbit errors in the differences. In analyzing the geocenter offset in the Terrestial Reference Frame (TRF), the mean offsets in the x, y and z-axis also show sub-centimeter (less than 6%) improvements. As for the high elevation laser range bias and the sea surface height residual analysis, both demonstrated sub-millimeter improvement after resolving phase ambiguities. With the Jason-1 radial orbit accuracy reaching 1 cm, it is reasonable to achieve millimeter or sub-millimeter improvements in each orbit assessment test. Furthermore, the performance of carrier phase ambiguity resolution can be partially hampered by the presence of incorrectly fixed phase biases. With a short observation time span of 29 days, it is rather difficult to confidently deduce the impact of GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution on the Jason-1 orbit accuracy and the orbit centering along the Earth's spin axis.

Yoon, Yoke T.

126

Errors Analysis in GPS Precise Point Positioning: Impact of Ambiguity Fixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNSS geodetic positioning using the classical double-difference approach may have some limitations. For example, fixing ambiguities can be challenging for long baselines, while processing short baseline only give the relative displacement between the two stations. In this context and thanks to the continuous improvement of IGS GNSS orbit and clock products, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique appears in the literature as a powerful alternative. If all local Earth deformations are correctly taken into account, residuals of position time series may be used to assess the processing quality in terms of receiver performance and environment, constellation orbits and clocks error projection, and processing options pertinence. The main limitation of most of the current PPP processing strategies is that ambiguities can not be fixed to integer values. However, Mercier et al. (2008) demonstrated that GPS satellite “electronic” biases can be a priori identified in such a way that using a consistent set of GPS orbits, clocks and biases, phase ambiguities recover their integer nature. The CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center is being providing such set of data since August 2010. This study evaluate the performance of PPP in front of the nowadays requirements of geodesy. We processed data from several IGS sites in order to compute coordinate series on a daily basis but also at higher frequencies (down to 30 second interval). We investigated both the impact of the processing batch duration from hours to several days and the cut-off elevation angle. Various spurious “non geophysical” signals (random, periodic, jumps...)appeared in our series. Especially artificial "midnight jumps" when adopting the usual 24-hours batch solutions (when satellite passes were cut at 0h). The impact of fixing ambiguities on PPP solutions has been investigated. We demonstrate that most of the artifacts affecting “floating” PPP solutions disappeared when ambiguities were fixed.

Perosanz, F.; Fund, F.; Mercier, F.; Loyer, S.; Capdeville, H.

2010-12-01

127

How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?  

PubMed

The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467

Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

2010-08-26

128

Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test for ambiguity resolution was derived which was the most powerful in the sense that it maximized the probability of a correct decision. When systematic error sources were properly included in the least squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution, the test reduced to choosing the solution which provided the smaller valuation of the least squares loss function. When systematic error sources were ignored in the least squares reduction, the most powerful test was a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudo-inverse of a reduced rank square matrix. A formula is presented for computing the power of the most powerful test. A numerical example is included in which the power of the test is computed for a situation which may occur during an actual satellite aided search and rescue mission.

Argentiero, P. D.; Marini, J. W.

1977-01-01

129

Impressions of people with gender-ambiguous male or female first names.  

PubMed

Undergraduates (12 men, 12 women) read a scenario in which they formed an impression of nine people who had left their first name on an answering machine. Participants rated the extent to which seven characteristics (Ethical, Caring, Popular, Cheerful, Successful, Masculine, Feminine) applied to people whose first names were gender-ambiguous (e.g., Chris), male (e.g., Ken) or female (e.g., Pam). People with gender-ambiguous names were rated less Ethical than those with female names, and people with gender-ambiguous names and male names were rated less Caring, less Cheerful, and less Feminine than those with female names. These results are consistent with the idea that there is a bias towards assuming that a person of unspecified sex is a male. PMID:16383061

McKelvie, Stuart J; Waterhouse, Kelly

2005-10-01

130

Effect of ambiguity and lexical availability on syntactic and lexical production.  

PubMed

Speakers only sometimes include the that in sentence complement structures like The coach knew (that) you missed practice. Six experiments tested the predictions concerning optional word mention of two general approaches to language production. One approach claims that language production processes choose syntactic structures that ease the task of creating sentences, so that words are spoken opportunistically, as they are selected for production. The second approach claims that a syntactic structure is chosen that is easiest to comprehend, so that optional words like that are used to avoid temporarily ambiguous, difficult-to-comprehend sentences. In all experiments, speakers did not consistently include optional words to circumvent a temporary ambiguity, but they did omit optional words (the complementizer that) when subsequent material was either repeated (within a sentence) or prompted with a recall cue. The results suggest that speakers choose syntactic structures to permit early mention of available material and not to circumvent disruptive temporary ambiguities. PMID:10888342

Ferreira, V S; Dell, G S

2000-06-01

131

Threat processing in generalized social phobia: An investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  

PubMed

Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

2014-06-30

132

Reducing ambiguities in vertical electrical sounding interpretations: A geostatistical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is the most widely used geophysical technique for groundwater prospecting. However its interpretation has been subjected to several indistinctness and efforts are on to tackle them. Vertical Electrical Soundings were carried out at 86 sites in a small watershed of about 60 km 2 in a granitic terrain with the objective of delineating the aquifer layer parameters viz. weathered zone, fissured zone and depth to the bedrock. The thickness and resistivity of the weathered, fissured zone and depth to bedrock were determined from VES data. Due to wide variation in resistivity and in the absence of good resistivity contrast, the resolution has been less precise and thus the layer parameters interpreted could be ambiguous. Based on the VES results and hydrogeological considerations, 25 wells were initially drilled and later on 8 more wells were drilled intercepting through the bedrock. In addition, lithologs from 6 additional wells are available in the same watershed. Thus with the help of lithologs from 39 wells, thicknesses of various layers and bedrock depths were determined. This set of data from the lithologs were analysed geostatistically and an estimation of these parameters was made at all the 86 locations using a final variogram obtained from the variographic analysis. This has provided a range for the estimated values of the above three parameters using the standard deviation of the estimation error. The interpreted parameters from VES were compared with the range thus obtained in the above procedure. The interpreted VES results that could not be found within the stipulated range provided by the geostatistical estimation, were categorized separately and a suitable reinterpretation was made for them by fitting some parameters obtained from the nearby well data. After a few iterations, a large number of VES results were found falling in the estimated range and thus reduced the ambiguities in the VES results. The study has provided a new and additional method of reducing the ambiguities in VES interpretation as well as providing a quality indicator to each interpretation.

Kumar, Dewashish; Ahmed, Shakeel; Krishnamurthy, N. S.; Dewandel, Benoit

2007-05-01

133

Giving Meaning to the Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When learning, students yearn for meaning, challenge, and relevance. Integrated learning fulfills these desires by limiting the compartmentalization of learning--providing a more coherent learning environment. Too often, mathematics and the physical sciences are taught as separate entities. Yet, many commonalities exist, especially between chemistry and Algebra II and between physics and pre-calculus (including trigonometry). This article presents three specific examples of an integrated curriculum approach that illustrates the connections between science, math, and physics through inquiry-based instruction. As a result, students' learning experiences will become more meaningful and valued.

Horton, Bob; Marshall, Jeff; Austin-Wade, Joyce

2007-02-01

134

Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our results suggest that restricting identifications to the family level is not a good method of resolving ambiguous taxa, whereas generating OTUs works well provided that documentation issues are addressed. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

Cuffney, T. F.; Bilger, M. D.; Haigler, A. M.

2007-01-01

135

Not So Black and White: Memory for Ambiguous Group Members  

PubMed Central

Exponential increases in multi-racial identities expected over the next century, creates a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as “own” or “other” race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the “own-race bias.” We hypothesized that perceivers would not be motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and would therefore have some difficulty remembering them. Both racially-ambiguous and other-race faces were misremembered more often than own-race faces (Study 1), though memory for ambiguous faces was improved among perceivers motivated to include biracial individuals in the in-group (Study 2). Racial labels assigned to racially ambiguous faces determined memory for these faces, suggesting that uncertainty provides the motivational context for discounting ambiguous faces in memory (Study 3). Finally, an inclusion motivation fostered cognitive associations between racially-ambiguous faces and the in-group. Moreover, the extent to which perceivers associated racially-ambiguous faces with the in-group predicted memory for ambiguous faces and accounted for the impact of motivation on memory (Study 4). Thus, memory for biracial individuals seems to involve a flexible person construal process shaped by motivational factors.

Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R; Ivcevic, Zorana; Adams, Reginald B

2013-01-01

136

Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

2004-01-01

137

Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous

Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2009-01-01

138

Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity in Camp Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 157 staff members surveyed in 15 residential summer camps in the fifth week of the program, males had significantly higher levels of role conflict than females, and staff in small camps had significantly higher levels of role ambiguity than those in large camps. Role conflict and role ambiguity were associated with job satisfaction and job…

Pavelka, Joe

1991-01-01

139

Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and School Principals' Job Robustness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships between role conflict, role ambiguity, and job robustness among school principals were examined. Job robustness was associated with low role ambiguity, low role conflict, and support from the principal's co-workers--staff, administrator colleagues, the superintendent, and the community. Principals generally viewed their jobs as…

Eisenhauser, John E.; And Others

1985-01-01

140

Factors Associated With Children's Anticipated Responses to Ambiguous Teases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used two studies involving 5th- and 6th-grade children to examine factors potentially associated with individual differences in children's perceptions of and anticipated responses to ambiguous teases. Study 1 assessed the extent to which the children would expect recipients to feel hurt in response to a series of ambiguous teases and whether the children would perceive those teases as

Mark A. Barnett; Natalie D. Barlett; Jennifer L. Livengood; Deborah L. Murphy; Katherine E. Brewton

2010-01-01

141

The Impact of Role Ambiguity and Conflict on Resident Assistants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected data from 42 Resident Assistants (RAs) to determine whether RA role ambiguity and conflict related to stress, job performance, job satisfaction, and satisfaction as a student. Found ambiguity and conflict to be positively associated with stress and negatively related to satisfaction and performance. Suggests these relationships are a…

Deluga, Ronald J.; Winters, John J., Jr.

1990-01-01

142

U.S./Arab Reflections on Our Tolerance for Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors, a Midwestern American educational administration professor and a Middle Eastern Iraqi doctoral candidate, have continued to interact over the past 3 years, both have come to appreciate the importance of increasing their tolerance for ambiguity--ambiguities in examining cultural, linguistic, and religious customs and complexities in…

Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

2012-01-01

143

Method of resolving radio phase ambiguity in satellite orbit determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

For satellite orbit determination, the most accurate observable available today is microwave radio phase, which can be differenced between observing stations and between satellites to cancel both transmitter- and receiver-related errors. For maximum accuracy, the integer cycle ambiguities of the doubly differenced observations must be resolved. To perform this ambiguity resolution, a bootstrapping strategy is proposed. This strategy requires the

Charles C. Councelman III; Richard I. Abbot

1989-01-01

144

Semantic Ambiguity and the Process of Generating Meaning From Print  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ambiguity disadvantage (slower responses for ambiguous words, e.g., bank, than for unambiguous words) has been reported in semantic tasks (L. R. Gottlob, S. D. Goldinger, G. O. Stone, & G. C. Van Orden, 1999; Y. Hino, S. J. Lupker, & P. M. Pexman, 2002; C. D. Piercey & S. Joordens, 2000) and has been attributed to the meaning activation…

Pexman, Penny M.; Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

145

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

Kilickaya, Ferit

2007-01-01

146

Propagation and wavefront ambiguity of linear nondiffracting beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrashort-pulsed Bessel and Airy beams in free space are often interpreted as "linear light bullets". Usually, interconnected intensity profiles are considered a "propagation" along arbitrary pathways which can even follow curved trajectories. A more detailed analysis, however, shows that this picture gives an adequate description only in situations which do not require to consider the transport of optical signals or causality. To also cover these special cases, a generalization of the terms "beam" and "propagation" is necessary. The problem becomes clearer by representing the angular spectra of the propagating wave fields by rays or Poynting vectors. It is known that quasi-nondiffracting beams can be described as caustics of ray bundles. Their decomposition into Poynting vectors by Shack-Hartmann sensors indicates that, in the frame of their classical definition, the corresponding local wavefronts are ambiguous and concepts based on energy density are not appropriate to describe the propagation completely. For this reason, quantitative parameters like the beam propagation factor have to be treated with caution as well. For applications like communication or optical computing, alternative descriptions are required. A heuristic approach based on vector field based information transport and Fourier analysis is proposed here. Continuity and discontinuity of far field distributions in space and time are discussed. Quantum aspects of propagation are briefly addressed.

Grunwald, R.; Bock, M.

2014-02-01

147

Method of resolving radio phase ambiguity in satellite orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For satellite orbit determination, the most accurate observable available today is microwave radio phase, which can be differenced between observing stations and between satellites to cancel both transmitter- and receiver-related errors. For maximum accuracy, the integer cycle ambiguities of the doubly differenced observations must be resolved. To perform this ambiguity resolution, a bootstrapping strategy is proposed. This strategy requires the tracking stations to have a wide ranging progression of spacings. By conventional 'integrated Doppler' processing of the observations from the most widely spaced stations, the orbits are determined well enough to permit resolution of the ambiguities for the most closely spaced stations. The resolution of these ambiguities reduces the uncertainty of the orbit determination enough to enable ambiguity resolution for more widely spaced stations, which further reduces the orbital uncertainty. In a test of this strategy with six tracking stations, both the formal and the true errors of determining Global Positioning System satellite orbits were reduced by a factor of 2.

Councelman, Charles C., III; Abbot, Richard I.

1989-01-01

148

DIFFICULTY PROCESSING TEMPORARY SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITIES IN LEWY BODY SPECTRUM DISORDER  

PubMed Central

While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson’s dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an on-line word detection procedure, patients heard sentences with a syntactic structure that has high-compatibility or low-compatibility with the main verb’s statistically preferred syntactic structure, and half of the sentences were lengthened strategically between the onset of the ambiguity and its resolution. We found selectively slowed processing of lengthened ambiguous sentences in the PDD/DLB subgroup. This correlated with impairments on measures of executive control. Regression analyses related the working memory deficit during ambiguous sentence processing to significant cortical thinning in frontal and parietal regions. These findings emphasize the role of prefrontal disease in the executive limitations that interfere with processing ambiguous sentences in LBSD.

Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey; Cook, Philip; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

2011-01-01

149

[Technological innovation and healthcare professionals' workloads: an ambiguous relationship].  

PubMed

This is an integrative review with the aim of tracing the scientific production concerning the influence of technological innovation in health care professionals' workloads. Fifty-seven (57) publications presented from 2004 to 2009 were selected from the LILACS and PubMed databases. In the selected studies field research using qualitative approaches and carried out in hospitals predominated. No study had the purpose to analyze the relationship between technological innovation and workloads. In studies involving technological innovation, publications concerning information and communication technologies and new forms of work organizations were highlighted studies concerning conditions which promote stress and Burnout predominated in the workloads theme. Results show an ambiguous relationship between technological innovation and workloads, which are either increased or diminished by innovations. PMID:22737809

de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Bertoncini, Judite Hennemann; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Matos, Eliane; Azambuja, Eliana; Borges, Ana Maria Fernandes

2012-03-01

150

Lifting the Gribov ambiguity in Yang-Mills theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new one-parameter family of Landau gauges for Yang-Mills theories which can be formulated by means of functional integral methods and are thus well suited for analytic calculations, but which are free of Gribov ambiguities and avoid the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. The resulting gauge-fixed theory is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and, for what concerns the calculation of ghost and gauge field correlators, it reduces to a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. We study the renormalization group flow of this theory at one-loop and show that it has no Landau pole in the infrared for some - including physically relevant - range of values of the renormalized parameters.

Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.

2012-05-01

151

Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a windowed high-order ambiguity function (WHAF) method for the demodulation of fringe patterns recorded in holographic interferometry. It first obtains the analytic signal of the fringe pattern and models it as a piecewise polynomial phase signal. A parametric estimation procedure based on HAF is then employed to calculate the polynomial coefficients of the phase over each window of the segmented analytic signal. A salient feature of the proposed method is that it provides an accurate and direct estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution from a single fringe pattern, even when the pattern's phase is rapidly varying. WHAF's application to both digital and classical holographic interferometry is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod

2009-07-01

152

Resolving Part-of-Speech Ambiguity in the Greek Language Using Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the use of Transformation-Based Error-Driven learning for resolving part-of-speech ambiguity in the Greek language. The aim is not only to study the performance, but also to examine its dependence on different thematic domains. Results are presented here for two different test cases: a corpus on \\

Georgios Petasis; Georgios Paliouras; Vangelis Karkaletsis; Constantine D. Spyropoulos; Ion Androutsopoulos

1999-01-01

153

A Meta-Analysis of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on IS Professional Job Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous IS studies on the topic of role ambiguity (RA) and role conflict (RC). The need for resolving the disagreement in understanding the impact of RA and RC on job satisfaction within an IS context motivated the current research. Employing Hunter and Schmidt's (1990) meta-analysis method, this study synthesizes empirical IS study results from twelve independent samples.

Yide Shen

2005-01-01

154

Ambiguity as Social Control: The Salience of Sex-Status in Professional Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contradictions in belief and ambiguities rooted in culture cause confusion without many being aware of its sources. The resulting strain is unevenly distributed. The problems women face are complex and have roots in the conflicting views of women's worth, woman's place as well as the time overloads of role demands and the conflict in the priority…

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

155

Responding to Ambiguity, Responding to Change the Value of a Responsive Approach to Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the success of a palliative health care team in a Dutch health region. Results show that it is more appropriate to acknowledge ambiguity and facilitate its handling as part of dynamic learning processes. Discusses the usefulness of a responsive approach to evaluation, evaluation methodology, and learning experiences. (SLD)

Abma, T. A.

2000-01-01

156

Boundary ambiguity, coping patterns and depression in mothers caring for children with epilepsy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive correlational study was designed to examine the relationships between boundary ambiguity, coping strategies and depression in mothers caring for children with epilepsy. A total of 316 mothers were recruited from three medical centers in Taiwan. A pilot study established the reliability and validity of the Chinese language version of the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). Results showed

Pei-Fan Mu; Hsun-Chih Kuo; Kai-Ping Chang

2005-01-01

157

Bayes Ambiguity Functions: Some Simple Applications to Resolution and Radar Countermeasures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bayes ambiguity functions are defined as an important parameter governing the performance of optimum (i.e., Bayes or minimum average risk) systems. Bayes ambiguity functions are generalizations of the classical ambiguity functions of Woodward and are spec...

D. Middleton

1969-01-01

158

Local hardness equalization: Exploiting the ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the density-functional theory of chemical reactivity, the local hardness is known to be an ambiguous concept. The mathematical structure associated with this problematic situation is elaborated and three common definitions for the local hardness are critically examined: the frontier local hardness [S. K. Ghosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 77 (1990)], the total local hardness [S. K. Ghosh and M. Berkowitz, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 2976 (1985)], and the unconstrained local hardness [P. W. Ayers and R. G. Parr, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2010 (2000)]. The frontier local hardness has particularly nice properties: (a) it has smaller norm than most, if not all, other choices of the local hardness and (b) it is ``unbiased'' in an information-theoretic sense. For the ground electronic state of a molecular system, the frontier local hardness is equal to the global hardness. For an electronic system in its ground state, both the chemical potential and the frontier local hardness are equalized. The frontier local hardness equalization principle provides a computational approach for designing reagents with desirable chemical reactivity profiles.

Ayers, Paul W.; Parr, Robert G.

2008-05-01

159

Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.  

PubMed

Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

2013-01-01

160

Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of satellite-based Doppler positioning systems frequently requires the recovery of transmitter position from a single pass of Doppler data. The least-squares approach to the problem yields conjugate solutions on either side of the satellite subtrack. It is important to develop a procedure for choosing the proper solution which is correct in a high percentage of cases. A test for ambiguity resolution which is the most powerful in the sense that it maximizes the probability of a correct decision is derived. When systematic error sources are properly included in the least-squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution the test reduces to choosing the solution which provides the smaller valuation of the least-squares loss function. When systematic error sources are ignored in the least-squares reduction, the most powerful test is a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudoinverse of a reduced-rank square matrix. A formula for computing the power of the most powerful test is provided. Numerical examples are included in which the power of the test is computed for situations that are relevant to the design of a satellite-aided search and rescue system.

Argentiero, P.; Marini, J.

1979-01-01

161

Erasing Errors due to Alignment Ambiguity When Estimating Positive Selection.  

PubMed

Current estimates of diversifying positive selection rely on first having an accurate multiple sequence alignment. Simulation studies have shown that under biologically plausible conditions, relying on a single estimate of the alignment from commonly used alignment software can lead to unacceptably high false-positive rates in detecting diversifying positive selection. We present a novel statistical method that eliminates excess false positives resulting from alignment error by jointly estimating the degree of positive selection and the alignment under an evolutionary model. Our model treats both substitutions and insertions/deletions as sequence changes on a tree and allows site heterogeneity in the substitution process. We conduct inference starting from unaligned sequence data by integrating over all alignments. This approach naturally accounts for ambiguous alignments without requiring ambiguously aligned sites to be identified and removed prior to analysis. We take a Bayesian approach and conduct inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo to integrate over all alignments on a fixed evolutionary tree topology. We introduce a Bayesian version of the branch-site test and assess the evidence for positive selection using Bayes factors. We compare two models of differing dimensionality using a simple alternative to reversible-jump methods. We also describe a more accurate method of estimating the Bayes factor using Rao-Blackwellization. We then show using simulated data that jointly estimating the alignment and the presence of positive selection solves the problem with excessive false positives from erroneous alignments and has nearly the same power to detect positive selection as when the true alignment is known. We also show that samples taken from the posterior alignment distribution using the software BAli-Phy have substantially lower alignment error compared with MUSCLE, MAFFT, PRANK, and FSA alignments. PMID:24866534

Redelings, Benjamin

2014-08-01

162

A comparison of a two-dimensional variational analysis method and a median filter for NSCAT ambiguity removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean surface vector wind can be measured from space by scatterometers. For a set of measurements observed from several viewing directions and collocated in space and time, there will usually exist two, three, or four consistent wind vectors. These multiple wind solutions are known as ambiguities. Ambiguity removal procedures select one ambiguity at each location. We compare results of two different ambiguity removal algorithms, the operational median filter (MF) used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR). We applied 2d-VAR to the entire NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) mission, orbit by orbit, using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 10-m wind analyses as background fields. We also applied 2d-VAR to a 51-day subset of the NSCAT mission using National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 1000-hPa wind analyses as background fields. This second data set uses the same background fields as the MF data set. When both methods use the same NCEP background fields as a starting point for ambiguity removal, agreement is very good: Approximately only 3% of the wind vector cells (WVCs) have different ambiguity selections; however, most of the WVCs with changes occur in coherent patches. Since at least one of the selections is in error, this implies that errors due to ambiguity selection are not isolated, but are horizontally correlated. When we examine ambiguity selection differences at synoptic scales, we often find that the 2d-VAR selections are more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with cloud imagery.

Henderson, J. M.; Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Atlas, R.; Brin, E.; Ardizzone, J. V.

2003-06-01

163

Lucky Fractions: Where Bad Arithmetic Gives Correct Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fraction 16 over 64 has a well known, interesting property. If one incorrectly cancels the sixes, a correct answer of 1 over 4 is obtained. This is an example of a lucky fraction. In this article, the author presents several examples of lucky fractions and proves two interesting properties of these fractions. This article provides students the…

Osler, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

164

Rhinomanometry: do the anterior and posterior methods give equivalent results?  

PubMed

Nasal resistance to airflow was measured by both anterior and posterior rhinomanometry in 15 healthy volunteers. It was found that the posterior method gave values on average 16% higher than the anterior method. This difference was statistically significant. We propose that this is due to posterior rhinomanometry measuring the resistance of the nasopharynx as well as the resistance of the nose. In the past a discrepancy between the 2 methods has been claimed to be due to an error in the standard form of the parallel resistance equation. This hypothesis was tested by measuring total nasal resistance by posterior rhinomanometry and comparing this with a total nasal resistance value derived from posterior rhinomanometric measurements of the resistance of the individual nasal cavities. The standard form of the parallel resistance formula was used to derive the total nasal resistance. There was no significant difference between the 2 values for total nasal resistance. We conclude that if measurements are made at the same pressure gradient then the use of this equation is valid. PMID:3581488

Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Stevens, J C; Beckingham, E

1987-04-01

165

Ballpoint probe gives optimum results in ultrasonic testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ballpoint-type ultrasonic probe assembly focuses its beam precisely on the bond lines of a composite thin face sheet structure when testing for bond integrity. It can scan in any direction, and eliminate external couplant spray.

Melton, R. E.

1967-01-01

166

A further evaluation of decision-making under risk and under ambiguity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Abnormal decision-making has been described as a key-concept to understand some behavioral disturbances in schizophrenia. However, whether schizophrenia patients display impairments in profitable decision-making on experimental designs is still controversial (1) to assess performance on decision-making paradigms under ambiguity and under risk conditions in a large sample of schizophrenia patients and (2) to study the impact of clinical variables on decision-making performance in schizophrenia. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) and the game of dice task (GDT) were administered to assess, respectively, decision-making under ambiguity and under risk in 63 schizophrenia patients and 67 healthy controls. In addition, clinical variables (e.g., schizophrenic symptoms, self-reported depression, and impulsivity) were evaluated using appropriate questionnaires the same day. Pharmacological treatments were reported. Schizophrenia patients had impaired performances on both IGT and GDT tasks. No correlation between the decision-making tasks performance and clinical variables was found. Lower gains on the GDT were associated with executive dysfunctioning in schizophrenia. These findings give evidence that schizophrenia patients display impairments in both decision-making under ambiguity and under risk. PMID:22639243

Fond, Guillaume; Bayard, Sophie; Capdevielle, Delphine; Del-Monte, Jonathan; Mimoun, Nawale; Macgregor, Alexandra; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

2013-04-01

167

Surviving critical illness: a case study in ambiguity.  

PubMed

Social workers address issues of critical illness and end of life in multiple settings. Due to advances in medical technology, an increasing number of patients survive severe critical illnesses. Little is known about the psychological dynamics of these patients who recover from critical illness and move into the liminal space between life and death. In this article the author analyzes the psychological ambiguities present during recovery from critical illness. Using a case study, connections will be made between surviving critical illness and the theoretical constructs of liminality, illness narratives, ambiguous dying, and ambiguous loss. Practice applications for social workers are addressed. PMID:22150180

Johnston, Liz B

2011-01-01

168

[Effects of punctuation on the processing of syntactically ambiguous Japanese sentences with a semantic bias].  

PubMed

This study explored the effects of a comma on the processing of structurally ambiguous Japanese sentences with a semantic bias. A previous study has shown that a comma which is incompatible with an ambiguous sentence's semantic bias affects the processing of the sentence, but the effects of a comma that is compatible with the bias are unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of a comma compatible with the sentence's semantic bias using the self-paced reading method, which enabled us to determine the reading times for the region of the sentence where readers would be expected to solve the ambiguity using semantic information (the "target region"). The results show that a comma significantly increases the reading time of the punctuated word but decreases the reading time in the target region. We concluded that even if the semantic information provided might be sufficient for disambiguation, the insertion of a comma would affect the processing cost of the ambiguity, indicating that readers use both the comma and semantic information in parallel for sentence processing. PMID:25016842

Niikuni, Keiyu; Muramoto, Toshiaki

2014-06-01

169

Biasing the perception of ambiguous vocal affect: a TMS study on frontal asymmetry.  

PubMed

Several sources of evidence point toward a link between asymmetry of prefrontal brain activity and approach-withdrawal tendencies. Here, we tested the causal nature of this link and examined if the categorization of an ambiguous approach- or withdrawal-related vocal signal can be biased by manipulating left and right frontal neural activity. We used voice morphing of affective non-verbal vocalizations to create individually tailored affectively ambiguous stimuli on an Anger-Fear continuum-two emotions that represent extremes on the approach-withdrawal dimension. We tested perception of these stimuli after 10 min of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or over the vertex (control), a technique that has transient inhibitory effects on the targeted brain region. As expected, ambiguous stimuli were more likely perceived as expressing Anger (approach) than Fear (withdrawal) after right prefrontal compared with left prefrontal or control stimulation. These results provide the first evidence that the manipulation of asymmetrical activity in prefrontal cortex can change the explicit categorization of ambiguous emotional signals. PMID:23784072

Donhauser, Peter W; Belin, Pascal; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

2014-07-01

170

Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test.  

PubMed

The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D). In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53), the AST-D was presented via a web-based survey (N = 208). Participants imagined and rated each AST-D ambiguous scenario. As predicted, higher dysphoric mood was associated with lower pleasantness ratings (more negative bias), independent of mental imagery measures. In Study 2, self-report ratings were compared with objective ratings of participants' imagined outcomes of the ambiguous scenarios (N = 41). Data were collected in the experimental context of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. Consistent with subjective bias scores, independent judges rated more sentences as negatively valenced for the high versus low dysphoric group. Overall, results suggest the potential utility of the AST-D in assessing interpretation bias associated with depressed mood. PMID:21822348

Berna, Chantal; Lang, Tamara J; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

2011-08-01

171

Top-down influence in young children's linguistic ambiguity resolution.  

PubMed

Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's linguistic ambiguity resolution by evaluating whether children rely largely or completely on lexical associations to resolve lexical ambiguities (e.g., the word swing primes the baseball meaning of bat) or additionally integrate top-down global plausibility. Using a picture choice task, we compared 4-year-olds' ability to resolve polysemes and homophones with a Bayesian algorithm reliant purely on lexical associations and found that the algorithm's power to predict children's choices was limited. A 2nd experiment confirmed that children override associations and integrate top-down plausibility. We discuss this with regard to models of psycholinguistic development. PMID:22229852

Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkänen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F

2013-06-01

172

PFC Neurons Reflect Categorical Decisions about Ambiguous Stimuli.  

PubMed

We examined whether PFC neuron activity reflects categorical decisions in monkeys categorizing ambiguous stimuli. A morphing system was used to systematically vary stimulus shape and precisely define category boundaries. Ambiguous stimuli were centered on a category boundary, that is, they were a mix of 50% of two prototypes and therefore had no category information, so monkeys guessed at their category membership. We found that the monkeys' trial-by-trial decision about the category membership of an ambiguous image was reflected in PFC activity. Activity to the same ambiguous image differed significantly, depending on which category the monkey had assigned it to. This effect only occurred when that scheme was behaviorally relevant. These indicate that PFC activity reflects categorical decisions. PMID:24405188

Roy, Jefferson E; Buschman, Timothy J; Miller, Earl K

2014-06-01

173

Interpretation of Woodward's Ambiguity Function and Its Generalization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We suggest a new interpretation of Woodward's ambiguity function as the expected value of an operator. The operator represents the physics of the interaction of the waveform with the object. This approach provides a new approach to understanding the retur...

J. E. Gray

2010-01-01

174

Radar Ambiguity Function for Random Intrapulse-Modulated Radar Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radar ambiguity function for random intrapulse-modulated signals with constant frequency and amplitude for each sub-pulse was considered. The amplitude and frequency of each sub-pulse were random variables. The amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency ...

H. N. Hebert

1974-01-01

175

Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

1991-01-01

176

PRF Ambiguity Detrmination for Radarsat ScanSAR System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRF ambiguity is a potential problem for a spaceborne SAR operated at high frequencies. For a strip mode SAR, there were several approaches to solve this problem. This paper, however, addresses PRF ambiguity determination algorithms suitable for a burst mode SAR system such as the Radarsat ScanSAR. The candidate algorithms include the wavelength diversity algorithm, range look cross correlation algorithm, and multi-PRF algorithm.

Jin, Michael Y.

1998-01-01

177

Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

Lee, Joe

2008-01-01

178

GNSS antenna array-aided CORS ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Array-aided precise point positioning is a measurement concept that uses GNSS data, from multiple antennas in an array of known geometry, to realize improved GNSS parameter estimation proposed by Teunissen (IEEE Trans Signal Process 60:2870-2881, 2012). In this contribution, the benefits of array-aided CORS ambiguity resolution are explored. The mathematical model is formulated to show how the platform-array data can be reduced and how the variance matrix of the between-platform ambiguities can profit from the increased precision of the reduced platform data. The ambiguity resolution performance will be demonstrated for varying scenarios using simulation. We consider single-, dual- and triple-frequency scenarios of geometry-based and geometry-free models for different number of antennas and different standard deviations of the ionosphere-weighted constraints. The performances of both full and partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) are presented for these different scenarios. As the study shows, when full advantage is taken of the array antennas, both full and partial ambiguity resolution can be significantly improved, in some important cases even enabling instantaneous ambiguity resolution. PAR widelaning and its suboptimal character are hereby also illustrated.

Li, Bofeng; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

2014-04-01

179

Mediotemporal contributions to semantic processing: fMRI evidence from ambiguity processing during semantic context verification.  

PubMed

The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is well known to be crucial for various types of memory; however, controversy remains as to which of its substructures contribute to semantic processing and, if so, to what extent. The current study addresses the issue of MTL contributions to semantic processing during lexico-semantic ambiguity processing by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a context verification task (CVT). The CVT required decisions on the semantic fit of congruent and incongruent target words to the overall meaning of preceding sentential contexts with and without semantic ambiguity. In two of the four experimental conditions (congruent homographic, incongruent homographic), target decisions were critically dependent on the successful processing of prior sentence-final lexico-semantic ambiguity. Semantic context verification per se evidenced bilateral activations of the hippocampus that were part of a functional network including inferior prefrontal and superior parietal cortices. Commonalities in activation differences pertaining to the specific cognitive component of lexico-semantic ambiguity processing were found in a left temporal lobe network that comprised activation foci in the temporal pole, the parahippocampal and fusiform gyri. The present results suggest that the hippocampus may well contribute to semantic processing, namely by a mnemonic function that serves to link the target meaning representation with the meaning of a prior sentence context. Contrary to previous reports from human lesion studies, the present findings further suggest, that the specific cognitive component of lexico-semantic ambiguity processing is neither dependent on the hippocampus nor exclusively subserved by the temporal pole, but also recruits an associative semantic memory function from the parahippocampal gyrus as well as a more general (bottom-up) semantic function from the fusiform gyrus. PMID:15884095

Hoenig, Klaus; Scheef, Lukas

2005-01-01

180

Expression vectors for quantitating in vivo translational ambiguity: their potential use to analyse frameshifting at the HIV gag-pol junction.  

PubMed

Translational errors are necessary so as to allow gene expression in various organisms. In retroviruses, synthesis of pol gene products necessitates either readthrough of a stop codon or frameshifting. Here we present an experimental system that permits quantification of translational errors in vivo. It consists of a family of expression vectors carrying different mutated versions of the luc gene as reporter. Mutations include both an in-frame stop codon and 1-base-pair deletions that require readthrough or frameshift, respectively, to give rise to an active product. This system is sensitive enough to detect background errors in mammalian cells. In addition, one of the vectors contains two unique cloning sites that make it possible to insert any sequence of interest. This latter vector was used to analyse the effect of a DNA fragment, proposed to be the target of high level slippage at the gag-pol junction of HIV. The effect of paromomycin and kasugamycin, two antibiotics known to influence translational ambiguity, was also tested in cultured cells. The results indicate that paromomycin diversely affects readthrough and frameshifting, while kasugamycin had no effect. This family of vectors can be used to analyse the influence of structural and external factors on translational ambiguity in both mammalian cells and bacteria. PMID:2087598

Cassan, M; Berteaux, V; Angrand, P O; Rousset, J P

1990-01-01

181

Feature priming and the capture of visual attention: Linking two ambiguity resolution hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual search for a unique stimulus is often faster when the feature defining this target is repeated. Recent research has related this feature priming to ambiguity: priming effects appear stronger when the search target is perceptually ambiguous, as when the search array contains a salient distractor. Here we link the ambiguity that underlies feature priming to ambiguity in neural representation

Clayton Hickey; Chris Olivers; Martijn Meeter; Jan Theeuwes

2011-01-01

182

Unweighted and Weighted Measures of Children's Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unweighted and two weighted measures of children's giving were used in two experiments designed to enhance children's prosocial development. Since the weighted measures take indirectly into account the subjects' underlying motives for giving, they are supposed to be more valid indicators of the underlying processes than the unweighted measures which are traditionally used in studies on children's prosocial development.

Christiane Vandenplas-Holper; Carmen Crivisqui-Linares; Jean-Marie De Ketele

1987-01-01

183

Geometrical ambiguity of pair statistics. II. Heterogeneous media.  

PubMed

In the first part of this series of two papers [Y. Jiao, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. E 81, 011105 (2010)], we considered the geometrical ambiguity of pair statistics associated with point configurations. Here we focus on the analogous problem for heterogeneous media (materials). Heterogeneous media are ubiquitous in a host of contexts, including composites and granular media, biological tissues, ecological patterns, and astrophysical structures. The complex structures of heterogeneous media are usually characterized via statistical descriptors, such as the n -point correlation function Sn. An intricate inverse problem of practical importance is to what extent a medium can be reconstructed from the two-point correlation function S2 of a target medium. Recently, general claims of the uniqueness of reconstructions using S2 have been made based on numerical studies, which implies that S2 suffices to uniquely determine the structure of a medium within certain numerical accuracy. In this paper, we provide a systematic approach to characterize the geometrical ambiguity of S2 for both continuous two-phase heterogeneous media and their digitized representations in a mathematically precise way. In particular, we derive the exact conditions for the case where two distinct media possess identical S2 , i.e., they form a degenerate pair. The degeneracy conditions are given in terms of integral and algebraic equations for continuous media and their digitized representations, respectively. By examining these equations and constructing their rigorous solutions for specific examples, we conclusively show that in general S2 is indeed not sufficient information to uniquely determine the structure of the medium, which is consistent with the results of our recent study on heterogeneous-media reconstruction [Y. Jiao, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 17634 (2009)]. The analytical examples include complex patterns composed of building blocks bearing the letter "T" and the word "WATER" as well as degenerate stacking variants of the densest sphere packing in three dimensions (Barlow films). Several numerical examples of degeneracy (e.g., reconstructions of polycrystal microstructures, laser-speckle patterns and sphere packings) are also given, which are virtually exact solutions of the degeneracy equations. The uniqueness issue of multiphase media reconstructions and additional structural information required to characterize heterogeneous media are discussed, including two-point quantities that contain topological connectedness information about the phases. PMID:20866564

Jiao, Yang; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

2010-07-01

184

Changes in Religious Giving Reflect Changes in Involvement: Age and Cohort Effects in Religious Giving, Secular Giving, and Attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two patterns over time in religious giving, secular giving, and religious service attendance. The first pattern describes the prewar cohort (born 1924-1938) as they aged between middle adulthood (ages 35-49) and their senior years (ages 62-76). The second pattern compares the baby boom cohort (born 1951-1965) in middle adulthood to the middle adulthood of the prewar cohort. We

MARK O. WILHELM; PATRICK M. ROONEY; EUGENE R. TEMPEL

2007-01-01

185

Reduction of Phase Ambiguity in an Offset-QPSK Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed modifications of an offset-quadri-phase-shift keying (offset-QPSK) transmitter and receiver would reduce the amount of signal processing that must be done in the receiver to resolve the QPSK fourfold phase ambiguity. Resolution of the phase ambiguity is necessary in order to synchronize, with the received carrier signal, the signal generated by a local oscillator in a carrier-tracking loop in the receiver. Without resolution of the fourfold phase ambiguity, the loop could lock to any of four possible phase points, only one of which has the proper phase relationship with the carrier. The proposal applies, more specifically, to an offset-QPSK receiver that contains a carrier-tracking loop like that shown in Figure 1. This carrier-tracking loop does not resolve or reduce the phase ambiguity. A carrier-tracking loop of a different design optimized for the reception of offset QPSK could reduce the phase ambiguity from fourfold to twofold, but would be more complex. Alternatively, one could resolve the fourfold phase ambiguity by use of differential coding in the transmitter, at a cost of reduced power efficiency. The proposed modifications would make it possible to reduce the fourfold phase ambiguity to twofold, with no loss in power efficiency and only relatively simple additional signal-processing steps in the transmitter and receiver. The twofold phase ambiguity would then be resolved by use of a unique synchronization word, as is commonly done in binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). Although the mathematical and signal-processing principles underlying the modifications are too complex to explain in detail here, the modifications themselves would be relatively simple and are best described with the help of simple block diagrams (see Figure 2). In the transmitter, one would add a unit that would periodically invert bits going into the QPSK modulator; in the receiver, one would add a unit that would effect different but corresponding inversions of bits coming out of the QPSK demodulator. The net effect of all the inversions would be that depending on which lock point the carrier-tracking loop had selected, all the output bits would be either inverted or non-inverted together; hence, the ambiguity would be reduced from fourfold to twofold, as desired.

Berner, Jeff; Kinman, Peter

2004-01-01

186

Rainbow-shift mechanism behind discrete optical-potential ambiguities  

SciTech Connect

Some years ago, Drisko {ital et} {ital al}. suggested that the discrete ambiguity often encountered for elastic scattering optical potentials could be understood as being due to the interior or small-{ital l} {ital S}-matrix elements for two equivalent'' potentials differing in phase by 2{pi}, {ital l}-by-{ital l}. We point out that the {ital absence} of this phase change for peripheral partial waves is equally essential, and suggest that a deeper understanding of the ambiguity may be achieved by viewing it as a consequence of a farside interference between interior and peripheral partial waves. It is this interference which produces the broad Airy maxima'' of a nuclear rainbow, and we show that a Drisko-type phase-shift increment {delta}{sub {ital l}}{r arrow}({delta}{sub {ital l}}+{pi}) for low-{ital l} phases relative to the high-{ital l} ones is exactly what is needed to shift a farside rainbow pattern by one Airy maximum, thus providing an equivalent rainbow-shift'' interpretation of the discrete ambiguity. The physical importance of both interpretations lies in the fact that the existence of discrete ambiguities (as well as of nuclear rainbows) is explicit evidence for low-{ital l} transparency in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The essential role played by low partial waves explains why peripheral reactions have generally not proven helpful in resolving this ambiguity.

Brandan, M.E. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal Mexico (Mexico)); McVoy, K.W. (Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (USA))

1991-03-01

187

Auditory scene analysis: the sweet music of ambiguity.  

PubMed

In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis (ASA), or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, ASA uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener). After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit) knowledge of the rules of ASA and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music. PMID:22174701

Pressnitzer, Daniel; Suied, Clara; Shamma, Shihab A

2011-01-01

188

Auditory Scene Analysis: The Sweet Music of Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis (ASA), or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, ASA uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener). After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit) knowledge of the rules of ASA and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music.

Pressnitzer, Daniel; Suied, Clara; Shamma, Shihab A.

2011-01-01

189

Battling Scylla and Charybdis: the search for redundancy and ambiguity in the 2001 UMLS metathesaurus.  

PubMed Central

I previously developed methods for identifying cases of multiple synonymous concepts (redundancy) and concepts with multiple meanings (ambiguity) and applied them to the 1995 UMLS Metathesaurus. These methods use semantic approaches (including knowledge about word synonymy and the semantic types assigned to concepts) to complement the standard lexical approaches. In this paper, I describe the results of their application to the 2001 Metathesaurus and examine their implications for the evolution of the UMLS.

Cimino, J. J.

2001-01-01

190

Neural signatures of economic preferences for risk and ambiguity.  

PubMed

People often prefer the known over the unknown, sometimes sacrificing potential rewards for the sake of surety. Overcoming impulsive preferences for certainty in order to exploit uncertain but potentially lucrative options may require specialized neural mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that individuals' preferences for risk (uncertainty with known probabilities) and ambiguity (uncertainty with unknown probabilities) predict brain activation associated with decision making. Activation within the lateral prefrontal cortex was predicted by ambiguity preference and was also negatively correlated with an independent clinical measure of behavioral impulsiveness, suggesting that this region implements contextual analysis and inhibits impulsive responses. In contrast, activation of the posterior parietal cortex was predicted by risk preference. Together, this novel double dissociation indicates that decision making under ambiguity does not represent a special, more complex case of risky decision making; instead, these two forms of uncertainty are supported by distinct mechanisms. PMID:16504951

Huettel, Scott A; Stowe, C Jill; Gordon, Evan M; Warner, Brent T; Platt, Michael L

2006-03-01

191

Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

Nguyen, Tien M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

192

Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... urging consumers to carefully read the labels of liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants to avoid giving the ... less concentrated version for all children. Until now, liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants has only been available ...

193

Giving Leads to Happiness in Young Children  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models of cooperation require proximate mechanisms that sustain prosociality despite inherent costs to individuals. The “warm glow” that often follows prosocial acts could provide one such mechanism; if so, these emotional benefits may be observable very early in development. Consistent with this hypothesis, the present study finds that before the age of two, toddlers exhibit greater happiness when giving treats to others than receiving treats themselves. Further, children are happier after engaging in costly giving – forfeiting their own resources – than when giving the same treat at no cost. By documenting the emotionally rewarding properties of costly prosocial behavior among toddlers, this research provides initial support for the claim that experiencing positive emotions when giving to others is a proximate mechanism for human cooperation.

Aknin, Lara B.; Hamlin, J. Kiley; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

2012-01-01

194

Giving leads to happiness in young children.  

PubMed

Evolutionary models of cooperation require proximate mechanisms that sustain prosociality despite inherent costs to individuals. The "warm glow" that often follows prosocial acts could provide one such mechanism; if so, these emotional benefits may be observable very early in development. Consistent with this hypothesis, the present study finds that before the age of two, toddlers exhibit greater happiness when giving treats to others than receiving treats themselves. Further, children are happier after engaging in costly giving--forfeiting their own resources--than when giving the same treat at no cost. By documenting the emotionally rewarding properties of costly prosocial behavior among toddlers, this research provides initial support for the claim that experiencing positive emotions when giving to others is a proximate mechanism for human cooperation. PMID:22720078

Aknin, Lara B; Hamlin, J Kiley; Dunn, Elizabeth W

2012-01-01

195

Objective scatterometer wind ambiguity removal using smoothness and dynamical constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present investigation, a variational analysis method (VAM) is used to remove the ambiguity of the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) winds. At each SASS data point, two, three, or four wind vectors (termed ambiguities) are retrieved. It is pointed out that the VAM is basically a least squares method for fitting data. The problem may be nonlinear. The best fit to the data and constraints is obtained on the basis of a minimization of the objective function. The VAM was tested and tuned at 12 h GMT Sept. 10, 1978. Attention is given to a case study involving an intense cyclone centered south of Japan at 138 deg E.

Hoffman, R. N.

1984-01-01

196

High Order Linguistic Features Such as Ambiguity Processing as Relevant Diagnostic Markers for Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Due to the deficits of schizophrenic patients regarding the understanding of vague meanings (D. Ketteler and S. Ketteler (2010)) we develop a special test battery called HOLF (high order linguistic function test), which should be able to detect subtle linguistic performance deficits in schizophrenic patients. HOLF was presented to 40 schizophrenic patients and controls, focussing on linguistic features such as ambiguity, synonymy, hypero-/hyponymy, antinomy, and adages. Using the HOLF test battery we found that schizophrenic patients showed significant difficulties in discriminating ambiguities, hypero- and hyponymy, or synonymy compared to healthy controls. Antonyms and adages showed less significant results in comparing both groups. The more difficult a linguistic task was, the more confusion was measured in the schizophrenic group while healthy controls did not show significant problems in processing high order language tasks.

Ketteler, Daniel; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Ketteler, Simon; Jager, Matthias

2012-01-01

197

Eye movements and the identification of spatially ambiguous words during Chinese sentence reading  

PubMed Central

Readers of Chinese must generally determine word units in the absence of visually distinct interword spaces. In the present study, we examined how a sequence of Chinese characters is parsed into words under these conditions. Eye movements were monitored while participants read sentences with a critical four-character (C1234) sequence. Three partially overlapping character groupings formed legal words in the ambiguous condition (C12, C23, and C34), two of which corresponded to context-consistent words (C12 and C34). Two nonoverlapping groupings corresponded to legal words in the control conditions (C12 and C34). In two experiments, readers spent more time viewing the critical character sequence and its two center characters (C23) in the ambiguous condition. These results argue against the strictly serial assignment of characters to words during the reading of Chinese text.

INHOFF, ALBRECHT W.; WU, CAILI

2009-01-01

198

Control of spin ambiguity during reorientation of an energy dissipating body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quasi-rigid body initially spinning about its minor principal axis and experiencing energy dissipation will enter a tumbling mode and eventually reorient itself such that stable spin about its major principal axis is achieved. However, in this final state the body may be spinning in a positive or negative sense with respect to its major axis and aligned in a positive or negative sense with the inertially fixed angular momentum vector. This ambiguity can be controlled only through an active system. The associated dynamical formulations and simulations of uncontrolled reorientations are presented. Three control schemes are discussed and results offered for specific examples. These schemes include displacement of internal masses, spinning up of internal inertia, and reaction jets, all of which have demonstrated the ability to control spin ambiguity.

Kaplan, M. H.; Cenker, R. J.

1973-01-01

199

Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent Environments: Towards a More Reliable Context Managing System  

PubMed Central

Modeling and managing correctly the user context in Smart Environments is important to achieve robust and reliable systems. When modeling reality we must take into account its ambiguous nature. Considering the uncertainty and vagueness in context data information it is possible to attain a more precise picture of the environment, thus leading to a more accurate inference process. To achieve these goals we present an ontology that models the ambiguity in intelligent environments and a data fusion and inference process that takes advantage of that extra information to provide better results. Our system can assess the certainty of the captured measurements, discarding the unreliable ones and combining the rest into a unified vision of the current user context. It also models the vagueness of the system, combining it with the uncertainty to obtain a richer inference process.

Almeida, Aitor; Lopez-de-Ipina, Diego

2012-01-01

200

Increasing recognition of happiness in ambiguous facial expressions reduces anger and aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

The ability to identify emotion in other people is critical to social functioning. In a series of experiments, we explored the relationship between recognition of emotion in ambiguous facial expressions and aggressive thoughts and behavior, both in healthy adults and in adolescent youth at high risk of criminal offending and delinquency. We show that it is possible to experimentally modify biases in emotion recognition to encourage the perception of happiness over anger in ambiguous expressions. This change in perception results in a decrease in self-reported anger and aggression in healthy adults and high-risk youth, respectively, and also in independently rated aggressive behavior in high-risk youth. We obtained similar effects on mood using two different techniques to modify biases in emotion perception (feedback-based training and visual adaptation). These studies provide strong evidence that emotion processing plays a causal role in anger and the maintenance of aggressive behavior. PMID:23531485

Penton-Voak, Ian S; Thomas, Jamie; Gage, Suzanne H; McMurran, Mary; McDonald, Sarah; Munafò, Marcus R

2013-05-01

201

The effects of cocaine and mazindol on the cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic function increases an optimism bias in humans. The present study investigated whether acute dopaminergic system stimulation through the administration of two dopamine-mimetic drugs, cocaine and mazindol, have similar effects in rats. To accomplish this goal, after initial behavioural training, two groups of rats received single injections of either cocaine or mazindol and were subsequently tested with the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. Both drugs were administered in three doses using the fully randomised Latin square designs. Cocaine (1, 2 and 5mg/kg) had no significant effect on the interpretation of the ambiguous cue. Mazindol at all three doses (0.5, 1 and 2mg/kg) significantly biased animals towards negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The results are discussed in relation to pharmacological and behaviourally evoked actions of tested compounds. PMID:24859175

Rygula, Rafal; Szczech, Ewa; Papciak, Justyna; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

2014-08-15

202

Calculation of protein structures with ambiguous distance restraints. Automated assignment of ambiguous NOE crosspeaks and disulphide connectivities.  

PubMed

The distances derived from nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) spectra are usually converted into three-dimensional structures by computer algorithms loosely termed distance geometry. To a varying degree, these methods require that the distance data is unambiguously assigned to pairs of atoms. Typically, however, there are many NOE crosspeaks that cannot be assigned without some knowledge of the structure. These crosspeaks have to be assigned in an iterative manner, using preliminary structures calculated from the unambiguous crosspeaks. In this paper, I present an alternative to this iterative approach. The ambiguity of an NOE crosspeak is correctly described in terms of the distances between all pairs of protons that may be involved. A simple restraining term is defined in terms of "ambiguous" distance restraints that can allow all possible assignments. A new minimization procedure based on simulated annealing is described that is capable of using highly ambiguous data for ab initio structure calculations. In particular, it is feasible to specify the restraint list directly in terms of the proton chemical shift assignment and the NOE peak table, without having assigned NOE crosspeaks to proton pairs. While the primary aim of this paper is determining the global fold of proteins from NMR data, similar strategies can be used for other types of ambiguous distance data. The application to one example, disulphide bridges with unknown connectivity, is described. Model NOE data were generated from the X-ray crystal structure of a small protein with known chemical shift assignments. Varying degrees of ambiguity in the data were assumed. The method obtained the correct polypeptide fold even when all distance restraints were ambiguous. Thus, the new approach may facilitate structure calculations with data derived from very overlapped spectra. It is also a step towards automating the calculation of structures from NMR data. This could prove especially valuable for data derived from three- and four-dimensional experiments. The approach may also prove useful for model building studies and tertiary structure prediction. PMID:7844833

Nilges, M

1995-02-01

203

Stimulating the brain's language network: syntactic ambiguity resolution after TMS to the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus.  

PubMed

The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic information and the IFG in unification operations that maintain, select, and integrate multiple sources of information over time. In the present investigation, we tested for causal evidence of this dissociation by modulating activity in IFG and MTG using an offline TMS procedure: continuous theta-burst stimulation. Lexical-syntactic retrieval was manipulated by using sentences with and without a temporarily word-class (noun/verb) ambiguity (e.g., run). In one group of participants, TMS was applied to the IFG and MTG, and in a control group, no TMS was applied. Eye movements were recorded and quantified at two critical sentence regions: a temporarily ambiguous region and a disambiguating region. Results show that stimulation of the IFG led to a modulation of the ambiguity effect (ambiguous-unambiguous) at the disambiguating sentence region in three measures: first fixation durations, total reading times, and regressive eye movements into the region. Both IFG and MTG stimulation modulated the ambiguity effect for total reading times in the temporarily ambiguous sentence region relative to the control group. The current results demonstrate that an offline repetitive TMS protocol can have influences at a different point in time during online processing and provide causal evidence for IFG involvement in unification operations during sentence comprehension. PMID:23767923

Acheson, Daniel J; Hagoort, Peter

2013-10-01

204

The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2012-01-01

205

Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.  

PubMed

Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. PMID:23445457

Marsh, Jason

2014-07-01

206

Concealment of Give-Away Parts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The outline of an animal is not the only feature that might give it away. Often some part of it, perhaps its eyes or its legs or its tail, might also be a clue. In this activity, these parts are called giveaway parts . The function of the first activity is to consider the problem of eye concealment more carefully as students investigate the usefulness of an eye stripe. In the second activity, the frog's give-away parts will be inspected through a series of exercises.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

207

Social Anxiety and Performance in Ambiguous versus Structured Social Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has suggested that behavioral differences between shy and not shy persons may be explained by differences in inhibition rather than differences in interpersonal skills. To investigate the behavior of high and low social anxiety subjects in both ambiguous social situations and in explicitly structured ones, three studies using…

Turner, Robert G.

208

Comprehension: fMRI studies of Semantic Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of regions of the temporal and frontal lobes are known to be important for spoken language comprehension, yet we do not have a clear understanding of their functional role(s). In particular, there is considerable disagreement about which brain regions are involved in the semantic aspects of comprehension. Two functional magnetic resonance studies use the phenomenon of semantic ambiguity

Jennifer M. Rodd; Matthew H. Davis

209

Syntactic Structure Guides Prosody in Temporarily Ambiguous Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pair of speaking and listening studies investigated the prosody of sentences with temporary Object/Clause and Late/Early Closure ambiguities. Speakers reliably produced prosodic cues that allowed listeners to disambiguate Late/Early Closure sentences, but only infrequently produced prosody that disambiguated Object/Clause sentences, as shown by…

Anderson, Catherine; Carlson, Katy

2010-01-01

210

On the Ambiguity Function for Accelerating Target in FMCW Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper we are concerned with the FMCW radar detection of an accelerating target, echo of which is buried in an additive white Gaussian noise. For this problem, we derive and analyze three-dimensional generalized ambiguity function for target range, velocity and acceleration. We interpret known properties of this function and obtain new ones. This allows us, for example, to

Rafal Rytel-Andrianik

2006-01-01

211

Towards a Unified Theory of GPS Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this invited contribution a brief review will be presented of the integer estimation theory as developed by the author over the last decade and which started with the introduction of the LAMBDA method in 1993. The re- view discusses three different, but closely related classes of ambiguity estimators. They are the integer estimators, the integer aperture estimators and the

P. J. G. Teunissen

2003-01-01

212

Fixing integer ambiguities for GPS carrier phase time transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPS is widely used for time and frequency transfers between ground stations. It is well-known that the GPS carrier phase is a much more precise observable than the code and is therefore of great interest. However the carrier phase is ambiguous, only the code can provide the absolute time difference between the two stations. Here we propose a rapid method

J. Delporte; F. Mercier; D. Laurichesse; O. Galy

2007-01-01

213

Ambiguity, Accessibility, and a Division of Labor for Communicative Success  

PubMed Central

People talk to be understood, and so they should produce utterances that are easy for their listeners to understand. I begin this chapter by describing evidence showing that speakers rarely avoid sentences that are ambiguous, even though ambiguity is a factor that is well known to cause difficulty for listeners. Instead, speakers seem to choose utterances that are especially easy for them to say, specifically by producing more accessible, easy-to-think-of material sooner, and less accessible, harder-to-think-of material later. If speakers produce utterances that are easy to say but not utterances that are easy to understand, how is it that we understand each other? A third line of evidence shows that even when sentences are structurally ambiguous, they’re likely to include enough information for comprehenders to figure out what they mean. This suggests that speakers produce ambiguous utterances simply because they can -- because the grammar of their language will only let them produce utterances that are unambiguous enough to be understood most of the time anyway. And so, we understand each other because speakers produce utterances efficiently even if they’re not optimally understandable; addressees do what they need to to understand their speakers; and the grammar makes sure everything works out properly.

Ferreira, Victor S.

2009-01-01

214

Sublexical Ambiguity Effect in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in…

Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

2011-01-01

215

The ambiguity function of the step frequency radar signal processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In step frequency radar, the frequency of each pulse is increased in steps to achieve large effective bandwidth sequentially instead of instantaneously and thus easing the requirements on the analog to digital converter (ADC) and other hardware. This paper discusses the step frequency radar and its associated signal processing, and it investigates this type of radar with the ambiguity function.

G. S. Gill; Jen-Chih Huang

1996-01-01

216

Inflationary cosmology and quantization ambiguities in semiclassical loop quantum gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In loop quantum gravity, modifications to the geometrical density cause a self-interacting scalar field to accelerate away from a minimum of its potential. In principle, this mechanism can generate the conditions that subsequently lead to slow-roll inflation. The consequences for this mechanism of various quantization ambiguities arising within loop quantum cosmology are considered. For the case of a quadratic potential,

Martin Bojowald; James E. Lidsey; David J. Mulryne; Parampreet Singh; Reza Tavakol

2004-01-01

217

Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

2013-01-01

218

Coping with Ambiguity and Unknown Words through Probabilistic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

From spring 1990 through fall 1991, we performed a battery of small experiments to test the effectiveness of supplementing knowledge-based techniques with probabilistic models. This paper reports our experiments in predicting parts of speech of highly ambiguous words, predicting the intended interpretation of an utterance when more than one interpretation satisfies all known syntactic and semantic constraints, and learning caseframe

Ralph M. Weischedel; Marie Meteer; Richard M. Schwartz; Lance A. Ramshaw; Jeff Palmucci

1993-01-01

219

Ambiguous Argument as Advocacy in Organizational Crisis Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posits that organizations in crisis situations must address multiple audiences with distinct needs. Analyzes the public communication offered by Jack in the Box restaurants during a food poisoning outbreak. Finds that ambiguity may provide organizations with a means for satisfying the divergent needs of their audiences--even where these distinct…

Sellnow, Timothy L.; Ulmer, Robert R.

1995-01-01

220

"What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of attribution, "the act of explaining why something happens or why a person acts a particular way," is typically an abstract concept. This 35-50-minute activity invites students to make a series of attributions by asking them "What happened?" in ambiguous scenes presented in class. Then, students retrospectively identify what…

McArthur, John

2011-01-01

221

INDONESIAN POLITICS IN 2008: THE AMBIGUITIES OF DEMOCRATIC CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘normal’ politics of 2008, in between the big electoral events of 2004 and 2009, illustrated the ambiguities of democratic change. Hung gubernatorial elections in North Maluku and South Sulawesi led local elites to ask Jakarta to intervene. A long campaign of demonstrations and violent intimidation by fundamentalist groups against the unorthodox Islamic group Ahmadiyah persuaded the government to impose

Gerry van Klinken

2008-01-01

222

Evolving visually guided agents in an ambiguous virtual world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental challenge faced by any visual system within natural environments is the ambiguity caused by the fact that light that falls on the system's sensors conflates multiple attributes of the physical world. Understanding the computational principles by which natural systems overcome this challenge and generate useful behaviour remains the key objective in neuroscience and machine vision research. In this

Ehud Schlessinger; Peter J. Bentley; R. Beau Lotto

2005-01-01

223

Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between creativity and tolerance of ambiguity. Participants were parents and their adolescent children. Three measures of creativity were used: a divergent thinking task, a story-writing task and self-evaluation of creative attitudes and behavior. Participants completed two self-report measures of tolerance of…

Zenasni, Franck; Besancon, Maud; Lubart, Todd

2008-01-01

224

Absence of Real Evidence against Competition during Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using evidence from eye-tracking studies, Van Gompel, Pickering, Pearson, and Liversedge (2005) have argued against currently implemented constraint-based models of syntactic ambiguity resolution. The case against these competition models is based on a mismatch between reported patterns of reading data and the putative predictions of the models.…

Green, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Don C.

2006-01-01

225

Bilingual Education: The Problem of Ambiguity and Poor Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the ambiguity in defining terms within the field of bilingual education, noting problems with poor professional development available to teachers selected to participate in bilingual education programs. The first section discusses terminology within bilingual education programs, focusing on the following: transitional bilingual…

Pena, Griselda

226

Duality, Ambiguity and Flexibility: A Proceptual View of Simple Arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the duality between process and concept in mathematics, in particular using the same symbolism to represent both a process (such as the addition of two numbers 3+2) and the product of that process (the sum 3+2). The ambiguity of notation allows the successful thinker the flexibility in thought to move between the process to carry

EDDIE M. GRAY; UK DAVID O. TALL

227

Imageability and Ambiguity Effects in Speeded Naming: Convergence and Divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current area of controversy within the literature on visual word recognition concerns the extent to which semantic information influences the computation of phonology. Experiment 1 revealed that both the imageability effect and the ambiguity advantage seen in the speeded naming task are confined to words with atypical mappings between spelling and sound. Nonetheless, it is possible that either of

Anna M. Woollams

2005-01-01

228

The Development of Preschoolers' Appreciation of Communicative Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a longitudinal design, preschoolers' appreciation of a listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided with an ambiguous or unambiguous description was assessed. Preschoolers (N = 34) were tested at 3 time points, each 6 months apart (4, 4 1/2, and 5 years). Eye gaze measures demonstrated that…

Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.

2012-01-01

229

Ambiguities in Bandt-Pompe’s methodology for local entropic quantifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bandt-Pompe (BP) prescription for building up probability densities [C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Permutation entropy: a natural complexity measure for time series, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 174102] constituted a significant advance in the treatment of time-series. However, as we show here, ambiguities arise in applying the BP technique with reference to the permutation of ordinal patterns. This happens if one wishes to employ the BP-probability density to construct local entropic quantifiers that would characterize time-series generated by nonlinear dynamical systems. Explicit evidence of this fact is presented by comparing two different procedures, frequently found in the literature, that generate sequences of ordinal patterns. In opposition to the case of global quantifiers in the orthodox Shannon fashion, the proper order of the pertinent symbols turns out to be not uniquely predetermined for local entropic indicators. We advance the idea of employing the Fisher-Shannon information plane as a tool to resolve the ambiguity and give illustrative examples.

Olivares, Felipe; Plastino, Angelo; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

2012-04-01

230

Asian American Giving to US Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

Tsunoda, Kozue

2010-01-01

231

Unweighted and Weighted Measures of Children's Giving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unweighted and two weighted measures of children's giving were used in two experiments designed to enhance children's prosocial development. This paper describes the rationale for the construction of the measures, presents data on test-retest reliability and validity as well as treatment outcomes for the two experiments. (Author/LMO)

Vandenplas-Holper, Christiane; And Others

1987-01-01

232

PICS-Ord: unlimited coding of ambiguous regions by pairwise identity and cost scores ordination  

PubMed Central

Background We present a novel method to encode ambiguously aligned regions in fixed multiple sequence alignments by 'Pairwise Identity and Cost Scores Ordination' (PICS-Ord). The method works via ordination of sequence identity or cost scores matrices by means of Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA). After identification of ambiguous regions, the method computes pairwise distances as sequence identities or cost scores, ordinates the resulting distance matrix by means of PCoA, and encodes the principal coordinates as ordered integers. Three biological and 100 simulated datasets were used to assess the performance of the new method. Results Including ambiguous regions coded by means of PICS-Ord increased topological accuracy, resolution, and bootstrap support in real biological and simulated datasets compared to the alternative of excluding such regions from the analysis a priori. In terms of accuracy, PICS-Ord performs equal to or better than previously available methods of ambiguous region coding (e.g., INAASE), with the advantage of a practically unlimited alignment size and increased analytical speed and the possibility of PICS-Ord scores to be analyzed together with DNA data in a partitioned maximum likelihood model. Conclusions Advantages of PICS-Ord over step matrix-based ambiguous region coding with INAASE include a practically unlimited number of OTUs and seamless integration of PICS-Ord codes into phylogenetic datasets, as well as the increased speed of phylogenetic analysis. Contrary to word- and frequency-based methods, PICS-Ord maintains the advantage of pairwise sequence alignment to derive distances, and the method is flexible with respect to the calculation of distance scores. In addition to distance and maximum parsimony, PICS-Ord codes can be analyzed in a Bayesian or maximum likelihood framework. RAxML (version 7.2.6 or higher that was developed for this study) allows up to 32-state ordered or unordered characters. A GTR, MK, or ORDERED model can be applied to analyse the PICS-Ord codes partition, with GTR performing slightly better than MK and ORDERED. Availability An implementation of the PICS-Ord algorithm is available from http://scit.us/projects/ngila/wiki/PICS-Ord. It requires both the statistical software, R http://www.r-project.org and the alignment software Ngila http://scit.us/projects/ngila.

2011-01-01

233

Mode of Disambiguation and Garden-Path Strength: An Investigation of Subject-Object Ambiguities in German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of three experiments are reported that investigated the processing of locally ambiguous object-subject sentences in German. The aim was to test whether the type of grammatical information that signals garden-path has an impact on how difficult it is to arrive at the correct structural assignment. (Author/VWL)

Meng, Michael; Bader, Markus

2000-01-01

234

Carrier phase ambiguity resolution for the Global Positioning System applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for resolving the ambiguities in the GPS carrier phase data (which are biased by an integer number of cycles) is described which can be applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km in length and can be used with dual-frequency P code receivers. The results of such application demonstrated that a factor of 3 improvement in baseline accuracy

Geoffrey Blewitt

1989-01-01

235

Insect behaviour: migratory bands give crickets protection.  

PubMed

Mormon crickets and juvenile locusts form huge migratory bands--millions of individuals march in unison across the landscape and devastate vast agricultural areas, but little is known about why these bands form. Here we use radiotelemetry to show that band membership benefits these insects by greatly reducing the probability that they will become victims of predators. It is likely that migratory banding has evolved because it gives substantial protection to individuals within the group. PMID:15716941

Sword, Gregory A; Lorch, Patrick D; Gwynne, Darryl T

2005-02-17

236

Embryonic stem cell research: terminological ambiguity may lead to legal obscurity.  

PubMed

National regulation on embryonic stem cell research in the European Union is ambiguous, due to a lack of consistent scientific terminology as exemplified by the Dutch Embryos Act. To force a breakthrough in this ethically dubious research topic, a more careful use of terminology would be in the interest of both the scientific community and the lawmakers, in order to avoid terminology becoming associated with research or applications for which it is inappropriate. Therefore I will first clarify the technological possibilities in an age of biological control. Secondly, we will critically analyse the statements of the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning embryo research and cloning. The Convention prohibits human reproductive cloning but does not take a clear position on so-called therapeutic cloning. Finally, we will give an overview of the most recent legislative initiatives within the European Union on this matter. PMID:15163072

Hansen, Bart

2004-01-01

237

Anisotropy in an ambiguous kinetic depth effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of animated stimuli (Lissajous figures), each element of which is physically consistent with two different 3D shapes undergoing rigid rotations about orthogonal axes is presented. Predictions of which shape will be seen are made by utilizing an adaptation of Hildreth's smoothest-velocity-field computation. Results indicate that the ambiquity in 2D visual motion, i.e., the aperture problem, is not resolved before the interpretation of the 3D structure.

Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

1992-01-01

238

Using Context to Resolve Temporal Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats examined the role of the context in the selection and integration of independently acquired interval relationships. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to separate CS1-CS2 pairings with two different interval relationships, each in its own distinctive context, X or Y. The resultant integration was determined by the training context (X or Y) in which US-CS2 backward pairings occurred, as assessed in a third neutral context (Z). In Experiment 2, rats experienced CS1-CS2 pairings with two different interval relationships as in Experiment 1, and then received US-CS2 pairings in both contexts X and Y. The testing context (i.e., X or Y) determined the resultant integration. In Experiment 3, rats were exposed to CS1-CS2 pairings in two different interval relationships each in different phases (i.e., Phases 1 and 2), and then in Phase 3 received US-CS2 pairings. The temporal context of testing (i.e., short or long retention interval) determined the resultant integration. Thus, context can be used to disambiguate conflicting temporal information.

Molet, Mikael; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miguez, Gonzalo; Miller, Ralph R.

2009-01-01

239

The effect of depressed mood on the interpretation of ambiguity, with and without negative mood induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is there an effect of depressed mood on the interpretation of ambiguity? Are depressed individuals biased to interpret ambiguous information in a negative manner? We used a cross-modal semantic priming task to look for evidence of a negative interpretative bias. Participants listened to ambiguous prime sentences (e.g., Joan was stunned by her final exam mark) and made lexical decisions to

M. A. Suzie Bisson; Christopher R. Sears

2007-01-01

240

The Classification of Ambiguity in Polarimetric Reconstruction of Coronal Mass Ejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thomson scattering theory indicates that there exist explicit and implicit ambiguities in polarimetric analyses of coronal mass ejection (CME) observations. We suggest a classification for these ambiguities in CME reconstruction. Three samples, including double explicit, mixed, and double implicit ambiguity, are shown with the polarimetric analyses of STEREO CME observations. These samples demonstrate that this classification is helpful for improving polarimetric reconstruction.

Dai, Xinghua; Wang, Huaning; Huang, Xin; Du, Zhanle; He, Han

2014-01-01

241

Ambiguity Assessment of Gravity Interpretation for an Inhomogeneous Multilayered Sedimentary Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambiguity in the gravity response of aa earth model with transition layers has been assessed by calculating the channel capacity of the transmitter (transition layer). The channel capacity is used to determine the number of false gravity anomalies in a gravity contour, which acts as an index to the ambiguity range. The lower limit of this ambiguity range is fixed

Janardan G. Negi; Vijay P. Dimri; Subhash C. Garde

1973-01-01

242

Boundary Ambiguity in Parents with Chronically Ill Children: Integrating Theory and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article integrates theory and research related to boundary ambiguity in parents of children with a chronic health condition. We propose that boundary ambiguity is a risk factor for psychological distress in these parents. Clinical applications and a case example highlight how boundary ambiguity can be assessed and managed in clinical settings…

Berge, Jerica M.; Holm, Kristen E.

2007-01-01

243

Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design  

SciTech Connect

Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

1997-10-01

244

Polyaromatic hydrocarbon exposure: an ecological impact ambiguity.  

PubMed

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons and are currently one of the foremost sources of generating energy in today's contemporary society. However, evidence highlighted in this review show that PAH pollution, as a result of oil spills, hazardous PAH-contaminated working environments and technologies which do not efficiently utilise fuels, as well as natural sources of emissions (e.g. forest fires) may have significant health implications for all taxa. The extent of damage to organisms from PAH exposure is dependent on numerous factors including degree and type of PAH exposure, nature of the environment contaminated (i.e. terrestrial or aquatic), the ability of an organism to relocate to pristine environments, type and sensitivity of organism to specific hydrocarbon fractions and ability of the organism to metabolise different PAH fractions. The review highlights the fact that studies on the potential damage of PAHs should be carried out using mixtures of hydrocarbons as opposed to individual hydrocarbon fractions due to the scarcity of individual fractions being a sole contaminant. Furthermore, potential damage of PAH-contaminated sites should be assessed using an entire ecological impact outlook of the affected area. PMID:23529398

Ball, Andrew; Truskewycz, Adam

2013-07-01

245

Thrombin-aptamer recognition: a revealed ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are structured oligonucleotides that recognize molecular targets and can function as direct protein inhibitors. The best-known example is the thrombin-binding aptamer, TBA, a single-stranded 15-mer DNA that inhibits the activity of thrombin, the key enzyme of coagulation cascade. TBA folds as a G-quadruplex structure, as proved by its NMR structure. The X-ray structure of the complex between TBA and human ?-thrombin was solved at 2.9-Å resolution, but did not provide details of the aptamer conformation and the interactions with the protein molecule. TBA is rapidly processed by nucleases. To improve the properties of TBA, a number of modified analogs have been produced. In particular, a modified TBA containing a 5?-5? polarity inversion site, mTBA, has higher stability and higher affinity toward thrombin with respect to TBA, although it has a lower inhibitory activity. We present the crystal structure of the thrombin–mTBA complex at 2.15-Å resolution; the resulting model eventually provides a clear picture of thrombin–aptamers interaction, and also highlights the structural bases of the different properties of TBA and mTBA. Our findings open the way for a rational design of modified aptamers with improved potency as anticoagulant drugs.

Russo Krauss, Irene; Merlino, Antonello; Giancola, Concetta; Randazzo, Antonio; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

2011-01-01

246

Not So Black and White: Memory for Ambiguous Group Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential increases in multiracial identities, expected over the next century, create a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as their own- or other-race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the own-race bias. The authors hypothesized that perceivers are not motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and therefore have some difficulty remembering

Kristin Pauker; Max Weisbuch; Nalini Ambady; Samuel R. Sommers; Reginald B. Adams; Zorana Ivcevic

2009-01-01

247

Geometrical ambiguity of pair statistics. II. Heterogeneous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this series of two papers [Y. Jiao, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. E 81, 011105 (2010)10.1103\\/PhysRevE.81.011105], we considered the geometrical ambiguity of pair statistics associated with point configurations. Here we focus on the analogous problem for heterogeneous media (materials). Heterogeneous media are ubiquitous in a host of contexts, including composites and granular

Yang Jiao; Frank H. Stillinger; Salvatore Torquato

2010-01-01

248

Comment on ``Fermionic entanglement ambiguity in noninertial frames''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Comment we show that the ambiguity of entropic quantities calculated by Montero and Martín-Martínez [Phys. Rev. A10.1103/PhysRevA.83.062323 83, 062323 (2011)] for fermionic fields in the context of the Unruh effect is not related to the properties of anticommuting fields, as claimed therein, but rather to wrong mathematical manipulations with them and not taking into account a fundamental superselection rule of quantum field theory.

Brádler, Kamil; Jáuregui, Rocío

2012-01-01

249

Sparse Blind Deconvolution Accounting for TimeShift Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our contribution deals with blind deconvolution of sparse spike trains. More precisely, we examine the problem in the Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) framework, where the unknown spike train is modeled as a Bernoulli-Gaussian process. In this context, we point out that time-shift and scale ambiguities jeopardize the robustness of basic MCMC methods, in quite a similar manner to the label

Christian Labat; Jerome Idier

2006-01-01

250

How Vestibular Neurons Solve the Tilt/Translation Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory ambiguity, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory ambiguity can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinations of tilt and translation. We focus primarily on cerebellar cortex responses, as nodulus/uvula Purkinje cells reliably encode translation rather than net gravito-inertial acceleration. In contrast, neurons in the vestibular and rostral fastigial nuclei, as well as the ventral lateral and ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus represent a continuum, with some encoding translation and some net gravito-inertial acceleration. This review also outlines how Purkinje cells use semicircular canal signals to solve the ambiguity problem and how this solution fails at low frequencies. We conclude by attempting to bridge the gap between the proposed roles of nodulus/uvula in tilt/translation discrimination and velocity storage.

Angelaki, Dora E.; Yakusheva, Tatyana A.

2010-01-01

251

Right semantic modulation of early MEG components during ambiguity resolution.  

PubMed

The time-line of lexical ambiguity resolution in bilateral neuronal networks was investigated using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a semantic decision task. Dominant and subordinate associations of ambiguous words are considered to be processed in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. In the experiment, ambiguous words were followed by dominant or subordinate associations (manipulated between blocks) or by unrelated target words, and participants (N=25) decided whether the words in each pair were related or not. Subordinate meaning blocks elicited greater changes in the magnetic fields relative to dominant ones over the right, but not the left hemisphere (LH) at 150-235 ms from target onset, a time window corresponding to the M/N170 M/EEG component. Beamforming analysis localized the differential right hemisphere (RH) activity at the perisylvian area, including the homologue regions of Broca's and Wernicke's. At a later stage (235-390 ms) there was no significant difference between the two meaning conditions. We suggest that the RH language regions assist the LH in integrating subordinate disambiguating clues to preceding context during the M170 time window. PMID:23707585

Harpaz, Yuval; Lavidor, Michal; Goldstein, Abraham

2013-11-15

252

Fluorescence in situ hybridization as an ancillary tool in the diagnosis of ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms: a review of 804 cases.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as an ancillary method in the diagnostic workup of histopathologically ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms. A combination of probes targeting 3 loci on chromosome 6 and 1 on 11q has been reported to distinguish unequivocal melanomas and nevi with a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 96%, respectively. However, information on how FISH should be integrated into routine clinical testing is limited. We report our experience of FISH testing of 804 ambiguous melanocytic lesions performed as part of routine workup at University of California, San Francisco. The main category (47% of all cases) for which FISH testing was requested was Spitz tumors. Other categories included the distinction of possible melanoma from combined nevi (9%), acral or mucosal nevi (9%), Clark/dysplastic nevi (7%), and blue or deep penetrating nevi (6%) and to assess the possibility of nevoid melanoma (4%). Of the ambiguous tumors successfully tested, 88% received a more definitive benign or malignant final diagnosis. Of the 630 cases that tested negative by FISH, the final diagnosis was benign in 489 (78%) cases, ambiguous in 91 cases (14%), and malignant in 50 cases (8%). A positive FISH result was observed in 124 cases, with a final diagnosis of melanoma in 117 (94%). One (1%) FISH-positive case had an equivocal final diagnosis, and 6 (5%) were interpreted, despite the positive FISH result, as melanocytic nevi. We conclude that FISH testing can help reduce the number of equivocal diagnoses in ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms, in particular if FISH testing is positive, and discuss the challenges and limitations of FISH in clinical practice. PMID:24618603

North, Jeffrey P; Garrido, Maria C; Kolaitis, Nicholas A; LeBoit, Philip E; McCalmont, Timothy H; Bastian, Boris C

2014-06-01

253

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

254

Embedded promotions in online services: how goal-relevance ambiguity shapes response and affect.  

PubMed

Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance ambiguity on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study utilizing actual service websites and a broad range of consumers as participants showed promotional elements in online services generated considerable confusion, and instructions labeling promotions as optional did little to relieve goal-relevance ambiguity. A second study using student participants inserted promotions into an online airline ticket service, a shopping site, a local news blog, and a news headline aggregator, to explore how linear and transactional sites such as online services compared to more exploratory or informational online environments. Results showed that service-embedded promotions enjoyed initial compliance far beyond promotions in traditional websites but also generated increased confusion, frustration, and anger. A third study utilizing student participants explored how varying levels of online service experience created differing responses to promotions in services; novices were less able to judge promotional goal-relevance and experienced more confusion, whereas experienced searchers were more likely to respond with frustration and anger. Many participants complied with promotional offers at the time of the service transaction, but stated intentions to use the promotion postservice were very low. The overall results spotlight goal-relevance ambiguity as an important driver of consumer response to online promotions, and highlight the role website context can play in the processing of online promotional elements. PMID:20853986

Brasel, S Adam

2010-09-01

255

Attractiveness, diagnostic ambiguity, and disability cues impact perceptions of women with pain.  

PubMed

Purpose/Objective: This experimental study investigated how physical attractiveness, disability cue, and diagnostic ambiguity stereotypes impact perceptions of a patient's pain/disability and personality. Research Method/Design: After viewing photographs of women pictured with or without a cane, accompanied by descriptions of the women's diagnosis (fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis), 147 university students rated the women's pain/disability and personality. Results: Analyses revealed that more attractive women received lower ratings on pain/disability and higher ratings (more positive) on personality. Moreover, those pictured with a disability cue got higher ratings on both pain/disability and personality, and those with medical evidence of pathology (less ambiguity) got higher ratings on pain/disability and lower ratings on personality. Examination of the 3 stereotypes in a single study enabled an evaluation of their interactions. An Attractiveness × Disability Cue × Diagnostic Ambiguity interaction for ratings of pain/disability revealed that the presence of both medical evidence and a disability cue were needed to override the strong "beautiful is healthy" stereotype. Significant 2-way interactions for ratings of personality indicated that the impact of the disability stereotype tends to be overshadowed by the attractiveness stereotype. Conclusion/Implications: The results indicate that these stereotypes have a large effect on perceptions of women with chronic pain and that attractiveness, a contextual variable unrelated to the pain experience, exerts an even stronger effect when there is less objective information available. This could have clinical ramifications for assessment and treatment of patients with chronic pain, which often occurs in the absence of "objective" medical evidence or any external cues of disability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24611920

LaChapelle, Diane L; Lavoie, Susan; Higgins, Nancy C; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas

2014-05-01

256

Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

2013-01-01

257

Assessment of Ambiguous Base Calls in HIV-1 pol Population Sequences as a Biomarker for Identification of Recent Infections in HIV-1 Incidence Studies.  

PubMed

An increase in the proportion of ambiguous base calls in HIV-1 pol population sequences during the course of infection has been demonstrated in different study populations, and sequence ambiguity thresholds to classify infections as recent or nonrecent have been suggested. The aim of our study was to evaluate sequence ambiguities as a candidate biomarker for use in an HIV-1 incidence assay using samples from antiretroviral treatment-naive seroconverters with known durations of infection (German HIV-1 Seroconverter Study). We used 2,203 HIV-1 pol population sequences derived from 1,334 seroconverters to assess the sequence ambiguity method (SAM). We then compared the serological incidence BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) with the SAM for a subset of 723 samples from 495 seroconverters and evaluated a multianalyte algorithm that includes BED-CEIA results, SAM results, viral loads, and CD4 cell counts for 453 samples from 325 seroconverters. We observed a significant increase in the proportion of sequence ambiguities with the duration of infection. A sequence ambiguity threshold of 0.5% best identified recent infections with 76.7% accuracy. The mean duration of recency was determined to be 208 (95% confidence interval, 196 to 221) days. In the subset analysis, BED-CEIA achieved a significantly higher accuracy than the SAM (84.6 versus 75.5%, P < 0.001) and results were concordant for 64.2% (464/723) of the samples. Also, the multianalyte algorithm did not show better accuracy than the BED-CEIA (83.4 versus 84.3%, P = 0.786). In conclusion, the SAM and the multianalyte algorithm including SAM were inferior to the BED-CEIA, and the proportion of sequence ambiguities is therefore not a preferable biomarker for HIV-1 incidence testing. PMID:24920768

Meixenberger, Karolin; Hauser, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Yousef, Kaveh Pouran; Fiedler, Stefan; von Kleist, Max; Norley, Stephen; Somogyi, Sybille; Hamouda, Osamah; Bannert, Norbert; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Kücherer, Claudia

2014-08-01

258

A method for improving uncalibrated phase delay estimation and ambiguity-fixing in real-time precise point positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the performance of precise point positioning (PPP), this paper presents a new data processing scheme to shorten the convergence time and the observation time required for a reliable ambiguity-fixing. In the new scheme, L1 and L2 raw observations are used and the slant ionospheric delays are treated as unknown parameters. The empirical spatial and temporal constraints and the ionospheric delays derived from a real-time available ionospheric model are all considered as pseudo-observations into the estimation for strengthening the solution. Furthermore, we develop a real-time computational procedure for generating uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs) on L1 and L2 frequencies. The PPP solution is first carried out on all reference stations based on the proposed scheme, undifferenced float ambiguities on L1 and L2 frequencies can be directly obtained from the new scheme. The L1 and L2 UPDs are then generated and broadcasted to users in real-time. This data product and also the performance of the new PPP scheme are evaluated. Our results indicate that the new processing scheme considering ionospheric characteristics can reduce the convergence time by about 30 % for float kinematic solutions. The observation time for a reliable ambiguity-fixing is shortened by 25 % compared to that of the traditional ambiguity-fixed kinematic solution. When the new method is used for static reference stations, the observation time for ambiguity-fixing is about 10 min in static mode and only 5 min if the coordinates are fixed to well-known values.

Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Hongping; Wickert, Jens

2013-05-01

259

Still Giving Thanks for Good Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Still Giving Thanks for Good Health (QTVR)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this full-circle panorama of the region near 'Husband Hill' (the peak just to the left of center) over the Thanksgiving holiday, before ascending farther. Both the Spirit and Opportunity rovers are still going strong, more than a year after landing on Mars.

This 360-degree view combines 243 images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera over several martian days, or sols, from sol 318 (Nov. 24, 2004) to sol 325 (Dec. 2, 2004). It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from images taken through the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. The view is presented here in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

Spirit is now driving up the slope of Husband Hill along a path about one-quarter of the way from the left side of this mosaic.

2005-01-01

260

Nicotinic cholinoceptor-mediated excitation in ambigual motoneurons of the rat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if ambigual oesophageal motoneurons of the rat possess functional nicotinic cholinoceptors. In urethane anaesthetized rats, acetylcholine (20-50 pmol) delivered micropneumophoretically from multibarrelled pipettes to the compact formation of the nucleus ambiguus produced either synchronous or propulsive oesophageal contractions which were fully and reversibly blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (8-10 pmol) but were resistant to D-tubocurarine and hexamethonium (10-20 pmol). 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium but not muscarine (8 pmol) exerted an analogous agonist action. Ejection of glutamate at the same sites produced similar oesophageal responses which were, however, resistant to dihydro-beta-erythroidine. Acetylcholine applied 5-15 s prior to glutamate transiently facilitated the glutamate-evoked response. The facilitatory effect of acetylcholine was replicated by 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium but not muscarine and inhibited by dihydro-beta-erythroidine. Physostigmine, applied either intra-ambigually (10-20 pmol) or by intravenous injection (0.15-0.3 mumol/kg), enhanced both acetylcholine and glutamate-evoked responses. In brainstem transverse slices, application of acetylcholine and glutamate to quiescent ambigual neurons of the compact formation resulted in a rapid membrane depolarization associated with an increased membrane conductance and spiking. Under voltage clamp, both acetylcholine and glutamate elicited a net inward current. The depolarizing response of these neurons to acetylcholine was blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (0.5-2 pmol), hexamethonium (0.2 mM) and D-tubocurarine (10 microM) and persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) or Mn2+ (5 mM) in the bathing medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1676495

Wang, Y T; Neuman, R S; Bieger, D

1991-01-01

261

Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?  

PubMed

Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. PMID:22581420

Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

2012-06-01

262

Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

2006-01-01

263

Sounding of the Ion Energization Region: Resolving Ambiguities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dartmouth College provided a single-channel high-frequency wave receiver to the Sounding of the Ion Energization Region: Resolving Ambiguities (SIERRA) rocket experiment launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, in January 2002. The receiver used signals from booms, probes, preamplifiers, and differential amplifiers provided by Cornell University coinvestigators. Output was to a dedicated 5 MHz telemetry link provided by WFF, with a small amount of additional Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) telemetry required for the receiver gain information. We also performed preliminary analysis of the data. The work completed is outlined below, in chronological order.

LaBelle, James

2003-01-01

264

Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.  

PubMed

Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth. PMID:19507448

Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

2009-04-01

265

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

2007-01-01

266

Narrowing historical uncertainty: probabilistic classification of ambiguously identified tree species in historical forest survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems. Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set of this type is the Public Land Survey (PLS) of the United States General Land Office, which contains data on multiple tree species, sizes, and distances recorded at each survey point, located at half-mile (0.8 km) intervals on a 1-mi (1.6 km) grid. This survey method was begun in the 1790s on US federal lands extending westward from Ohio. Thus, the data have the potential of providing a view of much of the US landscape from the mid-1800s, and they have been used extensively for this purpose. However, historical data sources, such as those describing the species composition of forests, can often be limited in the detail recorded and the reliability of the data, since the information was often not originally recorded for ecological purposes. Forest trees are sometimes recorded ambiguously, using generic or obscure common names. For the PLS data of northern Wisconsin, USA, we developed a method to classify ambiguously identified tree species using logistic regression analysis, using data on trees that were clearly identified to species and a set of independent predictor variables to build the models. The models were first created on partial data sets for each species and then tested for fit against the remaining data. Validations were conducted using repeated, random subsets of the data. Model prediction accuracy ranged from 81% to 96% in differentiating congeneric species among oak, pine, ash, maple, birch, and elm. Major predictor variables were tree size, associated species, landscape classes indicative of soil type, and spatial location within the study region. Results help to clarify ambiguities formerly present in maps of historic ecosystems for the region and can be applied to PLS datasets elsewhere, as well as other sources of ambiguous historical data. Mapping the newly classified data with ecological land units provides additional information on the distribution, abundance, and associations of tree species, as well as their relationships to environmental gradients before the industrial period, and clarifies the identities of species formerly mapped only to genus. We offer some caveats on the appropriate use of data derived in this way, as well as describing their potential.

Mladenoff, D.J.; Dahir, S.E.; Nordheim, E.V.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

2002-01-01

267

Shared Gaussian Process Latent Variable Models for Handling Ambiguous Facial Expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact, that, in reality facial expressions occur as a result of muscle actions, facial expression models assume an inverse functional relationship, which makes muscles action be the result of facial expressions. Clearly, facial expression should be expressed as a function of muscle action, the other way around as previously suggested. Furthermore, a human facial expression space and the robots actuator space have common features. However, there are also features that the one or the other does not have. This suggests modelling shared and non-shared feature variance separately. To this end we propose Shared Gaussian Process Latent Variable Models (Shared GP-LVM) for models of facial expressions, which assume shared and private features between an input and output space. In this work, we are focusing on the detection of ambiguities within data sets of facial behaviour. We suggest ways of modelling and mapping of facial motion from a representation of human facial expressions to a robot's actuator space. We aim to compensate for ambiguities caused by interference of global with local head motion and the constrained nature of Active Appearance Models, used for tracking.

Ek, Carl Henrik; Jaeckel, Peter; Campbell, Neill; Lawrence, Neil D.; Melhuish, Chris

2009-03-01

268

Noun-verb ambiguity in chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according to frequency of occurrence, where N>V, Nambiguous noun-verb preference to differentiate the language of schizophrenia from the language of typical adults; and (c) evidence of ambiguous noun-verb preference to differentiate the language of schizophrenia from fluent aphasia. PMID:18952224

Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

2009-01-01

269

Stochastic exploration of ambiguities for nonrigid shape recovery.  

PubMed

Recovering the 3D shape of deformable surfaces from single images is known to be a highly ambiguous problem because many different shapes may have very similar projections. This is commonly addressed by restricting the set of possible shapes to linear combinations of deformation modes and by imposing additional geometric constraints. Unfortunately, because image measurements are noisy, such constraints do not always guarantee that the correct shape will be recovered. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a stochastic sampling approach to efficiently explore the set of solutions of an objective function based on point correspondences. This allows us to propose a small set of ambiguous candidate 3D shapes and then use additional image information to choose the best one. As a proof of concept, we use either motion or shading cues to this end and show that we can handle a complex objective function without having to solve a difficult nonlinear minimization problem. The advantages of our method are demonstrated on a variety of problems including both real and synthetic data. PMID:22547426

Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Fua, Pascal

2013-02-01

270

Speech Rhythm Facilitates Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution: ERP Evidence  

PubMed Central

In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

271

Phase-wrapping ambiguity in along-track interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous SPIE paper we described several variations of along-track interferometry (ATI), which can be used for moving target detection and geo-location in clutter. ATI produces a phase map in range/Doppler coordinates by combining radar data from several receive channels separated fore-and-aft (along-track) on the sensor platform. In principle, the radial velocity of a moving target can be estimated from the ATI phase of the pixels in the target signature footprint. Once the radial velocity is known, the target azimuth follows directly. Unfortunately, the ATI phase is wrapped, i.e., it repeats in the interval [-?, ?], and therefore the mapping from ATI phase to target azimuth is non-unique. In fact, depending on the radar system parameters, each detected target can map to several equally-likely azimuth values. In the present paper we discuss a signal processing method for resolving the phase wrapping ambiguity, in which the radar bandwidth is split into a high and low sub-band in software, and an ATI phase map is generated for each. By subtracting these two phase maps we can generate a coarse, but unambiguous, radial velocity estimate. This coarse estimate is then combined with the fine, but ambiguous estimate to pinpoint the target radial velocity, and therefore its azimuth. Since the coarse estimate is quite sensitive to noise, a rudimentary tracker is used to help smooth out the phase errors. The method is demonstrated on Gotcha 2006 Challenge data.

Deming, Ross; Ilin, Roman; Best, Matthew

2013-05-01

272

Rapid re-convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in precise point positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integer ambiguity resolution at a single receiver can be achieved if the fractional-cycle biases are separated from the ambiguity\\u000a estimates in precise point positioning (PPP). Despite the improved positioning accuracy by such integer resolution, the convergence\\u000a to an ambiguity-fixed solution normally requires a few tens of minutes. Even worse, these convergences can repeatedly occur\\u000a on the occasion of loss of

Jianghui Geng; Xiaolin Meng; Alan H. Dodson; Maorong Ge; Felix N. Teferle

2010-01-01

273

Identification of Emotionally Ambiguous Interpersonal Stimuli Among Dysphoric and Nondysphoric Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether dysphoria influences the identification of non-ambiguous and ambiguous facial expressions of emotion.\\u000a Dysphoric and non-dysphoric college students viewed a series of human faces expressing sadness, happiness, anger, and fear\\u000a that were morphed with each other to varying degrees. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals identified prototypical emotional\\u000a expressions similarly. However, when viewing ambiguous faces, dysphoric individuals were more

Christopher G. Beevers; Tony T. Wells; Alissa J. Ellis; Kathryn Fischer

2009-01-01

274

A newborn with ambiguous genitalia and a complex X;Y rearrangement.  

PubMed

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females. Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated. Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity. PMID:25031580

Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Rossi, Elena; Vetro, Annalisa; Russo, Gianni; Hashemian, Zahra; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2014-05-01

275

A newborn with ambiguous genitalia and a complex X;Y rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females. Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated. Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity.

Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Rossi, Elena; Vetro, Annalisa; Russo, Gianni; Hashemian, Zahra; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2014-01-01

276

Polymorphisms and ambiguous sites present in DNA sequences of Leishmania clones: Looking closer.  

PubMed

In genetic studies of Leishmania parasites, co-dominant markers are chosen for their ability to detect heterozygous polymorphisms, to infer the occurrence of inbreeding and to resolve genetic variability. The majority of DNA sequence based reports perform conventional dye terminator cycle sequencing where perfectly ambiguous sites or double peaks in the chromatogram are interpreted as heterozygous strains. However, molecular peculiarities of the parasite such as aneuploidy, mixed populations and homologous recombination advise that data from regular DNA sequence analysis should be carefully evaluated. We report here a closer look at ambiguous sites observed in 6pgd DNA sequences obtained for a multilocus sequence analysis project on Leishmania (Viannia) strains. After comparing 286 DNA sequences from biological and molecular clones of six L. (Viannia) strains we could distinguish events that contribute to genetic variation in Leishmania (recombination, mutation, chromosomal mosaics). Also, the results suggest how diversity might not be completely revealed through regular DNA sequence analysis and demonstrate the importance for molecular epidemiology research to be aware of such possibilities while choosing samples for studies. PMID:24768683

Boité, Mariana Côrtes; de Oliveira, Taíse Salgado; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Trannin, Marcos; Dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Porrozzi, Renato; Cupolillo, Elisa

2014-07-01

277

Unveiling the structural basis for translational ambiguity tolerance in a human fungal pathogen  

PubMed Central

In a restricted group of opportunistic fungal pathogens the universal leucine CUG codon is translated both as serine (97%) and leucine (3%), challenging the concept that translational ambiguity has a negative impact in living organisms. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the in vivo tolerance to a nonconserved genetic code alteration, we have undertaken an extensive structural analysis of proteins containing CUG-encoded residues and solved the crystal structures of the two natural isoforms of Candida albicans seryl-tRNA synthetase. We show that codon reassignment resulted in a nonrandom genome-wide CUG redistribution tailored to minimize protein misfolding events induced by the large-scale leucine-to-serine replacement within the CTG clade. Leucine or serine incorporation at the CUG position in C. albicans seryl-tRNA synthetase induces only local structural changes and, although both isoforms display tRNA serylation activity, the leucine-containing isoform is more active. Similarly, codon ambiguity is predicted to shape the function of C. albicans proteins containing CUG-encoded residues in functionally relevant positions, some of which have a key role in signaling cascades associated with morphological changes and pathogenesis. This study provides a first detailed analysis on natural reassignment of codon identity, unveiling a highly dynamic evolutionary pattern of thousands of fungal CUG codons to confer an optimized balance between protein structural robustness and functional plasticity.

Rocha, Rita; Pereira, Pedro Jose Barbosa; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

2011-01-01

278

Resolution of sensory ambiguities for gaze stabilization requires a second neural integrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to simultaneously move in the world and maintain stable visual perception depends critically on the contribution of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) to gaze stabilization. It is traditionally believed that semicircular canal signals drive compensatory responses to rotational head disturbances (rotational VOR), whereas otolith signals compensate for translational movements [translational VOR (TVOR)]. However, a sensory ambiguity exists because otolith afferents are activated similarly during head translations and reorientations relative to gravity (i.e., tilts). Extra-otolith cues are, therefore, necessary to ensure that dynamic head tilts do not elicit a TVOR. To investigate how extra-otolith signals contribute, we characterized the temporal and viewing distance-dependent properties of a TVOR elicited in the absence of a lateral acceleration stimulus to the otoliths during combined translational/rotational motion. We show that, in addition to otolith signals, angular head position signals derived by integrating sensory canal information drive the TVOR. A physiological basis for these results is proposed in a model with two distinct integration steps. Upstream of the well known oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator, the model incorporates a separate integration element that could represent the "velocity storage integrator," whose functional role in the oculomotor system has so far remained controversial. We propose that a key functional purpose of the velocity storage network is to temporally integrate semicircular canal signals, so that they may be used to extract translation information from ambiguous otolith afferent signals in the natural and functionally relevant bandwidth of head movements.

Green, Andrea M.; Angelaki, Dora E.

2003-01-01

279

Study Gives Edge to 2 Math Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that two programs for teaching mathematics in the early grades--Math Expressions and Saxon Math--emerged as winners in early findings released last week from a large-scale federal experiment that pits four popular, and philosophically distinct, math curricula against one another. But the results don't promise to end the…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

280

Give Better Feedback on Engineering Drawings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most, if not all, systems have a mechanism that collects information to facilitate monitoring performance. This information is primarily used to modify the system to make it more efficient in performing desired tasks and, thus, attaining desired results. Similar to electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic systems, the feedback mechanism in an…

Cobb, Robert, Jr.; Graham, Tony; Kapur, Arjun; Rhodes, Craig; Blackwell, Ellinor

2005-01-01

281

Laser Doppler velocity measurement without directional ambiguity by using frequency shifted incident beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser Doppler heterodyning system for velocity measurements without directional ambiguity, employing incident beams of different frequencies through rotating diffraction grating or Bragg cell application

Mazumder, M. K.

1970-01-01

282

Saharan dust gives clues to weather patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on convection over the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa was investigated using satellite measurements of atmospheric temperature and moisture and of dust concentrations in the SAL. Results suggest that dust is not an effective proxy to track the SAL as it moves west and that other tracking techniques are required to track the air mass as it moves far from the continent.

Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.; Agu

283

Giving to family versus giving to the community within and across generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the impact of parental giving on the transfer behavior of adult children to family members and community\\u000a institutions using unique data from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys. Our findings point to persistence of private transfer\\u000a networks across generations. In particular, the community transfer decisions of adults living outside origin households are\\u000a positively influenced by the

Partha Deb; Cagla Okten; Una Okonkwo Osili

2010-01-01

284

When to Cry Over Spilled Milk: Young Children's Use of Category Information to Guide Inferences About Ambiguous Behavior  

PubMed Central

Three studies (N = 171) examined preschool children’s tendency to use category information to make inferences about ambiguous behavior. Children heard stories in which category information about story characters was manipulated and behavioral information was held constant. Participants were asked to evaluate, explain, and determine the significance of the behavior in question. Children tended to be harsher judges of the same ambiguous behaviors when performed by (a) humans as compared to animals, (b) boys compared to girls, and (c) older children compared to younger children. Results suggest that young children hold differentiated notions of the mental states and dispositions that underlie behavior and that these notions vary as a function of category membership. These findings support the conclusion that even young children can hold and use multiple folk psychologies.

Giles, Jessica W.; Heyman, Gail D.

2010-01-01

285

Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

286

Giving students the run of sprinting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biomechanical study of sprinting is an interesting task for students who have a background in mechanics and calculus. These students can work with real data and do practical investigations similar to the way sports scientists do research. Student research activities are viable when the students are familiar with tools to collect and work with data from sensors and video recordings and with modeling tools for comparing simulation and experimental results. This article describes a multipurpose system, named COACH, that offers a versatile integrated set of tools for learning, doing, and teaching mathematics and science in a computer-based inquiry approach. Automated tracking of reference points and correction of perspective distortion in videos, state-of-the-art algorithms for data smoothing and numerical differentiation, and graphical system dynamics based modeling are some of the built-in techniques that are suitable for motion analysis. Their implementation and their application in student activities involving models of running are discussed.

Heck, André; Ellermeijer, Ton

2009-11-01

287

Landfill mining: Giving garbage a second chance  

SciTech Connect

Some communities face the problems of lack of landfill space and lack of landfill cover dirt. In some cases, existing landfills may be mined to reclaim dirt for use as cover material and to recover space for reuse. Such mining also has the potential of recovering recyclables and incinerator fuels. Machinery to reclaim refuse deposits, and their heterogeneous composted ingredients, was successfully tested at two Florida landfills in June 1987. One of the Florida mining tests, at the Collier County landfill near the city of Naples, had goals of demonstrating an economical mechanical system to separate the depository's ingredients into usable or redisposable components, and to see if the method could enable the county to avoid the expenses associated with permanent closure of a full landfill. This paper describes the history of the Collier County landfill, the equipment and feasibility test, economics, the monitoring of odors, landfill gas, and heavy metals, and results of the test.

Cobb, C.C.; Ruckstuhl, K. (SPM Group, Inc., Preston, MN (USA))

1988-08-01

288

Eliminating the scattering ambiguity in multifocal, multimodal, multiphoton imaging systems.  

PubMed

In this work we present how to entirely remove the scattering ambiguity present in existing multiphoton multifocal systems. This is achieved through the development and implementation of single-element detection systems that incorporate high-speed photon-counting electronics. These systems can be used to image entire volumes in the time it takes to perform a single transverse scan (four depths simultaneously at a rate of 30 Hz). In addition, this capability is further exploited to accomplish single-element detection of multiple modalities (two photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation) and to perform efficient image deconvolution. Finally, we demonstrate a new system that promises to significantly simplify this promising technology. PMID:22461190

Hoover, Erich E; Field, Jeffrey J; Winters, David G; Young, Michael D; Chandler, Eric V; Speirs, John C; Lapenna, Jacob T; Kim, Susy M; Ding, Shi-You; Bartels, Randy A; Wang, Jing W; Squier, Jeff A

2012-05-01

289

Occupational overuse syndrome: moral ambiguities of New Zealand health professionals.  

PubMed

In this article we examine the moral ambiguities expressed by New Zealand health professionals regarding their clients and patients who have occupational overuse syndrome (OOS). Workers with OOS were described as being hard working and dedicated, but also undisciplined in their work and personal lives. The goal of rehabilitation in such cases is a return to full work duties and to this end, health professionals represent the disciplinary and normalizing technologies of the neoliberal state which, in New Zealand, provides financial support and treatment for injured workers. According to the health professionals in this study, the disciplinary technologies exercised through rehabilitation require that clients and patients internalize key values associated with the rhetoric of healthism; primarily self-discipline, self-control, self-denial, and willpower. These underpin successful rehabilitation and ongoing management of OOS, and at the same time represent the central values of the neoliberal capitalist workplace. PMID:21490295

Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth

2011-10-01

290

Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

2009-01-01

291

Cytogenetic abnormalities in acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage: an overview.  

PubMed

Acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) is a rare complex entity with heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic features and adverse outcome. According to World Health Organization 2008 classification, ALAL encompasses those leukaemias that show no clear evidence of differentiation along a single lineage. The rarity of ALAL and the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria have made it difficult to establish its cytogenetic features, although cytogenetic analysis reveals clonal chromosomal abnormalities in 59-91% of patients. This article focuses on the significance of cytogenetic analysis in ALAL supporting the importance of cytogenetic analysis in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, follow up and treatment selection of ALAL. It reviews in detail the types of chromosomal aberrations, their molecular background, their correlation with immunophenotype and age distribution and their prognostic relevance. It also summarizes some novel chromosome aberrations that have been observed only once. Furthermore, it highlights the ongoing and future research on ALAL in the field of cytogenetics. PMID:23888868

Manola, Kalliopi N

2013-10-01

292

Fast Integer Ambiguity Resolution for GPS Attitude Determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a new algorithm for GPS (Global Positioning System) integer ambiguity resolution is shown. The algorithm first incorporates an instantaneous (static) integer search to significantly reduce the search space using a geometric inequality. Then a batch-type loss function is used to check the remaining integers in order to determine the optimal integer. This batch function represents the GPS sightline vectors in the body frame as the sum of two vectors, one depending on the phase measurements and the other on the unknown integers. The new algorithm has several advantages: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can resolve the integers even when coplanar baselines exist. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.

Lightsey, E. Glenn; Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

293

The spatial-temporal ambiguity in auroral modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines the time-dependent models of the aurora which show that various ionospheric parameters respond to the onset of auroral ionization with different time histories. A pass of the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite over Poker Flat, Alaska, and ground based photometric and photographic observations have been used to resolve the time-space ambiguity of a specific auroral event. The density of the O(+), NO(+), O2(+), and N2(+) ions, the electron density, and the electron temperature observed at 280 km altitude in a 50 km wide segment of an auroral arc are predicted by the model if particle precipitation into the region commenced about 11 min prior to the overpass.

Rees, M. H.; Roble, R. G.; Kopp, J.; Abreu, V. J.; Rusch, D. W.; Brace, L. H.; Brinton, H. C.; Hoffman, R. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Kayser, D. C.

1980-01-01

294

Real-time high-rate co-seismic displacement from ambiguity-fixed precise point positioning: Application to earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">Nowadays more and more high-rate real-time GPS data become available that provide a great opportunity to contribute to earthquake early warning (EEW) system in terms of capturing regional surface displacements, as an independent information source, useful for promptly estimating the magnitude of large destructive earthquake. In our study, we demonstrate the performance of the real-time <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-fixed precise point positioning (PPP) approach using 5 Hz GPS data collected during El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2, 4 April 2010). The PPP-based displacements show to agree with accelerometer-based displacement at centimeter level. The key for successfully obtaining high precision displacements is the efficient <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. PPP with <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> fixing can <span class="hlt">result</span> in correct permanent co-seismic offsets and correct recovery of moment magnitude and fault slip inversion at levels comparable to post-processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Bofeng; Wang, Rongjiang; Klotz, Jürgen; Wickert, Jens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1396362"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Child with <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Genitalia: A Neonatal Surgical Emergency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although many birth defects pose a real threat to life if left uncorrected, the problem of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> genitalia, if poorly or incorrectly handled, leads to a lifetime of unhappiness for both parent and child. The evaluation of these defects must be attended to with the same dispatch as any life threatening anomaly. A total of 18 children with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> genitalia have been evaluated and treated in the past two years including nine females with virilizing adreno-genital syndrome, three infants with mixed gonadal dysgenesis, two infants with dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism, two males with severe perineal hypospadias, bifid scrotum, and undescended testicles, and two females with cloacal deformities. Precise diagnosis and most importantly proper gender assignments were made in 11 neonates by cytogenetic, biochemical, and miniaturized endoscopic techniques. Subsequent surgical reconstruction is governed by existing anatomy, not genetic sex, and has been completed in six children two to two and half years of age. Most are reconstructed as females with recession of the enlarged clitoris and vaginoplasty. Males with hypospadias are handled by standard techniques. Seven previously evaluated patients had been lost to follow-up for up to 13 years and were recently reconstructed. Surgical treatment in five older children with extreme virilization and moderate to severe gender confusion was technically successful but associated with pronounced emotional difficulties. Worse than delay in gender assignment, is making the wrong gender assignment, or failing to follow through with the original plan at an early age. Sample cases from each of these categories are presented in detail to illustrate the innovations in the diagnostic and therapeituc management of these children. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Canty, Timothy G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14628500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testosterone supplementation: what and how to <span class="hlt">give</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a gradual decrease of serum testosterone with aging in men. A considerable number of men will experience hypogonadal androgen levels, defined by the normal range for young men. Thus, in addition to the long-standing use of androgen replacement therapy in the classical forms of primary and secondary hypogonadism, age-associated testosterone deficiency has led to considerable developments in application modes for testosterone. Since oral preparations of testosterone are ineffective, due to the first-pass effect of the liver, or, in case of 17 alpha-alkylation, cause hepatotoxicity, intramuscular injection of long-acting esters, such as testosterone enanthate, have been the mainstay of testosterone therapy. However, the large fluctuations of serum testosterone levels cause unsatisfactory shifts of mood and sexual function in some men; combined with the frequent injections, this delivery mode is thus far from being ideal. In contrast, the transdermal testosterone patches are characterized by favorable pharmacokinetic behavior and have proven to be an effective mode of delivery. Safety data over 10 years indicate no negative effect on the prostate. Nevertheless, the scrotal testosterone patch system is hampered by the application site, which is not easily accepted by many subjects; the non-scrotal patch has a high rate of skin irritations. In view of the drawbacks of the currently available preparations, the most recent developments in testosterone supplementation appear to be highly promising agents. Androgen, which has been available in the United States since mid-2000, will be introduced this year in most European markets as Testogel, a hydroalcoholic gel containing 1% testosterone. Doses of 50-100 mg gel applied once daily on the skin deliver sufficient amounts of testosterone to restore normal hormonal values and to correct the signs and symptoms of hypogonadism. The gel has shown to be very effective and successful in American patients, who have benefited from its availability for almost 3 years. Furthermore, in phase II and III clinical studies, the intramuscular injection of 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate every 12-15 weeks has led to extremely stable serum testosterone levels for a prolonged period of time and has <span class="hlt">resulted</span> in excellent efficacy. It is very likely in the future that these products will be the mainstay of testosterone supplementation. Whereas the indication for testosterone substitution for men with classical forms of hypogonadism is unequivocal, the use of testosterone in men with age-associated hypogonadism is less uniformly accepted. Yet, the few studies addressing this question indicate that men with testosterone serum levels below the lower normal limit for young adult men and with lack of energy, libido, depressed mood and osteoporosis may benefit from testosterone supplementation. However, it should be kept in mind that the experience documented in studies is limited. Nevertheless, serious side-effects, especially in regard to the prostate, did not occur, with the longest study extending over 3 years. PMID:14628500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jockenhövel, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disambiguation&pg=6&id=ED236666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comprehension of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Other Polysemous Utterances: Presented in Spoken Mode.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Designed to assess listeners' comprehension of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and polysemous utterances, this instrument is a series of 24 statements that include varying degrees and types of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. Subjects listen to prerecorded audio tapes of these statements, presented in a neutral tone that provides no stress or pitch cues to aid "disambiguation." Subjects are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brause, Rita S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/368832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decision Lists for Lexical <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Yarowsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57734333"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Loss and the Media Practices of Transnational Latina Teens: A Qualitative Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drawing on ethnographic data from a study with 17 working-class, transnational Latina teens, I examine the media practices they perform to cope with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss. According to Pauline Boss (1993, 1999, 2006), <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss refers to a distinct type of loss that defies closure, such as the feelings of the family of a missing person. My findings suggest that Latina</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lucila Vargas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fire+AND+simulation&pg=2&id=EJ747079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aging and the Use of Context in <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution: Complex Changes from Simple Slowing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Older and younger adults' abilities to use context information rapidly during <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution were investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, younger and older adults heard <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words (e.g., fires) in sentences where the preceding context supported either the less frequent or more frequent meaning of the word. Both age groups showed good…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dagerman, Karen Stevens; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Harm, Michael W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+executive+AND+functions&pg=2&id=EJ900359"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Detection in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: Is Central Coherence or Theory of Mind Impaired?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to investigate the role of central coherence skills and theory of mind competences in <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> detection in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). We sought to pinpoint the level at which AS individuals experience difficulty detecting semantic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and identify the factors that account for their problems. We…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Gierski, Fabien; Motte, Jacques</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=statistics&pg=7&id=EJ1021774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification and Definition of Lexically <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lexical <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=change+AND+text&pg=6&id=EJ932529"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Eye-Movement Analysis of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution: Beyond Meaning Access</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The research reported here addresses the status of the unselected meaning of a lexically <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> word in developing the larger meaning of the text by independently manipulating lexical and discourse-level variables in the text. In a series of 3 eye-movement experiments, participants read passages that contained 2 occurrences of an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Binder, Katherine S.; Morris, Robin K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42547733"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceived <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Relationship to Perceptions of Cancer Preventability, Risk, and Worry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we apply the concept of “<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>,” as developed in the decision theory literature, to an analysis of potential psychological consequences of uncertainty about cancer prevention recommendations. We used Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003 data to examine how perceived <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> about cancer prevention recommendations relates to three other cognitive variables known to influence cancer-protective behavior: perceived</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul K. J. Han; Richard P. Moser; William M. P. Klein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51185373"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Functions for Monostatic and Bistatic Radar Systems using UWB Throb Signal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Waveform design and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function are significant tools for the performance analysis of radar systems. We first describe the principle of waveform design for ultrawideband (UWB) impulse waveforms and present the signal model and the advantages of a UWB-throb signal. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function of the UWB-throb signal for monostatic radar is derived in detail and analyzed by computer simulation to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malek G. M. Hussain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.personeel.unimaas.nl/tom.smeets/Smeets%20et%20al.%20ACP.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">‘Of course I remember seeing that film’—how <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> questions generate crashing memories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Although previous research has shown that people are willing to report having seen non-existent footages of high publicity events, no study has looked at the potential boundaries of what has been dubbed the crashing memory paradigm. We examined whether the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of interview questions may lead some people to affirm without much conviction having seen non-existent footages. Using <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tom Smeets; Marko Jelicic; Maarten J. V. Peters; Ingrid Candel; Robert Horselenberg; Harald Merckelbach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=priming&pg=4&id=EJ1005700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Morphological Processing Is Sensitive to Morphemic Meanings: Evidence from Processing <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Morphemes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In three priming experiments, we investigated whether the meanings of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> morphemes were activated during word recognition. Using a meaning generation task, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the dominant meaning of individually presented <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> morphemes was reported more often than did other less frequent meanings. Also, participants tended…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52047371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of EMC by applying <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and environmental diagrams to the design of radar waveforms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique for improving the electromagnetic compatibility of a radar system with respect to its operating electromagnetic environment and to assess RF spectrum usage is presented. The technique involves the use of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> diagram derived from the waveform and the construction of environmental diagrams for the radar. Overlays of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> diagram upon the environmental diagram, along desired target</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. D. Aasen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27028283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of EMC by Applying <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Environmental Diagrams to the Design of Radar Waveforms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique for improving the electromagnetic compatibility of a radar system with respect to its operating electromagnetic environment and to assess RF spectrum usage is presented. The technique involves the use of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> diagram derived from the waveform and the construction of environinental diagrams for the radar. Overlays of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> diagram upon the environmental diagram, along desired target</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marvin Aasen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+processing&pg=2&id=EJ933021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implicit and Explicit Understanding of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Figures by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can process both interpretations of an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figure (e.g. rabbit/duck) when told about the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, however they tend not to do so spontaneously. Here we show that although adolescents with ASD can explicitly experience such "reversals", implicit measures suggest they are conceptually processing…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, Melissa L.; Chambers, Alison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chien&pg=7&id=EJ872777"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Advantage Revisited: Two Meanings Are Better than One when Accessing Chinese Nouns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper revisits the effect of lexical <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in word recognition, which has been controversial as previous research reported advantage, disadvantage, and null effects. We discuss factors that were not consistently treated in previous research (e.g., the level of lexical <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> investigated, parts of speech of the experimental stimuli,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Chien-Jer Charles; Ahrens, Kathleen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36974373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reactions of a psychotherapy group to <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> circumstances surrounding the death of a group member</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes the reactions of group-therapy patients on a psychiatric ward of a general hospital to the death of a group member who died in the hospital the day before the session in question took place. The circumstances of this patient's death were <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> as to whether the death was due to suicide or accident. In view of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donald D. Kirtley; Joseph M. Sacks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soa&id=EJ825147"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting Degrees of Inflectional <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: Stem Form and the Time Course of Morphological Processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors compared sublexical and supralexical approaches to morphological processing with unambiguous and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> inflected words and words with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> stems in 3 masked and unmasked priming experiments in Finnish. Experiment 1 showed equal facilitation for all prime types with a short 60-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) but significant…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jarvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkonen, Pirita; Niemi, Jussi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6173438"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AMBIGUITY</span> FUNCTIONS OF DIRECT CHAOTIC RADAR EMPLOYING MICROWAVE CHAOTIC COLPITTS OSCILLATOR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract—The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> functions of a kind of direct chaotic radar system are investigated. In this radar system, a microwave chaotic Colpitts oscillator is employed to generate the source signal that is directly transmitted through a wideband antenna without modulation. The auto-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function of this radar system shows many sidelobes which makes the unambiguous detection difficult. It is because the spectrum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhi-Guo Shi; Shan Qiao; S. Chen; T. Jiang; X. Ran; Li-Xin Ran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ambiguity%22&pg=7&id=ED541574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Midwestern Millennial University Students' Tolerance for <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in a Period of Complex World Conflicts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Though age and gender do not affect students' knowledge of global issues and associated <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, the academic major of undergraduates did. Students' combined perceptions on knowledge of these issues and their associated <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> varied among the four academic groups of majors. Unlike teacher education majors and in combined other majors…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahdi, Ghada S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914271.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role Conflict and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> as Predictors of Job Satisfaction in High School Counselors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ambiguity%22&pg=6&id=EJ851496"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Phonemic Repetition on Syntactic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution: Implications for Models of Working Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two reading experiments investigated the extent to which the presence of phonemic repetition in sentences influenced processing difficulty during syntactic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. In both experiments, participants read sentences silently as reading time was measured. Reading time on sentences containing a temporary syntactic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> was compared…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kennison, Shelia M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ambiguity%22&pg=4&id=EJ756533"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> of Out-of-Home Care: Children with Severe or Profound Disabilities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> loss and boundary <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> experienced by families during the process of placing their child in out-of-home care was described by parents in 20 families raising a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities. In retrospective interviews, parents discussed their experiences before and after placing their child and how they…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roper, Susanne Olsen; Jackson, Jeffrey B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rcs&pg=4&id=EJ880799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is interesting to study possible transfer…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rah, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57129214"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implicit and explicit understanding of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figures by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can process both interpretations of an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figure (e.g. rabbit\\/duck) when told about the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, however they tend not to do so spontaneously. Here we show that although adolescents with ASD can explicitly experience such ‘reversals’, implicit measures suggest they are conceptually processing the images differently from learning disabled peers. Participants copied the same</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melissa L. Allen; Alison Chambers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23318027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Psychotic-like symptoms and positive schizotypy are associated with mixed and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> handedness in an adolescent community sample.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to replicate the association between atypical handedness and psychosis-proneness in a representative sample of adolescents from the general population. It expands previous studies by (1) analyzing a variety of atypical handedness indexes (left, mixed, <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>, and inconsistent), (2) measuring comprehensively the multidimensionality of psychosis-proneness, and (3) analyzing the association of different patterns of atypical handedness with nonclinical dimensions of both trait (schizotypy) and sub-clinical symptom (psychotic-like experiences) levels. Seven hundred and twenty-eight adolescents were assessed for handedness by the 12-item self-report Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire and for psychosis-proneness by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales. Writing-hand alone did not detect associations between laterality and psychosis-proneness. Mixed- rather than left-handedness was related to psychosis-proneness, and this was more evident when analyzing subjects with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> handedness exclusively. When analysis was restricted to subjects with non-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> handedness, strong left-handedness was related to psychosis-proneness. The positive dimension showed a stronger association than the negative one with atypical handedness. <span class="hlt">Results</span> partially support mixed-handedness as a marker of developmental disorders underlying both atypical lateralization and psychosis-proneness. Among various possible mixed-handedness patterns, inconsistent hand use across primary actions, and for the same action across time, seems particularly related to psychosis-proneness and thus requires further exploration. PMID:23318027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette; Navarro, Blas; Vicens-Vilanova, Jordi; Obiols, Jordi; Kwapil, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4066879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Sequence <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> of the HIV-1 pol gene as a Method to Identify Recent HIV-1 Infection in Transmitted Drug Resistance Surveys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. In this analysis, we explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining the percentage of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> base calls in sequences derived from standard genotyping of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. Sequences from 691 recently infected (?1 year) and chronically infected (>1 year) individuals from Sweden, Vietnam and Ethiopia were analyzed for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. A significant difference (p <0.0001) in the proportion of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases was observed between sequences from individuals with recent and chronic infection in both HIV-1 subtype B and non-B infection, consistent with previous studies. In our analysis, a cutoff of <0.47% <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> base calls identified recent infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.8% and 74.6% respectively. 1,728 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from 36 surveys of transmitted HIV drug resistance performed following World Health Organization guidance were analyzed for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. The 0.47% <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> cutoff was applied and survey sequences were classified as likely derived from recently or chronically infected individuals. 71% of patients were classified as likely to have been infected within one year of genotyping but <span class="hlt">results</span> varied considerably amongst surveys. This bioinformatics approach may provide supporting population-level information to identify recent infection but its application is limited by infection with more than one viral variant, decreasing viral diversity in advanced disease and technical aspects of population based sequencing. Standardization of sequencing techniques and base calling and the addition of other parameters such as CD4 cell count may address some of the technical limitations and increase the usefulness of the approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sonnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/wt31163t6042562h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Interactive Effects of Role Conflict and Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> on Job Satisfaction and Attitudes Toward Organizational Change: A Moderated Multiple Regression Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the joint effects of both role conflict and role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> on job satisfaction and three dimensions of attitudes toward organizational change, namely affective, cognitive, and behavioral tendency in a multicultural work setting. The study used a sample of 397 employees from several manufacturing and service organizations in the United Arab Emirates. <span class="hlt">Results</span> of the moderated regression analysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Darwish A. Yousef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......261M"> <span id="translatedtitle">New algorithm for on-the-fly <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution of real-time differential GPS positioning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research is mainly focused on a new algorithm proposed to address the on-the-fly <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution problem in real-time differential GPS positioning. The new algorithm consists of an "intermediate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search strategy (IASS)" and an "estimator bank" with a search window as a bridge between both components (i.e. IASS and the estimator bank). Based on the proposed (new) algorithm, the program, "Real Time Positioning (RTP)", was developed using MATLAB. As compared with existing methods, the advantages of the proposed algorithm include simplicity, robustness, and versatility. Three GPS experiments (i.e. one static and two kinematic cases---buoy and aircraft) were used to evaluate the capability of the proposed algorithm. And, to confirm the validation of the proposed algorithm, <span class="hlt">results</span> from MSODP (Multi Satellite Orbit Determination Program), a tide gauge, and KARS (Kinematic And Rapid Static) code were adopted as the reference values. The test <span class="hlt">results</span> of these three cases indicate that the magnitudes of average differences (between the RTP solution and the reference values) are less than 1.9 cm and the corresponding standard deviations are less than 1.3 cm in the three components (X,Y,Z) of the ECEF (Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed) coordinate system and in the vertical direction of the local geodetic coordinate system. In addition, the average processing time (from the input of the RINEX and navigation files to position estimates) is less than or equal to 0.627 seconds for each epoch during the confirmation period as the data were collected at a rate of 1 Hz, which allows the proposed algorithm to meet a requirement for high accuracy, real-time positioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mao, Jen-Hao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22985116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Who <span class="hlt">gives</span>? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PMID:22985116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705312"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> melanocytic tumors with loss of 3p21.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Germline loss-of-function mutations in BAP1 are associated with the development of cutaneous melanocytic tumors with some histopathologic characteristics seen in Spitz nevi. Similar melanocytic tumors occurring in a sporadic setting have been demonstrated to have biallelic loss of BAP1. In some of these sporadic tumors, loss of BAP1 occurs through mutation of 1 allele and genomic loss of the other. We screened our database of comparative genomic hybridization profiles of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> melanocytic tumors to identify cases with a single genomic event involving loss of the BAP1 locus. The prevalence of tumors with a single genomic event involving loss of BAP1 was 6.7% in our study population. We further characterized the BAP1 status in 17 of these tumors with available additional material, confirming loss of BAP1 in all cases. We describe BAP1 loss in a blue nevus-like melanoma and further expand the histopathologic spectrum of spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms with BAP1 loss. PMID:24705312</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeh, Iwei; Mully, Thaddeus W; Wiesner, Thomas; Vemula, Swapna S; Mirza, Sonia A; Sparatta, Alyssa J; McCalmont, Timothy H; Bastian, Boris C; LeBoit, Philip E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9193125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bias in interpretation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> scenarios in eating disorders.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eating disorders appear to be associated with biased information processing, particularly in judgments involving the self. This study investigated three possible biases. Patients with anorexia nervosa, patients with bulimia nervosa and female controls completed questionnaires designed to assess interpretation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> scenarios with either a negative or positive outcome. When events had a negative outcome the patients responded spontaneously to open-ended questions with a weight and shape interpretation. Later, in a forced-choice format, they selected the weight and shape interpretation in preference to interpretations not connected to weight and shape. In both open-ended and forced-choice format this bias was specific to judgments involving the self. When events had a positive outcome the bias was reversed and, in the two formats, it was found only in judgments involving others. In both cases, i.e. for negative self-referent events and for positive other-referent events, patients predicted that weight and shape explanations were more likely. Both groups of patients estimated that negative outcomes involving the self would be more costly. The patients with bulimia nervosa also estimated that positive outcomes involving the self would be more beneficial. Theoretical explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:9193125</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627604"> <span id="translatedtitle">When in doubt, seize the day? Security values, prosocial values, and proactivity under <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Researchers have suggested that both <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and values play important roles in shaping employees' proactive behaviors, but have not theoretically or empirically integrated these factors. Drawing on theories of situational strength and values, we propose that <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> constitutes a weak situation that strengthens the relationship between the content of employees' values and their proactivity. A field study of 204 employees and their direct supervisors in a water treatment plant provided support for this contingency perspective. <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> moderated the relationship between employees' security and prosocial values and supervisor ratings of proactivity. Under high <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, security values predicted lower proactivity, whereas prosocial values predicted higher proactivity. Under low <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, values were not associated with proactivity. We replicated these findings in a laboratory experiment with 232 participants in which we measured proactivity objectively as initiative taken to correct errors: Participants with strong security values were less proactive, and participants with strong prosocial values were more proactive, but only when performance expectations were <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>. We discuss theoretical implications for research on proactivity, values, and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and uncertainty. PMID:23627604</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, Adam M; Rothbard, Nancy P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2821102"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abnormal N400 Responses But Intact Differential Hemispheric Processing of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Schizophrenia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disordered thinking in schizophrenia may be a consequence of the selection of conceptual associates of dominant meanings of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> words despite contextual information suggesting subordinate meanings are more appropriate. Previous work using short sentences showed a large N400 event-related potential to subordinate meaning associates and a behavioral semantic bias, but <span class="hlt">results</span> were variable. The current experiment used word pairs to simplify the procedure and to less tax memory maintenance. Furthermore, hemispheric responses were compared, as evidence suggests the left hemisphere may select dominant meanings, while the right hemisphere may keep all possible meanings active. Subjects indicated whether two words (CUE, TARGET) were related. The CUE, presented for 1 second, could be an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> or an unambiguous noun, and the TARGET, presented 1.25 seconds after the onset of the CUE, was a dominant or subordinate associate, or a related or an unrelated word, respectively. The N400-effect was calculated from difference waveforms over 400-600 msec. Groups (23 schizophrenia, 25 matched controls) showed significantly different N400-effects to the words (group x word, p =.04). Controls showed a graded response, with dominant < subordinate < unrelated. Schizophrenia patients showed the largest N400-effect to subordinate associates, with less activity to dominant meaning associates and unrelated words. Both groups showed a right hemisphere distribution to unrelated words and substantial left hemisphere activation to subordinate associates (word x hemisphere, p <.001). These data support a semantic bias in schizophrenia. They also demonstrate a special role of the right hemisphere in maintaining broad homograph meaning hierarchies. This hemispheric specialization appears to be intact in schizophrenia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salisbury, Dean F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/exercise/motivation.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motivation and the Power of Not <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Up</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivation and the Power of Not <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Up KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Exercise > Motivation and the Power of Not <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Up Print ... celebrate. It <span class="hlt">gives</span> you the confidence, courage, and motivation to keep running — or doing whatever it is ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37491249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Doctors' decision-making on <span class="hlt">giving</span> information to cancer patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A major focus in the literature about doctor-patient communication is information-<span class="hlt">giving</span>. In the case of cancer patients, one significant issue is which factors determine whether and how, general practitioners and oncologists <span class="hlt">give</span> information to their patients. Whatever may be the content of information, the most important choice for the doctor is to <span class="hlt">give</span> information or not. Our research group at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesús Rodríguez-Marín; Sofía López-Roig; María A. Pastor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740030260&hterms=Dunning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDunning"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pipe flow measurements of turbulence and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> using laser-Doppler velocimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The laser-Doppler <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> predicted by George and Lumley (1973) have been verified experimentally for turbulent pipe flows. Experiments were performed at Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 15,000 at the center line and near the wall. <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> levels were measured from power spectral densities of FM demodulated laser signals and were compared with calculations based on the theory. The turbulent spectra for these water flows after accounting for the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> were equivalent to hot-film measurements at similar Reynolds numbers. The feasibility of laser-Doppler measurements very close to the wall in shear flows is demonstrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berman, N. S.; Dunning, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890050251&hterms=ambiguity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522ambiguity%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global positioning system network analysis with phase <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution applied to crustal deformation studies in California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient algorithm is developed for multisession adjustment of GPS data with simultaneous orbit determination and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. Application of the algorithm to the analysis of data from a five-year campaign in progress in southern and central California to monitor tectonic motions using observations by GPS satellites, demonstrates improvements in estimates of station position and satellite orbits when the phase <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> are resolved. Most of the phase <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in the GPS network were resolved, particularly for all the baselines of geophysical interest in California.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Da-Nan; Bock, Yehuda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890016009&hterms=phase+shifter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dphase%2Bshifter"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution for QPSK modulation systems. Part 1: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Part 1 reviews the current phase-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution techniques for QPSK coherent modulation systems. Here, those known and published methods of resolving phase <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for QPSK with and without Forward-Error-Correcting (FEC) are discussed. The necessary background is provided for a complete understanding of the second part where a new technique will be discussed. An appropriate technique to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is recommended for consideration in future standards on phase-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution for QPSK coherent modulation systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, Tien Manh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503278"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the 5-HT, NA and DA systems on the cognitive judgement bias of rats in the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>-cue interpretation paradigm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the serotonergic (5-HT), noradrenergic (NA) and dopaminergic (DA) systems on the valence of cognitive judgement bias of rats in the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span>-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. To accomplish this goal, after initial behavioural training, different groups of rats received single injections of citalopram, desipramine or d-amphetamine and were subsequently tested with the ACI paradigm. Each drug was administered in 3 doses using a fully randomised Latin square design. Citalopram at the dose of 1mg/kg significantly biased animals towards positive interpretation of the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> cue, while at higher doses (5 and 10mg/kg), the animals interpreted the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> cue more negatively. Desipramine at all 3 tested doses (1, 2 and 5mg/kg) significantly biased animals towards negative interpretation of the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> cue, while d-amphetamine at the dose of 1mg/kg induced positive bias, having no effects at lower doses (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg). Our <span class="hlt">results</span> indicate that cognitive bias in rats can be influenced by acute pharmacological intervention. PMID:24503278</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rygula, Rafal; Papciak, Justyna; Popik, Piotr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA531426"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satisfaction of Modulus and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Function Constraints in Radar Waveform Optimization for Detection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the design of radar systems that are capable of using knowledge of their interference environment to dynamically design transmit waveforms that afford optimum signal-to-interference- plus-noiseratio while satisfying modulus and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> funct...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. K. Patton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090022172&hterms=ambiguity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522ambiguity%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolving the Azimuthal <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: Theoretical Examination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate that the azimuthal <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> that is present in solar vector magnetogram data can be resolved with line-of-sight and horizontal heliographic derivative information by using the divergence-free property of magnetic fields without additional assumptions. We discuss the specific derivative information that is sufficient to resolve the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> away from disk center, with particular emphasis on the line-of-sight derivative of the various components of the magnetic field. Conversely, we also show cases where <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution fails because sufficient line-of-sight derivative information is not available. For example, knowledge of only the line-of-sight derivative of the line-of-sight component of the field is not sufficient to resolve the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> away from disk center.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crouch, A.; Barnes, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27073005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inference-Based <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Management in Decentralized Decision-Making: Decentralized Control of Discrete Event Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decentralized decision-making requires the interaction of various local decision-makers in order to arrive at a global decision. Limited sensing capabilities at each local site can create <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in a decision-making process at each local site. We argue that such <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> are of differing gradations. We propose a framework for decentralized decision-making (applied to decentralized control in particular) that allows computation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ratnesh Kumar; Shigemasa Takai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50446608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inference-based <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Management in Decentralized Decision-Making: Decentralized Control of Discrete Event Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decentralized decision-making requires the interaction of various local decision-makers in order to arrive at a global decision. Limited sensing capabilities at each local site can create <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in a decision-making process at each local site. We argue that such <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> are of differing gradations. We propose a framework for decentralized decisionmaking (applied to decentralized control in particular) which allows computation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ratnesh Kumar; Shigemasa Takai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ASPC..415..365L"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Automated <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>-Resolution Code for Hinode/SP Vector Magnetic Field Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fast, automated algorithm is presented for use in resolving the 180° <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>-resolved data for the general user community. Here we generally describe the released code (available at http://www.cora.nwra.com/AMBIG), examples of its performance and usage for Hinode/SP data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Crouch, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3tw7443213751v02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation Bias for <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Social Behavior Among Individuals with High and Low Levels of Social Anxiety</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated whether high socially anxious individuals interpret other people’s <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> behavior in a more negative\\u000a or threatening manner in comparison to low socially anxious individuals, after controlling for the effects of depression.\\u000a High and low socially anxious participants (N = 31) gave a speech. During the speech, a confederate performed <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> behaviors. After the speech, participants were\\u000a asked to answer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshihiro Kanai; Satoko Sasagawa; Junwen Chen; Hironori Shimada; Yuji Sakano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53634086"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radar waveform selection based on the calculation and application of radar <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude of the radar <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function for commonly used radar waveforms is calculated and displayed in three-dimensional diagrams. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> functions are calculated as a function of range delay and Doppler frequency. For a specified clutter environment and a particular radar waveform, the signal-to-clutter ratio for a desired target is calculated. A method to select a radar waveform, given</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Reed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural representation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual objects in the inferior temporal cortex.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inferior temporal (IT) cortex as the final stage of the ventral visual pathway is involved in visual object recognition. In our everyday life we need to recognize visual objects that are degraded by noise. Psychophysical studies have shown that the accuracy and speed of the object recognition decreases as the amount of visual noise increases. However, the neural representation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual objects and the underlying neural mechanisms of such changes in the behavior are not known. Here, by recording the neuronal spiking activity of macaque monkeys' IT we explored the relationship between stimulus <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and the IT neural activity. We found smaller amplitude, later onset, earlier offset and shorter duration of the response as visual <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> increased. All of these modulations were gradual and correlated with the level of stimulus <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. We found that while category selectivity of IT neurons decreased with noise, it was preserved for a large extent of visual <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>. This noise tolerance for category selectivity in IT was lost at 60% noise level. Interestingly, while the response of the IT neurons to visual stimuli at 60% noise level was significantly larger than their baseline activity and full (100%) noise, it was not category selective anymore. The latter finding shows a neural representation that signals the presence of visual stimulus without signaling what it is. In general these findings, in the context of a drift diffusion model, explain the neural mechanisms of perceptual accuracy and speed changes in the process of recognizing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> objects. PMID:24098569</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emadi, Nazli; Esteky, Hossein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3159952"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Advantage of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>? Enhanced Neural Responses to Multi-Stable Percepts Correlate with the Degree of Perceived Instability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Artwork can often pique the interest of the viewer or listener as a <span class="hlt">result</span> of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> or instability contained within it. Our engagement with uncertain sensory experiences might have its origins in early cortical responses, in that perceptually unstable stimuli might preclude neural habituation and maintain activity in early sensory areas. To assess this idea, participants engaged with an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual stimulus wherein two squares alternated with one another, in terms of simultaneously opposing vertical and horizontal locations relative to fixation (i.e., stroboscopic alternating motion; von Schiller, 1933). At each trial, participants were invited to interpret the movement of the squares in one of five ways: traditional vertical or horizontal motion, novel clockwise or counter-clockwise motion, and, a free-view condition in which participants were encouraged to switch the direction of motion as often as possible. Behavioral reports of perceptual stability showed clockwise and counter-clockwise motion to possess an intermediate level of stability compared to relatively stable vertical and horizontal motion, and, relatively unstable motion perceived during free-view conditions. Early visual evoked components recorded at parietal–occipital sites such as C1, P1, and N1 modulated as a function of visual intention. Both at a group and individual level, increased perceptual instability was related to increased negativity in all three of these early visual neural responses. Engagement with increasingly <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> input may partly <span class="hlt">result</span> from the underlying exaggerated neural response to it. The study underscores the utility of combining neuroelectric recording with the presentation of perceptually multi-stable yet physically identical stimuli, in revealing brain activity associated with the purely internal process of interpreting and appreciating the sensory world that surrounds us.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dyson, Benjamin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ896174.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Spiritual Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using spiritual and religious resources <span class="hlt">gives</span> patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of <span class="hlt">giving</span> spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to interview 4…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deal, Belinda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oppong&id=EJ720879"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Tree Teachers: Women and the National Board Certification Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shel Silverstein's children's book "The <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Tree" imparts a useful metaphor for thinking about the role of teachers--women teachers in particular. The book's namesake is the epitome of altruism, providing branches, fruit, and even her trunk so that her beloved boy might have what he desires. And so it goes for women; endless <span class="hlt">giving</span>, nurturing,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Tara Star; Bruce, Mary; Graham, Peg; Oliver, Steve; Oppong, Nicholas; Park, Soonhye; Mansberger, Dorann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://webuser.bus.umich.edu/janedut/Identity/Grant%20dutton%20rosso.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">GIVING</span> COMMITMENT: EMPLOYEE SUPPORT PROGRAMS AND THE PROSOCIAL SENSEMAKING PROCESS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Researchers have assumed that employee support programs cultivate affective organ- izational commitment by enabling employees to receive support. Using multimethod data from a Fortune 500 retail company, we propose that these programs also strengthen commitment by enabling employees to <span class="hlt">give</span> support. We find that <span class="hlt">giving</span> strengthens affective organizational commitment through a \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ADAM M. GRANT; JANE E. DUTTON; BRENT D. ROSSO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Financial+AND+trust+AND+risk&pg=3&id=EJ214495"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Planned <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Profession: Perspective for the 80's.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Planned <span class="hlt">giving</span>," the term preferred over "deferred <span class="hlt">giving</span>," should be incorporated by institutions in their development portfolios rather than risk losing the allegiance of major donors and their donations. Professionalism is seen as the hallmark of successful fund-raising. Responsibilities of the governing board are outlined. (MLW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fink, Norman S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonprofit+AND+fundraising&pg=5&id=EJ294898"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> and Getting: A Study of Charitable Contributions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The resourceful response of nonprofit organizations to recent economic problems is characterized by more professional fundraising and management of assets and greater accountability. Generally optimistic projections are made for individual, corporate, and foundation <span class="hlt">giving</span> from 1983 to 1988, with <span class="hlt">giving</span> to educational and health care organizations…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAuley, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2038067"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Models of <span class="hlt">giving</span> have often been based on altruism. Examples include charity and intergenerational transfers. The literatures on both subjects have centered around neutrality hypotheses: charity is subject to complete crowding out, while intergenerational transfers are subject to Ricardian equivalence. This paper formally develops a model of <span class="hlt">giving</span> in which altruism is not \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Andreoni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045952"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> back or <span class="hlt">giving</span> up: Native American student experiences in science and engineering.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Native Americans are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. We examine communal goal incongruence-the mismatch between students' emphasis on communal work goals and the noncommunal culture of STEM-as a possible factor in this underrepresentation. First, we surveyed 80 Native American STEM freshmen and found they more highly endorsed communal goals than individualistic work goals. Next, we surveyed 96 Native American and White American students in STEM and non-STEM majors and confirmed that both Native American men and women in STEM highly endorsed communal goals. In a third study, we conducted a follow-up survey and in-depth interviews with a subset of Native American STEM students in their second semester to assess their experiences of belonging uncertainty, intrinsic motivation, persistence intentions, and perceived performance in STEM as a function of their initial communal work goals. <span class="hlt">Results</span> demonstrate the prominence of communal goals among incoming Native American freshman (especially compared with White male STEM majors) and the connection between communal goals and feelings of belonging uncertainty, low motivation, and perceived poor performance 1 semester later. The interview data illustrate that these issues are particularly salient for students raised within tribal communities, and that a communal goal orientation is not just a vague desire to "help others," but a commitment to helping their tribal communities. The interviews also highlight the importance of student support programs for fostering feelings of belonging. We end by discussing implications for interventions and institutional changes that may promote Native American student retention in STEM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25045952</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Jessi L; Cech, Erin; Metz, Anneke; Huntoon, Meghan; Moyer, Christina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://203.72.2.115/ejournal/3082060103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">??????????????? Whale-watching price competition and differentiation gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> strategy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the economic benefits of differentiating gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> strategy adopted by firms that provide a whale-watching ecotourism activity in the marine tourism industry. Under assumed that tourists may not encounter the whales in the whale- watching activity that <span class="hlt">results</span> in imposing psychological disappoint upon them, what gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> strategies do firms adopt to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yao-Hsien Lee; Yi-Lun Ho; Tsung-Tai Yang; Ying-Zui Lu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887509"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separable responses to error, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and reaction time in cingulo-opercular task control regions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC), along with the closely affiliated anterior insula/frontal operculum, have been demonstrated to show three types of task control signals across a wide variety of tasks. One of these signals, a transient signal that is thought to represent performance feedback, shows greater activity to error than correct trials. Other work has found similar effects for uncertainty/<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> or conflict, though some argue that dACC activity is, instead, modulated primarily by other processes more reflected in reaction time. Here, we demonstrate that, rather than a single explanation, multiple information processing operations are crucial to characterizing the function of these brain regions, by comparing operations within a single paradigm. Participants performed two tasks in an fMRI experimental session: (1) deciding whether or not visually presented word pairs rhyme, and (2) rating auditorily presented single words as abstract or concrete. A pilot was used to identify <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> stimuli for both tasks (e.g., word pair: BASS/GRACE; single word: CHANGE). We found greater cingulo-opercular activity for errors and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> trials than clear/correct trials, with a robust effect of reaction time. The effects of error and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> remained when reaction time was regressed out, although the differences decreased. Further stepwise regression of response consensus (agreement across participants for each stimulus; a proxy for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>) decreased differences between <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and clear trials, but left error-related differences almost completely intact. These observations suggest that trial-wise responses in cingulo-opercular regions monitor multiple performance indices, including accuracy, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and reaction time. PMID:24887509</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neta, Maital; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060051884&hterms=Behavior-Driven+Development&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBehavior-Driven%2BDevelopment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Various <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in Re-constructing Laser Pulse Parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We think that mode lock laser pulses are generated by the summation process that take place between the monochromatic EM filed frequencies as if they interact with each other as shown in equation 1. In reality, the pulse generation is a collaborative interaction process between EM fields and various material medium. When we carry out the actual mode lock analysis, we do take into account of interpaly between all the temporal dynamics of the cavity gain medium, cavity round trip time and the response time of the intra cavity element (saturable absorber, Kerr medium, etc.). that really enforces the locking of the phase of the cavity spontaneous emissions. On a conceptual level, this simplistic representation of the mode locking by Eq.1 ignores all these critical physical processes. When we try to analyze a pulsed field, again we start by representing it very much like this equation, even though we can only detect the square modulus of this complex field and loose a lot of phase related information to the detectors quantum whims and their time constants. The key parameters for a light pulse are as follows. Foremost is the (i) carrier frequency, which cannot be described or imagined without its state of undulation expressed as its (ii) phase. Next is our imagined time finite (iii) carrier envelope that provides the temporal boundary of the field amplitude strength of the undulating E-field. The final parameter is the (iv) state of polarization or the unique plane along which the strength of the E-field gradient undulates. None of these filed characteristics are made self-evident to us by the fields themselves. We do not see light. Light does not see light. Light beams pass through each other without altering each others energy distribution unless there are interacting material molecules (dipoles) within the physical volume of superposition of the beams. In contrast, we can sense the material particles. Material particles sense each other and they cannot pass through each other without interacting with (scattering from) each other. Thus the interpretation of the superposition phenomenon of multiple fields on detectors should not be lumped under the mysterious "wave-particle duality" philosophy. The phenomenon of superposition can be understood better when we focus on the actual process experienced by the detecting dipoles when allowed by QM rules, they respond to and sum all the induced stimulations due to all the superposed fields followed by the proportionate energy absorption <span class="hlt">giving</span> rise to the fringes we observe. We will present various experimental <span class="hlt">results</span> to illustrate our arguments. Our position is that such detector behavior driven interpretations rather than the generally implied field-field interaction driven explanations, will help us better understand the ultimate nature of light and hence invent better and newer devices and instruments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Prasa, Narasimha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020052"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent <span class="hlt">results</span> sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical <span class="hlt">results</span> indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in the interpretation of test data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lessoff, S. C.; Konikow, L. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23479638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic processor allows rapid HER2 immunohistochemistry of breast carcinomas and significantly reduces <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> (2+) read-outs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomarker analysis is playing an essential role in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction. Quantitative assessment of immunohistochemical biomarker expression on tumor tissues is of clinical relevance when deciding targeted treatments for cancer patients. Here, we report a microfluidic tissue processor that permits accurate quantification of the expression of biomarkers on tissue sections, enabled by the ultra-rapid and uniform fluidic exchange of the device. An important clinical biomarker for invasive breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [(HER2), also known as neu], a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that connotes adverse prognostic information for the patients concerned and serves as a target for personalized treatment using the humanized antibody trastuzumab. Unfortunately, when using state-of-the-art methods, the intensity of an immunohistochemical signal is not proportional to the extent of biomarker expression, causing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> outcomes. Using our device, we performed tests on 76 invasive breast carcinoma cases expressing various levels of HER2. We eliminated more than 90% of the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> <span class="hlt">results</span> (n = 27), correctly assigning cases to the amplification status as assessed by in situ hybridization controls, whereas the concordance for HER2-negative (n = 31) and -positive (n = 18) cases was 100%. Our <span class="hlt">results</span> demonstrate the clinical potential of microfluidics for accurate biomarker expression analysis. We anticipate our technique will be a diagnostic tool that will provide better and more reliable data, onto which future treatment regimes can be based. PMID:23479638</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Gijs, Martin A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic processor allows rapid HER2 immunohistochemistry of breast carcinomas and significantly reduces <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> (2+) read-outs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomarker analysis is playing an essential role in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction. Quantitative assessment of immunohistochemical biomarker expression on tumor tissues is of clinical relevance when deciding targeted treatments for cancer patients. Here, we report a microfluidic tissue processor that permits accurate quantification of the expression of biomarkers on tissue sections, enabled by the ultra-rapid and uniform fluidic exchange of the device. An important clinical biomarker for invasive breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [(HER2), also known as neu], a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that connotes adverse prognostic information for the patients concerned and serves as a target for personalized treatment using the humanized antibody trastuzumab. Unfortunately, when using state-of-the-art methods, the intensity of an immunohistochemical signal is not proportional to the extent of biomarker expression, causing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> outcomes. Using our device, we performed tests on 76 invasive breast carcinoma cases expressing various levels of HER2. We eliminated more than 90% of the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> <span class="hlt">results</span> (n = 27), correctly assigning cases to the amplification status as assessed by in situ hybridization controls, whereas the concordance for HER2-negative (n = 31) and -positive (n = 18) cases was 100%. Our <span class="hlt">results</span> demonstrate the clinical potential of microfluidics for accurate biomarker expression analysis. We anticipate our technique will be a diagnostic tool that will provide better and more reliable data, onto which future treatment regimes can be based.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Gijs, Martin A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15693677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why cast shadows are expendable: insensitivity of human observers and the inherent <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of cast shadows in pictorial art.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kinds of visual cues artists choose to use or not use in their work can offer insight into perceptual processes. On the basis of the observed paucity of the use of cast shadow in pictorial art, we hypothesized that cast shadows might be relatively expendable as pictorial cues. In this study, we investigated two potential reasons for this expendability: first, viewers might be insensitive to much of the information that cast shadows provide; and, second, <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> about what is shadow and what is pigment can often be resolved only through motion-something that static media are ill-equipped to deal with. In experiment 1, we used a visual-search paradigm in which viewers had to determine if there were odd cast shadows in sets of 4, 8, 16, and 32 objects. In experiment 2, viewers had to discriminate between shadow/pigment <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in both still and moving images. Our <span class="hlt">results</span> demonstrate that viewers are neither particularly sensitive to static cast-shadow incongruities, nor are they able to disambiguate cast shadow from pigment without continuous motion information. Taken together, these <span class="hlt">results</span> may help explain why cast shadows are relatively rare in static pictorial work. PMID:15693677</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobson, Jayme; Werner, Steffen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPA..2850135F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> and Symmetry Relations in Five-Dimensional Perturbative Calculations: the Explicit Evaluation of the QED5 Vacuum Polarization Tensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An explicit evaluation of the D = 4+1 quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum polarization tensor is presented. The calculations are made preserving all the intrinsic arbitrariness involved in such type of problem. The internal momenta are assumed arbitrary in order to preserve the possibility of dependence on such kind of choice, due to the superficial degree of divergence involved. An arbitrary scale is introduced in the separation of terms having different degrees of divergences in order to preserve the possibility of scale <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>. In the performed steps the effects of regularizations are avoided by using an adequate strategy to handle the problem of divergences in Quantum Field Theory perturbative calculations. Given this attitude it is possible to get clean and sound conclusions about the consistency requirements involved in perturbative calculations D = 4+1 space-time dimension. At the final a symmetry preserving and <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> free <span class="hlt">result</span> is obtained allowing the renormalization of the photon propagator at the one-loop level. The simplicity added to the general character of the adopted procedure allows us to believe that the referred strategy can be used without restrictions of applicability in perturbative calculations made in theories formulated in a space-time having extra dimensions relative to the physical one (D = 3+1) producing consistent <span class="hlt">results</span>, in odd and even dimensions, in spite of the nonrenormalizable character.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fonseca, M. V. S.; Girardi, T. J.; Dallabona, G.; Battistel, O. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol2-sec404-706.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 404.706 - Where to <span class="hlt">give</span> evidence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...706 Where to <span class="hlt">give</span> evidence. Evidence should be given to the people at a Social Security Administration office. In the Philippines evidence should be given to the people at the Veterans Administration Regional Office. Elsewhere outside the United...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_147467.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene Study <span class="hlt">Gives</span> New Insight into Puberty in Girls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... this page, please enable JavaScript. Gene Study <span class="hlt">Gives</span> New Insight Into Puberty in Girls Findings may also ... hundreds, and possibly thousands, of gene variations, a new study suggests. Researchers have identified over 100 regions ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/ill/teen_health_care.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Caring for a Seriously or Chronically Ill ... role in managing their own care. Why Include Teens? Time flies. Before you know it, your 13- ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34061480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hispanic charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>: An opportunity for nonprofit development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau indicated that Hispanics had become the largest U.S. minority group. Representing 14 percent of the population, more than forty million Hispanics currently live in the United States and are a growing source of charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>. This study uses a national probability sample (n = 3,261) to examine variables that may influence Hispanic charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jerry D. Marx; Vernon Brooks Carter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2930793"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Postnatal Pax7+ Progenitor <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Rise to Pituitary Adenomas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pituitary adenomas are classified into functioning and nonfunctioning (silent) tumors on the basis of hormone secretion. However, the mechanism of tumorigenesis and the cell of origin for pituitary adenoma subtypes remain to be elucidated. Employing a tamoxifen-inducible mouse model, we demonstrate that a novel postnatal Pax7+ progenitor cell population in the pituitary gland <span class="hlt">gives</span> rise to silent corticotroph macro-adenomas when the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is conditionally deleted. While Pax transcriptional factors are critical for embryonic patterning as well as postnatal stem cell renewal for many organs, we have discovered that Pax7 marks a restricted cell population in the postnatal pituitary intermediate lobe. This Pax7+ early progenitor cell population is overlapping but ontologically downstream of the Nestin+ pituitary stem cell population, yet upstream of another newly discovered Myf6+ late progenitor cell population. Interestingly, the Pax7+ progenitor cell population is evolutionarily conserved in primates and humans, and Pax7 expression is maintained not only in murine tumors but also in human functioning and silent corticotropinomas. Taken together, our <span class="hlt">results</span> strongly suggest that human silent corticotroph adenomas may in fact arise from a Pax7 lineage of the intermediate lobe, a region of the human pituitary bearing closer scientific interest as a reservoir of pituitary progenitor cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hosoyama, Tohru; Nishijo, Koichi; Garcia, Melinda M.; Schaffer, Beverly S.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Davis, Michael D.; Grant, Wilmon F.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Marks, Daniel L.; Rubin, Brian P.; Keller, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1136410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein hydroperoxides can <span class="hlt">give</span> rise to reactive free radicals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proteins damaged by free-radical-generating systems in the presence of oxygen yield relatively long-lived protein hydroperoxides. These hydroperoxides have been shown by e.p.r. spectroscopy to be readily degraded to reactive free radicals on reaction with iron(II) complexes. Comparison of the observed spectra with those obtained with free amino acid hydroperoxides had allowed identification of some of the protein-derived radical species (including a number of carbon-centred radicals, alkoxyl radicals and a species believed to be the CO2 radical anion) and the elucidation of novel fragmentation and rearrangement processes involving amino acid side chains. In particular, degradation of hydroperoxide functions on the side chain of glutamic acid is shown to <span class="hlt">result</span> in decarboxylation at the side-chain carboxy group via the formation of the CO2 radical anion; the generation of an identical radical from hydroperoxide groups on proteins suggests that a similar process occurs with these molecules. In a number of cases these fragmentation and rearrangement reactions <span class="hlt">give</span> rise to further reactive free radicals (R., O2-./HO2., CO2-.) which may act as chain-carrying species in protein oxidations. These studies suggest that protein hydroperoxides are capable of initiating further radical chain reactions both intra- and inter-molecularly, and provide information on some of the fundamental mechanisms of protein alteration and side-chain fragmentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, M J; Fu, S; Dean, R T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000074649&hterms=Callahan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCallahan"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of Directional <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Removal Skill in Scatterometer Data Processing Using Planetary Boundary Layer Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Planetary boundary layer (PBL) models are utilized to enhance directional <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> removal skill in scatterometer data processing. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in wind direction retrieved from scatterometer measurements is removed with the aid of physical directional information obtained from PBL models. This technique is based on the observation that sea level pressure is scalar and its field is more coherent than the corresponding wind. An initial wind field obtained from the scatterometer measurements is used to derive a pressure field with a PBL model. After filtering small-scale noise in the derived pressure field, a wind field is generated with an inverted PBL model. This derived wind information is then used to remove wind vector <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in the scatterometer data. It is found that the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> removal skill can be improved when the new technique is used properly in conjunction with the median filter being used for scatterometer wind dealiasing at JPL. The new technique is applied to regions of cyclone systems which are important for accurate weather prediction but where the errors of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> removal are often large.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Young-Joon; Pak, Kyung S.; Dunbar, R. Scott; Hsiao, S. Vincent; Callahan, Philip S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23793044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rate-gyro-integral constraint for <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search stage. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations. PMID:23793044</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035723&hterms=ambiguity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522ambiguity%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of the multiple PRF technique to resolve Doppler centroid estimation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for spaceborne SAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimation of the Doppler centroid <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is a necessary element of the signal processing for SAR systems with large antenna pointing errors. Without proper resolution of the Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, the image quality will be degraded in the system impulse response function and the geometric fidelity. Two techniques for resolution of DCE <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for the spaceborne SAR are presented; they include a brief review of the range cross-correlation technique and presentation of a new technique using multiple pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). For SAR systems, where other performance factors control selection of the PRF's, an algorithm is devised to resolve the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> that uses PRF's of arbitrary numerical values. The performance of this multiple PRF technique is analyzed based on a statistical error model. An example is presented that demonstrates for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) C-band SAR, the probability of correct <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution is higher than 95 percent for antenna attitude errors as large as 3 deg.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3720121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rate-Gyro-Integral Constraint for <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution in GNSS Attitude Determination Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search stage. The <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correction of sequence-dependent <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases (Ns) from the 454 pyrosequencing system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S) has become one of the most popular methods to assess microbial diversity. Pyrosequencing reads containing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases (Ns) are generally discarded based on the assumptions of their non-sequence-dependent formation and high error rates. However, taxonomic composition differed by removal of reads with Ns. We determined whether Ns from pyrosequencing occur in a sequence-dependent manner. Our reads and the corresponding flow value data revealed occurrence of sequence-specific N errors with a common sequential pattern (a homopolymer + a few nucleotides with bases other than the homopolymer + N) and revealed that the nucleotide base of the homopolymer is the true base for the following N. Using an algorithm reflecting this sequence-dependent pattern, we corrected the Ns in the 16S (86.54%), bphD (81.37%) and nifH (81.55%) amplicon reads from a mock community with high precisions of 95.4, 96.9 and 100%, respectively. The new N correction method was applicable for determining most of Ns in amplicon reads from a soil sample, <span class="hlt">resulting</span> in reducing taxonomic biases associated with N errors and in shotgun sequencing reads from public metagenome data. The method improves the accuracy and precision of microbial community analysis and genome sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing. PMID:24464999</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Sunguk; Park, Joonhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3985643"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correction of sequence-dependent <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases (Ns) from the 454 pyrosequencing system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S) has become one of the most popular methods to assess microbial diversity. Pyrosequencing reads containing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> bases (Ns) are generally discarded based on the assumptions of their non-sequence-dependent formation and high error rates. However, taxonomic composition differed by removal of reads with Ns. We determined whether Ns from pyrosequencing occur in a sequence-dependent manner. Our reads and the corresponding flow value data revealed occurrence of sequence-specific N errors with a common sequential pattern (a homopolymer + a few nucleotides with bases other than the homopolymer + N) and revealed that the nucleotide base of the homopolymer is the true base for the following N. Using an algorithm reflecting this sequence-dependent pattern, we corrected the Ns in the 16S (86.54%), bphD (81.37%) and nifH (81.55%) amplicon reads from a mock community with high precisions of 95.4, 96.9 and 100%, respectively. The new N correction method was applicable for determining most of Ns in amplicon reads from a soil sample, <span class="hlt">resulting</span> in reducing taxonomic biases associated with N errors and in shotgun sequencing reads from public metagenome data. The method improves the accuracy and precision of microbial community analysis and genome sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Sunguk; Park, Joonhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358805"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of body movements on children's perception of music with an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> expressive character.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The theory of embodied music cognition states that the perception and cognition of music is firmly, although not exclusively, linked to action patterns associated with that music. In this regard, the focus lies mostly on how music promotes certain action tendencies (i.e., dance, entrainment, etc.). Only recently, studies have started to devote attention to the reciprocal effects that people's body movements may exert on how people perceive certain aspects of music and sound (e.g., pitch, meter, musical preference, etc.). The present study positions itself in this line of research. The central research question is whether expressive body movements, which are systematically paired with music, can modulate children's perception of musical expressiveness. We present a behavioral experiment in which different groups of children (7-8 years, N = 46) either repetitively performed a happy or a sad choreography in response to expressively <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> music or merely listened to that music. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of our study show indeed that children's perception of musical expressiveness is modulated in accordance with the expressive character of the dance choreography performed to the music. This finding supports theories that claim a strong connection between action and perception, although further research is needed to uncover the details of this connection. PMID:23358805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16304943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated management of natural resources: dealing with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> issues, multiple actors and diverging frames.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uncertainty is an increasingly important concern when trying to manage complex systems of interrelated natural resources. Scientific knowledge or necessary information may be lacking or incomplete. Additionally, the multiple and interdependent users of those resources may diverge in defining what really is at stake. When they frame issues in very different ways, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> <span class="hlt">results</span>, i.e., the existence of two or more equally plausible interpretation possibilities. Environmental management in these conditions implies a shift in attention from solving clearly delineated problems to continuous negotiating and tuning between different actors and expertise domains. This requires dealing with the frame differences in a reciprocal way by mutually acknowledging frames and connecting them. Some or all parties will have to revise, enlarge or reframe the way they relate to the issues and to each other, in order to support mutual understanding and common action. The contribution of experts does not consist then in providing total predictability nor in predefining issues and solutions, but in supporting a joint learning and negotiation process among different actors and in feeding this process with relevant information. Behavioural simulations may play an important function to stimulate multi-actor learning and negotiation processes. PMID:16304943</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dewulf, A; Craps, M; Bouwen, R; Taillieu, T; Pahl-Wostl, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461773"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> figures - what happens in the brain when perception changes but not the stimulus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During observation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figures our perception reverses spontaneously although the visual information stays unchanged. Research on this phenomenon so far suffered from the difficulty to determine the instant of the endogenous reversals with sufficient temporal precision. A novel experimental paradigm with discontinuous stimulus presentation improved on previous temporal estimates of the reversal event by a factor of three. It revealed that disambiguation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual information takes roughly 50?ms or two loops of recurrent neural activity. Further, the decision about the perceptual outcome has taken place at least 340?ms before the observer is able to indicate the consciously perceived reversal manually. We provide a short review about physiological studies on multistable perception with a focus on electrophysiological data. We further present a new perspective on multistable perception that can easily integrate previous apparently contradicting explanatory approaches. Finally we propose possible extensions toward other research fields where <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figure perception may be useful as an investigative tool. PMID:22461773</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kornmeier, Jürgen; Bach, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805889"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Analytics of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>: methodological strategy to the phenomenological research in health].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The strategy presented in this paper, called Analytics of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, is connected to the necessity of understanding findings in researches based on Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. It was developed through a study of descriptions of life experiences from ten family members, members of a Mutual Help Group for caregivers of Alzheimer's patients, conducted at a university in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Such descriptions were shown through interviews based on intercorporeal experience, during the writing of a Doctoral Dissertation in Nursing. The application of the Analytics of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> to this study is consistent with other similar studies and opens up possibilities for the understanding of findings in phenomenological researches, specifically those based on the experiential ontology of Merleau-Ponty, for it enables us to recognize consciousness as something non-perceptible and perception as an always <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> process. PMID:21805889</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Granzotto, Marcos José Müller; Carvalho, Patricia Anjos Lima; Reis, Helca Franciolli Teixeira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3309967"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Figures - What Happens in the Brain When Perception Changes But Not the Stimulus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During observation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figures our perception reverses spontaneously although the visual information stays unchanged. Research on this phenomenon so far suffered from the difficulty to determine the instant of the endogenous reversals with sufficient temporal precision. A novel experimental paradigm with discontinuous stimulus presentation improved on previous temporal estimates of the reversal event by a factor of three. It revealed that disambiguation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual information takes roughly 50?ms or two loops of recurrent neural activity. Further, the decision about the perceptual outcome has taken place at least 340?ms before the observer is able to indicate the consciously perceived reversal manually. We provide a short review about physiological studies on multistable perception with a focus on electrophysiological data. We further present a new perspective on multistable perception that can easily integrate previous apparently contradicting explanatory approaches. Finally we propose possible extensions toward other research fields where <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> figure perception may be useful as an investigative tool.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kornmeier, Jurgen; Bach, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2699207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of emotionally <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> interpersonal stimuli among dysphoric and nondysphoric individuals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined whether dysphoria influences the identification of non-<span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> facial expressions of emotion. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric college students viewed a series of human faces expressing sadness, happiness, anger, and fear that were morphed with each other to varying degrees. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals identified prototypical emotional expressions similarly. However, when viewing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> faces, dysphoric individuals were more likely to identify sadness when mixed with happiness than non-dysphoric individuals. A similar but less robust pattern was observed for facial expressions that combined fear and happiness. No group differences in emotion identification were observed for faces that combined sadness and anger or fear and anger. Dysphoria appears to enhance the identification of negative emotion in others when positive emotion is also present. This tendency may contribute to some of the interpersonal difficulties often experienced by dysphoric individuals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beevers, Christopher G.; Wells, Tony T.; Ellis, Alissa J.; Fischer, Kathryn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24973626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Infants' online perception of <span class="hlt">give</span>-and-take interactions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research investigated infants' online perception of <span class="hlt">give</span>-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a <span class="hlt">give</span>-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants' gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a <span class="hlt">give</span>-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants' online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the <span class="hlt">give</span>-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants' online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of <span class="hlt">give</span>-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective. PMID:24973626</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing for altruism and social pressure in charitable <span class="hlt">giving</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Every year, 90% of Americans <span class="hlt">give</span> money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to <span class="hlt">give</span>, for example, due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not <span class="hlt">give</span> but dislike saying no, for example, due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raiser in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their doorknobs. Thus, they can seek or avoid the fund-raiser. We find that the flyer reduces the share of households opening the door by 9% to 25% and, if the flyer allows checking a Do Not Disturb box, reduces <span class="hlt">giving</span> by 28% to 42%. The latter decrease is concentrated among donations smaller than $10. These findings suggest that social pressure is an important determinant of door-to-door <span class="hlt">giving</span>. Combining data from this and a complementary field experiment, we structurally estimate the model. The estimated social pressure cost of saying no to a solicitor is $3.80 for an in-state charity and $1.40 for an out-of-state charity. Our welfare calculations suggest that our door-to-door fund-raising campaigns on average lower the utility of the potential donors. PMID:22448394</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DellaVigna, Stefano; List, John A; Malmendier, Ulrike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ArtSa..47...81C"> <span id="translatedtitle">On-the-fly <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution Using an Estimator of the Modified <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Covariance Matrix for the GNSS Positioning Model Based on Phase Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On-the-fly <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution (OTF AR) is based on a small data set, obtained from a very short observation session or even from a single epoch observation. In these cases, a classical approach to <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution (e.g. the Lambda method) can meet some numerical problems. The basis of the Lambda method is an integer decorrelation of the positive definite <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> covariance matrix (ACM). The necessary condition for the proper performing of this procedure is a positive definiteness of ACM. However, this condition is not satisfied in cases of very short observation sessions or single epoch positioning if phase-only observations are used. The subject of this contribution is such a case where phase-only observations are used in the final part of the computational process. The modification of ACM is proposed in order to ensure its positive definiteness. An estimator of modified ACM is a good ACM approximation for the purpose of performing the LAMBDA method. Another problem of short sessions (or a single epoch) positioning is the poor quality of the float solution. In this paper, a cascade adjustment with wide-lane combinations of signals L1 and L2 as a method of solving this problem is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cellmer, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5727....1M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Keyboards and Scanning: The Relevance of the Cell Selection Phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper focuses on the relevance of the cell selection phase in the overall performance of a text entry system based on scanning and with an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> keyboard. Most of the layouts are designed trying only to minimize the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of the keyboard, and taking into consideration only the disambiguation process when entering text. Nevertheless, the number of scan cycles necessary for selecting the cells has great importance in the overall performance. As we show, the performance depends on the number of cells and the linguistic model used in the cell selection phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miró-Borrás, Julio; Bernabeu-Soler, Pablo; Llinares, Raul; Igual, Jorge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient decomposition of cosmic microwave background polarization maps into pure E, pure B, and <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Separation of the B component of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization map from the much larger E component is an essential step in CMB polarimetry. For a map with incomplete sky coverage, this separation is necessarily hampered by the presence of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> modes which could be either E or B modes. I present an efficient pixel-space algorithm for removing the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> modes and separating the map into pure E and B components. The method, which works for arbitrary geometries, does not involve generating a complete basis of such modes and scales the cube of the number of pixels on the boundary of the map.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088402&hterms=human+anatomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Banatomy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human otolith-ocular reflexes during off-vertical axis rotation: effect of frequency on tilt-translation <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and motion sickness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine how the modulation of tilt and translation otolith-ocular responses during constant velocity off-vertical axis rotation varies as a function of stimulus frequency. Eighteen human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 30 degrees off-vertical at stimulus frequencies between 0.05 and 0.8 Hz. The modulation of torsion decreased while the modulation of horizontal slow phase velocity (SPV) increased with increasing frequency. It is inferred that the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> of otolith afferent information is greatest in the frequency region where tilt (torsion) and translational (horizontal SPV) otolith-ocular responses crossover. It is postulated that the previously demonstrated peak in motion sickness susceptibility during linear accelerations around 0.3 Hz is the <span class="hlt">result</span> of frequency segregation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> otolith information being inadequate to distinguish between tilt and translation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4077655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of <span class="hlt">Giving</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their <span class="hlt">giving</span> preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific <span class="hlt">giving</span> pyramid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gottesman, William L.; Reagan, Andrew James; Dodds, Peter Sheridan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED119232.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonverbal Responses of Primary School Students to "The <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Tree."</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to discover whether the nonverbal responses to literature of primary grade children--in the form of drawings--provide significant information about their feelings toward literature, this study measured primary children's responses to "The <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Tree." Ninety children in four grade levels (kindergarten through third grade) listened to the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donlan, Dan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Alum%22&id=EJ829978"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Classification Trees to Predict Alumni <span class="hlt">Giving</span> for Higher Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the relative level of public support for higher education declines, colleges and universities aim to maximize alumni-<span class="hlt">giving</span> to keep their programs competitive. Anchored in a utility maximization framework, this study employs the classification and regression tree methodology to examine characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ne0071.photos.346116p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO <span class="hlt">GIVE</span> ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO <span class="hlt">GIVE</span> CURVATURE TO WHEEL RIMS ON ELI WINDMILLS) TO BINS ALONG NORTH INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY WITH NEW OLD STOCK UNASSEMBLED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=practical+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ564645"> <span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Giving</span> Psychology Away": Some Experiences Teaching Undergraduates Practical Psychology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Argues that the bulk of most undergraduate psychology curriculum is geared towards preparing students for graduate study. Proposes several specific curriculum changes designed to <span class="hlt">give</span> the general undergraduate a working and useful knowledge of some of the fundamental concepts concerning psychology. Includes course outlines and structured…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grasha, Anthony F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dugan&pg=7&id=ED475423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Undergraduate Financial Aid and Subsequent <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Behavior. Discussion Paper.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data on 2,822 Vanderbilt University graduates were used to investigate alumni <span class="hlt">giving</span> behavior during the 8 years after graduation. A two-stage model accounting for individual truncation was used first to estimate the likelihood of making a contribution and second to estimate the average gift size conditional on contributing. The type of financial…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dugan, Kelly; Mullin, Charles H.; Siegfried, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=author&pg=6&id=EJ808889"> <span id="translatedtitle">2 Authors Say Routledge Recycled Their Work without <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Credit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reports on two authors' work that has been recycled by Routledge without <span class="hlt">giving</span> credit or royalty. When William E. Deal casually flipped through "Theory for Performance Studies: A Student's Guide," published this year by Routledge, he noticed a few familiar sentences. After taking a closer look, Mr. Deal, a professor of religious…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartlett, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trash&pg=3&id=EJ669705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "<span class="hlt">Gives</span> It Up."</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "<span class="hlt">Give</span> It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koman, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/lisa-g-waves"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space Place: LISA Space Mission <span class="hlt">Gives</span> Humans a Sixth Sense</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity is related to gravity and the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission. Like a sixth sense, detecting gravity waves will <span class="hlt">give</span> us a whole new way to see the universe. Provides an easy explanation of gravitational waves, with a link to an interactive crossword using the new vocabulary words.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epjournal.net/filestore/ep044064252.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Evolutionary Interpretation of Gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> Behavior in Modern</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied gift <span class="hlt">giving</span> at Christmas among 50 graduate students in Norway. The students invested more the closer the coefficient of relatedness. However, partners ranked highest, which is natural for people at the start of their reproductive career. All students gave to their parents, siblings, and children, most gave to their grandparents, and only a third gave to some,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2379946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Screening for prostate cancer. How can patients <span class="hlt">give</span> informed consent?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many urologists in North America are increasingly enthusiastic about prostatic cancer screening. Annual digital rectal examination is almost universally endorsed, and prostate-specific antigen testing is favored by most. But doctors really should not screen by either method without patients' informed consent. However, the information required for informed consent is complex and contradictory, difficult for physicians to <span class="hlt">give</span> and for patients to absorb.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marshall, K. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Feng&pg=6&id=EJ822408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing an Integrated Model of Advice <span class="hlt">Giving</span> in Supportive Interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viewing supportive communication as a multistage process, the present study proposed and tested an integrated model of advice <span class="hlt">giving</span>, which specifies three sequential moves in supportive interactions involving advice: emotional support, problem inquiry and analysis, and advice. Seven hundred and fifty-two participants read and responded to a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feng, Bo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Giving+feedback+to+subordinates%22&id=ED454577"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Giving</span> Feedback to Subordinates. An Ideas Into Action Guidebook.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This guidebook describes for managers how and when to <span class="hlt">give</span> effective feedback. It emphasizes the need for frequent feedback so that employees may feel confident about what they are doing right and can work on areas in which they are less proficient. Feedback should also be used as a tool for development, which means that feedback, which should not…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buron, Raoul J.; McDonald-Mann, Dana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439648.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Faculty as Donors: Why They <span class="hlt">Give</span> to Their Employing Institutions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fund raising activities are increasingly important for colleges and universities, as state and federal support diminishes and tuition has not adequately compensated for the public decreases. Thus, a school's faculty is a promising area for potential <span class="hlt">giving</span> since these professionals are typically donors to a variety of community and nonprofit…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holland, A. Priscilla; Miller, Michael T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://lev0412.dklevine.com/PAPERS/evob25.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution and Information in a Gift <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Game</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an environment of anonymous random matching, Kandori (1992) showed that with a sufficiently rich class of simple information systems the folk theorem holds. We specialize to a gift-<span class="hlt">giving</span> game and examine the stochastic stability of a process of learning and evolution in this setting. If the benefit of future altruism is too small, then there is no altruism. When</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillip Johnson; David K. Levine; Wolfgang Pesendorfer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/15/8/1261.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Neural Mechanisms of Speech Comprehension: fMRI studies of Semantic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of regions of the temporal and frontal lobes are known to be important for spoken language comprehension, yet we do not have a clear understanding of their functional role(s). In particular, there is considerable disagreement about which brain regions are involved in the semantic aspects of comprehension. Two functional magnetic resonance studies use the phenomenon of semantic <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer M. Rodd; Matthew H. Davis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115381.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Young Children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phenomenon of intolerance of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harrington, David M.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system is disclosed with reduced sensitivity to range <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kare, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22cycle+1%22&pg=6&id=EJ484950"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Association of Role Conflict and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> with Administrator Stress and Burnout.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assesses the association of role conflict and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> with the administrative stress cycle. Surveys 1,000 randomly selected Washington State principals and superintendents, using the Administrator Work Inventory, consisting of the Administrator Stress Index, Malasch Burnout Inventory, Role Questionnaire, and demographic and organizational…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gmelch, Walter H.; Torelli, Joseph A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disambiguation&pg=4&id=EJ754562"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Working Memory in Syntactic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution: A Psychometric Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2 studies, the authors used a combination of psychometric and experimental techniques to investigate the effects of domain-general and domain-specific working memory factors on offline decisions concerning attachment of an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> relative clause. Both studies used English and Dutch stimuli presented to English- and Dutch-speaking…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swets, Benjamin; Desmet, Timothy; Hambrick, David Z.; Ferreira, Fernanda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disambiguation&pg=4&id=EJ851480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plausibility and Verb Subcategorization in Temporarily <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Sentences: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A self-paced reading experiment investigated processing of sentences containing a noun-phrase that could temporarily be mistaken as the direct-object argument of a verb in a subordinate clause but actually constituted the syntactic subject of the main clause (often referred to as an "early" vs. "late closure" <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>). Subcategorization…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Traxler, Matthew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disambiguation&pg=3&id=EJ850839"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constituent Length Affects Prosody and Processing for a Dative NP <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Korean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two sentence processing experiments on a dative NP <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in Korean demonstrate effects of phrase length on overt and implicit prosody. Both experiments controlled non-prosodic length factors by using long versus short proper names that occurred before the syntactically critical material. Experiment 1 found that long phrases induce different…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Hyekyung; Schafer, Amy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....97.3271M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid static and kinematic global positioning system solutions using the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes an <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function technique by which phase data from the GPS may be used to obtain survey positions for monuments occupied using a suitable GPS receiver. The principal benefit of the technique is the speed with which it may be used and its immunity to cycle slips or other discontinuities in the phase data that commonly occur. The technique uses phase measurements from satellites at both L1 and L2 frequencies from various directions in the sky. The ability of the technique to work with data from a single epoch allows the integer <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> on moving platforms to also be determined. The correction for the effects of the ionosphere are also demonstrated at distances up to 250 km. The use of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function for geophysical monitoring and kinematic remote sensing applications appears limited in distance only by the accuracy of the GPS orbits. The utility of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function for rapid static surveying and on-the-fly bias fixing out to distances of several hundred kilometers appears practical.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mader, Gerald L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/845532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coping with Syntactic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> or How to Put the Block in the Box on the Table</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sentences are far more <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> than one might have thought. There may be hundreds, perhaps thousands, of syntactic parse trees for certain very natural sentences of English. This fact has been a major problem confronting natural language processing, especially when a large percentage of the syntactic parse trees are enumerated during semantic\\/pragmatic processing. In this paper we propose some methods</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth Ward Church; Ramesh S. Patil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bridge+AND+construction&pg=2&id=EJ857095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tinkering with Material Resources: Operating under <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Conditions in Rock Construction Work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Ethnographic studies of, for instance, laboratory work show that practices never reach a full closure but are always open to contingencies and <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>, making it possible to accommodate new empirical findings. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that this is true also for less "high-brow" work in, for example, the construction…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Styhre, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22promotion%22&pg=2&id=EJ898957"> <span id="translatedtitle">Embedded Promotions in Online Services: How Goal-Relevance <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Shapes Response and Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brasel, S. Adam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://earth.esa.int/workshops/salzburg04/papers_posters/2P11_3_sowter_41.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">AN ASSESSMENT OF THE <span class="hlt">AMBIGUITY</span> SEARCH METHOD FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL TARGET POSITIONING USING SPACEBORNE INSAR DATA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">RESUME In 2003 a method for the solution of the integer phase <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in InSAR data was proposed and demonstrated using laboratory data. The method uses the absolute phase and a rigorous radargrammetric model to derive the absolute 3-dimensional position of a target. This method appeared to show some capability for absolute, as opposed to relative, positioning and showed some</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Sowter; M. A. Warren; R. M. Bingley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=religious&pg=3&id=EJ1025191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inheritance, Heritage, and the Disinherited: <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> of Religious Pedagogy in the Moroccan Public School</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article investigates how Moroccan public high-school students experience religious pedagogy. Probing the linguistic ideology that underpins their religious training, the article exposes the <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> inherent in educational Arabization, a project set on safeguarding the state's sacredness while mediating an agenda of indigenous…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boutieri, Charis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39765030"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> of temperature dependences for the elastic characteristics of materials with nickel and germanium as examples</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental data are presented for precise measurements of longitudinal ultrasonic wave propagation rate in single-crystal germanium and polycrystalline nickel. With these materials as examples the existence of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is demonstrated in values of elastic characteristics in successive cycles of thermal exposure, i.e., temperature ranges in which the material does not undergo phase transformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. A. Borisenko; A. I. Troyanskii</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49195579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed transition from <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> to risky decision making in alcohol dependence during Iowa Gambling Task</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been demonstrated that alcohol-dependent patients exhibit decision-making deficits, particularly, hypersensitivity to reward and executive dysfunction. Yet, how the impaired motivational process and executive dysfunction in the patients affect decisions under <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and risk with different degrees of uncertainty is little known. To investigate the neuropsychological origin of the impaired decision making under uncertainty in alcohol dependence, we administered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang-Tae Kim; Hansem Sohn; Jaeseung Jeong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50537185"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method of Resolving the Range <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> for High PRF Stepped-Frequency Radar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High PRF stepped-frequency radar can achieve simultaneously the advantages of pulse Doppler (PD) and high range resolution (HRR) radar, but it's difficult to resolve the range <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> brought about by high PRF. In this paper, a novel method based on the phase difference out of the FFT between two adjacent range cells is proposed to solve the problem. This method</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang Feixing; Zhu Yongfeng; Zhao Hongzhong; Fu Qiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16409070"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> removal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fourier domain (FD) techniques have increasingly gained attention in optical coherence tomography (OCT). This is primarily due to their demonstrated sensitivity of two to three orders of magnitude over conventional time-domain techniques. FDOCT images are subject to two primary sources of artifacts. First, a complex conjugate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> arises because the Fourier transform of the real-valued spectral interferometric signal is Hermitian symmetric. This <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> leads to artifactual superposition of reflectors at positive and negative pathlength differences between the sample and reference reflectors. Second, noninterferometric and sample autocorrelation terms appear at dc, obscuring reflectors at zero pathlength difference. We show that heterodyne detection in swept-source OCT (SSOCT) enables the resolution of complex conjugate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and the removal of noninterferometric and autocorrelation artifacts. We also show that complex conjugate <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution via frequency shifting circumvents fall-off induced by finite source linewidth in SSOCT when samples are shifted to large pathlength differences. We describe an efficient heterodyne SSOCT design that enables compensation of power losses from frequency-shifting elements. Last, we demonstrate this technique, coupled with wavenumber triggering and electronic demodulation, for in vivo imaging of the human anterior eye segment. PMID:16409070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Anjul M; Choma, Michael A; Izatt, Joseph A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+semantic+AND+network&id=EJ877950"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Functional Organisation of the Fronto-Temporal Language System: Evidence from Syntactic and Semantic <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spoken language comprehension is known to involve a large left-dominant network of fronto-temporal brain regions, but there is still little consensus about how the syntactic and semantic aspects of language are processed within this network. In an fMRI study, volunteers heard spoken sentences that contained either syntactic or semantic <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodd, Jennifer M.; Longe, Olivia A.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40592535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structured <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and the definition of psychiatric illness: Adjustment disorder among medical inpatients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adjustment disorder is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses given to patients hospitalized for medical and surgical problems. This article argues that the diagnosis, in this context, often serves strategic, non-clinical ends for consultation-liaison psychiatrists, who must negotiate their interstitial position through an essentially <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> diagnosis. In these cases, 'adjustment disorder' emerges from and reproduces tensions beween such cultural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donald Pollock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57593267"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of sense of humor, defensiveness, and gender on the interpretation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> messages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the effects of sense of humor, defensiveness, and gender on the interpretation of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> messages directed toward the self. In two studies, respondents completed questionnaires featuring written scenarios to test for perceptions of messages as humorous or critical. Sense of humor was related to the humorous interpretations of the messages, whereas defensiveness did. not have a significant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aimee Futch; Renee Edwards</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Thompson%22&pg=2&id=EJ778447"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Review of Loss, Trauma, and Resilience: Therapeutic Work with <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thompson reviews the 2006 book by Pauline Boss. Loss is a word that is used frequently to describe numerous life events. In its most apparent state, loss is experienced through the physical death of someone who was once spiritually, psychologically, and physically near. However, <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss may also occur, when a central person remains present…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, Holly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50931174"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast computation of cross <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function for DTTB based passive radar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method is proposed to calculate the cross <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function (CAF) for digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) based passive radar. The Doppler frequency of the targets is much lower than sampling frequency. The cascade integrator comb (CIC) filter is utilized to realize the large change of sampling frequency. The interpolated second-order polynomials (ISOP) filter is used to compensate the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang Jinlu; Shan Tao; Tao Ran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ659481.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Living with <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: Toward Culture Exploration in Adult Second-Language Classrooms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Outlines an approach to cultural instruction in adult second language education called "culture exploration," which calls for the recognition of <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> embedded in cross-cultural encounters. Culture exploration consists of employing techniques of ethnographic participant observation in and outside the classroom and holding reflective,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ilieva, Roumiana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282309"> <span id="translatedtitle">United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual stimuli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception whenever one perceptual interpretation is dominant, and the instability of perception that causes perceptual dominance to alternate between perceptual interpretations upon extended viewing. This review summarizes several ways in which contextual information can help the brain resolve visual <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> and construct temporarily stable perceptual experiences. Temporal context through prior stimulation or internal brain states brought about by feedback from higher cortical processing levels may alter the response characteristics of specific neurons involved in rivalry resolution. Furthermore, spatial or crossmodal context may strengthen the neuronal representation of one of the possible perceptual interpretations and consequently bias the rivalry process towards it. We suggest that contextual influences on perceptual choices with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> visual stimuli can be highly informative about the neuronal mechanisms of context-driven inference in the general processes of perceptual decision-making.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klink, P. C.; van Wezel, R. J. A.; van Ee, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mapping&pg=5&id=EJ981877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's Use of Phonological Information in <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Resolution: A View from Mandarin Chinese</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How do children develop the mapping between prosody and other levels of linguistic knowledge? This question has received considerable attention in child language research. In the present study two experiments were conducted to investigate four- to five-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's sensitivity to prosody in <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> resolution. Experiment…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Peng; Su, Yi; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Zhan, Likan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Experiment&pg=7&id=EJ1009983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Reference</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/872614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for reducing range <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in synthetic aperture radar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span>, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57776192"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> use of language in the paradigms of QUAN and QUAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whether they teach or apply quantitative (QUAN) or qualitative (QUAL) methodology, textbooks as well as research reports often use <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> language in the sense that many formulations cannot be assigned unequivocally to one of the main methodological orientations. An analysis of research reports on the linguistic level shows that QUAN and QUAL paradigms cannot be separated strictly on the level</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leo Gürtler; Günter L Huber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ939945.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comprehension of a Non-Text: The Effect of the Title and <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Tolerance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the effect of the title and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> tolerance on the comprehensibility of a non-text. To this end, ten irrelevant sentences from different texts were put together to make two seemingly cohesive and coherent texts. The two texts were exactly the same except for the fact that one of them carried a title whereas the other…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmadi, Alireza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=job+AND+content&id=EJ768707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reactions to Job Content Plateaus: Examining Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Hierarchical Plateaus as Moderators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plateauing research often reveals a negative relationship between job content plateauing (i.e., lacking challenge in one's job) and work attitudes. This study explores situations where job content plateauing is associated with fewer negative work attitudes, revealing role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> (i.e., being unclear about job duties and responsibilities) and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCleese, Carrie S.; Eby, Lillian T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2400414"> <span id="translatedtitle">Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying: <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> And Multipath with Global Positioning System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the recent launching of several satellites of the global positioning system (GPS), a variety of schemes based on radio interferometry have been proposed for the accurate determination of relative positions of receiving terminals on the ground. Provided that the integer-cycle <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> of the interferometric phase observations can be correctly resolved, the baseline vector extending from the antenna of one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles C. Counselman; Sergei A. Gourevitch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=6&id=EJ980472"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Processing of Subject-Object <span class="hlt">Ambiguities</span> in Native and Near-Native Mexican Spanish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This self-paced reading study first tested the prediction that the garden path effect previously observed during the processing of subject-object <span class="hlt">ambiguities</span> in native English would not obtain in a null subject language like Spanish. The investigation then further explored whether the effect would be evident among near-native readers of Spanish…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jegerski, Jill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1237010"> <span id="translatedtitle">Making space for stories: <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in the design of personal communication systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pervasive personal communication technologies offer the potential for important social benefits for individual users, but also the potential for significant social difficulties and costs. In research on face-to-face social interaction, <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> is often identified as an important resource for resolving social difficulties. In this paper, we discuss two design cases of personal communication systems, one based on fieldwork of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul M. Aoki; Allison Woodruff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=population+AND+genetics+AND+evolution&pg=2&id=EJ723572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metaphor, <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>, and Motive in Evolutionary Biology: W. D. Hamilton and the "Gene's Point of View"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article analyzes the power of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Journet, Debra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED075929.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Professional Negotiator: Role Conflict, Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Motivation To Work.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The investigation examined the relationship among role conflict, role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>, and motivation to work of teacher-negotiators. The theoretical rationale for the study was formulated from the finding of Walton and McKersie, Deutsch, Vidmar and McGrath, and Blum concerning the negotiator's conflict with his adversary, his dependence on his…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medford, Robert E.; Miskel, Cecil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=initial+AND+pressure&id=EJ1003075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Word Meaning in Student Explanations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: "pressure", "select", "adapt", "need", and "must". We utilized a new technological tool known as the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://papers.gersteinlab.org/e-print/pgene-classify/preprint.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> boundary between genes and pseudogenes: the dead rise up, or do they?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pseudogenes have long been considered to be 'dead', nonfunctional by-products of genome evolution. How- ever, several lines of evidence now show that some pseudogenes are transcriptionally 'alive', and a few might even have biochemical roles. Therefore, the boundary between genes (often considered to be 'liv- ing') and pseudogenes (often considered to be 'dead') might be <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and difficult to define.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deyou Zheng; Mark B. Gerstein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1638407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear frequency-modulated signal detection using Radon-<span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> transform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel time-frequency technique for linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal detection is proposed. The design of the proposed detectors is based on the Radon transform of the modulus square or the envelope amplitude of the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function (AF) of the signal. A practical assumption is made that the chirp rate is the only parameter of interest. Since the AF of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minsheng Wang; Andrew K. Chan; Charles K. Chui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+competence+AND+correlation&pg=5&id=EJ1005334"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's Trait and Emotion Attributions in Socially <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> and Unambiguous Situations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children's attributions about story characters in <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> and unambiguous social situations were assessed. One hundred and forty-four 6-7-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds heard about actors who slighted a recipient intentionally or for an undetermined reason and then made causal attributions about the events, an emotion attribution about the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boseovski, Janet J.; Lapan, Candace; Bosacki, Sandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ba&id=EJ756531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Family Boundary <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: A 30-Year Review of Theory, Research, and Measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since its introduction 30 years ago, family boundary <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> (BA) has been a widely used construct in family stress research and clinical intervention. In this article, we present a comprehensive and interdisciplinary review of published research studies that have used BA as a primary variable. Our review identified 37 studies investigating BA…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carroll, Jason S.; Olson, Chad D.; Buckmiller, Nicolle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48358832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> measures for 1,944 words</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> measures for 1,944 words of varying length and frequency\\u000a of occurrence are presented. The words can all be used as nouns. Intergroup reliabilities are satisfactory on all attributes.\\u000a Correlations with previous word lists are significant, and the intercorrelations between measures match previous findings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Gilhooly; R. H. Logie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cumulative+AND+impacts&pg=7&id=EJ827340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> Loss, Family Stress, and Infant Attachment during Times of War</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the interdependent nature of infants and their parents who are experiencing wartime deployment and reunion. Research supports the contention that the cumulative effects of stress place families at risk; the experience of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> loss changes as family roles change throughout the cycle of deployment; and parental absence has…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorman, Lisa A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57873736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supervisor Relationships, Teamwork, Role <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> and Discretionary Power: Nurses in Australia and the United Kingdom</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports comparative research comparing the relationship between supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork, role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> and discretionary power for nurses working in public and private sector hospitals in Australia and the UK. The findings indicate that the four factors accounted for approximately a quarter of the variance for nurses in the UK and almost a fifth of the variance for nurses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yvonne Brunetto; Rodney Farr-Wharton; Kate Shacklock; Fiona Robson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Period+AND+Pregnancy&pg=2&id=EJ756527"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Exploration of Aspects of Boundary <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> among Young, Unmarried Fathers during the Prenatal Period</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research represents an exploration of patterns of boundary <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> among poor, young, unmarried men and their reproductive partners. Interviews were conducted with men and their partners during the third trimester of pregnancy. Interviews focused on patterns of men's physical and psychological presence in relationships with their partners…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leite, Randall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730046869&hterms=ambiguity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522ambiguity%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insensitivity of single particle time domain measurements to laser velocimeter 'Doppler <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>.'</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that single particle time domain measurements in high speed gas flows obtained by a laser velocimeter technique developed for use in wind tunnels are not affected by the so-called 'Doppler <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span>.' A comparison of hot-wire anemometer and laser velocimeter measurements taken under similar flow conditions is used for the demonstration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA439332"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved Geo-Spatial Resolution Using a Modified Approach to the Complex <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Function (CAF).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this thesis is to implement the CAF-Map method of geolocation in MATLAB. This method is a modification to the traditional Cross <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> Function (CAF) based TDOA, FDOA geolocation where TDOA and FDOA are determined by locating the peak in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. D. Hartwell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ambiguity%22&pg=6&id=EJ1023270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capstone and Building Block: Helping Students Manage <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> about their Futures through Writing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Encouraging students to engage with principles and ideas is one way to address <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> with consistent, effective approaches in situations made up of "gray area." This includes the looming post-college world where students may be unsure about choosing between job offers, geographic locations, or even communication fields. Such…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Love, Brad; Mackert, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hidden+AND+knowledge&pg=5&id=EJ849900"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Referential <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span>: Evidence for a Dissociation between Implicit Understanding and Explicit Behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four-year-olds were asked to assess an adult listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided an <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> or unambiguous description of the sticker location. When preschoolers possessed private knowledge about the sticker location, the location they chose indicated that they judged a description to be…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.; Smith, Shannon; Chambers, Craig G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.orgscience.uncc.edu/sgrogelb/innocent%20flirting%20or%20sexual%20harassment%20-%20perceptions%20of%20ambi.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Innocent Flirting or Sexual Harassment? Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Ambiguous</span> WorkPlace Situations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined attitudes of wking adults regarding <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> workplace behaviors. Participants (N = 1306) evaluated a scenario (1 of 24) involving two individuals of equal or unequal job status, of the same or opposite sew, and between whom no contact, a minimal, or a moderate degree of physical contact was expressed Dependent measures included the perm'ued seriousness of andcausal attributions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anne K. Gordon; Melissa A. Cohen; Eyal Graaer; Steven Rogelberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Frazier&pg=2&id=EJ856659"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Working Memory and Implicit Prosody in the Resolution of Adjunct Attachment <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An eye-movement monitoring experiment investigated readers' response to temporarily <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> sentences. The sentences were <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> because a relative clause could attach to one of two preceding nouns. Semantic information disambiguated the sentences. Working memory considerations predict an overall preference for the second of the two nouns, as…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Traxler, Matthew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://duke.cs.duke.edu/~yan/ps07.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A complete algorithm to resolve <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> for intersubunit NOE assignment in structure determination of symmetric homo-oligomers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assignment of nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data is a key bottleneck in structure determination by NMR. NOE assignment resolves the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> as to which pair of protons generated the observed NOE peaks, and thus should be restrained in structure determination. In the case of intersubunit NOEs in symmetric homo-oligomers, the <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> includes both the identities of the protons within a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SHOBHA POTLURI; ANTHONY K. YAN; BRUCE R. DONALD; CHRIS BAILEY-KELLOGG</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7629E..35Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Replace-approximation method for <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> solutions in factor analysis of ultrasonic hepatic perfusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Factor analysis is an efficient technique to the analysis of dynamic structures in medical image sequences and recently has been used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of hepatic perfusion. Time-intensity curves (TICs) extracted by factor analysis can provide much more diagnostic information for radiologists and improve the diagnostic rate of focal liver lesions (FLLs). However, one of the major drawbacks of factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is nonuniqueness of the <span class="hlt">result</span> when only the non-negativity criterion is used. In this paper, we propose a new method of replace-approximation based on apex-seeking for <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> FADS solutions. Due to a partial overlap of different structures, factor curves are assumed to be approximately replaced by the curves existing in medical image sequences. Therefore, how to find optimal curves is the key point of the technique. No matter how many structures are assumed, our method always starts to seek apexes from one-dimensional space where the original high-dimensional data is mapped. By finding two stable apexes from one dimensional space, the method can ascertain the third one. The process can be continued until all structures are found. This technique were tested on two phantoms of blood perfusion and compared to the two variants of apex-seeking method. The <span class="hlt">results</span> showed that the technique outperformed two variants in comparison of region of interest measurements from phantom data. It can be applied to the estimation of TICs derived from CEUS images and separation of different physiological regions in hepatic perfusion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Ji; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming; Hou, Wenguang; Ye, Huashan; Qiu, Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60446157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formulas <span class="hlt">Giving</span> Buildup Factor for Double-Layered Shields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Formulas that <span class="hlt">give</span> absorbed dose buildup factors for two-layered shields have been developed based on gamma-ray absorption buildup factors computed with the Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Transport Code System (MCNP). The shielding materials considered were water, lead, steel, concrete, and some of their combinations for two-layered shields with thicknesses between 1 to 10 mfp. Gamma energy considered ranged from 0.5</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mevlut Guvendik; Nicholas Tsoulfanidis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36771944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Birth order, sex of child, and maternal help-<span class="hlt">giving</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of a larger study of birth order, sex of child, and mother—child interaction, mothers were asked to supervise their child's performance on memory and puzzle tasks. Subjects were 56 5-year-old boys and girls and their mothers, half with a same-sex older sibling, half with a same-sex younger sibling. Mothers showed no differences in spontaneous help-<span class="hlt">giving</span> as a function</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mary K. Rothbart; Myron Rothbart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.orthonurse.org/portals/0/female%20knee%20pain.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sports-Related Knee Injuries in Female Athletes: What <span class="hlt">Gives</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dugan SA: Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: What <span class="hlt">gives</span>? Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:122-130. Knee injuries occur commonly in sports, limiting field and practice time and performance level. Although injury etiology relates primarily to sports specific activity, female athletes are at higher risk of knee injury than their male coun- terparts in jumping and cutting sports. Particular pain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheila A. Dugan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4025444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Twisted Alexander norms <span class="hlt">give</span> lower bounds on the Thurston norm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce twisted Alexander norms of a compact connected orientable 3-manifold with first Betti number bigger than one generalizing norms of McMullen and Turaev. We show that twisted Alexander norms <span class="hlt">give</span> lower bounds on the Thurston norm of a 3-manifold. Using these we completely determine the Thurston norm of many 3-manifolds which can not be determined by norms of McMullen</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefan Friedl; Taehee Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22672839"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> external genitalia in a Thoroughbred male horse with the 63,XO/64,XY mosaic karyotype.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Thoroughbred colt with <span class="hlt">ambiguous</span> external genitalia was presented for clinical and histological examinations. The colt had a short penis that faced backward between his hind limbs. The measurements of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone and ir-inhibin showed a tendency to increase gradually from April. Both the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome and amelogenin gene fragments were detected by the PCR method. A cytogenetic analysis revealed the 63,XO/64,XY mosaic karyotype (ratio 83:17). In autopsy, immature symmetrical subcutaneous testes were found in the inguinal regions. The testes and other accessory sex organs were histologically normal. These <span class="hlt">results</span> add to our knowledge of chromosomal abnormality and information concerning disorders of sex development in the horse. PMID:22672839</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, Fumio; Hirota, Keiichi; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ito, Katsumi; Dhakal, Pramod; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Endo, Yoshiro; Murase, Harutaka; Nambo, Yasuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50901873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical Resolution Method based on <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> function for attitude determination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we provide an experimental <span class="hlt">result</span> of a new method for resolving GNSS baseline vector. We discuss the single differencing (SD) model for attitude determination and it will be chosen for experiment based on GPS and GLONASS. The Analytical Resolution Method (ARM) is used for attitude angle resolving. This method will be better in reducing computation time. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boxiong Wang; Xingqun Zhan; Yanhua Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35140465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role conflict and role <span class="hlt">ambiguity</span> in information systems design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the impact of information systems implementation on the social subsystem of organization. It presents theoretical support for the impact of IS design on role conflict and role ambigulty experienced by users of information systems. <span class="hlt">Results</span> of an empirical survey are reported which evaluate the impact of information systems on RC\\/RA. The paper concludes with recommendations for systems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K Joshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3808960"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Ambiguity</span> in Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In two experiments we examined the psychometric properties of a new measure of interpretation bias in individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCs). In Experiment 1, 38 individuals high in OC symptoms, 34 individuals high in anxiety and dysphoric symptoms, and 31 asymptomatic individuals completed the measure. <span class="hlt">Results</span> revealed that the Word Sentence Association Test for OCD (WSAO) can differentiate those with OC symptoms from both a matched anxious/dysphoric group and a non-anxious/non-dysphoric group. In a second experiment, we tested the predictive validity of the WSAO using a performance-based behavioral approach test of contamination fears, and found that the WSAO was a better predictor of avoidance than an established measure of OC washing symptoms (Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised, washing subscale). Our <span class="hlt">results</span> provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the WSAO as well as its usefulness in predicting response to behavioral challenge above and beyond OC symptoms, depression, and anxiety.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Amir, Nader; Tobin, Anastacia C.; Najmi, Sadia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22302418"> <span id="translatedtitle">Setting pay for performance targets: do poor performers <span class="hlt">give</span> up?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the effect of a health plan's pay for performance incentives on the percentage of outpatient drug prescriptions that are filled with generic rather than brand-name drugs in physicians' practices in an established physician network - the generic prescription rate (GPR). The financial reward was based on the performance of the entire network, but the network implemented rewards at the practice level. Practice-level rewards were awarded on an all-or-nothing basis if the GPR met or exceeded specialty-specific targets that increased each year. Although that design gave the practices a strong incentive to meet the target, practices performing far below the target might '<span class="hlt">give</span> up', costing the network its reward. Using a partial adjustment model, we estimate that in the absence of pay for performance, the average equilibrium value of GPR was 58.3%. We estimate that GPR would be maximized if the target were set at 77%. The GPR-maximizing target would induce an improvement in average GPR from 58.3% to 65.8% or 7.5 percentage points. When the target is set above 80%, practices with equilibrium GPR below 58.3% will '<span class="hlt">give</span> up' in the sense that they will not improve relative to their equilibrium value. PMID:22302418</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dowd, Bryan; Feldman, Roger; Nersesian, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1633151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Barnase has subsites that <span class="hlt">give</span> rise to large rate enhancements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Barnase is found to have a series of subsites for binding its substrates that confers large rate enhancements. Ribonucleotide substrates of the type Zp0Gp1Xp2Y have been synthesized, where p is phosphate, X, Y, and Z are nucleosides, and G is guanosine. G occupies the primary specificity site. The most important subsite is for p2, followed by that for Y. There appears to be no subsite for the Z or p0 positions. Occupation of the subsite for p2 <span class="hlt">gives</span> rise to a 1000-fold increase in kcat/Km, composed of a 100-fold increase in kcat and a 10-fold decrease in Km. The Y subsite <span class="hlt">gives</span> rise to further 20-fold increase in kcat/Km. Rates approaching diffusion control for kcat/Km are observed. kcat for the dinucleotide monophosphate GpU = 0.55 s-1, and Km = 240 microM; this compares with 53 s-1 and 20 microM for GpUp, and 3.3 x 10(3) s-1 and 17 microM for GpApA (the best substrate tested). Cleavage occurs at the 3'-phosphate of guanosine in all cases. There are differences in base specificity at the two subsites for X and Y downstream of the scissile bond. The binding energies of different substrates have been analyzed using thermodynamic cycles. These show that the contributions of the X and Y sites are nonadditive. PMID:1633151</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Day, A G; Parsonage, D; Ebel, S; Brown, T; Fersht, A R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_23 div --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showD