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1

Restricting SBH Ambiguity via Restriction Enzymes  

E-print Network

Restricting SBH Ambiguity via Restriction Enzymes Steven Skiena1 and Sagi Snir2 1 Department, we build on [20] to enhance the resolving power of restriction enzymes. We give a hardness result­417, 2002. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002 #12;Restricting SBH Ambiguity via Restriction Enzymes

Snir, Sagi

2

Image Ambiguity and Fluency  

PubMed Central

Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

2013-01-01

3

Study Finds Charter Networks Give No Clear Edge on Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on a national study of middle school students in 40 charter networks which finds that, when it comes to having an impact on student achievement, results vary and, overall, charter students do not learn dramatically more than their counterparts in regular public schools. The findings from the research group Mathematica and the…

Shah, Nirvi

2011-01-01

4

Lost in Translation: Ambiguity in Nerve Sheath Tumor Nomenclature and Its Resultant Treatment Effect  

PubMed Central

There is much ambiguity surrounding the diagnosis of nerve sheath tumors, including atypical neurofibroma and low-grade MPNST, and yet, the distinction between these entities designates either benign or malignant behavior and thus carries presumed profound prognostic importance that often guides treatment. This study reviews the diagnostic criteria used to designate atypical neurofibroma from low-grade MPNSTs and reviews existing literature the natural history of each of these tumors to see if the distinction is, in fact, of importance. PMID:24216989

Bernthal, Nicholas M.; Jones, Kevin B.; Monument, Michael J.; Liu, Ting; Viskochil, David; Randall, R. Lor

2013-01-01

5

Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, “ambiguity aversion” and “ambiguity intolerance,” are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, “ambiguity aversion” represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, “ambiguity intolerance” describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

2015-01-01

6

Ambiguous Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a three-dimensional ambiguous cube to explore visual illusions and how our brains interpret or misinterpret information. Learners will be surprised to see what the cube looks like when they hinder their depth perception by viewing it with only one eye.

Rathjen, Don

2009-01-01

7

Charitable Giving for HIV and AIDS: Results from a Canadian National Survey  

PubMed Central

Background For the first time, a national survey of adults in Canada posed questions on charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. The objective of this analysis was to explore the behaviour and attitudes of this population in terms of charitable giving. Methods In 2011, individuals in Canada 16 years of age or older were recruited for a survey from an online panel supplemented by random digit dial telephone interviewing. The margin of error was +/?2.1 percentage points (95%). Chi-square tests were used to detect bivariate associations. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to compare those who had donated to HIV and AIDS in the past 12 months with those who had donated to other disease or illness charities. Results 2,139 participated. 82.5% had donated to a charitable cause in the past 12 months. 22.2% had ever donated to HIV and AIDS, with 7.8% doing so in the past 12 months. Individuals who had donated to HIV and AIDS versus other disease or illness charities tended to be younger (p<0.05), single (p<0.005), more highly educated (p<0.001) and to self-identify as a member of a sexual minority group (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed individuals who self-identified as a member of a sexual minority group were significantly much more likely to have donated to HIV and AIDS than to other disease or illness charities in the past 12 months (OR, 7.73; p<0.001; CI 4.32–13.88). Discussion Despite a generally philanthropic orientation, relatively few respondents had ever been involved in charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. Those who had could be understood relationally as individuals at closer social proximity to HIV and AIDS such as members of sexual minority groups. PMID:25153827

Allman, Dan; Calzavara, Liviana; Worthington, Catherine; Tyndall, Mark; Adrien, Alix; Walters, Melissa; White, Samantha; Jones, Marcella K.

2014-01-01

8

Treatment decisions under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment. PMID:23537710

Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

2013-05-01

9

Ambiguities analysis in SAR tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar tomography (TomoSAR) is typically used to retrieve elevation, deformation, and other key information by separating scatters of the same slant range in multiple baseline SAR images. In this paper, we investigate two kinds of ambiguities for TomoSAR. Rank-1 ambiguity, as the first one we concerned, is due to the baseline distribution of the SAR image dataset which makes the steering matrix out of full rank. It will result in false alarms appearing in a permanent distance. However, an example using the TomoSAR imaging parameters shows this ambiguity makes no sense in most cases. The second ambiguity refers to the coherence of scatters contained in one pixel. In simulation experiment, the coherence will enhance the side lobes of the spectrum, even make the real peaks fused.

Wang, Ziwei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yixian; Zhang, Bo

2014-10-01

10

SAR ambiguous range suppression.  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2006-09-01

11

Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing  

PubMed Central

In this study, we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing. Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots: non-frozen, rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing. Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<0.01) after the first, second and third cycles of freezing/thawing, but there was no difference in morphology. In the second experiment, rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects. The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay. DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing, but to a level that was not clinically important. In the third experiment, rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects, until no motile sperm were observed after thawing. The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range: 5–8, mean: 6.8). In conclusion, we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing. This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:23064685

Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Lattiwongsakorn, Worashorn; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn; Samchimchom, Sudarat

2012-01-01

12

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

E-print Network

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Perspectives from Psycholinguistics, Neuropsychology, and Artificial throughout the short history of psycholinguistics. In what follows, we organize old and present new evidence

13

Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here) from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity. PMID:15967024

Reeder, Janina; Steffen, Peter; Giegerich, Robert

2005-01-01

14

Processing Coordination Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2010-01-01

15

Vignettes of Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

Gotz, Ignacio L.

2010-01-01

16

Nonperturbative Ambiguities and the Reality of Resurgent Transseries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a wide range of quantum theoretical settings—from quantum mechanics to quantum field theory, from gauge theory to string theory—singularities in the complex Borel plane, usually associated to instantons or renormalons, render perturbation theory ill-defined as they give rise to nonperturbative ambiguities. These ambiguities are associated to choices of an integration contour in the resummation of perturbation theory, along (singular) Stokes directions in the complex Borel plane (rendering perturbative expansions non-Borel summable along any Stokes line). More recently, it has been shown that the proper framework to address these issues is that of resurgent analysis and transseries. In this context, the cancelation of all nonperturbative ambiguities is shown to be a consequence of choosing the transseries median resummation as the appropriate family of unambiguous real solutions along the coupling-constant real axis. While the median resummation is easily implemented for one-parameter transseries, once one considers more general multi-parameter transseries the procedure becomes highly dependent upon properly understanding Stokes transitions in the complex Borel plane. In particular, all Stokes coefficients must now be known in order to explicitly implement multi-parameter median resummations. In the cases where quantum-theoretical physical observables are described by resurgent functions and transseries, the methods described herein show how one may cancel nonperturbative ambiguities, and define these observables nonperturbatively starting out from perturbation theory. Along the way, structural results concerning resurgent transseries are also obtained.

Aniceto, Inês; Schiappa, Ricardo

2014-10-01

17

Management of ambiguities in magnetostratigraphic correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetostratigraphy is a powerful tool to provide absolute dating of sediments enabling robust and detailed chronostratigraphic correlations. It is based on the correlation of a magnetic polarity column, observed and measured in a given sediment section, to a magnetic polarity reference scale where polarity changes are well dated via other independent methods. However, magnetostratigraphic correlations are loose as they are only constrained by binary magnetic chrons (i.e. normal or reversal) and their thickness, which are both defined from depth variations of the magnetic remanent directions. The thickness of a given magnetic polarity zone is a function of time and sediment accumulation rate, which may not be stationary, leading to ambiguities when performing the correlations. To address these ambiguities, a numerical method based on the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm is proposed. Magnetostratigraphic correlations are computed in order to minimise the local variation of the accumulation rate. The main advantage of the proposed method is to automatically provide a set of reasonably likely correlations. This set can then be scrutinised for further analysis and interpretation. However, the likelihood of a correlation should be handled carefully as it depends on the information content of the magnetostratigraphic section itself and remain ultimately valid by ancillary constraint. Nevertheless, the method gives consistent results on difficult synthetic cases that simulate abrupt variations of the sedimentation rate. Insights on true sections debated by previous authors are also given.

Lallier, Florent; Antoine, Christophe; Charreau, Julien; Caumon, Guillaume; Ruiu, Jeremy

2013-06-01

18

VALUING AMBIGUITY: THE CASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED GROWTH ENHANCERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A split-valuation method is developed and implemented to elicit the willingness to pay to consume- or avoid consuming- a product of ambiguous quality. The split-valuation method uses experimental auction markets to separate and value the positive and negative attributes of the ambiguous good. The results show that the method can be used to successfully value a good ambiguous quality. Our

Brian L. Buhr; Dermot J. Hayes; Jason F. Shogren; James B. Kliebenstein

1993-01-01

19

Processing of the Korean Eojoel ambiguity.  

PubMed

Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to investigate mechanisms of ambiguity resolution during sentence comprehension. In experiments using eye-tracking and self-paced reading, we examined how readers resolve the Eojoel ambiguity, where the grouping of syllables is ambiguous with respect to whether a phrase-final syllable is a case marker or a part of a word. This Eojoel ambiguity offers an opportunity to test how relative frequency of the lexical entries and complexity of morphological decomposition affect ambiguity resolution. Overall, the results of the experiments presented here showed that readers noticed and processed the Eojoel ambiguity very rapidly using information about the relative frequency of alternative interpretations, while the complexity of the morphological decomposition had little effect. These results are discussed in terms of constraint-based accounts (MacDonald et al. Psychol Rev 101:676-703, 1994) of ambiguity resolution. PMID:19052871

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C

2009-08-01

20

Selfless giving.  

PubMed

In four studies, we show that people who anticipate more personal change over time give more to others. We measure and manipulate participants' beliefs in the persistence of the defining psychological features of a person (e.g., his or her beliefs, values, and life goals) and measure generosity, finding support for the hypothesis in three studies using incentive-compatible charitable donation decisions and one involving hypothetical choices about sharing with loved ones. PMID:23973466

Bartels, Daniel M; Kvaran, Trevor; Nichols, Shaun

2013-11-01

21

Lexical ambiguity resolution  

SciTech Connect

This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

1987-01-01

22

Some Structural Ambiguities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The identification and study of 20 syntactical patterns responsible for much of the structural ambiguity found in literary composition can develop in students an audience awareness. When they realize that such constructions as "a dull boy's knife" and "the club will be open to members from Monday to Thursday" can be misinterpreted, they take more…

Stageberg, Norman C.

1958-01-01

23

Ambiguous keyboards for AAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – “Ambiguous keyboards” and “disambiguation processes” are becoming universally recognised through the popularisation of “predictive text messaging” on mobile phones. As this paper shows, although originating in the AT and AAC fields, these terms and techniques no longer appear to be widely understood or adopted by practitioners or users. The purpose of this paper is to introduce these techniques,

Simon Judge; Marcus Friday

2011-01-01

24

Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood. PMID:25601848

Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Huettel, Scott A.

2015-01-01

25

The ambiguous meaning of irreversibility  

E-print Network

Irreversibility of spontaneous macroscopic dynamics and its asymmetry with respect to the sign reversal of the variable $t$ is usually interpreted as a genuine property of complex isolated systems. Discussion of the kinetics involved in Joule's experiment concerning spontaneous expansion of a gas shows that the isolation hypothesis results from ambiguous definitions of a number of keywords. Whereas Poincar\\'{e}'s apparent irreversibility result from conservative Hamiltonian dynamics, full relaxation implies interaction with the outside world. Only the latter process leads to entropy change.

X. de Hemptinne

1999-01-30

26

Ambiguous red shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bia?ynicki-Birula.

Wulfman, Carl E.

2010-12-01

27

The Ambiguity of the English Present Perfect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines grammatical and discourse-pragmatic reflexes of the existential and resultative readings of the English present perfect and presents negative and positive arguments regarding its ambiguity. It is suggested that the resultative verb represents a formal idiom and that mastery of aspectual grammar entails knowledge of form-meaning pairings.…

Michaelis, Laura A.

1994-01-01

28

Ambiguities in helical reconstruction.  

PubMed

Helical polymers are found throughout biology and account for a substantial fraction of the protein in a cell. These filaments are very attractive for three-dimensional reconstruction from electron micrographs due to the fact that projections of these filaments show many different views of identical subunits in identical environments. However, ambiguities exist in defining the symmetry of a helical filament when one has limited resolution, and mistakes can be made. Until one reaches a near-atomic level of resolution, there are not necessarily reality-checks that can distinguish between correct and incorrect solutions. A recent paper in eLife (Xu et al., 2014) almost certainly imposed an incorrect helical symmetry and this can be seen using filament images posted by Xu et al. A comparison between the atomic model proposed and the published three-dimensional reconstruction should have suggested that an incorrect solution was found. PMID:25486515

Egelman, Edward H

2014-01-01

29

Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

Weber, W. J., III

1979-01-01

30

Lexical ambiguity and information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical ambiguity is a pervasive problem in natural language processing. However, little quantitative information is available about the extent of the problem or about the impact that it has on information retrieval systems. We report on an analysis of lexical ambiguity in information retrieval test collections and on experiments to determine the utility of word meanings for separating relevant from

Robert Krovetz; W. Bruce Croft

1992-01-01

31

Hemispheric asymmetries in the resolution of lexical ambiguity.  

PubMed

The linguistic phenomenon of lexical ambiguity has been intensively investigated as a means of gaining insight into general mechanisms of lexical access. It is now evident that both context and meaning frequency are significant factors in the determination of lexical outcomes. This suggests that hemispheric processes may be relevant to the resolution of lexical ambiguity, because both factors have been shown to have differential implications for the processing of language in the hemispheres. This study set out to examine the effects of context and meaning frequency on the resolution of ambiguous word meanings within the hemispheres. Sentences presented at the beginning of each trial embodied contexts which expressed either the dominant or subordinate meaning of a terminating homographic prime. Laterally presented target words reflected senses of the prime which were either consistent with, or inconsistent with, the context created by the preceding sentence. The most interesting results were observed at short prime-target intervals where it was found that although dominant meanings of the target did not give rise to visual field differences, subordinate meanings evoked facilitated responses only in the left visual field. This result suggests that the right hemisphere immediately and exhaustively activates the various meanings associated with a word, while in the left hemisphere initial access is selectively restricted to the dominant meaning. It is proposed that this reflects a model of language comprehension in which the right hemisphere plays a supportive role by making available a set of alternative and less probable word meanings, thus freeing the left hemisphere to focus cognitive resources upon the most probable meaning of a word in a given context. PMID:10678693

Coney, J; Evans, K D

2000-01-01

32

Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Sta?czak, Maciej

2015-01-01

33

Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity  

SciTech Connect

One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find physical solutions associated to spin-two local excitations.

Perez, Alejandro [Centre de Physique Theorique, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France)

2006-02-15

34

Ambiguous absence, ambiguous presence: a qualitative study of military reserve families in wartime.  

PubMed

The "Global War on Terrorism" has resulted in reservists being deployed at an ever-increasing rate. However, because reservists and their families are unaccustomed to deployments, many families may experience boundary ambiguity, a state in which family members are uncertain in their perception about who is in or out of the family and who is performing which roles and tasks within the family. This qualitative description study examined boundary ambiguity in military reserve families over time. A sample of 34 reservists, spouses, and parents was interviewed 7 times within the 1st year of the reservists' return from Iraq. During deployment, all family members experienced boundary ambiguity. Gathering information and attending a family support group provided some relief for families. After the reservists returned, couples as well as those who had experienced additional life events or losses experienced the highest levels of boundary ambiguity. However, this boundary ambiguity dissipated over time, as families tended to restabilize once the reservists had returned to work and a routine had been established. PMID:18410209

Faber, Anthony J; Willerton, Elaine; Clymer, Shelley R; MacDermid, Shelley M; Weiss, Howard M

2008-04-01

35

A New Method for Resolving the 180° Ambiguity in Solar Vector Magnetograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method to resolve the 180° ambiguity for solar vector magnetogram measurements. The basic assumption is that the magnetic shear angle (??), which is defined as the difference between the azimuth components of observed and potential fields, approximately follows a normal distribution. The new method is composed of three steps. First, we apply the potential field method to determine the azimuthal components of the observed magnetic fields. Second, we resolve the ambiguity with a new criterion: -90°+??mple??le90°+??mp, where ??mp is the most probable value of magnetic shear angle from its number distribution. Finally, to remove some localized field discontinuities, we use the criterion Bt.Bmtge0, where Bt and Bmt are an observed transverse field and its mean value for a small surrounding region, respectively. For an illustration, we have applied the new ambiguity removal method (Uniform Shear Method) to a vector magnetogram which covers a highly sheared region near the polarity inversion line of NOAA AR 0039. As a result, we have found that the new ambiguity solution was successful and removed spatial discontinuities in the transverse vector fields produced in the magnetogram by the potential field method. It is also found that our solution to the ambiguity gives nearly the same results, for highly sheared vector magnetograms and vertical current density distributions, of NOAA AR 5747 and AR 6233 as those of other methods. The validity of the basic assumption for an approximate normal distribution is demonstrated by the number distributions of magnetic shear angle for the three active regions under consideration.

Moon, Y.-J.; Wang, Haimin; Spirock, Thomas J.; Goode, P. R.; Park, Y. D.

2003-10-01

36

Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.  

PubMed

Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

2014-02-01

37

Visual Phonemic Ambiguity and Speechreading  

E-print Network

Visual Phonemic Ambiguity and Speechreading Purpose: To study the role of visual perception to distiguish between clusters of the least visually distinct phonemes is important in speechreading: speechreading, articulation, students, normal hearing F or normal-hearing persons under normal listening

Beskow, Jonas

38

Lexical Access for Phonetic Ambiguities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research that (1) suggests that phonetically ambiguous pairs (ice cream/I scream) have been used inaccurately to illustrate contextual effects in word segmentation, (2) supports unitary rather than exhaustive processing, and (3) supports the use of the concepts of word frequency and listener expectations instead of top-down, multiple…

Spencer, N. J.; Wollman, Neil

1980-01-01

39

Performance analysis of multiple PRF technique for ambiguity resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For short wavelength spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ambiguity in Doppler centroid estimation occurs when the azimuth squint angle uncertainty is larger than the azimuth antenna beamwidth. Multiple pulse recurrence frequency (PRF) hopping is a technique developed to resolve the ambiguity by operating the radar in different PRF's in the pre-imaging sequence. Performance analysis results of the multiple PRF technique are presented, given the constraints of the attitude bound, the drift rate uncertainty, and the arbitrary numerical values of PRF's. The algorithm performance is derived in terms of the probability of correct ambiguity resolution. Examples, using the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-SAR parameters, demonstrate that the probability of correct ambiguity resolution obtained by the multiple PRF technique is greater than 95 percent and 80 percent for the SIR-C and X-SAR applications, respectively. The success rate is significantly higher than that achieved by the range cross correlation technique.

Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

1992-01-01

40

LIFG-based attentional control and the resolution of lexical ambiguities in sentence context  

PubMed Central

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively unimpaired. Experiment 2 showed that all three patients did as well as normal controls in using biasing sentence context to resolve lexical ambiguities involving balanced ambiguous words, but only the LIFG patients took an abnormally long time on lexical ambiguities that resolved toward a subordinate meaning of biased ambiguous words. Taken together, the results suggest that attentional control plays an important role in the resolution of certain lexical ambiguities – those that induce strong interference from context-inappropriate meanings (i.e., dominant meanings of biased ambiguous words). PMID:20971500

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2010-01-01

41

A COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of carrier-phase ambiguity resolution is described. The new technique is a variation of the least- squares residual search technique in the ambiguity domain. It uses a very efficient algorithm to compute the residuals associated with each potential combination of ambiguities to be tested. Several other techniques are employed to simplify the calculations and to enhance the probability

Ron Hatch; Tenny Sharpe

42

How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

2005-01-01

43

Giving an Academic Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jonathan Shewchuk gives his opinions on how to give an academic talk using presentation software. While the original article is for computer science or mathematics students, they are equally applicable to physics students.

Shewchuk, Jonathan

2010-03-03

44

[Grandchildren in family care giving for people with dementia: experiences and evaluations--results from a life-world-oriented study].  

PubMed

Dementia often has a serious impact on family life in household care giving situations. The qualitative study in applied gerontology presented here focuses on the subjective experiences of grandchildren and the intergenerational relationships of the family members. It includes 15 in-depth retrospective interviews with young adults (11 female, 4 male). The theoretical background is a sociological life-world-oriented approach by Alfred Schütz. The grandchildren reported a wide range of experiences with positive and enriching incidents prevailing, e.g., individual and familial competence in care giving, increased contact between family members, i.e., so-called"family cohesion", improvements in the grandchildren's social responsibility, and their acquired knowledge of the needs of older people and of persons with dementia. Individual stress was experienced because of so-called "challenging behavior" by the grandparents (e.g., aggressive behavior) or family circumstances when the demands were too great.A third category includes those experiences which seem to be "taken for granted" and are regarded as insignificant by the grandchildren. Because this category encompasses many of the grandchildren's own care giving activities, the widespread assumption that dementia must always cause younger carers stress is not true in general. The data suggest that living in a family that has difficulties in coping with the situation might be more demanding than dealing with the behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia. The grandchildren should be given access to age-appropriate information about the disease and the ways to communicate effectively with their grandparent needing care. PMID:21909775

Philipp-Metzen, H E

2011-12-01

45

On Ambiguities in SAR Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ambiguities are an aliasing effect caused by the periodic sampling of the scene backscatter inherent to pulsed radar systems such as Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR). In this paper we take a fresh look at the relationship between SAR range and azimuth ambiguity constraints on the allowable pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and the antenna length. We show that for high squint angles smaller antennas may be feasible in some cases. For some applications, the ability to form a synthetic aperture at high squint angles is desirable, but the size of the antenna causes problems in the design of systems capable of such operation. This is because the SAR system design is optimized for a side-looking geometry. In two examples design examples we take a suboptimum antenna size and examine the performance in terms of azimuth resolution and swath width as a function of squint angle. We show that for stripmap SARs, the swath width is usually worse for off-boresight squint angles, because it is severely limited by range walk, except in cases where we relax the spatial resolution. We consider the implications for the design of modest-resolution, narrow swath, scanning SAR scatterometers .

Freeman, Anthony

2006-01-01

46

Possible ambiguities in the equation of state for neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We addressed possible ambiguities on the properties of neutron stars (NSs) estimated in theoretical sides. First, roles of hyperons inside the NS are discussed through various relativistic mean field (RMF) theories. In particular, the extension of SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry to SU(3) flavor symmetry is shown to give rise to the increase of hyperon threshold density, similarly to the Fock term effects in RMF theories. As a result, about 2.0 solar mass is obtained with the hyperons. Second, the effect by the modified f(R) gravity, which leaves a room for the dark energy in the Einstein equation to be taken into account, is discussed for the NS in a strong magnetic field (MF). Our results show that the modified gravity with the Kaluza-Klein electro-magnetism theory expanded in terms of a length scale parameter may reasonably describe the NS in strong MF, so called magnetar. Even the super-soft equation of state is shown to be revived by the modified f(R) gravity.

Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi; Ryu, C. Y. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Deliduman, Cemsinan [Department of Physics, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Bomonti 34380, Istanbul (Turkey); Güngör, Can; Kele?, Vildan [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Physics Engineering Department, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, Grant J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

2014-05-02

47

Doppler centroid estimation ambiguity for synthetic aperture radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for estimation of the Doppler centroid of an SAR in the presence of large uncertainty in antenna boresight pointing is described. Also investigated is the image degradation resulting from data processing that uses an ambiguous centroid. Two approaches for resolving ambiguities in Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are presented: the range cross-correlation technique and the multiple-PRF (pulse repetition frequency) technique. Because other design factors control the PRF selection for SAR, a generalized algorithm is derived for PRFs not containing a common divisor. An example using the SIR-C parameters illustrates that this algorithm is capable of resolving the C-band DCE ambiguities for antenna pointing uncertainties of about 2-3 deg.

Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

1989-01-01

48

Sequence data - Magnitude and implications of some ambiguities.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic model is applied to the divergence of the horse-pig lineage from a common ansestor in terms of the alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin and fibrinopeptides. The results are compared with those based on the minimum mutation distance model of Fitch (1972). Buckwheat and cauliflower cytochrome c sequences are analyzed to demonstrate their ambiguities. A comparative analysis of evolutionary rates for various proteins of horses and pigs shows that errors of considerable magnitude are introduced by Glx and Asx ambiguities into evolutionary conclusions drawn from sequences of incompletely analyzed proteins.

Holmquist, R.; Jukes, T. H.

1972-01-01

49

A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.

Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

50

Codon Capture and Ambiguous Intermediate Scenarios of Genetic Code Evolution  

E-print Network

Using the shape space of codons and tRNAs we give a physical description of the genetic code evolution on the basis of the codon capture and ambiguous intermediate scenarios in a consistent manner. In the lowest dimensional version of our description, a physical quantity, codon level is introduced. In terms of the codon levels two scenarios are typically classified into two different routes of the evolutional process. In the case of the ambiguous intermediate scenario we perform an evolutional simulation implemented cost selection of amino acids and confirm a rapid transition of the code change. Such rapidness reduces uncomfortableness of the non-unique translation of the code at intermediate state that is the weakness of the scenario. In the case of the codon capture scenario the survival against mutations under the mutational pressure minimizing GC content in genomes is simulated and it is demonstrated that cells which experience only neutral mutations survive.

Yamashita, Tatsuro

2011-01-01

51

Passive coherent location FPGA implementation of the cross ambiguity function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of key problem in passive coherent location (PCL) is effective and accurate computation of the cross ambiguity function (CAF). This function is related to the direct signal and signals reflected from localized targets. PCL systems exploit high-power commercial transmitters of opportunity (FM, TV, etc.) to take advantage of lower frequencies, multistatic geometries and covert deployment. The transmitter does not have to cooperate with the receiver. The CAF represent power spectral density distribution of the cross-correlation between direct and reflected signals. It depends on mutual time delay and frequency shift of the input signals and is considerate as primary information for detection, localization and identification of the tracked targets. Regarding above mentioned reasons has to be important develop optimal (numerically effective and sufficiently accurate) implementation of the HW architecture based on FPGA for CAF computation, which will be suitable for future real-time PCL systems. As a first result which originates on the ongoing mutual cooperation between ERA a.s. and UTIA is design of the PC accelerator card for CAF computation based on Xilinx FPGA processor. The presented contribution gives overall information about used algorithms, FPGA accelerator card design and achieved performance. The future possibilities of the additional enhancements are discussed.

Kvasni?ka, Michal; He?mánek, Antonín; Kuneš, Michal; Pelant, Martin; Plšek, Radek

2006-02-01

52

Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

2010-01-01

53

Semidefinite Programming Heuristics for Surface Reconstruction Ambiguities  

E-print Network

of integrating a smooth surface under ambiguous constraints can be addressed with semidefinite programming (SDP. A quadratic cost function measuring surface smooth- ness and constraint satisfaction is defined consider the problem of reconstructing a smooth surface under constraints that have discrete ambiguities

Jepson, Allan D.

54

AMBIG: Automated Ambiguity-Resolution Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMBIG is a fast, automated algorithm for resolving the 180° ambiguity in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide ambiguity-resolved data for the general user community.

Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Crouch, A.

2014-04-01

55

Instability in DOA manifold ambiguity resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the instability conditions of direction-of-arrival (DOA) manifold ambiguity resolution for uncorrelated Gaussian sources and nonuniform linear antenna arrays. Manifold ambiguity is associated with linear dependence amongst the points on the array manifold (the “steering vectors”) where the number of sources is less than the number of sensors, or in the more general case, amongst the points on the

Y. I. Abramovich; N. K. Spencer; V. G. Gaitsgory

1999-01-01

56

Satellite track-to-track ambiguity resolution for GNSS dual- and triple-frequency linear combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the zero-difference level the receiver- and satellite-related biases are the most critical obstacle in ambiguity resolution. It is always difficult to reliably estimate and separate all these receiver- and satellite-related biases that are linearly dependent on the ambiguities. For satellite track-to-track ambiguities, the difference between two ambiguities from one receiver to the same satellite but on two consecutive tracks, all receiver- and satellite-related biases, that are more or less constant in time, will be eliminated. This is a considerable advantage for ambiguity resolution. In recent years, colleages from ESA/ESOC have demonstrated the track-to-track dual-frequency phase clock ambiguity resolution. We will present the results concerning track-to-track ambiguity resolution using the dual-frequency Melbourne-Wübbena linear combination, the dual-frequency ionosphere-free linear combination, as well as the triple-frequency ionosphere-free and geometry-free linear combinations. The results from simulations and from the processing of real data, stemming from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX), will be shown. We conclude that the success rate of the track-to-track ambiguity resolution is higher than that of normal ambiguity resolution on the zero-difference level without estimating the biases. We show that, an iterative ambiguity resolution, constraining of the resolved track-to-track ambiguities on the normal equation level, can further improve the results. In addition, special emphasis will be put on the influence of receiver and satellite biases, which depend on the various signal tracking techniques used.

Wang, Kan; Rothacher, Markus

2013-04-01

57

Treatment motivation: An attempt for clarification of an ambiguous concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the concept of treatment motivation is generally regarded as highly relevant, it has since long been surrounded by conceptual confusion, resulting in miscommunication, ambiguous measures, and contradictory conclusions of research. This article provides an analysis of three major sources of confusion in the conceptualization of treatment motivation: (a) negligence of the concepts' intrinsic relationship with behavior, (b) entanglement of

Klaus H Drieschner; Sylvia M. M Lammers; Cees P. F van der Staak

2004-01-01

58

Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

2008-01-01

59

The Effects of Workload, Role Ambiguity and Social Support on Burnout among Social Workers in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine main effects of workload, role ambiguity, and social support on social workers' burnout in Turkey. Data were obtained from 222 social workers who were members of Association of Social Workers in Turkey. Results revealed that workload may predict emotional exhaustion, depersonalization sub-dimensions of burnout, but not personal accomplishment. Role ambiguity was positively

Senay Yürür; Muammer Sarikaya

2012-01-01

60

The selection of pancreatic reconstruction techniques gives rise to higher incidences of morbidity: results of the 30th Japan Pancreatic Surgery Questionnaire Survey on pancreatoduodenectomy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose. We aimed to determine the impact of the surgical strategy used for pancreatic reconstruction on morbidity after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Methods. A questionnaire was sent to all surgeon members of the Japan Pancreatic Surgery Club in December 2002. Results. We received 152 replies, and the data from all of them were used in the analysis. Thirty-six percent of the 152

Hideki Abe; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Tadahiro Takada; Takukazu Nagakawa

2005-01-01

61

Simple Way to Resolve the Range Ambiguity.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that with the range gate fixed, random adjustment of the pulse repetition frequency will offer a rapid and accurate way to avoid misinterpretation of range ambiguity. BACKGROUND: Traditionally, to avoid the misdiagnosis of Doppler artifacts caused by range ambiguity, time must be spent on checking the flow patterns in the calculated phantom range gates. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (mean age 64 +/- 15 years, 15 men and nine women) with mitral regurgitation were included in the study. Pulsed Doppler evaluation was performed with sample volume initially at the shallow left ventricle and then, along the direction of ultrasonic beam, at the calculated range gate distal to the mitral valve to search for the high velocity Doppler signal. The highest velocity scale was initially selected. After detection of high velocity signal, the velocity scale was lowered to achieve the lower pulse repetition frequency. RESULTS: For all patients, a high velocity regurgitant Doppler signal could be recorded both distal to the mitral valve and at the shallow left ventricle. Such signal persisted at the range gate distal to the mitral valve but disappeared at the range gate at the shallow left ventricle after manual adjustment of the velocity scale. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of disappearance of the high velocity Doppler signal after adjustment of the pulse repetition frequency for confirmation of a phantom phenomenon are 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Without the necessity of exact information about the pulse repetition frequency used, random adjustment of the pulse repetition frequency for the selected gate range is a rapid and exact method for initial differentiation of in situ from phantom signal in pulsed Doppler echocardiography. PMID:11175059

Voon, Wen-Chol; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Wu, Jung-Chou

1998-07-01

62

The presenilin 1 deltaE9 mutation gives enhanced basal phospholipase C activity and a resultant increase in intracellular calcium concentrations.  

PubMed

We studied effects of the familial Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 (PS1) exon 9 deletion (PS1-DeltaE9) mutation on basal and carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PS1-DeltaE9 cells have an enhanced basal PI hydrolysis and [Ca(2+)](i) as compared with both wild type PS1 (PS1-WT) and nontransfected (NT) cells. Both were reversed by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin. The PS1-DeltaE9-related high basal [Ca(2+)](i) was also reversed by xestospongin C confirming that this effect was inositol trisphosphate receptor-mediated. Carbachol gave a greater stimulation of [Ca(2+)](i) in PS1-DeltaE9 cells that took longer to return to basal as compared with responses seen in NT and PS1-WT cells. This long tail-off effect seen in PS1-DeltaE9 cells after carbachol stimulation was reversed by xestospongin C and dantrolene, suggesting that it was mediated by inositol trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor amplification of Ca(2+). Ruthenium red only reduced carbachol peak elevations of [Ca(2+)](i) in NT and PS1-WT cells and not in PS1-DeltaE9 cells. No significant between cell type differences were seen for basal and carbachol-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) with either ryanodine or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid. Immunostaining experiments revealed that for all the cell types PS1 is present at the plasma membrane and co-localizes with N-cadherin, a component of the cell-cell adhesion complex. Immunoblotting of cell extracts for PLC-beta1 showed that, compared with NT and PS1-WT cells, the PS1-DeltaE9 transfectants gave a relative increase in levels of the calpain generated N-terminal fragment (100 kDa) over full-length (150 kDa) PLC-beta1. Our results suggest that the PS1-DeltaE9 mutation causes upstream changes in PI signaling with enhanced basal PLC activity as a primary effect that leads to a higher [Ca(2+)](i). This may provide a novel mechanism by which the PS1-DeltaE9 mutation sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli and enhanced amyloid beta generation. PMID:12121968

Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Popescu, Bogdan O; Ankarcrona, Maria; Nishimura, Takeshi; Cowburn, Richard F

2002-09-27

63

Processing temporary syntactic ambiguity: The effect of contextual bias  

PubMed Central

This paper reports two experiments using sentences with a temporary ambiguity between a direct object and a sentence complement analysis that is resolved toward the normally-preferred direct object analysis. Post-verbal noun phrases in these sentences could be ambiguously attached as either a direct object or the subject of a sentence complement whereas in unambiguous versions of the sentences the subcategorization of the verb forced the direct object interpretation. Participants read these sentences in relatively long paragraph contexts, where the context supported the direct object analysis (“preferred”), supported the sentence complement analysis (“unpreferred”), or provided conflicting evidence about both analyses (“conflicting”). Self-paced reading times for ambiguous post-verbal noun phrases were almost equivalent to the reading times of their unambiguous counterparts, even in unpreferred and conflicted context conditions. However, time to read a following region, which forced the direct object interpretation, was affected by the interaction of verb subcategorization ambiguity and contextual support. The full pattern of results do not fit well with either an unelaborated single-analysis (“garden path”) model or a competitive constraint-satisfaction model, but are consistent with a race model in which multiple factors affect the speed of constructing a single initial analysis. PMID:21722057

Mohamed, Mohamed Taha; Clifton, Charles

2012-01-01

64

Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. We utilized a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which biology majors spontaneously used lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Three categories of language were identified and examined in this study: terms with Dual Ambiguity, Incompatible Ambiguity, and Unintended Ambiguity. In the sample of 1282 initial evolutionary explanations, 81 % of students spontaneously incorporated lexically ambiguous language at least once. Furthermore, the majority of these initial responses were judged to be inaccurate from a scientific point of view. While not significantly related to gender, age, or reading/writing ability, students' use of contextually appropriate evolutionary language ( pressure and adapt) was significantly associated with academic performance in biology. Comparisons of initial responses to follow-up responses demonstrated that the majority of student explanations were not reinterpreted after consideration of the follow-up response; nevertheless, a sizeable minority was interpreted differently. Most cases of interpretation change were a consequence of resolving initially ambiguous responses, rather than a change of accuracy, resulting in an increased understanding of students' evolutionary explanations. We discuss a series of implications of lexical ambiguity for evolution education.

Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

2013-06-01

65

Characteristics of velocity ambiguity for CINRAD-SA Doppler weather radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity ambiguity in Doppler weather radars has inhibited the application of wind field data for long time. One effective solution is software-based velocity dealiasing algorithm. In this paper, in order to better design, optimize and validate velocity dealiasing algorithms for CINRAD-SA, data from operational radars were used to statistically characterize velocity ambiguity. The analyzed characteristic parameters included occurrence rate, and inter-station, inter-type, temporal, and spatial distributions. The results show that 14.9% of cloud-rain files and 0.3% of clear-air files from CINRADSA radars are ambiguous. It is also found that echoes of weak convections have the highest occurrence rate of velocity ambiguity than any other cloud types, and the probability of ambiguity is higher in winter than in summer. A detailed inspection of the occurrence of ambiguity in various cases indicates that ambiguous points usually occur in areas with an elevation angle of 6.0°, an azimuth of 70° or 250°, radial distance of 50-60 km, and height of 5-6 km, and that 99.4% of ambiguous points are in the 1st-folding interval. Suggestions for performing dealiasing at different locations and different time points are provided.

Chu, Zhigang; Yin, Yan; Gu, Songshan

2014-02-01

66

A study of the ambiguity in the solutions to the Diophantine equation for Chern numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chern numbers for Hofstadter models with rational flux 2?p/q are partially determined by a Diophantine equation. A mod?q ambiguity remains. The resolution of this ambiguity is only known for the rectangular lattice with nearest neighbors hopping where it has the form of a ‘window condition’. We study a Hofstadter butterfly on the triangular lattice for which the resolution of ambiguity is open. In the model many pairs (p, q) satisfy a window condition which is shifted relative to the window of the square model. However, we also find pairs (p, q) where the Chern numbers do not belong to any contiguous window. This shows that the rectangular model and the one we study on the triangular lattice are not adiabatically connected: many gaps must close. Our results suggest the conjecture that the mod q ambiguity in the Diophantine equation generically reduces to a sign ambiguity.

Avron, J. E.; Kenneth, O.; Yehoshua, G.

2014-05-01

67

Three types of ambiguity Lars Peter Hansen  

E-print Network

's ambiguity with a set of probability models. We thank Marco Bassetto, Anmol Bhandari, Jaroslav Borovicka Anmol Bhandari and Rui Cui for excellent computational assistance. 1 #12;A coherent multi-agent setting

Hansen, Lars Peter

68

Ambiguities in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of aspects of spaceborne SAR time delay and Doppler ambiguities has led to the formulation of an accurate method for the evaluation of the ratio of ambiguity intensities to that of the signal, which has been applied to the nominal SAR system on Seasat. After discussing the variation of this ratio as a function of orbital latitude and attitude control error, it is shown that the detailed range migration-azimuth phase history of an ambiguity is different from that of a signal, so that the images of ambiguities are dispersed. Seasat SAR dispersed images are presented, and their dispersions are eliminated through an adjustment of the processing parameters. A method is also presented which uses a set of multiple pulse repetition sequences to determine the Doppler centroid frequency absolute values for SARs with high carrier frequencies and poor attitude measurements.

Li, F. K.; Johnson, W. T. K.

1983-01-01

69

Give or Take?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners work in pairs using their senses—especially touch—to learn more about individual trees. After reading and discussing Shel Silverstein's storybook "The Giving Tree," learners conduct a field study of different trees. Each learner explores and answers questions about a particular tree's bark, age, smell, roots, leaves, and fruit, and what wildlife is found in or near the tree. In a latter part of the activity, learners wear blindfolds and try to identify their tree without using their sense of sight.

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

70

Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

71

European starlings unriddle the ambiguous-cue problem.  

PubMed

The ambiguous-cue problem is deceptively simple. It involves two concurrently trained simultaneous discriminations (known as PA and NA trials), but only three stimuli. Stimulus A is common to both discriminations, but serves as non-reinforced stimulus (S-) on PA trials and as reinforced stimulus (S+) on NA trials. Typically, animals' accuracy is lower on PA trials-the ambiguous-cue effect. We conducted two experiments with European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using Urcuioli and Michalek's (2007, Psychon B Rev 14, 658-662) experimental manipulations as a springboard to test the predictions of two of the most important theoretical accounts of the effect: the interfering cue hypothesis and value transfer theory. Both experiments included two groups of birds, one trained with a regular ambiguous-cue problem (Group Continuous) and another trained with partial reinforcement on PA trials (Group PA-Partial). The experiments differed only in the number of sessions (18 vs. 36) and daily trials (360 vs. 60). As previously observed, we found faster acquisition on NA trials than on PA trials in both experiments, but by the end of training PA performance was surprisingly high, such that no ambiguous-cue effect was present in Group Continuous of either experiment. The effect was still present in both PA-Partial groups, but to a smaller degree than expected. These findings are inconsistent with the literature, in particular with the results of Urcuioli and Michalek (2007) with pigeons, and question the aforementioned theoretical accounts as complete explanations of the ambiguous-cue effect. In our view, to achieve such high levels of accuracy on PA trials, starlings must have attended to configural (i.e., contextual) cues, thus differentiating stimulus A when presented on PA trials from stimulus A when presented on NA trials. A post hoc simulation of a reinforcement-based configural model supported our assertion. PMID:25206346

Vasconcelos, Marco; Monteiro, Tiago

2014-01-01

72

Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are around 1 mm. In either case, we conclude that the efficiency of ambiguity resolution in triple-frequency PPP is much higher than that in dual-frequency PPP.

Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

2013-05-01

73

The effect of stereotypical primes on the neural processing of racially ambiguous faces.  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that an early attentional component of the event-related potential (ERP), the P2, is sensitive to the distinction between the processing of racial outgroup and ingroup faces but may not be sensitive to the distinction between racially ambiguous and ingroup faces. Recent behavioral work, however, has suggested that contextual information may affect the processing of racially ambiguous faces. Thus, the first goal of this study was to examine whether the early neural processing of racially ambiguous faces would be affected by primed stereotypes. White college student participants (n?=?29) completed a task in which they racially categorized monoracial Black and White faces and racially ambiguous Black-White morphs. These faces were preceded by positive and negative Black and White stereotypical primes. Results indicated that P2 amplitude to the racially ambiguous faces was moderated by the valence of the primes such that negative primes led to greater neural processing of the racially ambiguous faces than positive primes. Furthermore, the extent to which P2 amplitude was affected by prime valence was moderated by individual differences in preference for structure and categorical thinking, as well as comfort with ambiguity. PMID:22642396

Dickter, Cheryl L; Kittel, Julie A

2012-01-01

74

Resolving fault plane ambiguity for small earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an automated procedure to resolve fault-plane ambiguity for small to medium-sized earthquakes (2.5 <= ML <= 5) using synthetic Green's tensors computed in a 3-D earth structure model and applied this procedure to 35 earthquakes in the Los Angeles area. For 69 per cent of the events, we resolved fault plane ambiguity of our CMT solutions at 70 per cent or higher probability. For some earthquakes, the fault planes selected by our automated procedure were confirmed by the distributions of relocated aftershock hypocentres. In regions where there are no precisely relocated aftershocks or for earthquakes with few aftershocks, we expect our method to provide the most convenient means for resolving fault plane ambiguity. Our procedure does not rely on detecting directivity effects; therefore it is applicable to any types of earthquakes.

Chen, Po; Jordan, Thomas H.; Zhao, Li

2010-04-01

75

Smelling directions: Olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception  

PubMed Central

Senses of smells are often accompanied by simultaneous visual sensations. Previous studies have documented enhanced olfactory performance with concurrent presence of congruent color- or shape- related visual cues, and facilitated visual object perception when congruent smells are simultaneously present. These visual object-olfaction interactions suggest the existences of couplings between the olfactory pathway and the visual ventral processing stream. However, it is not known if olfaction can modulate visual motion perception, a function that is related to the visual dorsal stream. We tested this possibility by examining the influence of olfactory cues on the perceptions of ambiguous visual motion signals. We showed that, after introducing an association between motion directions and olfactory cues, olfaction could indeed bias ambiguous visual motion perceptions. Our result that olfaction modulates visual motion processing adds to the current knowledge of cross-modal interactions and implies a possible functional linkage between the olfactory system and the visual dorsal pathway. PMID:25052162

Kuang, Shenbing; Zhang, Tao

2014-01-01

76

How to Safely Give Ibuprofen  

MedlinePLUS

... of ibuprofen are available in similar forms. Continue How to Give When giving ibuprofen, refer to the following ... THIS TOPIC Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Medications: Using Them Safely Talking ...

77

Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences  

PubMed Central

Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., “bark,” “bank”). Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretation of an ambiguous word. Here we used fMRI to investigate this hypothesis. 20 native British English monolinguals were scanned whilst listening to sentences that contained an ambiguous word. To induce semantic reinterpretation, the disambiguating information was presented after the ambiguous word and delayed until the end of the sentence (e.g., “the teacher explained that the BARK was going to be very damp”). These sentences were compared to well-matched unambiguous sentences. Supporting the reinterpretation hypothesis, these ambiguous sentences produced more activation in both the LIFG and the left posterior inferior temporal cortex. Importantly, all but one subject showed ambiguity-related peaks within both regions, demonstrating that the group-level results were driven by high inter-subject consistency. Further support came from the finding that activation in both regions was modulated by meaning dominance. Specifically, sentences containing biased ambiguous words, which have one more dominant meaning, produced greater activation than those with balanced ambiguous words, which have two equally frequent meanings. Because the context always supported the less frequent meaning, the biased words require reinterpretation more often than balanced words. This is the first evidence of dominance effects in the spoken modality and provides strong support that frontal and temporal regions support the updating of semantic representations during speech comprehension. PMID:25120445

Vitello, Sylvia; Warren, Jane E.; Devlin, Joseph T.; Rodd, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

78

Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion  

PubMed Central

Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

2014-01-01

79

Raising Expectations, Giving Hope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Hold school!" was the directive that Principal Patricia Ashmore received from the deputy superintendent of Madison County Schools when she was appointed to Velma Jackson Magnet High School five years ago. The explicit instruction came as a direct result of looking at student achievement, attendance, and graduation data that confirmed the need to…

Principal Leadership, 2005

2005-01-01

80

Tactile rivalry demonstrated with an ambiguous apparent-motion quartet.  

PubMed

When observers view ambiguous visual stimuli, their perception will often alternate between the possible interpretations, a phenomenon termed perceptual rivalry [1]. To induce perceptual rivalry in the tactile domain, we developed a new tactile illusion, based on the visual apparent-motion quartet [2]. Pairs of 200 ms vibrotactile stimuli were applied to the finger pad at intervals separated by 300 ms. The location of each successive stimulus pair alternated between the opposing diagonal corners of the approximately 1 cm(2) stimulation array. This stimulation sequence led all participants to report switches between the perception of motion traveling either up and down or left and right across their fingertip. Adaptation to tactile stimulation biased toward one direction caused subsequent ambiguous stimulation to be experienced in the opposing direction. In contrast, when consecutive trials of ambiguous stimulation were presented, motion was generally perceived in the direction consistent with the motion reported in the previous trial. Voluntary eye movements induced shifts in the tactile perception toward a motion axis aligned along a world-centered coordinate frame. Because the tactile quartet results in switching perceptual states despite unvaried sensory input, it is ideally suited to future studies of the neural processes associated with conscious tactile perception. PMID:18635355

Carter, Olivia; Konkle, Talia; Wang, Qi; Hayward, Vincent; Moore, Christopher

2008-07-22

81

Visual Working Memory Contents Bias Ambiguous Structure from Motion Perception  

PubMed Central

The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM) can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM. PMID:23527141

Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Triesch, Jochen

2013-01-01

82

Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

2009-01-01

83

Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

2004-01-01

84

Crossdressing and Gender Ambiguity in Shakespeare's Comedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossdressing in Shakespeare 's comedies makes the heroines ' gender identity ambiguous: they are both men and women, owning both femininity and masculinity, thus crossdressing helps to deconstruct Renaissance gender stereotypes, the binary opposition of gender, and eventually, patriarchy. In Shakespeare 's most famous comedies, four women characters: Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594), Portia in The Merchant

Minzhen Jiang

85

Resolving Attachment Ambiguities with Multiple Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through analyses of text corpora, sentence completion, and self-paced reading, examined role of structurally defined parsing principles, local information (lexically specific biases), and contextual information (referential pragmatics) in resolving syntactic ambiguities. Subjects were 32 undergraduate native English speakers. Found that local and…

Spivey-Knowlton, Michael; Sedivy, Julie C.

1995-01-01

86

Facilitated lexical ambiguity processing by transcranial direct current stimulation over the left inferior frontal cortex.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that the left inferior frontal cortex is involved in the resolution of lexical ambiguities for language comprehension. In this study, we hypothesized that processing of lexical ambiguities is improved when the excitability of the left inferior frontal cortex is enhanced. To test the hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We investigated the effect of anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex on behavioral indexes for semantic judgment on lexically ambiguous and unambiguous words within a context. Supporting the hypothesis, the RT was shorter in the anodal tDCS session than in the sham session for ambiguous words. The results suggest that controlled semantic retrieval and contextual selection were facilitated by anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex. PMID:25208744

Ihara, Aya S; Mimura, Takanori; Soshi, Takahiro; Yorifuji, Shiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yoshinime, Toshiki; Umehara, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Norio

2015-01-01

87

Resolving syntactic category ambiguity: An eye-movement analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, participants' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing biased syntactic category ambiguous words with either distinct (e.g., duck) or related (e.g., burn) meanings or unambiguous control words. In Experiment 1, prior context was consistent with either the dominant or subordinate interpretation of the ambiguous word. The subordinate bias effect was absent for the ambiguous words

Angela C. Jones; Jocelyn R. Folk; Stephen M. Brusnighan

2012-01-01

88

The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination  

PubMed Central

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

2014-01-01

89

Qualitative probabilistic networks with reduced ambiguities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Qualitative probabilistic network (QPN) is the qualitative abstraction of a Bayesian network that encodes variables and\\u000a the qualitative influences between them. In order to make QPNs be practical for real-world representation and inference of\\u000a uncertain knowledge, it is desirable to reduce ambiguities in general QPNs, including unknown qualitative influences and inference\\u000a conflicts. In this paper, we first extend the

Kun Yue; Yu Yao; Jin Li; Wei-Yi Liu

2010-01-01

90

A mixture approach to vagueness and ambiguity.  

PubMed

When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity) with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness). The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions. PMID:23667627

Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gert

2013-01-01

91

Morphemic ambiguity resolution in Chinese: activation of the subordinate meaning with a prior dominant-biased context.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined how morphemic ambiguity is resolved using the visual-world paradigm. Participants were presented with Chinese bimorphemic words containing an ambiguous morpheme (analogous to the suffix -er in teacher and taller) and performed a visual search task. Their eye-movement patterns during target detection showed that (1) without a prior context, the dominant meaning of an ambiguous morpheme was more available than the subordinate one; (2) with a dominant-biased prior context, the subordinate meaning was still activated; and (3) a subordinate-biased prior context could inhibit the dominant interpretation. Therefore, both the frequency of the intended meaning and the prior contextual biases play a role in morphemic ambiguity resolution. The results are discussed with reference to models of ambiguity resolution and recent proposals of the graded nature of morphological effects. PMID:21169583

Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2010-12-01

92

Treatment motivation: An attempt for clarification of an ambiguous concept.  

PubMed

Although the concept of treatment motivation is generally regarded as highly relevant, it has since long been surrounded by conceptual confusion, resulting in miscommunication, ambiguous measures, and contradictory conclusions of research. This article provides an analysis of three major sources of confusion in the conceptualization of treatment motivation: (a) negligence of the concepts' intrinsic relationship with behavior, (b) entanglement of the concept with its determining factors and behavioral consequences, and (c) conceptualization in a stage model. Following the conceptual analysis, causes of the problems and implications for clinical praxis and research are considered. Finally, a more adequate conceptualization of treatment motivation is proposed and suggestions for future research are made. PMID:14729425

Drieschner, Klaus H; Lammers, Sylvia M M; van der Staak, Cees P F

2004-01-01

93

Single receiver phase ambiguity resolution with GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global positioning system (GPS) data processing algorithms typically improve positioning solution accuracy by fixing double-differenced phase bias ambiguities to integer values. These “double-difference ambiguity resolution” methods usually invoke linear combinations of GPS carrier phase bias estimates from pairs of transmitters and pairs of receivers, and traditionally require simultaneous measurements from at least two receivers. However, many GPS users point position a single local receiver, based on publicly available solutions for GPS orbits and clocks. These users cannot form double differences. We present an ambiguity resolution algorithm that improves solution accuracy for single receiver point-positioning users. The algorithm processes dual- frequency GPS data from a single receiver together with wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the global network of GPS receivers that were used to generate the orbit and clock solutions for the GPS satellites. We constrain (rather than fix) linear combinations of local phase biases to improve compatibility with global phase bias estimates. For this precise point positioning, no other receiver data are required. When tested, our algorithm significantly improved repeatability of daily estimates of ground receiver positions, most notably in the east component by approximately 30% with respect to the nominal case wherein the carrier biases are estimated as real values. In this “static” test for terrestrial receiver positions, we achieved daily repeatability of 1.9, 2.1 and 6.0 mm in the east, north and vertical (ENV) components, respectively. For kinematic solutions, ENV repeatability is 7.7, 8.4, and 11.7 mm, respectively, representing improvements of 22, 8, and 14% with respect to the nominal. Results from precise orbit determination of the twin GRACE satellites demonstrated that the inter-satellite baseline accuracy improved by a factor of three, from 6 to 2 mm up to a long-term bias. Jason-2/Ocean Surface Topography Mission precise orbit determination tests results implied radial orbit accuracy significantly below the 10 mm level. Stability of time transfer, in low-Earth orbit, improved from 40 to 7 ps. We produced these results by applying this algorithm within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) GIPSY/OASIS software package and using JPL’s orbit and clock products for the GPS constellation. These products now include a record of the wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the underlying global network of GPS stations. This implies that all GIPSY-OASIS positioning users can now benefit from this capability to perform single-receiver ambiguity resolution.

Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce; Harvey, Nate; Moore, Angelyn W.; Owen, Susan; Weiss, Jan P.

2010-05-01

94

Charitable Giving by Married Couples Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the effect of gender differences and household bargaining on charitable giving. I replicate the study of Andreoni, Brown, and Rischall (2003) using a different data set--the recently available Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) supplement on charitable giving--and test the sensitivity of their results to inclusion of…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2010-01-01

95

No reduction in instrumental vaginal births and no increased risk for adverse perineal outcome in nulliparous women giving birth on a birth seat: results of a Swedish randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO advises against recumbent or supine position for longer periods during labour and birth and states that caregivers should encourage and support the woman to take the position in which she feels most comfortable. It has been suggested that upright positions may improve childbirth outcomes and reduce the risk for instrumental delivery; however RCTs of interventions to encourage upright positions are scarce. The aim of this study was to test, by means of a randomized controlled trial, the hypothesis that the use of a birthing seat during the second stage of labor, for healthy nulliparous women, decreases the number of instrumentally assisted births and may thus counterbalance any increase in perineal trauma and blood loss. Methods A randomized controlled trial in Sweden where 1002 women were randomized to birth on a birth seat (experimental group) or birth in any other position (control group). Data were collected between November 2006 and July 2009. The primary outcome measurement was the number of instrumental deliveries. Secondary outcome measurements included perineal lacerations, perineal edema, maternal blood loss and hemoglobin. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results The main findings of this study were that birth on the birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births, there was an increase in blood loss between 500 ml and 1000 ml in women who gave birth on the seat but no increase in bleeding over 1000 ml and no increase in perineal lacerations or perineal edema. Conclusions The birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births. The study confirmed an increased blood loss 500 ml - 1000 ml but not over 1000 ml for women giving birth on the seat. Giving birth on a birth seat caused no adverse consequences for perineal outcomes and may even be protective against episiotomies. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov.ID: NCT01182038 PMID:21435238

2011-01-01

96

[Analysis of ambiguities in HLA sequencing-based typing and its solutions].  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To investigate the number and ratio of ambiguous allele combinations from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) confirmatory test by sequencing based typing for unrelated donor marrow transplantation, and to establish an efficient strategy for identifying such ambiguities. METHODS A total of 650 donor-receipt samples were genotyped for 5 loci of the HLA gene using an Atria SBT commercial kit. Exons 2, 3 and 4 of HLA-A, -B and -C, exon 2 of HLA-DRB1 and exons 2 and 3 of HLA-DQB1 were tested by routine HLA genotyping. The ratio of usual ambiguous allele combination was calculated. The ambiguities were subjected to further confirmatory test by PCR-SSP or PCR-SBT retest at outside of the routine sequencing region. RESULTS Among the 650 tested samples, the ratio of ambiguity at HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 were 76.31% (496/650), 91.08% (592/650), 97.69% (635/650), 88.62% (576/650) and 43.38% (141/650), respectively. A total of 36 ambiguous allele combinations inside the routine sequencing region and 22 ambiguous allele combinations outside of the routine sequencing region were discovered. After removing rare alleles based on the Chinese common and well documented (CWD) Allele Table (Version 1.01), 9 ambiguous CWD allele combinations inside the routine sequencing region, including 3 located in HLA-B, HLA-C and 1 located in other three HLA loci were found. Ten ambiguous CWD allele combinations outside of the routine sequencing region, including 4 located in HLA-C, -DRB1 and 1 in HLA-A, -B respectively were determined. All samples with ambiguous CWD allele combinations could be distinguished by high-resolution PCR-SSP commercial kits or PCR SBT retest at outside of the routine sequencing region. CONCLUSION The common and well documented allele combinations in sequencing-based typing at five HLA loci have been analyzed. Our strategy may provide valuable information for more efficient, low cost and accurate method for high resolution genotyping of HLA genes. PMID:25636098

Wang, Daming; He, Liumei; Zou, Hongyan; Gao, Suqing; Deng, Zhihui

2015-02-10

97

Effects of pitch accents in attachment ambiguity resolution  

PubMed Central

Previous work has found that listeners prefer to attach ambiguous syntactic constituents to nouns produced with a pitch accent (Schafer et al., 1996). This study examines what factors underlie previously established accent attachment effects by testing whether these effects are driven by a preference to attach syntactic constituents to new or important information (the Syntax Hypothesis) or whether there is a bias to respond to post-sentence probe questions with an accented word (the Salience Hypothesis). One of the predictions of the Salience Hypothesis is that selection of accented words should be greater when a sentence is complex and processing resources are limited. The results from the experiments presented here show that the probability of listeners’ selecting accented words when asked about the interpretation of a relative clause varies with sentence type: listeners selected accented words more frequently in long sentences than in short sentences, consistent with the predictions of the Salience Hypothesis. Furthermore, Experiment 4 demonstrates that listeners are more likely to respond to post-sentence questions with accented words than with non-accented words, even when no ambiguity is present, and even when the response results in an incorrect answer. These findings suggest that accent-driven attachment effects found in earlier studies reflect a post-sentence selection process rather than a syntactic processing mechanism. PMID:22287815

Lee, Eun-Kyung; Watson, Duane G.

2011-01-01

98

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

2005-01-01

99

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth's gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

2005-01-01

100

Finger movements in braille reading: the effect of local ambiguity.  

PubMed

The hand movements of blind readers were recorded while they read sentences containing temporary local ambiguities, designed to induce garden path effects upon disambiguation. A syntactically ambiguous beginning ("The spy saw the cop with ... ") was compatible with attachment of the following prepositional phrase (PP) either to the verb ("saw") or the noun ("cop"), but the content of the PP was inconsistent with verb phrase attachment in NPA sentences ("with a revolver"), not in VPA sentences ("with binoculars"). Mean total scanning time per character increased in the PP region of NPA sentences, not of VPA sentences. The effect, however, depended on both the content of the PP and its predictability, and was significant by items only when both factors favoured VPA. The slowing down over the PP was entirely due to increased incidence of regressions to that region, and first-pass scanning speed was unaffected by sentence type. In studies with visual reading, disambiguation has been found to have a large effect on first-pass scanning. The results confirm previous suggestions that regressions are the main repair device available to the braille reader to cope with local increases in processing load. PMID:1591903

Mousty, P; Bertelson, P

1992-04-01

101

Essentialist Thinking Predicts Decrements in Children’s Memory for Racially-Ambiguous Faces  

PubMed Central

Past research shows that adults often display poor memory for racially-ambiguous and racial outgroup faces, with both face types remembered worse than own-race faces. The present study examined whether children also show this pattern of results. It also examined whether emerging essentialist thinking about race predicts their memory for faces. Seventy-four White children (ages 4–9) completed a face-memory task comprised of White, Black, and racially-ambiguous Black/White faces. Essentialist thinking about race was also assessed (i.e., thinking of race as immutable and biologically based). White children who used essentialist thinking showed the same bias as White adults—they remembered White faces significantly better than ambiguous and Black faces. However, children who did not use essentialist thinking remembered both White and racially-ambiguous faces significantly better than Black faces. This finding suggests a specific shift in racial thinking wherein the boundaries between racial groups become more discrete, highlighting the importance of how race is conceptualized in judgments of racially-ambiguous individuals. PMID:23815702

Gaither, Sarah E.; Schultz, Jennifer R.; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R.; Maddox, Keith B.; Ambady, Nalini

2013-01-01

102

Range ambiguity suppression for multiple-input, multiple-output synthetic aperture radar system using azimuth phase coding technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For synthetic aperture radar (SAR), range ambiguity causes a great deterioration in imaging performance. To suppress range ambiguity, the azimuth phase coding (APC) technique stands out for its effectiveness with a low implementation complexity among the available approaches. With proper phase modulation and demodulation, the position of an ambiguous signal is shifted in Doppler spectrum and then part of the ambiguity can be filtered out by an azimuth filter. However, since the suppression performance heavily depends on the system oversampling rate, the APC technique cannot achieve the same suppression performance for a multichannel SAR system compared with a single-channel SAR system. A method to suppress the range ambiguity for multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) SAR system based on APC technique is presented. By taking advantage of more phase centers of the MIMO SAR, a proper azimuth beamformer weight vector can be computed to null out the ambiguity position in the azimuth frequency domain and reconstruct the useful signal; thus most of the ambiguity components can be significantly suppressed. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Guo, Lei; Wang, Robert; Deng, Yunkai; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiulian

2014-01-01

103

Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge  

E-print Network

1 Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge John L measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude

Crassidis, John L.

104

Lesbian Giving-and Getting.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Lesbian philanthropy is rooted in a tradition of radical giving. Without the inspiration and vision of the small, community-based "alternative" foundations of the late 1960s and 1970s, with their commitment to "change, not charity" and to funding grassroots groups dedicated to social justice, today's profusion of queer organizations would not have been possible. Lesbians and bisexual women-both as donors and as activists-have been central to both movements. Today, contributions from individuals are responsible for the vast majority of the 1999 increase in overall giving-an increase of $15.80 billion over 1998, to a record $190.16 billion. (Since 1997, giving has increased by more than $15 billion annually.) But the questions that inspired a groundbreaking re-evaluation of traditional philanthropy thirty years ago still remain: who is giving, and to which groups? Now more than ever, it is vitally important for lesbians to recognize that the intersection between the radical philanthropic movement-which seeks to disrupt the power relations of traditional charitable giving-and the lesbian/gay/bi-sexual/transgender movements-which seek at least to dispel homophobia and at best to disrupt heteronormativity-is where both can become more inclusive, representative, and revolutionary. PMID:24802824

Gallo, M M

2001-01-01

105

Reliable non-ambiguity range extension with dual-comb simultaneous operation in absolute distance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an absolute distance measurement scheme using two simultaneous optical frequency combs with different repetition rates for reliable non-ambiguity range extension. Since the non-ambiguity range extension is susceptible to distance drift during the repetition rate adjustment, pulse trains with two different repetition rates are coupled and directed simultaneously onto a target for coincident distance measurement. The simultaneous measurement avoids the process of adjusting the repetition rate and suppresses the influence of distance drift therein. The distances measured by the two repetition rates are distinguished by type II second harmonic generation. Target movement and atmospheric variation are made to imitate the distance drift, and experimental results show that the non-ambiguity range extension remains effective along the measurement.

Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Wu, Xuejian; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan

2014-12-01

106

How Hispanic Patients Address Ambiguous versus Unambiguous Bias in the Doctor's Office.  

PubMed

Two studies examined Hispanic individuals' preferences for using ten different bias reduction strategies when interacting with a doctor whose beliefs about their group were either ambiguous or clearly biased. Consistent with predictions, participants who imagined interacting with a doctor whose beliefs were ambiguous preferred strategies that facilitate positive doctor-patient interactions, whereas participants whose doctor explicitly endorsed negative stereotypes about their group preferred strategies that address stereotype content. The results also revealed that, regardless of whether the doctor's beliefs were ambiguous or clearly biased, stigma consciousness predicted participants' preferences for using strategies that address stereotype content. These findings suggest that both doctors' behavior and individual-level factors influence how minority individuals choose to behave in a healthcare setting. PMID:25395691

Bean, Meghan G; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff

2014-11-01

107

Is "?" purple or green? Bistable grapheme-color synesthesia induced by ambiguous characters.  

PubMed

People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered ambiguous upon rotation of the characters. Specifically, achromatic alphabetic letters (W/M) and digits (6/9) were presented at varying angles to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes. Results showed that grapheme identification and synesthetically perceived grapheme color covary with the orientation of the test stimulus and that synesthetes were slower naming the experienced color than identifying the character, particularly at intermediate angles where ambiguity was greatest. PMID:23871860

Kim, Suhkyung; Blake, Randolph; Kim, Chai-Youn

2013-09-01

108

The moderating effects of performance ambiguity on the relationship between self-efficacy and performance.  

PubMed

Recent research (e.g., Vancouver & Kendall, 2006; Vancouver, Thompson, Tischner, & Putka, 2002; Vancouver, Thompson, & Williams, 2001) has challenged the conventional view of self-efficacy as a positive influence on performance, finding a negative within-person relationship between self-efficacy and performance. In the current study, performance ambiguity is examined as a potential boundary condition for this negative self-efficacy effect. As hypothesized, self-efficacy was negatively related to subsequent performance under conditions of high ambiguity but was positively related to performance when performance ambiguity was low. Additionally, the study evaluates key mediating processes underlying the relationship between self-efficacy and performance, finding support for the role of performance perceptions and effort allocation. The results of this study help to establish the scope of the phenomenon and suggest potential means of inhibiting the negative self-efficacy effects. PMID:20476834

Schmidt, Aaron M; DeShon, Richard P

2010-05-01

109

Mental states follow quantum mechanics during perception and cognition of ambiguous figures  

E-print Network

Processes undergoing quantum mechanics, exhibit quantum interference effects. In this case quantum probabilities result to be different from classical probabilities because they contain an additional main point that in fact is called the quantum interference term. We use ambiguous figures to analyse if during perception cognition of human subjects we have violation of the classical probability field and quantum interference. The experiments, conducted on a group of 256 subjects, evidence that we have such quantum effect. Therefore, mental states, during perception cognition of ambiguous figures, follow quantum mechanics

Elio Conte; Andrei Yuri Khrennikov; Orlando Todarello; Antonio Federici; Leonardo Mendolicchio; Joseph P. Zbilut

2009-06-26

110

Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our results suggest that restricting identifications to the family level is not a good method of resolving ambiguous taxa, whereas generating OTUs works well provided that documentation issues are addressed. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

Cuffney, T.F.; Bilger, M.D.; Haigler, A.M.

2007-01-01

111

Risk, ambiguity and quantum decision theory  

E-print Network

In the present article we use the quantum formalism to describe the effects of risk and ambiguity in decision theory. The main idea is that the probabilities in the classic theory of expected utility are estimated probabilities, and thus do not follow the classic laws of probability theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to use consistently the classic expected utility formula, where the probability associated to the events are computed with the equation of quantum interference. Thus we show that the correct utility of a lottery can be simply computed by adding to the classic expected utility a new corrective term, the uncertainty utility, directly connected with the quantum interference term.

Riccardo Franco

2007-11-06

112

Perceived Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Teacher Burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 469 classroom teachers examined the relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity to teacher burnout. Three aspects of burnout were examined: feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or negative attitudes toward students, and feelings of a lack of personal accomplishment. Two of the more important findings were: (1) role conflict and role ambiguity explained a statistically significant amount

Richard L. Schwab; Edward F. Iwanicki

1982-01-01

113

Using Inconsistency Detection to Overcome Structural Ambiguity in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the Inconsistency Detection Learner (IDL), an algorithm for language acquisition intended to address the problem of structural ambiguity. An overt, acoustically audible form is structurally ambiguous if different languages admitting the overt form would assign it different linguistic structural analyses. Because the learner has to be capable of learning any possible human language, and because the learner

114

Using Inconsistency Detection to Overcome Structural Ambiguity in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the Inconsistency Detection Learner (IDL), an algorithm for language acquisition intended to address the problem of structural ambiguity. An overt, acoustically audible form is structurally ambiguous if different languages admitting the overt form would assign it different linguistic structural analyses. Because the learner has to be capable of learning any possible human language, and because the learner

Bruce Tesar

2000-01-01

115

Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

2013-01-01

116

Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

2004-01-01

117

Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Idioms and Conversational Perspective-Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that conversational perspective-taking is a determinant of unfamiliar ambiguous idiom comprehension. We investigated two types of ambiguous idiom, decomposable and nondecomposable expressions, which differ in the degree to which the literal meanings of the individual words contribute to the overall…

Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Bernard, Stephane; Deleau, Michel; Brule, Lauriane

2012-01-01

118

U.S./Arab Reflections on Our Tolerance for Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors, a Midwestern American educational administration professor and a Middle Eastern Iraqi doctoral candidate, have continued to interact over the past 3 years, both have come to appreciate the importance of increasing their tolerance for ambiguity--ambiguities in examining cultural, linguistic, and religious customs and complexities in…

Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

2012-01-01

119

Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and School Principals' Job Robustness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships between role conflict, role ambiguity, and job robustness among school principals were examined. Job robustness was associated with low role ambiguity, low role conflict, and support from the principal's co-workers--staff, administrator colleagues, the superintendent, and the community. Principals generally viewed their jobs as…

Eisenhauser, John E.; And Others

1985-01-01

120

Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

2013-01-01

121

Computational Aspects of the LAMBDA Method for GPS Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise relative positioning based on a short observa- tion time span yields ambiguities that are heavily cor- related, together with position estimates of poor preci- sion. For an efficient estimation of the integer values of the GPS double difference ambiguities, the LAMBDA method has been developed and applied since 1993. In the context of the LAMBDA method, from a compu-

P. J. de Jonge; C. C. J. M. Tiberius; P. J. G. Teunissen

1996-01-01

122

Implicit perceptual memory modulates early visual processing of ambiguous images.  

PubMed

The way we perceive the present visual environment is influenced by past visual experiences. Here we investigated the neural basis of such experience dependency. We repeatedly presented human observers with an ambiguous visual stimulus (structure-from-motion) that can give rise to two distinct perceptual interpretations. Past visual experience is known to influence the perception of such stimuli. We recorded fast dynamics of neural activity shortly after stimulus onset using event-related electroencephalography. The number of previous occurrences of a certain percept modulated early posterior brain activity starting as early as 50 ms after stimulus onset. This modulation developed across hundreds of percept repetitions, reflecting several minutes of accumulating perceptual experience. Importantly, there was no such modulation when the mere number of previous stimulus presentations was considered regardless of how they were perceived. This indicates that the effect depended on previous perception rather than previous visual input. The short latency and posterior scalp location of the effect suggest that perceptual history modified bottom-up stimulus processing in early visual cortex. We propose that bottom-up neural responses to a given visual presentation are shaped, in part, by feedback modulation that occurred during previous presentations, thus allowing these responses to be biased in light of previous perceptual decisions. PMID:25057199

de Jong, Maartje C; Brascamp, Jan W; Kemner, Chantal; van Ee, Raymond; Verstraten, Frans A J

2014-07-23

123

Method of resolving radio phase ambiguity in satellite orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For satellite orbit determination, the most accurate observable available today is microwave radio phase, which can be differenced between observing stations and between satellites to cancel both transmitter- and receiver-related errors. For maximum accuracy, the integer cycle ambiguities of the doubly differenced observations must be resolved. To perform this ambiguity resolution, a bootstrapping strategy is proposed. This strategy requires the tracking stations to have a wide ranging progression of spacings. By conventional 'integrated Doppler' processing of the observations from the most widely spaced stations, the orbits are determined well enough to permit resolution of the ambiguities for the most closely spaced stations. The resolution of these ambiguities reduces the uncertainty of the orbit determination enough to enable ambiguity resolution for more widely spaced stations, which further reduces the orbital uncertainty. In a test of this strategy with six tracking stations, both the formal and the true errors of determining Global Positioning System satellite orbits were reduced by a factor of 2.

Councelman, Charles C., III; Abbot, Richard I.

1989-01-01

124

Conflict and Ambiguity over Work Roles: The Impact on Child Care Worker Burnout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relation of occupational stress in the child care workplace to three facets of staff burnout: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and personal accomplishment. Results showed that work role conflict and ambiguity predicted a significant portion of variance in the three aspects of staff burnout, and that social support buffered the…

Manlove, Elizabeth

1994-01-01

125

Effect of Prefrontal Cortex Damage on Resolving Lexical Ambiguity in Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of suppression of context-inappropriate meanings during lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in 25 adults with prefrontal cortex damage (PFCD) localized to the left (N = 8), right (N = 6), or bilaterally (N = 11); and 21 matched Controls. Results revealed unexpected inverse patterns of suppression between PFCD and Control groups,…

Frattali, Carol; Hanna, Rebecca; McGinty, Anita Shukla; Gerber, Lynn; Wesley, Robert; Grafman, Jordan; Coelho, Carl

2007-01-01

126

A Code for Reducing Figure-Ground Ambiguities in Tactile Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of six adults with blindness tested a code that facilitates the interpretation of tactile outline graphics by reducing potential ambiguities in figure-ground, slope, and curvature. Results found all subjects learned the code in less than two hours and successfully matched coded graphics to targeted objects. (Author/CR)

Campbell, J. S.

1997-01-01

127

Resolving the 180-degree ambiguity in vector magnetic field measurements: The 'minimum' energy solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I present a robust algorithm that resolves the 180-deg ambiguity in measurements of the solar vector magnetic field. The technique simultaneously minimizes both the divergence of the magnetic field and the electric current density using a simulated annealing algorithm. This results in the field orientation with approximately minimum free energy. The technique is well-founded physically and is simple to implement.

Metcalf, Thomas R.

1994-01-01

128

Explaining Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Via Individual and Interpersonal Variables in Different Job Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between experiencing role conflict and ambiguity and four individual and interpersonal variables. Results suggest that the underlying equations regarding the influence of individual and interpersonal variables on role perceptions vary in different job categories. Task characteristics are offered as plausible reasons for…

Randolph, W. Alan; Posner, Barry Z.

1981-01-01

129

Random unitaries give quantum expanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that randomly choosing the matrices in a completely positive map from the unitary group gives a quantum expander. We consider Hermitian and non-Hermitian cases, and we provide asymptotically tight bounds in the Hermitian case on the typical value of the second largest eigenvalue. The key idea is the use of Schwinger-Dyson equations from lattice gauge theory to efficiently compute averages over the unitary group.

Hastings, M. B.

2007-09-01

130

Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion  

PubMed Central

In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front vs. behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or “bouncing” to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual awareness. PMID:25642180

Bainbridge, Constance M.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Oliva, Aude

2014-01-01

131

N400 to lexical ambiguity and semantic incongruity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant-meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts that schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and displayed generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. PMID:19819269

Salisbury, Dean

2010-02-01

132

Ambiguity and regularization in parallel MRI.  

PubMed

In this paper, we formulate the parallel magnetic resonance imaging(pMRI) as a multichannel blind deconvolution problem with subsampling. First, the model allows formal characterization of image solutions consistent with data obtained by uniform subsampling of k-space. Second, the model allows analysis of the minimum set of required calibration data. Third, the filter bank formulation provides analysis of the sufficient sizes of interpolation kernels in widely used reconstruction techniques. Fourth, the model suggests principled development of regularization terms to fight ambiguity and ill-conditioning; specifically, subspace regularization is adapted from the blind image super-resolution work of Sroubek et al. [11]. Finally, characterization of the consistent set of image solutions leads to a cautionary comment on L1 regularization for the peculiar class of piece-wise constant images. Thus, it is proposed that the analysis of the subsampled blind deconvolution task provides insight into both the multiply determined nature of the pMRI task and possible design strategies for sampling and reconstruction. PMID:22254930

Gol, Derya; Potter, Lee C

2011-01-01

133

N-Q Giving raises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A small company wants to give raises to their 5 employees. They have $10,000 available to distribute. Imagine you are in charge of deciding how the rai...

134

Chimpanzees and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Although recent research has investigated animal decision-making under risk, little is known about how animals choose under conditions of ambiguity when they lack information about the available alternatives. Many models of choice behaviour assume that ambiguity does not impact decision-makers, but studies of humans suggest that people tend to be more averse to choosing ambiguous options than risky options with known probabilities. To illuminate the evolutionary roots of human economic behaviour, we examined whether our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), share this bias against ambiguity. Apes chose between a certain option that reliably provided an intermediately preferred food type, and a variable option that could vary in the probability that it provided a highly preferred food type. To examine the impact of ambiguity on ape decision-making, we interspersed trials in which chimpanzees and bonobos had no knowledge about the probabilities. Both species avoided the ambiguous option compared with their choices for a risky option, indicating that ambiguity aversion is shared by humans, bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:21106573

Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

2011-01-01

135

Surviving critical illness: a case study in ambiguity.  

PubMed

Social workers address issues of critical illness and end of life in multiple settings. Due to advances in medical technology, an increasing number of patients survive severe critical illnesses. Little is known about the psychological dynamics of these patients who recover from critical illness and move into the liminal space between life and death. In this article the author analyzes the psychological ambiguities present during recovery from critical illness. Using a case study, connections will be made between surviving critical illness and the theoretical constructs of liminality, illness narratives, ambiguous dying, and ambiguous loss. Practice applications for social workers are addressed. PMID:22150180

Johnston, Liz B

2011-01-01

136

Family care giving: what price love?  

PubMed

The role played by family care givers is critical to the well-being of their impaired elderly family members and to the well-being of society as a whole. Studies indicate that a key determinant of institutional placement is the breakdown of an older person's informal caregiving system. Given the demographics of our aging population and the medical advancements of recent years, the giving and receiving of care is an issue that will affect most individuals' daily lives during some part of the life cycle. The responsibilities for giving care will continue to fall more and more disproportionately upon elderly spouses who themselves may have health problems and upon daughters and daughters-in-law who often have work commitments outside the home and young children in the home. Giving care often results in financial, physical, social, and emotional problems and stresses. Current demographic trends such as marriage at a later age, the increasing number of divorces, fewer and later births, and the rising number of women in the work force will only serve to complicate the role conflicts and exacerbate the stresses of care giving on family members. In order for family care giving to continue--indeed, to raise it to a more productive and satisfactory level--a range of supportive fiscal, medical, and social services must be provided to families. National public policy must begin to address the needs of families by supporting options other than institutional care for the disabled elderly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10106870

Sterneck, J G

1990-01-01

137

Morpho-semantic processing in word recognition: evidence from balanced and biased ambiguous morphemes.  

PubMed

The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In addition, the relative frequency of the alternative meanings of ambiguous morphemes could be balanced (i.e., the alternative meanings are of similar frequency) or biased (i.e., one of the meanings is used much more frequently). The recognition of subordinate targets was facilitated by the subordinate primes for both balanced and biased items, regardless of the priming procedure. However, the subordinate primes did not facilitate the recognition of dominant targets, except for biased items in masked priming. These results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that morphemic meaning is activated to constrain morphological priming even at the early stage of processing. Yet, morpho-semantic activation is modulated by the frequency of the intended morphemic interpretations. Therefore, because of the high frequency of use, the dominant meanings of biased ambiguous morphemes can nevertheless be activated by the subordinate primes. PMID:23834058

Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2013-11-01

138

Mentalizing under Uncertainty: Dissociated Neural Responses to Ambiguous and Unambiguous Mental State Inferences  

PubMed Central

The ability to read the minds of others (i.e., to mentalize) requires that perceivers understand a wide range of different kinds of mental states, including not only others’ beliefs and knowledge but also their feelings, desires, and preferences. Moreover, although such inferences may occasionally rely on observable features of a situation, perceivers more typically mentalize under conditions of “uncertainty,” in which they must generate plausible hypotheses about a target's mental state from ambiguous or otherwise underspecified information. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to dissociate the neural bases of these 2 distinct social–cognitive challenges: 1) mentalizing about different types of mental states (beliefs vs. preferences) and 2) mentalizing under conditions of varying ambiguity. Although these 2 aspects of mentalizing have typically been confounded in earlier research, we observed a double dissociation between the brain regions sensitive to type of mental state and ambiguity. Whereas ventral and dorsal aspects of medial prefrontal cortex responded more during ambiguous than unambiguous inferences regardless of the type of mental state, the right temporoparietal junction was sensitive to the distinction between beliefs and preferences irrespective of certainty. These results underscore the emerging consensus that, rather than comprising a single mental operation, social cognition makes flexible use of different processes as a function of the particular demands of the social context. PMID:19478034

Mitchell, Jason P.

2010-01-01

139

A modal ambiguity in for-infinitival relative clauses  

E-print Network

This squib presents two puzzles related to an ambiguity found in for-infinitival relative clauses (FIRs). FIRs invariably receive a modal interpretation even in the absence of any overt modal verb. The modal interpretation ...

Hackl, Martin

140

Cosmetic and anatomic outcomes after feminizing surgery for ambiguous genitalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundReports on anatomic and cosmetic outcomes after genital surgery for children with ambiguous genitalia are mixed, with recent reports using standardized assessments suggesting poor outcomes and that multiple operations may be required.

Wei Ling Lean; Aniruddha Deshpande; John Hutson; Sonia R. Grover

2005-01-01

141

The PCR-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in the faeces of Triatoma infestans fed on patients with chronic American trypanosomiasis gives higher sensitivity and a quicker result than routine xenodiagnosis.  

PubMed

In the xenodiagnosis (XD) of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma cruzi in the triatomine bugs fed on the patient can now be detected using PCR (XD-PCR) as well as by microscopy (XD-M). In a study to compare XD-PCR with XD-M, triatomine bugs were fed on 50 cases of chronic American trypanosomiasis, of whom only 25 were ever found positive by XD-M. Overall, the bugs fed on 34 of the patients (all 25 cases found positive by XD-M and nine of the other patients) were found PCR-positive, giving a 330-bp fragment corresponding to part of the hyper variable region of the kinetoplast DNA of T. cruzi. Of the 25 patients who were ever found positive by XD-M, 20 gave bugs that were smear-positive on day 90 and a similar number (24; P=0.125) gave bugs that were PCR-positive at this time. On day 30, however, the bugs fed on only 11 of these 25 patients were found positive by microscopy, whereas 23 of these patients were found positive by XD-PCR (P=0.0016). Thus, not only was XD-PCR more sensitive than XD-M but it was also quicker, revealing more cases within 30 days than detected using XD-M over a period of 90 days. PMID:18028728

Zulantay, I; Apt, W; Gil, L C; Rocha, C; Mundaca, K; Solari, A; Sánchez, G; Rodriguez, C; Martínez, G; De Pablos, L M; Sandoval, L; Rodríguez, J; Vilchez, S; Osuna, A

2007-12-01

142

Unparallel Lines Give Unparalleled Clues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists are excited to see new details of layered rocks in Opportunity Ledge. In previous panoramic camera images, geologists saw that some rocks in the outcrop had thin layers, and images sent to Earth on sol 17 (Feb. 10, 2004) now show that the thin layers are not always parallel to each other like lines on notebook paper. Instead, if you look closely at this image from an angle, you will notice that the lines converge and diverge at low angles. These unparallel lines give unparalleled clues that some 'moving current' such as volcanic flow, wind, or water formed these rocks. These layers with converging and diverging lines are a significant discovery for scientists who are on route to rigorously test the water hypothesis. The main task for both rovers in coming weeks and months is to explore the areas around their landing sites for evidence in rocks and soils about whether those areas ever had environments that were watery and possibly suitable for sustaining life.

This is a cropped image taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 16 (Feb. 9, 2004). JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2004-01-01

143

Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Which Cognitive Developments Are Necessary to Experience Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments involving one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds we examined the claim that a complex understanding of ambiguity is required to experience reversal of ambiguous stimuli [Gopnik, A., & Rosati, A. (2001). Duck or rabbit? Reversing ambiguous figures and understanding ambiguous representations. Developmental Science, 4,…

Doherty, M.J.; Wimmer, M.C.

2005-01-01

144

Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward–reward discrimination cognitive bias task  

PubMed Central

Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward (‘optimism’) or punishment (‘pessimism’). We investigated whether an automated Reward–Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively ‘pessimistic’, whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

Parker, Richard M.A.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Burman, Oliver H.P.; Browne, William J.; Mendl, Michael

2014-01-01

145

Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the technological development for the ELTs, one of the key activities is the phasing and alignment of the primary mirror segments. To achieve the phasing accuracy of a small fraction of the wavelength, an optical sensor is required. In 2005 has been demonstrated that the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor can be employed in closed loop to correct simultaneously piston, tip and tilt errors of segmented mirror. The Pyramid Phasing Sensor (PYPS) is based on the sensing of phase step on the segment edges; this kind of phasing sensors have the common limitation of the signal ambiguity induced by the phase periodicity of ??/? on the mirror surface step ?, when the wavelength ? is used for the sensing. In this paper we briefly describe three different techniques that allow to solve the phase ambiguity with PYPS. As first we present experimental results on the two wavelengths closed loop procedure proposed by Esposito in 2001; in the laboratory test the multi-wavelength procedure allowed to exceed the sensor capture range of +/-?/2 and simultaneously retrieve the differential piston of the 32 mirror segments starting from random positions in a 3.2 ? wavefront range, the maximum allowed by the mirror stroke. Then we propose two new techniques based respectively on the segment and wavelength sweep. The Segment Sweep Technique (SST) has been successfully applied during the experimental tests of PYPS at the William Herschel Telescope, when 13 segments of the NAOMI DM has been phased starting from a random position in a 15? range. The Wavelength Sweep Technique (WST) has been subject of preliminary tests in the Arcetri laboratories in order to prove the concept. Each technique has different capture range, accuracy and operation time, so that each can solve different tasks required to an optical phasing sensor in the ELT application. More in detail the WST and SST could be used combined for the first mirror phasing when the calibration required for the closed loop operations are not yet available. Then the closed loop capture range can be extended from +/-?/2 to +/-10? with the multi-wavelength closed loop technique.

Pinna, E.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A.; Pieralli, F.; Myers, R. M.; Busoni, L.; Tozzi, A.; Stefanini, P.

2006-06-01

146

Reduction of Phase Ambiguity in an Offset-QPSK Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed modifications of an offset-quadri-phase-shift keying (offset-QPSK) transmitter and receiver would reduce the amount of signal processing that must be done in the receiver to resolve the QPSK fourfold phase ambiguity. Resolution of the phase ambiguity is necessary in order to synchronize, with the received carrier signal, the signal generated by a local oscillator in a carrier-tracking loop in the receiver. Without resolution of the fourfold phase ambiguity, the loop could lock to any of four possible phase points, only one of which has the proper phase relationship with the carrier. The proposal applies, more specifically, to an offset-QPSK receiver that contains a carrier-tracking loop like that shown in Figure 1. This carrier-tracking loop does not resolve or reduce the phase ambiguity. A carrier-tracking loop of a different design optimized for the reception of offset QPSK could reduce the phase ambiguity from fourfold to twofold, but would be more complex. Alternatively, one could resolve the fourfold phase ambiguity by use of differential coding in the transmitter, at a cost of reduced power efficiency. The proposed modifications would make it possible to reduce the fourfold phase ambiguity to twofold, with no loss in power efficiency and only relatively simple additional signal-processing steps in the transmitter and receiver. The twofold phase ambiguity would then be resolved by use of a unique synchronization word, as is commonly done in binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). Although the mathematical and signal-processing principles underlying the modifications are too complex to explain in detail here, the modifications themselves would be relatively simple and are best described with the help of simple block diagrams (see Figure 2). In the transmitter, one would add a unit that would periodically invert bits going into the QPSK modulator; in the receiver, one would add a unit that would effect different but corresponding inversions of bits coming out of the QPSK demodulator. The net effect of all the inversions would be that depending on which lock point the carrier-tracking loop had selected, all the output bits would be either inverted or non-inverted together; hence, the ambiguity would be reduced from fourfold to twofold, as desired.

Berner, Jeff; Kinman, Peter

2004-01-01

147

Auditory Scene Analysis: The Sweet Music of Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis (ASA), or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, ASA uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener). After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit) knowledge of the rules of ASA and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music. PMID:22174701

Pressnitzer, Daniel; Suied, Clara; Shamma, Shihab A.

2011-01-01

148

Assumptions and ambiguities in nonplanar acoustic soliton theory  

SciTech Connect

There have been many recent theoretical investigations of the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic modes with cylindrical or spherical symmetry. Through a reductive perturbation analysis based on a quasiplanar stretching, a modified form of the Korteweg-de Vries or related equation is derived, containing an additional term which is linear in the electrostatic potential and singular at time t?=?0. Unfortunately, these analyses contain several restrictive assumptions and ambiguities which are normally neither properly explained nor discussed, and severely limit the applicability of the technique. Most glaring are the use of plane-wave stretchings, the assumption that shape-preserving cylindrical modes can exist and that, although time is homogeneous, the origin of time (which can be chosen arbitrarily) needs to be avoided. Hence, only in the domain where the nonlinear modes are quasiplanar, far from the axis of cylindrical or from the origin of spherical symmetry can acceptable but unexciting results be obtained. Nonplanar nonlinear modes are clearly an interesting topic of research, as some of these phenomena have been observed in experiments. However, it is argued that a proper study of such modes needs numerical simulations rather than ill-suited analytical approximations.

Verheest, Frank [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium) [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Hellberg, Manfred A. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)] [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

2014-02-15

149

Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

2014-04-01

150

Influence of clear versus ambiguous normative information on food intake.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted in order to examine the conditions under which social norms operate to control people's otherwise prepotent response to maximize eating. The social-normative model of eating assumes that people will follow one of two possible norms for "appropriate" eating behavior: the norm to eat minimally and the norm to avoid eating excessively. In Experiment 1, it was predicted that amounts eaten would be bimodally distributed (with the modes at or just below the two amounts chosen to represent minimal and excessive eating). Instead, most participants ate considerably more than either of the norms presented. Experiment 2 was intended to test the following explanation for these results: exposure to ambiguous norms liberated participants from normative constraints and led them to overeat. Experiment 2 demonstrated that exposure to clear norms in the same situation exerted a braking effect on overeating. We conclude that individuals are more likely to eat in accordance with their own desires when they cannot perceive that others are following a clear pattern of eating behavior and social norms are, therefore, not apparent. PMID:17196300

Leone, Tullia; Pliner, Patricia; Peter Herman, C

2007-07-01

151

Eye movements and the identification of spatially ambiguous words during Chinese sentence reading  

PubMed Central

Readers of Chinese must generally determine word units in the absence of visually distinct interword spaces. In the present study, we examined how a sequence of Chinese characters is parsed into words under these conditions. Eye movements were monitored while participants read sentences with a critical four-character (C1234) sequence. Three partially overlapping character groupings formed legal words in the ambiguous condition (C12, C23, and C34), two of which corresponded to context-consistent words (C12 and C34). Two nonoverlapping groupings corresponded to legal words in the control conditions (C12 and C34). In two experiments, readers spent more time viewing the critical character sequence and its two center characters (C23) in the ambiguous condition. These results argue against the strictly serial assignment of characters to words during the reading of Chinese text. PMID:16615382

INHOFF, ALBRECHT W.; WU, CAILI

2009-01-01

152

Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent Environments: Towards a More Reliable Context Managing System  

PubMed Central

Modeling and managing correctly the user context in Smart Environments is important to achieve robust and reliable systems. When modeling reality we must take into account its ambiguous nature. Considering the uncertainty and vagueness in context data information it is possible to attain a more precise picture of the environment, thus leading to a more accurate inference process. To achieve these goals we present an ontology that models the ambiguity in intelligent environments and a data fusion and inference process that takes advantage of that extra information to provide better results. Our system can assess the certainty of the captured measurements, discarding the unreliable ones and combining the rest into a unified vision of the current user context. It also models the vagueness of the system, combining it with the uncertainty to obtain a richer inference process. PMID:22666068

Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

2012-01-01

153

Control of spin ambiguity during reorientation of an energy dissipating body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quasi-rigid body initially spinning about its minor principal axis and experiencing energy dissipation will enter a tumbling mode and eventually reorient itself such that stable spin about its major principal axis is achieved. However, in this final state the body may be spinning in a positive or negative sense with respect to its major axis and aligned in a positive or negative sense with the inertially fixed angular momentum vector. This ambiguity can be controlled only through an active system. The associated dynamical formulations and simulations of uncontrolled reorientations are presented. Three control schemes are discussed and results offered for specific examples. These schemes include displacement of internal masses, spinning up of internal inertia, and reaction jets, all of which have demonstrated the ability to control spin ambiguity.

Kaplan, M. H.; Cenker, R. J.

1973-01-01

154

Constituent length affects prosody and processing for a dative NP ambiguity in Korean.  

PubMed

Two sentence processing experiments on a dative NP ambiguity in Korean demonstrate effects of phrase length on overt and implicit prosody. Both experiments controlled non-prosodic length factors by using long versus short proper names that occurred before the syntactically critical material. Experiment 1 found that long phrases induce different prosodic phrasing than short phrases in a read-aloud task and change the preferred interpretation of globally ambiguous sentences. It also showed that speakers who have been told of the ambiguity can provide significantly different prosody for the two interpretations, for both lengths. Experiment 2 verified that prosodic patterns found in first-pass pronunciations predict self-paced reading patterns for silent reading. The results extend the coverage of the Implicit Prosody Hypothesis [Fodor, J Psycholinguist Res 27:285-319, 1998; Prosodic disambiguation in silent reading. In M. Hirotani (Ed.), NELS 32 (pp. 113-132). Amherst, MA: GLSA Publications, 2002] to another construction and to Korean. They further indicate that strong syntactic biases can have rapid effects on the formulation of implicit prosody. PMID:19067169

Hwang, Hyekyung; Schafer, Amy J

2009-03-01

155

RISK, AMBIGUITY, AND THE SAVAGE AXIOMS* By DANIELELLSBERG  

E-print Network

RISK, AMBIGUITY, AND THE SAVAGE AXIOMS* By DANIELELLSBERG I. Are there uncertaintiesthat are not risks?643. II. Uncertaintiesthat arenotrisks,647.- JII. Whyare some uncertaintiesnotrisks?- 656. I. ARE THERE UNCERTAINTIES THAT ARE NOT RISKS? There has always been a good deal of skepticismabout

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

156

Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

Degani, Tamar

2011-01-01

157

BRIEF REPORT Seeing and liking: Biased perception of ambiguous figures  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Seeing and liking: Biased perception of ambiguous figures consistent with the "inward the border of a frame (say, in a photograph), observers tend to find the image more aestheti- cally pleasing to the inward bias: When a figure was placed near a frame's border, observers tended to see whichever

Scholl, Brian

158

BRIEF REPORT Seeing and liking: Biased perception of ambiguous figures  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Seeing and liking: Biased perception of ambiguous figures consistent with the "inward: When an object with a salient "front" is placed near the border of a frame (say, in a photograph a figure was placed near a frame's border, observers tended to see whichever interpretation was facing

Scholl, Brian

159

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

160

Resolving and Mediating Ambiguous Contexts for Pervasive Care Environments  

E-print Network

), context state (Si) and situation space (Ri), and attempts to incorporate various intuitions that should, a significant challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services for healthcare applications is the ability to deal with ambiguous contexts to prevent hazardous situations. In this work, we

Julien, Christine

161

Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

2013-01-01

162

Ambiguity of Visual Design and Meaning in TV's "Battlestar Galactica."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Battlestar Galactica," ABC-TV's prime-time science fiction series for 1978-79, illustrates how popular, mass media entertainment can communicate contradictory meanings that correlate with unresolved cultural tensions. The ambiguity of visual design is especially confusing because it is contrapuntal to the simplicity and clarity of the formulaic…

Roth, Lane

163

MAXIMUM ENTROPY MODELS FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION  

E-print Network

the intellectual freedom to pursue what I believed to be the best way to approach natural language processing modeling technology, and also to statistical natural language processing in general. My employmentMAXIMUM ENTROPY MODELS FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION Adwait Ratnaparkhi A DISSERTATION

Rodriguez, Carlos

164

Violent Comic Books and Perceptions of Ambiguous Provocation Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of reading very violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situations, independent of trait hostility. 119 introductory psychology students read either a violent comic book, Curse of the Spawn, or a mildly violent comic book, Archie & Friends. After reading the comic books, participants read six shor t stories in

Steven J. Kirsh; Paul V. Olczak

2000-01-01

165

Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

2013-01-01

166

Ambiguous Argument as Advocacy in Organizational Crisis Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posits that organizations in crisis situations must address multiple audiences with distinct needs. Analyzes the public communication offered by Jack in the Box restaurants during a food poisoning outbreak. Finds that ambiguity may provide organizations with a means for satisfying the divergent needs of their audiences--even where these distinct…

Sellnow, Timothy L.; Ulmer, Robert R.

1995-01-01

167

Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

2013-01-01

168

Interaction Selection Ambiguities in Multi-Agent Systems Yoann Kubera  

E-print Network

Simulations Even if the application domains of multi-agent simula- tions are heterogeneous, they can be splitInteraction Selection Ambiguities in Multi-Agent Systems Yoann Kubera yoann.kubera@lifl.fr Philippe´e Scientifique - 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex ­ FRANCE Abstract To ensure multi-agent based simulation models

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

2012-01-01

170

Resolving Ambiguities in Biomedical Text With Unsupervised Clustering Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the effectiveness of unsupervised clustering techniques developed for general English in resolving semantic ambiguities in the biomedical domain. Methods that use first and second order representations of context are evaluated on the National Library of Medicine Word Sense Disambiguation Corpus. We show that the method of clustering second order contexts in similarity space is especially effective on

Guergana Savova; Ted Pedersen; Amruta Purandare; Anagha Kulkarni

171

Prosody and the Interpretation of Hierarchically Ambiguous Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although significant attention has been devoted to prosody in discourse production, relatively little is known about prosody's effect on discourse interpretation. This article explores the ability of synthetic manipulations of prosody to bias interpretation of discourse ambiguities where a first sentence is linked to two following sentences…

Tyler, Joseph

2014-01-01

172

Top-down influences on ambiguous perception: the role of stable and transient states of the observer  

PubMed Central

The world as it appears to the viewer is the result of a complex process of inference performed by the brain. The validity of this apparently counter-intuitive assertion becomes evident whenever we face noisy, feeble or ambiguous visual stimulation: in these conditions, the state of the observer may play a decisive role in determining what is currently perceived. On this background, ambiguous perception and its amenability to top-down influences can be employed as an empirical paradigm to explore the principles of perception. Here we offer an overview of both classical and recent contributions on how stable and transient states of the observer can impact ambiguous perception. As to the influence of the stable states of the observer, we show that what is currently perceived can be influenced (1) by cognitive and affective aspects, such as meaning, prior knowledge, motivation, and emotional content and (2) by individual differences, such as gender, handedness, genetic inheritance, clinical conditions, and personality traits and by (3) learning and conditioning. As to the impact of transient states of the observer, we outline the effects of (4) attention and (5) voluntary control, which have attracted much empirical work along the history of ambiguous perception. In the huge literature on the topic we trace a difference between the observer's ability to control dominance (i.e., the maintenance of a specific percept in visual awareness) and reversal rate (i.e., the switching between two alternative percepts). Other transient states of the observer that have more recently drawn researchers' attention regard (6) the effects of imagery and visual working memory. (7) Furthermore, we describe the transient effects of prior history of perceptual dominance. (8) Finally, we address the currently available computational models of ambiguous perception and how they can take into account the crucial share played by the state of the observer in perceiving ambiguous displays. PMID:25538601

Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Triesch, Jochen

2014-01-01

173

Giving to Higher Education Breaks Another Record.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that American colleges and universities raised an estimated $20.4 billion in private gifts in the 1998-99 academic year, an increase of 10.9 percent over the previous year. Provides data on total gifts by type of institution and lists the top 20 institutions in total giving, in alumni giving, in giving from non-alumni individuals, and in…

Lively, Kit

2000-01-01

174

Thank you for joining: The Giving Decision  

E-print Network

topics led by members of GW's Women and Philanthropy community. #12;The Giving Decision Types of Giving Giving Plan WEDGE Resources Impulse & Crisis Relationship Affiliation Discretionary for the Greater Good WEDGE Resources Who is responsible? How is the charity doing? How well is it communicating with donors

Vertes, Akos

175

Bitext-Based Resolution of German Subject-Object Ambiguities Florian Schwarck Alexander Fraser  

E-print Network

- tence "Die Maus jagt die Katze" "the ­ mouse ­ chases ­ the ­ cat" exhibits such an ambiguity. Be- cause- lation of the sentence "Die Maus jagt die Katze" is not ambiguous. If we have access to this translation

Fraser, Alexander M.

176

Measures of Ambiguity of Computational Verbs Based on Computational Verb Collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambiguity of computational verbs is measured by using Shannon entropy. The ambiguities in the states and in the dynamics of computational verbs are studied based on the simplest computational verb collapses; namely, samples of the evolving functions of computational verbs at the ends of life spans. The ambiguities in the states of computational verbs can be either increased or

Tao Yang; Yi Guo

2007-01-01

177

hal-00080459,version2-13Dec2006 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR RADAR AMBIGUITY FUNCTIONS AND  

E-print Network

hal-00080459,version2-13Dec2006 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR RADAR AMBIGUITY FUNCTIONS AND MOMENTS is not achievable because of the so-called "ambiguity uncertainty principle", that is the constraint R2 |A(u)(x, y are given by various versions of the uncertainty principle for the ambiguity function, see e.g. [BDJ, De, Gr

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Another Kind of Ambiguous Loss: Seventh-Day Adventist Women in Mixed-Orientation Marriages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narratives of five Seventh-day Adventist heterosexual women whose mixed-orientation marriages ended were analyzed through the lens of ambiguous loss. Thematic coding identified a wave-like process of changing emotional foci that emerged from their experience during marital dissolution. Elements of ambiguous loss included boundary ambiguity,…

Hernandez, Barbara C.; Wilson, Colwick M.

2007-01-01

179

Coherent detection and ambiguity resolution for Frequency Diversity Separated Subarray Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar system using separated subarrays can improve both angular accuracy and resolution at a reduced cost as well as easier transportation. However, the inherent ambiguities due to the existence of grating lobes deteriorate the performance greatly. Frequency diversity technique can be adopted to reduce the ambiguities. In this paper we have investigated the coherent detection and ambiguity resolution performance of

Jiang Wei; Wang Ju; Wu Siliang; Wang Dajun

2008-01-01

180

Cesare Lombroso: Methodological ambiguities and brilliant intuitions.  

PubMed

This paper on Cesare Lombroso aims to assess his contribution to the criminological sciences. Although much praised worldwide, Lombroso was also the target of scathing criticism and unmitigated condemnation. Examination of Lombroso's method of data collection and analysis reveals his weakness. Indeed, his approach was extremely naive, simplistic and uncritical, aimed at irrefutably demonstrating the hypotheses that he championed, without exercising the methodological caution that was already beginning to characterize scientific research in his day. However, we must acknowledge that his biological theories of crime are undergoing new developments as a result of the recent success of biological psychiatry. On the other hand we should recognize that his work was not limited to his biological central theory; rather, it covered a range of cues and concepts, for the most part ignored, that demonstrate his interest in the economic, cultural and social factors that impact on crime. For these reasons, Lombroso appears to have anticipated many modern conceptions regarding delinquent behavior and criminal justice, such as those of restorative justice, the so-called "situational" theories of criminal behavior and white collar crime. PMID:22154472

Gatti, Uberto; Verde, Alfredo

2012-01-01

181

Integer-ambiguity resolution in astronomy and geodesy  

E-print Network

Recent theoretical developments in astronomical aperture synthesis have revealed the existence of integer-ambiguity problems. Those problems, which appear in the self-calibration procedures of radio imaging, have been shown to be similar to the nearest-lattice point (NLP) problems encountered in high-precision geodetic positioning, and in global navigation satellite systems. In this paper, we analyse the theoretical aspects of the matter and propose new methods for solving those NLP problems. The related optimization aspects concern both the preconditioning stage, and the discrete-search stage in which the integer ambiguities are finally fixed. Our algorithms, which are described in an explicit manner, can easily be implemented. They lead to substantial gains in the processing time of both stages. Their efficiency was shown via intensive numerical tests.

Lannes, André

2013-01-01

182

Learning and Generalization under Ambiguity: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Adaptive behavior often exploits generalizations from past experience by applying them judiciously in new situations. This requires a means of quantifying the relative importance of prior experience and current information, so they can be balanced optimally. In this study, we ask whether the brain generalizes in an optimal way. Specifically, we used Bayesian learning theory and fMRI to test whether neuronal responses reflect context-sensitive changes in ambiguity or uncertainty about experience-dependent beliefs. We found that the hippocampus expresses clear ambiguity-dependent responses that are associated with an augmented rate of learning. These findings suggest candidate neuronal systems that may be involved in aberrations of generalization, such as over-confidence. PMID:22275857

Chumbley, J. R.; Flandin, G.; Bach, D. R.; Daunizeau, J.; Fehr, E.; Dolan, R. J.; Friston, K. J.

2012-01-01

183

Resolving the range ambiguity in OFDR using digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digitally range-gated variant of optical frequency domain reflectometry is demonstrated which overcomes the beat note ambiguity when sensing beyond a single frequency sweep. The range-gating is achieved using a spread spectrum technique involving time-stamping of the optical signal using high-frequency pseudorandom phase modulation. The reflections from different sections of fiber can then be isolated in the time domain by digitally inverting the phase modulation using appropriately-delayed copies of the pseudorandom noise code. Since the technique overcomes the range ambiguity in OFDR, it permits high sweep repetition rates without sacrificing range, thus allowing for high-bandwidth sensing over long lengths of fiber. This is demonstrated for the case of quasi-distributed sensing.

Riesen, Nicolas; T-Y Lam, Timothy; Chow, Jong H.

2014-12-01

184

Covariant gauges without Gribov ambiguities in Yang-Mills theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a one-parameter family of nonlinear covariant gauges which can be formulated as an extremization procedure that may be amenable to lattice implementation. At high energies, where the Gribov ambiguities can be ignored, this reduces to the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauges. We further propose a continuum formulation in terms of a local action which is free of Gribov ambiguities and avoids the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. This involves an averaging over Gribov copies with a nonuniform weight, which introduces a new gauge-fixing parameter. We show that the proposed gauge-fixed action is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and we provide explicit expressions of the renormalization factors at one loop. We discuss the possible implications of the present proposal for the calculation of Yang-Mills correlators.

Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Tresmontant, A.

2014-06-01

185

Not So Black and White: Memory for Ambiguous Group Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential increases in multiracial identities, expected over the next century, create a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as their own- or other-race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the own-race bias. The authors hypothesized that perceivers are not motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and therefore have some difficulty remembering

Kristin Pauker; Max Weisbuch; Nalini Ambady; Samuel R. Sommers; Reginald B. Adams; Zorana Ivcevic

2009-01-01

186

Reach target selection in humans using ambiguous decision cues containing variable amounts of conflicting sensory evidence supporting each target choice.  

PubMed

Human subjects chose between two color-coded reach targets using multicolored checkerboard-like decision cues (DCs) that presented variable amounts of conflicting sensory evidence supporting both target choices. Different DCs contained different numbers of small squares of the two target colors. The most ambiguous DCs contained nearly equal numbers of squares of both target colors. The subjects reached as soon as they selected a target after the appearance of the DC ("choose-and-go" task). The choice behavior of the subjects showed many similarities to prior studies using other stimulus properties (e.g., visual motion coherence, brightness), including progressively longer response times and higher target-choice error rates for more ambiguous DCs. However, certain trends in their choice behavior could not be fully captured by simple drift-diffusion models. Allowing the subjects to view the DCs for a period of time before presenting the targets ("match-to-sample" task) resulted in much shorter response times overall, but also revealed a reluctance of subjects to commit to a decision about the predominant color of the more ambiguous DCs during the initial extended observation period. Model processing and simulation analyses suggest that the subjects might adjust the dynamics of their decision-making process on a trial-to-trial basis in response to the variable level of ambiguous and conflicting evidence in different DCs between trials. PMID:25210160

Coallier, Emilie; Kalaska, John F

2014-12-01

187

Analysis of the ambiguity function for an FM signal derived from the Lorenz chaotic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In prior work, we showed that any one of the state variables of the Lorenz chaotic flow can be used effectively as the instantaneous frequency of an FM signal. We further investigated a method to improve chaotic-wideband FM signals for high resolution radar applications by introducing a compression factor to the Lorenz flow equations and by varying two control parameters, namely ? and ?, to substantially increase the bandwidth of the signal. In this paper, we obtain an empirical quadratic relationship between these two control parameters that yields a high Lyapunov exponent which allows the Lorenz flow to quickly diverge from its initial state. This, in turn, results in an FM signal with an agile center frequency that is also chaotic. A time-frequency analysis of the FM signal shows that variable time-bandwidth products of the order of 105 and wide bandwidths of approximately 10 GHz are achievable over short segments of the signal. Next, we compute the average ambiguity function for a large number of short segments of the signal with positive range-Doppler coupling. The resulting ambiguity surface is shaped as a set of mountain ridges that align with multiple range-Doppler coupling lines with low self-noise surrounding the peak response. Similar results are achieved for segments of the signal with negative range-Doppler coupling. The characteristics of the ambiguity surface are directly attributed to the frequency agility of the FM signal which could be potentially used to counteract electronic counter measures aimed at traditional chirp radars.

Pappu, Chandra S.; Flores, Benjamin C.; deBroux, Patrick

2012-06-01

188

Gift Giving and the Evolution of Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gift giving is a practice common to many societies. In an evolutionary model the social custom of giving gifts at the beginning of a relationship can lead to trust and cooperation. The evolutionary approach makes predictions about the character of the goods that can be used as gifts. For example, gift goods may have little use value even at low

H. Lorne Carmichael; W. Bentley MacLeod

1997-01-01

189

Gift Giving: An Exploratory Behavioural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to contribute to the marketing literature through an exploratory review of gift giving behaviour as it pertains to cultural and other demographical variables. Following Mathur's (1996, Psychology & Marketing, 13(1), 107–123) recommendation that future research into gift giving might examine differences among different subgroups in the population, this study closely examined gender differences to

Tekle Shanka; Brian Handley

2011-01-01

190

Embedded promotions in online services: how goal-relevance ambiguity shapes response and affect.  

PubMed

Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance ambiguity on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study utilizing actual service websites and a broad range of consumers as participants showed promotional elements in online services generated considerable confusion, and instructions labeling promotions as optional did little to relieve goal-relevance ambiguity. A second study using student participants inserted promotions into an online airline ticket service, a shopping site, a local news blog, and a news headline aggregator, to explore how linear and transactional sites such as online services compared to more exploratory or informational online environments. Results showed that service-embedded promotions enjoyed initial compliance far beyond promotions in traditional websites but also generated increased confusion, frustration, and anger. A third study utilizing student participants explored how varying levels of online service experience created differing responses to promotions in services; novices were less able to judge promotional goal-relevance and experienced more confusion, whereas experienced searchers were more likely to respond with frustration and anger. Many participants complied with promotional offers at the time of the service transaction, but stated intentions to use the promotion postservice were very low. The overall results spotlight goal-relevance ambiguity as an important driver of consumer response to online promotions, and highlight the role website context can play in the processing of online promotional elements. PMID:20853986

Brasel, S Adam

2010-09-01

191

Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

2013-01-01

192

Syntactic complexity and ambiguity resolution in a free word order language: behavioral and electrophysiological evidences from Basque.  

PubMed

In natural languages some syntactic structures are simpler than others. Syntactically complex structures require further computation that is not required by syntactically simple structures. In particular, canonical, basic word order represents the simplest sentence-structure. Natural languages have different canonical word orders, and they vary in the degree of word order freedom they allow. In the case of free word order, whether canonical word order plays any role in processing is still unclear. In this paper, we present behavioral and electrophysiological evidence that simpler, canonical word order preference is found even in a free word order language. Canonical and derived structures were compared in two self-paced reading and one ERPs experiment. Non-canonical sentences required further syntactic computation in Basque, they showed longer reading times and a modulation of anterior negativities and P600 components providing evidence that even in free word order, case-marking grammars, underlying canonical word order can play a relevant role in sentence processing. These findings could signal universal processing mechanisms because similar processing patterns are found in typologically very distant grammars. We also provide evidence from syntactically fully ambiguous sequences. Our results on ambiguity resolution showed that fully ambiguous sequences were processed as canonical sentences. Moreover, when fully ambiguous sequences were forced to complex interpretation by means of the world knowledge of the participants, a frontal negativity distinguished simple and complex ambiguous sequences. Thus the preference of simple structures is presumably a universal design property for language processing, despite differences on parametric variation of a given grammar. PMID:19223065

Erdocia, Kepa; Laka, Itziar; Mestres-Missé, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

2009-04-01

193

Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... very careful when you’re giving your infant acetaminophen” says Carol Holquist, director of FDA’s Division of Medical Error Prevention and Analysis. Here’s what the agency wants parents and caregivers ...

194

Superconductivity: the Gift that Keeps on Giving  

E-print Network

Superconductivity: the Gift that Keeps on Giving Superconductivity, first discovered recently the discovery of high superconducting transition temperatures in the ceramic copper oxides has the copperoxygen bond directions at temperatures above the superconducting transition temperature Tc. We also

Goldberg, Bennett

195

Seeing and liking: biased perception of ambiguous figures consistent with the "inward bias" in aesthetic preferences.  

PubMed

Aesthetic preferences are ubiquitous in visual experience. Indeed, it seems nearly impossible in many circumstances to perceive a scene without also liking or disliking it to some degree. Aesthetic factors are only occasionally studied in mainstream vision science, though, and even then they are often treated as functionally independent from other aspects of perception. In contrast, the present study explores the possibility that aesthetic preferences may interact with other types of visual processing. We were inspired, in particular, by the inward bias in aesthetic preferences: When an object with a salient "front" is placed near the border of a frame (say, in a photograph), observers tend to find the image more aesthetically pleasing if the object faces inward (toward the center) than if it faces outward (away from the center). We employed similar stimuli, except that observers viewed framed figures that were ambiguous in terms of the direction they appeared to be facing. The resulting percepts were influenced by the frames in a way that corresponded to the inward bias: When a figure was placed near a frame's border, observers tended to see whichever interpretation was facing inward. This effect occurred for both abstract geometric figures (e.g., ambiguously-oriented triangles) and meaningful line drawings (e.g., left-facing ducks or right-facing rabbits). The match between this new influence on ambiguous figure perception and the previously studied aesthetic bias suggests new ways in which aesthetic factors may relate not only to what we like, but also to what we see in the first place. PMID:24683097

Chen, Yi-Chia; Scholl, Brian J

2014-12-01

196

Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?  

PubMed

Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. PMID:22581420

Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

2012-06-01

197

Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem  

SciTech Connect

Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

Lu, Hung Jung

1992-09-01

198

Disparate parametric branch-support values from ambiguous characters.  

PubMed

The greater power of parametric methods over parsimony is frequently observed in empirical phylogenetic analyses by providing greater resolution and higher branch support. This greater power is provided by several different factors, including some that are generally regarded as disadvantageous. In this study we used both empirical and (modified) simulated matrices to examine how Bayesian MCMC, maximum likelihood, and parsimony methods interpret ambiguous optimization of character states. We describe the information content in "redundant" terminals as well as a novel approach to help identify clades that cannot be unequivocally supported by synapomorphies in empirical matrices. Four of our main conclusions are as follows. First, the SH-like approximate likelihood ratio test is a more reliable indicator than the bootstrap of branches that are only ambiguously supported in likelihood analyses wherein only a single fully resolved optimal tree is presented. Second, bootstrap values generated by methods that only ever present a single fully resolved optimal tree are less robust to differences in taxon sampling than are those generated by more conservative methods. Third, PAUP(?) likelihood is more resilient to producing apparently unambiguous resolution and high support from ambiguous characters than is GARLI collapse 1 and MrBayes, which in turn are more resilient than PhyML. GARLI collapse 0, IQ-TREE, and RAxML are the least resilient bootstrapping methods examined. Fourth, frequent discrepancies with respect to resolution and/or branch support may be obtained by methods that only ever present a single fully resolved optimal tree in different contexts that are apparently unique to the specific program and/or method of quantifying branch support. PMID:24821621

Simmons, Mark P; Randle, Christopher P

2014-09-01

199

Narrowing historical uncertainty: probabilistic classification of ambiguously identified tree species in historical forest survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems. Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set of this type is the Public Land Survey (PLS) of the United States General Land Office, which contains data on multiple tree species, sizes, and distances recorded at each survey point, located at half-mile (0.8 km) intervals on a 1-mi (1.6 km) grid. This survey method was begun in the 1790s on US federal lands extending westward from Ohio. Thus, the data have the potential of providing a view of much of the US landscape from the mid-1800s, and they have been used extensively for this purpose. However, historical data sources, such as those describing the species composition of forests, can often be limited in the detail recorded and the reliability of the data, since the information was often not originally recorded for ecological purposes. Forest trees are sometimes recorded ambiguously, using generic or obscure common names. For the PLS data of northern Wisconsin, USA, we developed a method to classify ambiguously identified tree species using logistic regression analysis, using data on trees that were clearly identified to species and a set of independent predictor variables to build the models. The models were first created on partial data sets for each species and then tested for fit against the remaining data. Validations were conducted using repeated, random subsets of the data. Model prediction accuracy ranged from 81% to 96% in differentiating congeneric species among oak, pine, ash, maple, birch, and elm. Major predictor variables were tree size, associated species, landscape classes indicative of soil type, and spatial location within the study region. Results help to clarify ambiguities formerly present in maps of historic ecosystems for the region and can be applied to PLS datasets elsewhere, as well as other sources of ambiguous historical data. Mapping the newly classified data with ecological land units provides additional information on the distribution, abundance, and associations of tree species, as well as their relationships to environmental gradients before the industrial period, and clarifies the identities of species formerly mapped only to genus. We offer some caveats on the appropriate use of data derived in this way, as well as describing their potential.

Mladenoff, D.J.; Dahir, S.E.; Nordheim, E.V.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

2002-01-01

200

Multiple model approach - dealing wtih alignment ambiguities in protein modeling  

SciTech Connect

Sequence alignments for distantly homologous proteins are often ambiguous, which creates a weak link in structure prediction by homology. We address this problem by using several plausible alignments in a modeling procedure, obtaining many models of the target. All are subsequently evaluated by a threading algorithm. It is shown that this approach can identify best alignments and produce reasonable models, whose quality is now limited only by the extent of the structural similarity between the known and predicted protein. Using a similar approach the structure prediction for the oxidized dimer of S100A1 protein, for which the structure is not known, is presented. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Pawlowski, K.; Bierzynski, A. [Institute of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Warszawa (Poland); Jaroszewski, L. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Godzik, A. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

201

Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

2007-01-01

202

Interpreting Quantifier Scope Ambiguity: Evidence of Heuristic First, Algorithmic Second Processing  

PubMed Central

The present work suggests that sentence processing requires both heuristic and algorithmic processing streams, where the heuristic processing strategy precedes the algorithmic phase. This conclusion is based on three self-paced reading experiments in which the processing of two-sentence discourses was investigated, where context sentences exhibited quantifier scope ambiguity. Experiment 1 demonstrates that such sentences are processed in a shallow manner. Experiment 2 uses the same stimuli as Experiment 1 but adds questions to ensure deeper processing. Results indicate that reading times are consistent with a lexical-pragmatic interpretation of number associated with context sentences, but responses to questions are consistent with the algorithmic computation of quantifier scope. Experiment 3 shows the same pattern of results as Experiment 2, despite using stimuli with different lexical-pragmatic biases. These effects suggest that language processing can be superficial, and that deeper processing, which is sensitive to structure, only occurs if required. Implications for recent studies of quantifier scope ambiguity are discussed. PMID:24278439

Dwivedi, Veena D.

2013-01-01

203

The impact of ambiguous response categories on the factor structure of the GHQ-12.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested multiple factor structures for the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), with contradictory evidence arising across different studies on the validity of these models. In the present research, it was hypothesized that these inconsistent findings were due to the interaction of 3 main methodological factors: ambiguous response categories in the negative items, multiple scoring schemes, and inappropriate estimation methods. Using confirmatory factor analysis with appropriate estimation methods and scores obtained from a large (n = 27,674) representative Spanish sample, we tested this hypothesis by evaluating the fit and predictive validities of 4 GHQ-12 factor models-unidimensional, Hankins' (2008a) response bias model, Andrich and Van Schoubroeck's (1989) 2-factor model, and Graetz's (1991) 3-factor model-across 3 scoring methods: standard, corrected, and Likert. In addition, the impact of method effects on the reliability of the global GHQ-12 scores was also evaluated. The combined results of this study support the view that the GHQ-12 is a unidimensional measure that contains spurious multidimensionality under certain scoring schemes (corrected and Likert) as a result of ambiguous response categories in the negative items. Therefore, it is suggested that the items be scored using the standard method and that only a global score be derived from the instrument. PMID:24708083

Rey, Juan J; Abad, Francisco J; Barrada, Juan R; Garrido, Luis E; Ponsoda, Vicente

2014-09-01

204

Interpreting quantifier scope ambiguity: evidence of heuristic first, algorithmic second processing.  

PubMed

The present work suggests that sentence processing requires both heuristic and algorithmic processing streams, where the heuristic processing strategy precedes the algorithmic phase. This conclusion is based on three self-paced reading experiments in which the processing of two-sentence discourses was investigated, where context sentences exhibited quantifier scope ambiguity. Experiment 1 demonstrates that such sentences are processed in a shallow manner. Experiment 2 uses the same stimuli as Experiment 1 but adds questions to ensure deeper processing. Results indicate that reading times are consistent with a lexical-pragmatic interpretation of number associated with context sentences, but responses to questions are consistent with the algorithmic computation of quantifier scope. Experiment 3 shows the same pattern of results as Experiment 2, despite using stimuli with different lexical-pragmatic biases. These effects suggest that language processing can be superficial, and that deeper processing, which is sensitive to structure, only occurs if required. Implications for recent studies of quantifier scope ambiguity are discussed. PMID:24278439

Dwivedi, Veena D

2013-01-01

205

The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2012-01-01

206

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

207

Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

2012-07-01

208

Ambiguity of Data Quality in Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data "quality" is used in several different contexts in remote sensing data, with quite different meanings. At the pixel level, quality typically refers to a quality control process exercised by the processing algorithm, not an explicit declaration of accuracy or precision. File level quality is usually a statistical summary of the pixel-level quality but is of doubtful use for scenes covering large areal extents. Quality at the dataset or product level, on the other hand, usually refers to how accurately the dataset is believed to represent the physical quantities it purports to measure. This assessment often bears but an indirect relationship at best to pixel level quality. In addition to ambiguity at different levels of granularity, ambiguity is endemic within levels. Pixel-level quality terms vary widely, as do recommendations for use of these flags. At the dataset/product level, quality for low-resolution gridded products is often extrapolated from validation campaigns using high spatial resolution swath data, a suspect practice at best. Making use of quality at all levels is complicated by the dependence on application needs. We will present examples of the various meanings of quality in remote sensing data and possible ways forward toward a more unified and usable quality framework.

Lynnes, C.; Leptoukh, G. G.

2010-12-01

209

Semantic Similarity in a Taxonomy: An Information-Based Measure and its Application to Problems of Ambiguity in Natural Language  

E-print Network

This article presents a measure of semantic similarity in an IS-A taxonomy based on the notion of shared information content. Experimental evaluation against a benchmark set of human similarity judgments demonstrates that the measure performs better than the traditional edge-counting approach. The article presents algorithms that take advantage of taxonomic similarity in resolving syntactic and semantic ambiguity, along with experimental results demonstrating their effectiveness.

Resnik, P

2011-01-01

210

Carica papaya latex lipase: sn -3 stereoselectivity or short-chain selectivity? Model chiral triglycerides are removing the ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-chain fatty acids are usually located at positionsn-3 in natural triglycerides, particulary in dairy fats. As a result, it is extremely difficult to differentiate betweensn-3 stereospecificity and short-chain typoselectivity in many lipases and acyltransferases that perform in this way. This ambiguity\\u000a can be removed through successive use of a chiral triglyceride with a short fatty acid in positionsn-1 and of

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; D. Montet; J. Graille

1995-01-01

211

Event-related potentials indicate context effect in reading ambiguous words.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was a comparison of lexical and contextual factors in understanding ambiguous words in German. First, a sample of native speakers selected 56 words having maximally strong differences between a dominant and a subordinate meaning. After this, another sample from the same population was visually presented with sentences that activated dominant or subordinate meanings of the words and were accompanied by probes associated with dominant or subordinate meanings. This resulted in a crossed design with two factors: sentence dominant vs. sentence subordinate and probe dominant vs. probe subordinate. An analysis of event-related brain potentials revealed a large, long-lasting and highly-significant N400 wave whenever the meaning of the probe was incongruent with the meaning of the sentence and the lack of this wave whenever the two meanings were congruent. In the typical N400 space and time, the effect was independent of whether the lexical word meaning was dominant or subordinate. At other sites and times, however (e.g., at lateral frontal electrodes F7/F8, and after 700ms), the congruence effect was significant after dominant sentences only. The data indicate that lexical factors have a rather limited influence on the activation of a particular meaning of ambiguous words. A strong context can virtually override even a very strong difference in the preference for different meanings. PMID:25463139

Kotchoubey, Boris; El-Khoury, Sylvain

2014-10-29

212

A newborn with ambiguous genitalia and a complex X;Y rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females. Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated. Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity. PMID:25031580

Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Rossi, Elena; Vetro, Annalisa; Russo, Gianni; Hashemian, Zahra; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2014-01-01

213

How 7-month-olds interpret ambiguous motion events: category-based reasoning in infancy.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the role of static and dynamic attributes for the animate-inanimate distinction in category-based reasoning of 7-month-olds. Three experiments tested infants' responses to movement events involving an unfamiliar animal and a ball. When either the animal or the ball showed self-initiated irregular movements (Experiment 1), infants expected the previously active object to start moving again. When both objects were moving together in an ambiguous motion event (Experiment 2), infants expected only the animal to start moving again. Initial looking preferences for each object did not influence results. When either the facial features of the animal were removed, or its furry body was replaced by a plastic spiral in an ambiguous motion event (Experiment 3), infants formed no clear expectation regarding future movements. Based on this set of findings we conclude that 7-month-olds flexibly combine information about the static and dynamic properties of objects in order to reason about motion events. PMID:19596267

Pauen, Sabina; Träuble, Birgit

2009-11-01

214

Priming affects poor sleepers but not normal sleepers on an insomnia ambiguity task.  

PubMed

With increasing importance being placed on the role of cognitive biases as a maintaining factor in insomnia, the influence of order effects on interpretative responses should be examined and subsequently accounted for. The aim of the present study was to examine whether asking participants about their sleep experiences, prior to testing for a perceptual bias, affects responses on a sleep-related ambiguity task. One hundred and seventeen undergraduate students, blind to the aims of the experiment, were issued either the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes to Sleep scale (DBAS-10) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) before, or following, completion of an Insomnia Ambiguity Task (IAT). As expected, a multivariate analysis of variance showed that the order in which participants completed the task affected the responses on the IAT with those given the DBAS-10 and ISI first, showing greater insomnia-related interpretations than those given the IAT first. However, on closer examination, this effect was evident only for those who were defined as poor sleepers, and that normal sleepers were largely unaffected by the order in which the tests are given. The results are discussed in terms of design and management of sleep-related research protocols involving implicit cognitive tasks. PMID:19895424

Ellis, Jason; Gardani, Maria; Hogh, Henriette

2010-03-01

215

Todd Baumann Gives a Thumbs Up  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Todd Baumann gives a thumbs up after setting the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Butta Bean during the 2011 Flood. USGS uses the ADCP to make streamflow measurements. The ADCP emits soundwaves through the water column, which rebound off particles in the water ...

216

A Season of Giving. Learning with Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews elementary school books that help steer children away from the commercial aspects of gift giving and receiving during the holiday season and focus on the gifts of caring, generosity, selflessness, friendship, and tolerance. Teaching tips, class discussions, and literary tie-ins are included. (SM)

Freeman, Judy

1992-01-01

217

Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies,…

Skari, Lisa Ann

2014-01-01

218

Asian American Giving to US Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

Tsunoda, Kozue

2010-01-01

219

Face to Face: Cultivating Planned Giving Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most effective way to secure and promote gifts is seen as face-to-face contact. Some effective planned giving programs including visitation programs, book plate program, reunions, and use of donors as effective door-openers are described. Suggestions for how to encourage people to discuss their estates are provided. (MLW)

Collier, Charles W.

1979-01-01

220

Giving to Glasgow: the Scholarships Fund  

E-print Network

Giving to Glasgow: the Scholarships Fund #12;#12;01 Your choice to make a gift creates more scholarships, which means: More opportunity Since 1451 we've been creating opportunities for the talented and dedicated. Creating new Talent Scholarships means that the people who have the ability to come here can do

Glasgow, University of

221

Where do you want to give report?  

PubMed

Traditionally, nurses have met in a conference room to give each other end-of-shift report. Many hospitals are now moving to bedside report. Which does the research support as best practice? What are the ethical and practical issues of each? This article answers those questions. PMID:25140744

Spivey, Jennifer

2014-01-01

222

A physical-model-based, field-wise and self-contained algorithm for removing directional ambiguities of ocean surface winds retrieved from scatterometer measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm is introduced to remove the directional ambiguities in ocean surface winds measured by scatterometers, which requires scatterometer data only. It is based on two versions of PBL (planetary boundary layer) models and a low-pass filter. A pressure field is first derived from the median-filtered scatterometer winds, is then noise-filtered, and is finally converted back to the winds, respectively, by an inverted PBL model, a smoothing algorithm, and a PBL model. The derived wind field is used to remove the directional ambiguities in the scatterometer data. This new algorithm is applied to Hurricane Eugene and produces results comparable to those from the current standard ambiguity removal algorithm for NASA/JPL SeaWinds project, which requires external numerical weather forecast/analyses data.

Kim, Young-Joon

2000-09-01

223

Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

2009-01-01

224

The Child with Ambiguous Genitalia: A Neonatal Surgical Emergency  

PubMed Central

Although many birth defects pose a real threat to life if left uncorrected, the problem of ambiguous genitalia, if poorly or incorrectly handled, leads to a lifetime of unhappiness for both parent and child. The evaluation of these defects must be attended to with the same dispatch as any life threatening anomaly. A total of 18 children with ambiguous genitalia have been evaluated and treated in the past two years including nine females with virilizing adreno-genital syndrome, three infants with mixed gonadal dysgenesis, two infants with dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism, two males with severe perineal hypospadias, bifid scrotum, and undescended testicles, and two females with cloacal deformities. Precise diagnosis and most importantly proper gender assignments were made in 11 neonates by cytogenetic, biochemical, and miniaturized endoscopic techniques. Subsequent surgical reconstruction is governed by existing anatomy, not genetic sex, and has been completed in six children two to two and half years of age. Most are reconstructed as females with recession of the enlarged clitoris and vaginoplasty. Males with hypospadias are handled by standard techniques. Seven previously evaluated patients had been lost to follow-up for up to 13 years and were recently reconstructed. Surgical treatment in five older children with extreme virilization and moderate to severe gender confusion was technically successful but associated with pronounced emotional difficulties. Worse than delay in gender assignment, is making the wrong gender assignment, or failing to follow through with the original plan at an early age. Sample cases from each of these categories are presented in detail to illustrate the innovations in the diagnostic and therapeituc management of these children. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:889373

Canty, Timothy G.

1977-01-01

225

The ambiguous role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment.  

PubMed

The use of paraeducators has increased as a main mechanism to include more students with disabilities in the public schools in the U.S. Although the utilization of paraeducators is intended to be a supportive service delivery option, many concerns and challenges have resulted. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment from the perspectives of special education, physical education, and adapted physical education teachers and paraeducators. Data were collected from a phenomenological approach using questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Results indicate concerns about the clarity of the role of the paraeducator in physical education. Emerging themes include elastic definitions of student protection and teacher backup, contradictory expectations and mixed acceptance, and paraeducators' role ambiguity. Findings regarding the role of the paraeducator are essential in determining both best practice and legal policy for the appropriate utilization of paraeducators in physical education. PMID:23520245

Bryan, Rebecca R; McCubbin, Jeffrey A; van der Mars, Hans

2013-04-01

226

Dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk: A neurocognitive endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Evidence in the literature suggests that executive dysfunction is regarded as an endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Decision making is an important domain of executive function. However, few studies that have investigated whether decision making is a potential endophenotype for OCD have produced inconsistent results. Differences in the findings across these studies may be attributed to several factors: different study materials, comorbidity, medication, etc. There are at least two types of decision making that differ mainly in the degree of uncertainty and how much useful information about consequences and their probabilities are provided to the decision maker: decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk. The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine decision making under ambiguity as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and decision making under risk as measured by the Game of Dice Task (GDT) in OCD patients and their unaffected first-degree relative (UFDR) for the first time. The study analyzed 55 medication-naïve, non-depressed OCD patient probands, 55 UFDRs of the OCD patients and 55 healthy matched comparison subjects (CS) without a family history of OCD with the IGT, the GDT and a neuropsychological test battery. While the OCD patients and the UFDRs performed worse than the CS on the IGT, they were unimpaired on the GDT. Our study supports the claim that decision making under ambiguity differs from decision making under risk and suggests that dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may qualify to be a neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. PMID:25315855

Zhang, Long; Dong, Yi; Ji, Yifu; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Xingui; Wang, Kai

2015-03-01

227

Three Types of Ambiguity in Coding Empathic Interactions in Primary Care Visits: Implications for Research and Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe three methodological challenges experienced in studying patients’ expressions of emotion in a sample of routine ambulatory medical visits, and the research and practice implications of these challenges. Methods Qualitative analysis of empathic cues in audio-taped and transcribed periodic health examinations of adult patients (n=322) in an integrated delivery system. The empathic and potential empathic opportunities methodology was used. Results Identifying emotional cues that constitute “empathic opportunities” is a complex task. Three types of ambiguities made this task particularly challenging: 1) presentations of emotional cues can be “fuzzy” and varied; 2) expressions of illness can be emotionally laden in the absence of explicit “emotion words”; and 3) empathic opportunities vary in length and intensity. Conclusion Interactional ambiguities pose a challenge to researchers attempting to document emotional cues with a binary coding scheme that indicates only whether an empathic opportunity is present or absent. Additional efforts to refine the methodological approach for studying empathy in medical interactions are needed. Practice Implications The challenges discussed likely represent the same types of situations physicians find themselves in when talking with patients. Highlighting these ambiguities may aid physicians in better recognizing and meeting the emotional needs of their patients. PMID:22809831

Stone, Ashley L.; Tai-Seale, Ming; Stults, Cheryl D.; Luiz, Jamie M.; Frankel, Richard M.

2012-01-01

228

Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for ambiguous relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment ambiguity is interesting to study possible transfer…

Rah, Anne

2010-01-01

229

Early Morphological Processing Is Sensitive to Morphemic Meanings: Evidence from Processing Ambiguous Morphemes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three priming experiments, we investigated whether the meanings of ambiguous morphemes were activated during word recognition. Using a meaning generation task, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the dominant meaning of individually presented ambiguous morphemes was reported more often than did other less frequent meanings. Also, participants tended…

Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2013-01-01

230

Implicit and Explicit Understanding of Ambiguous Figures by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can process both interpretations of an ambiguous figure (e.g. rabbit/duck) when told about the ambiguity, however they tend not to do so spontaneously. Here we show that although adolescents with ASD can explicitly experience such "reversals", implicit measures suggest they are conceptually processing…

Allen, Melissa L.; Chambers, Alison

2011-01-01

231

A cognitive robot with reconfigurable mind for studying theories of ambiguity resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the conceptual design of a cognitive robot for investigating issues in ambiguity resolution. The robot will be intelligent, mobile, and anthropomorphic. It is envisioned that the robot will provide an alternative for studying cognition, providing a useful methodology complementing more traditional experimental methods. The ambiguity resolution will be studied in spoken natural language understanding, context driven active robot vision,

Frank M. Brown; Arvin Agah; John M. Gauch; T. Schreiber; S. R. Speer

1999-01-01

232

Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.

David Yarowsky

1994-01-01

233

The Relationship of Role Conflict and Ambiguity and Perceived Organizational Characteristics between Superintendents and Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superintendents and principals from 50 Pennsylvania school districts were asked to complete two questionnaires each to test, first, the relationships between superintendents' and principals' role conflict and ambiguity and, second, the relationship between superintendents' role conflict and ambiguity and their perceptions of their districts'…

Caldwell, William E.; Forney, Janet Williams

234

The effect of stereotypical primes on the neural processing of racially ambiguous faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that an early attentional component of the event-related potential (ERP), the P2, is sensitive to the distinction between the processing of racial outgroup and ingroup faces but may not be sensitive to the distinction between racially ambiguous and ingroup faces. Recent behavioral work, however, has suggested that contextual information may affect the processing of racially ambiguous

Cheryl L. Dickter; Julie A. Kittel

2012-01-01

235

Medical Student and Junior Doctors' Tolerance of Ambiguity: Development of a New Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a…

Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen

2015-01-01

236

Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

2014-01-01

237

Do weight-preoccupied women misinterpret ambiguous stimuli related to body size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and low weight-preoccupied women were instructed to imagine themselves in situations described by ambiguous sentences related to body size. These ambiguous sentences could be interpreted in either a positive or negative manner. In a subsequent recognition memory test, subjects highly preoccupied with body weight were found to recall their imagery of the body-related situations with a negative interpretation. The

Lori P. Jackman; Donald A. Williamson; Richard G. Netemeyer; Drew A. Anderson

1995-01-01

238

The Kindergarten Path Effect Revisited: Children's Use of Context in Processing Structural Ambiguities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research with adults has shown that ambiguous spoken sentences are resolved efficiently, exploiting multiple cues--including referential context--to select the intended meaning. Paradoxically, children appear to be insensitive to referential cues when resolving ambiguous sentences, relying instead on statistical properties intrinsic to the…

Weighall, Anna R.

2008-01-01

239

Evaluation of Sequence Ambiguities of the HIV-1 pol gene as a Method to Identify Recent HIV-1 Infection in Transmitted Drug Resistance Surveys  

PubMed Central

Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. In this analysis, we explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining the percentage of ambiguous base calls in sequences derived from standard genotyping of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. Sequences from 691 recently infected (?1 year) and chronically infected (>1 year) individuals from Sweden, Vietnam and Ethiopia were analyzed for ambiguity. A significant difference (p <0.0001) in the proportion of ambiguous bases was observed between sequences from individuals with recent and chronic infection in both HIV-1 subtype B and non-B infection, consistent with previous studies. In our analysis, a cutoff of <0.47% ambiguous base calls identified recent infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.8% and 74.6% respectively. 1,728 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from 36 surveys of transmitted HIV drug resistance performed following World Health Organization guidance were analyzed for ambiguity. The 0.47% ambiguity cutoff was applied and survey sequences were classified as likely derived from recently or chronically infected individuals. 71% of patients were classified as likely to have been infected within one year of genotyping but results varied considerably amongst surveys. This bioinformatics approach may provide supporting population-level information to identify recent infection but its application is limited by infection with more than one viral variant, decreasing viral diversity in advanced disease and technical aspects of population based sequencing. Standardization of sequencing techniques and base calling and the addition of other parameters such as CD4 cell count may address some of the technical limitations and increase the usefulness of the approach. PMID:23583545

Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sönnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R

2014-01-01

240

Evaluation of sequence ambiguities of the HIV-1 pol gene as a method to identify recent HIV-1 infection in transmitted drug resistance surveys.  

PubMed

Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance at population level. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. We explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining the percentage of ambiguous base calls in sequences derived from standard genotyping of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. Sequences from 691 recently infected (?1 year) and chronically infected (>1 year) individuals from Sweden, Vietnam and Ethiopia were analyzed for ambiguity. A significant difference (p<0.0001) in the proportion of ambiguous bases was observed between sequences from individuals with recent and chronic infection in both HIV-1 subtype B and non-B infection, consistent with previous studies. In our analysis, a cutoff of <0.47% ambiguous base calls identified recent infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.8% and 74.6% respectively. 1,728 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from 36 surveys of transmitted HIV drug resistance performed following World Health Organization guidance were analyzed for ambiguity. The 0.47% ambiguity cutoff was applied and survey sequences were classified as likely derived from recently or chronically infected individuals. 71% of patients were classified as likely to have been infected within one year of genotyping but results varied considerably amongst surveys. This bioinformatics approach may provide supporting population-level information to identify recent infection but its application is limited by infection with more than one viral variant, decreasing viral diversity in advanced disease and technical aspects of population based sequencing. Standardization of sequencing techniques and base calling and the addition of other parameters such as CD4 cell count may address some of the technical limitations and increase the usefulness of the approach. PMID:23583545

Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sönnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R

2013-08-01

241

An ambiguity of information content and error in an ill-posed satellite inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Rodgers (2000, stochastic approach), the averaging kernel (AK) is the representational matrix to understand the information content in a scholastic inversion. On the other hand, in deterministic approach this is referred to as model resolution matrix (MRM, Menke 1989). The analysis of AK/MRM can only give some understanding of how much regularization is imposed on the inverse problem. The trace of the AK/MRM matrix, which is the so-called degree of freedom from signal (DFS; stochastic) or degree of freedom in retrieval (DFR; deterministic). There are no physical/mathematical explanations in the literature: why the trace of the matrix is a valid form to calculate this quantity? We will present an ambiguity between information and error using a real life problem of SST retrieval from GOES13. The stochastic information content calculation is based on the linear assumption. The validity of such mathematics in satellite inversion will be questioned because it is based on the nonlinear radiative transfer and ill-conditioned inverse problems. References: Menke, W., 1989: Geophysical data analysis: discrete inverse theory. San Diego academic press. Rodgers, C.D., 2000: Inverse methods for atmospheric soundings: theory and practice. Singapore :World Scientific.

Koner, Prabhat

242

Finding meaning in art: Preferred levels of ambiguity in art appreciation  

PubMed Central

Uncertainty is typically not desirable in everyday experiences, but uncertainty in the form of ambiguity may be a defining feature of aesthetic experiences of modern art. In this study, we examined different hypotheses concerning the quantity and quality of information appreciated in art. Artworks were shown together with auditorily presented statements. We tested whether the amount of information, the amount of matching information, or the proportion of matching to nonmatching statements apparent in a picture (levels of ambiguity) affect liking and interestingness. Only the levels of ambiguity predicted differences in the two dependent variables. These findings reveal that ambiguity is an important determinant of aesthetic appreciation and that a certain level of ambiguity is appreciable. PMID:19565431

Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut

2011-01-01

243

Classification of ambiguous nerve fiber orientations in 3D polarized light imaging.  

PubMed

3D polarized light imaging (3D-PLI) has been shown to measure the orientation of nerve fibers in post mortem human brains at ultra high resolution. The 3D orientation in each voxel is obtained as a pair of angles, the direction angle and the inclination angle with unknown sign. The sign ambiguity is a major problem for the correct interpretation of fiber orientation. Measurements from a tiltable specimen stage, that are highly sensitive to noise, extract information, which allows drawing conclusions about the true inclination sign. In order to reduce noise, we propose a global classification of the inclination sign, which combines measurements with spatial coherence constraints. The problem is formulated as a second order Markov random field and solved efficiently with graph cuts. We evaluate our approach on synthetic and human brain data. The results of global optimization are compared to independent pixel classification with subsequent edge-preserving smoothing. PMID:23285553

Kleiner, Melanie; Axer, Markus; Grässell, David; Reckfort, Julia; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Amunts, Katrin; Dickscheid, Timo

2012-01-01

244

Rocking or rolling--perception of ambiguous motion after returning from space.  

PubMed

The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive an accurate representation of spatial orientation. Adaptive changes during spaceflight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions after return to Earth. The purpose of this study was to compare tilt and translation motion perception in astronauts before and after returning from spaceflight. We hypothesized that these stimuli would be the most ambiguous in the low-frequency range (i.e., at about 0.3 Hz) where the linear acceleration can be interpreted either as a translation or as a tilt relative to gravity. Verbal reports were obtained in eleven astronauts tested using a motion-based tilt-translation device and a variable radius centrifuge before and after flying for two weeks on board the Space Shuttle. Consistent with previous studies, roll tilt perception was overestimated shortly after spaceflight and then recovered with 1-2 days. During dynamic linear acceleration (0.15-0.6 Hz, ±1.7 m/s2) perception of translation was also overestimated immediately after flight. Recovery to baseline was observed after 2 days for lateral translation and 8 days for fore-aft translation. These results suggest that there was a shift in the frequency dynamic of tilt-translation motion perception after adaptation to weightlessness. These results have implications for manual control during landing of a space vehicle after exposure to microgravity, as it will be the case for human asteroid and Mars missions. PMID:25354042

Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J

2014-01-01

245

Identification of ambiguities in the 1994 chronic fatigue syndrome research case definition and recommendations for resolution  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined by symptoms and disability, has no confirmatory physical signs or characteristic laboratory abnormalities, and the etiology and pathophysiology remain unknown. Difficulties with accurate case ascertainment contribute to this ignorance. Methods Experienced investigators from around the world who are involved in CFS research met for a series of three day workshops in 2000, 2001 and 2002 intended to identify the problems in application of the current CFS case definition. The investigators were divided into focus groups and each group was charged with a topic. The investigators in each focus group relied on their own clinical and scientific knowledge, brainstorming within each group and with all investigators when focus group summaries were presented. Relevant literature was selected and reviewed independent of the workshops. The relevant literature was circulated via list-serves and resolved as being relevant by group consensus. Focus group reports were analyzed and compiled into the recommendations presented here. Results Ambiguities in the current CFS research definition that contribute to inconsistent case identification were identified. Recommendations for use of the definition, standardization of classification instruments and study design issues are presented that are intended to improve the precision of case ascertainment. The International CFS Study Group also identified ambiguities associated with exclusionary and comorbid conditions and reviewed the standardized, internationally applicable instruments used to measure symptoms, fatigue intensity and associated disability. Conclusion This paper provides an approach to guide systematic, and hopefully reproducible, application of the current case definition, so that case ascertainment would be more uniform across sites. Ultimately, an operational CFS case definition will need to be based on empirical studies designed to delineate the possibly distinct biological pathways that result in chronic fatigue. PMID:14702202

Reeves, William C; Lloyd, Andrew; Vernon, Suzanne D; Klimas, Nancy; Jason, Leonard A; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Evengard, Birgitta; White, Peter D; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Unger, Elizabeth R

2003-01-01

246

Analysis of Genetic Code Ambiguity Arising from Nematode-Specific Misacylated tRNAs  

PubMed Central

The faithful translation of the genetic code requires the highly accurate aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs). However, it has been shown that nematode-specific V-arm-containing tRNAs (nev-tRNAs) are misacylated with leucine in vitro in a manner that transgresses the genetic code. nev-tRNAGly (CCC) and nev-tRNAIle (UAU), which are the major nev-tRNA isotypes, could theoretically decode the glycine (GGG) codon and isoleucine (AUA) codon as leucine, causing GGG and AUA codon ambiguity in nematode cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the functionality of nev-tRNAs and their impact on the proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the 3’ end regions of the nev-tRNAs showed that they had matured correctly, with the addition of CCA, which is a crucial posttranscriptional modification required for tRNA aminoacylation. The nuclear export of nev-tRNAs was confirmed with an analysis of their subcellular localization. These results show that nev-tRNAs are processed to their mature forms like common tRNAs and are available for translation. However, a whole-cell proteome analysis found no detectable level of nev-tRNA-induced mistranslation in C. elegans cells, suggesting that the genetic code is not ambiguous, at least under normal growth conditions. Our findings indicate that the translational fidelity of the nematode genetic code is strictly maintained, contrary to our expectations, although deviant tRNAs with misacylation properties are highly conserved in the nematode genome. PMID:25602944

Hamashima, Kiyofumi; Mori, Masaru; Andachi, Yoshiki; Tomita, Masaru; Kohara, Yuji; Kanai, Akio

2015-01-01

247

NICE's selective application of differential discounting: ambiguous, inconsistent, and unjustified.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recently recommended differential discounting of costs and health effects in the economic appraisal of health care interventions in certain circumstances. The recommendation was published in an amendment to NICE's Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal. The amendment states that differential discounting should be applied where "treatment effects are both substantial in restoring health and sustained over a very long period (normally at least 30 years)." Renewed interest in differential discounting from NICE is welcome; however, the recommendation's selective application of differential discounting raises a number of concerns. The stated criteria for applying differential discounting are ambiguous. The rationale for the selective application of differential discounting has not been articulated by NICE and is questionable. The selective application of differential discounting leads to several inconsistencies, the most concerning of which is the lower valuation of health gains for those with less than 30 years remaining life expectancy, which can be interpreted as age discrimination. Furthermore, the discount rates chosen by NICE do not appear to be informed by recent advances in the theoretical understanding of differential discounting. NICE's apparent motivation for recommending differential discounting was to ensure a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio for a pediatric oncology drug. While flexibility may be appropriate to allow some interventions that exceed conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds to be adopted, the selective adjustment of appraisal methods is problematic and without justification. PMID:25128041

O'Mahony, James F; Paulden, Mike

2014-07-01

248

When in doubt, seize the day? Security values, prosocial values, and proactivity under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Researchers have suggested that both ambiguity and values play important roles in shaping employees' proactive behaviors, but have not theoretically or empirically integrated these factors. Drawing on theories of situational strength and values, we propose that ambiguity constitutes a weak situation that strengthens the relationship between the content of employees' values and their proactivity. A field study of 204 employees and their direct supervisors in a water treatment plant provided support for this contingency perspective. Ambiguity moderated the relationship between employees' security and prosocial values and supervisor ratings of proactivity. Under high ambiguity, security values predicted lower proactivity, whereas prosocial values predicted higher proactivity. Under low ambiguity, values were not associated with proactivity. We replicated these findings in a laboratory experiment with 232 participants in which we measured proactivity objectively as initiative taken to correct errors: Participants with strong security values were less proactive, and participants with strong prosocial values were more proactive, but only when performance expectations were ambiguous. We discuss theoretical implications for research on proactivity, values, and ambiguity and uncertainty. PMID:23627604

Grant, Adam M; Rothbard, Nancy P

2013-09-01

249

Ordering Ambiguity Revisited via Position Dependent Mass Pseudo-Momentum Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordering ambiguity associated with the von Roos position dependent mass (PDM) Hamiltonian is considered. An affine locally scaled first order differential introduced, in Eq. (9), as a PDM-pseudo-momentum operator. Upon intertwining our Hamiltonian, which is the sum of the square of this operator and the potential function, with the von Roos d-dimensional PDM-Hamiltonian, we observed that the so-called von Roos ambiguity parameters are strictly determined, but not necessarily unique. Our new ambiguity parameters’ setting is subjected to Dutra’s and Almeida’s, Phys. Lett. A. 275 (2000) 25 reliability test and classified as good ordering.

Mustafa, Omar; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

2007-07-01

250

Pipe flow measurements of turbulence and ambiguity using laser-Doppler velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser-Doppler ambiguities predicted by George and Lumley (1973) have been verified experimentally for turbulent pipe flows. Experiments were performed at Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 15,000 at the center line and near the wall. Ambiguity levels were measured from power spectral densities of FM demodulated laser signals and were compared with calculations based on the theory. The turbulent spectra for these water flows after accounting for the ambiguity were equivalent to hot-film measurements at similar Reynolds numbers. The feasibility of laser-Doppler measurements very close to the wall in shear flows is demonstrated.

Berman, N. S.; Dunning, J. W.

1973-01-01

251

Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

2006-01-01

252

Dictator game giving: Rules of fairness versus acts of kindness  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In both dictator and impunity games, one player, the dictator, divides a fixed amount of money between himself and one other,\\u000a the recipient. Recent lab studies of these games have produced seemingly inconsistent results, reporting substantially divergent\\u000a amounts of dictator giving. Also, one prominent explanation for some of these differences, the impact of experimenter observation,\\u000a displayed weak explanatory power

Gary E. Bolton; Elena Katok; Rami Zwick

1998-01-01

253

Design criteria for purposefully ambiguous expression : proposal for a theater / performing arts school in Kenmore Square  

E-print Network

Inclusion of zones which possess sufficient ambiguity to provide multiple use, character and meaning, generating an environment supporting freedom of interpretation and expression, is explored in this thesis. Conceptually, ...

Verhulst, Catharina A

1986-01-01

254

What difference does a robot make? managing ambiguity in distributed knowledge work  

E-print Network

What difference does robotic telepresence make to the management of ambiguity in distributed knowledge work? We examined this question in a post-surgical intensive care where remote medical workers struggled to coordinate ...

Beane, Matthew I. (Matthew Ian)

2014-01-01

255

Interpretation Bias for Ambiguous Social Behavior Among Individuals with High and Low Levels of Social Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether high socially anxious individuals interpret other people’s ambiguous behavior in a more negative\\u000a or threatening manner in comparison to low socially anxious individuals, after controlling for the effects of depression.\\u000a High and low socially anxious participants (N = 31) gave a speech. During the speech, a confederate performed ambiguous behaviors. After the speech, participants were\\u000a asked to answer

Yoshihiro Kanai; Satoko Sasagawa; Junwen Chen; Hironori Shimada; Yuji Sakano

2010-01-01

256

An Automated Ambiguity-Resolution Code for Hinode/SP Vector Magnetic Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast, automated algorithm is presented for use in resolving the 180° ambiguity in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide ambiguity-resolved data for the general user community. Here we generally describe the released code (available at http://www.cora.nwra.com/AMBIG), examples of its performance and usage for Hinode/SP data.

Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Crouch, A.

2009-12-01

257

Predictors of Perceived Ambiguity About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Sociodemographic Factors and Mass Media Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention recommendations reaching the public today are often ambiguous—that is, of uncertain reliability, credibility, or adequacy—yet little is known about the factors that influence public perceptions of this ambiguity. We used data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to explore how sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported mass media exposures relate to

Paul K. J. Han; Richard P. Moser; William M. P. Klein; Ellen Burke Beckjord; Andrea C. Dunlavy; Bradford W. Hesse

2009-01-01

258

Giving Pediatric Immunizations the Priority They Deserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the need for increased federal, state, and local support for child immunizations resulting from the alarming increases in the incidence of rubella and other infectious diseases, and endorses the Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices recently published in the "Journal of the American Medical Association." (MDM)

Shalala, Donna E.

1993-01-01

259

Study Gives Edge to 2 Math Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that two programs for teaching mathematics in the early grades--Math Expressions and Saxon Math--emerged as winners in early findings released last week from a large-scale federal experiment that pits four popular, and philosophically distinct, math curricula against one another. But the results don't promise to end the…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

260

TIPS FOR GIVING A GOOD MBP STUDENT  

E-print Network

303(5920), 767-770 (1983) Breast Cancer Risk · Mammographic screening · Diagnosis and risk assessment confident follow standard format: · Introduction · Hypothesis · Methods · Results · Discussion · Try to make are you trying to add to the big picture · Mention key take-home points Breast Cancer Risk · Lifetime risk

Woodgett, Jim

261

Give Better Feedback on Engineering Drawings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most, if not all, systems have a mechanism that collects information to facilitate monitoring performance. This information is primarily used to modify the system to make it more efficient in performing desired tasks and, thus, attaining desired results. Similar to electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic systems, the feedback mechanism in an…

Cobb, Robert, Jr.; Graham, Tony; Kapur, Arjun; Rhodes, Craig; Blackwell, Ellinor

2005-01-01

262

Resolving the Ambiguity of Volatile Content in the Vestan Regolith through Dielectric Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2011, Dawn entered orbit around 4 Vesta. An evolved and differentiated body, Vesta has been described as more of a proto-planet than an asteroid, and is similar in surface composition and history to the Moon. While differentiated and airless bodies such as these were assumed to have depleted any initial water content, recent missions to the Moon have discovered water at the poles and hydroxyl more generally across the surface. At Vesta, recent results from GRaND suggest a correlation of higher hydrogen concentrations at the regions of dark material on the surface, indicating volatile presence. An interesting topic of concern, therefore, is the form and quantification of this volatile content in regions of dark material at the surface and shallow subsurface of the Vestan regolith. Toward this end, the Dawn bistatic radar experiment, as well as Earth-based radar observations of Vesta, can quantify backscattering properties of the surface through the resulting amplitude, polarimetric and phase change of their radar waves. These waves are primarily affected by surface topography, roughness, and electromagnetic properties that vary with surface composition and geophysical properties. This results in a sensitivity to textural and dielectric variations, which could indicate compositional variation and/or signs of volatile enrichment. However, since surface roughness (textural variation) is poorly constrained, Earth-based radar observations yield large uncertainties when inferring dielectric properties. To address the resulting ambiguity, we model the dielectric properties of the regolith based on two complementary approaches: (1) dielectric laboratory measurement of spectral analogs to the dark material at various frequencies, temperatures, porosities, and dust-to-ice mass ratios; and (2) modeling of the dielectric constant distribution when combined with the inversion of calculated thermal inertia values. From this dielectric model we are able to invert surface roughness, which is then used to reduce ambiguity in dielectric properties inferred through radar observations. This generates a new dielectric model, which can then be used to validate that based on laboratory measurements and thermal inertia.

Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Capria, M.; Asmar, S.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2012-12-01

263

Medical student and junior doctors' tolerance of ambiguity: development of a new scale.  

PubMed

The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a measurement scale for tolerance of ambiguity in medical students and junior doctors that addresses the limitations of existing scales. After defining tolerance of ambiguity, scale items were generated by literature review and expert consultation. Feedback on the draft scale was sought and incorporated. 411 medical students and 75 foundation doctors in Exeter, UK were asked to complete the scale. Psychometric analysis enabled further scale refinement and comparison of scale scores across subgroups. The pilot study achieved a 64 % response rate. The final 29 item version of the Tolerance of Ambiguity in Medical Students and Doctors (TAMSAD) scale had good internal reliability (Cronbach's ? 0.80). Tolerance of ambiguity was higher in foundation year 2 doctors than first, third and fourth year medical students (-5.23, P = 0.012; -5.98, P = 0.013; -4.62, P = 0.035, for each year group respectively). The TAMSAD scale offers a valid and reliable alternative to existing scales. Further work is required in different settings and in longitudinal studies but this study offers intriguing provisional insights. PMID:24841480

Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen

2015-03-01

264

Neural representation of ambiguous visual objects in the inferior temporal cortex.  

PubMed

Inferior temporal (IT) cortex as the final stage of the ventral visual pathway is involved in visual object recognition. In our everyday life we need to recognize visual objects that are degraded by noise. Psychophysical studies have shown that the accuracy and speed of the object recognition decreases as the amount of visual noise increases. However, the neural representation of ambiguous visual objects and the underlying neural mechanisms of such changes in the behavior are not known. Here, by recording the neuronal spiking activity of macaque monkeys' IT we explored the relationship between stimulus ambiguity and the IT neural activity. We found smaller amplitude, later onset, earlier offset and shorter duration of the response as visual ambiguity increased. All of these modulations were gradual and correlated with the level of stimulus ambiguity. We found that while category selectivity of IT neurons decreased with noise, it was preserved for a large extent of visual ambiguity. This noise tolerance for category selectivity in IT was lost at 60% noise level. Interestingly, while the response of the IT neurons to visual stimuli at 60% noise level was significantly larger than their baseline activity and full (100%) noise, it was not category selective anymore. The latter finding shows a neural representation that signals the presence of visual stimulus without signaling what it is. In general these findings, in the context of a drift diffusion model, explain the neural mechanisms of perceptual accuracy and speed changes in the process of recognizing ambiguous objects. PMID:24098569

Emadi, Nazli; Esteky, Hossein

2013-01-01

265

Converging Evidence for the Processing Costs Associated with Ambiguous Quantifier Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Traditional neuroanatomic models of language comprehension have emphasized a core language network situated in peri-Sylvian cortex. More recent evidence appears to extend the neuroanatomic network beyond peri-Sylvian cortex to encompass other aspects of sentence processing. In this study, we evaluate the neuroanatomic basis for processing the ambiguity in doubly-quantified sentences. For example, a sentence like “All the dogs jumped in a lake” can be interpreted with a collective interpretation (e.g., several dogs jumping into a single lake) or a distributive interpretation (e.g., several dogs each jumping into a different lake). In Experiment 1, we used BOLD fMRI to investigate neuroanatomic recruitment by young adults during the interpretation of ambiguous doubly-quantified sentences in a sentence-picture verification task. We observed that young adults exhibited a processing cost associated with interpreting ambiguous sentences and this was related to frontal and parietal cortex recruitment. In Experiment 2, we investigate ambiguous sentence processing with the identical materials in non-aphasic patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) who have frontal cortex disease and executive and decision-making limitations. bvFTD patients are insensitive to ambiguity associated with doubly-quantified sentences, and this is related to the magnitude of their frontal cortex disease. These studies provide converging evidence that cortical regions that extend beyond peri-Sylvian cortex help support the processing costs associated with the interpretation of ambiguous doubly-quantified sentences. PMID:23565102

McMillan, Corey T.; Coleman, Danielle; Clark, Robin; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Gross, Rachel G.; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

266

Elimination of sex difference in direction giving.  

PubMed

Past studies have shown that men provide more cardinal information and mileage estimates than women when describing routes learned from maps. In the current study, we examined whether this sex difference would persist if more legends were added to the maps. The participants looked at maps for 3 min and then wrote down directions from memory. Their usage of cardinal directions, mileage estimates, landmarks, and left-right directions was coded and analyzed. The results showed that men and women used cardinal directions equally for the 4-legend maps, whereas men used more cardinal directions than women for 1-legend maps as shown previously. Our results suggested that subtly drawing attention to cardinal directions successfully eliminated the sex difference in usage, although a different pattern was seen for mileage estimates. The underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23397104

Wan, Xiaoang; Newcombe, Nora S; Fitzhugh, Shannon

2013-05-01

267

Saharan dust gives clues to weather patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on convection over the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa was investigated using satellite measurements of atmospheric temperature and moisture and of dust concentrations in the SAL. Results suggest that dust is not an effective proxy to track the SAL as it moves west and that other tracking techniques are required to track the air mass as it moves far from the continent.

Sun Wong

268

Reducing the ambiguity of karst aquifer models by pattern matching of flow and transport on catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the hydraulic parameters of karst aquifers is a challenge due to their high degree of heterogeneity. The unknown parameter field generally leads to a high ambiguity for flow and transport calibration in numerical models of karst aquifers. In this study, a distributive numerical model was built for the simulation of groundwater flow and solute transport in a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south western Germany. Therefore, an interface for the simulation of solute transport in one-dimensional pipes was implemented into the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the three-dimensional solute transport interface for continuum domains. For reducing model ambiguity, the simulation was matched for steady-state conditions to the hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as the hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyse the influence of the respective geometric and hydraulic parameters and develop a calibration approach in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. Results show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area, but that the combined use of groundwater flow and transport parameters greatly reduces model ambiguity. The approach provides basic information about the conduit network not accessible for direct geometric measurements. The conduit network volume for the main karst spring in the study area could be narrowed down to approximately 100 000 m3.

Oehlmann, S.; Geyer, T.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.

2014-08-01

269

Ambiguity in identification of polar cap F-region patches: contrasting radio and optical observation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon referred to as polar cap F-region patches can be observed by many different techniques, including measurements of the radio wave critical frequency, the 630 nm intensity, the in situ electron density, and radio wave coherent scatter from irregularities on the patches. Consequently, the definition of a patch may be technique-dependent or at least ambiguous. In this study we used a physical model of the ionosphere to study the relationship between ground-based 630 nm intensity and simulated critical frequency measurements of patches. The results show that the 630 nm intensity and NmF2 are not well correlated without a knowledge of hmF2, the peak altitude of the F-layer. In the polar cap the variation of hmF2 could well be +/- 100 km, resulting in variations of a factor of four in 630 nm intensity for a constantNm F2 value. Hence, correlating patches observed in 630 nm with NmF2 requires a detailed knowledge ofhm F2. Ionospheric model simulations have been parameterized such that the model predictions of the 630 nm intensity - NmF2 - hmF2 dependencies are available as an acid in interpreting patch measurements. These results also indicate that the search for neutral atmospheric gravity waves via their effect on 630 nm emissions is even more difficult than anticipated previously.

Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Bowline, M. D.; Crain, D. J.

1997-01-01

270

Giving students the run of sprinting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biomechanical study of sprinting is an interesting task for students who have a background in mechanics and calculus. These students can work with real data and do practical investigations similar to the way sports scientists do research. Student research activities are viable when the students are familiar with tools to collect and work with data from sensors and video recordings and with modeling tools for comparing simulation and experimental results. This article describes a multipurpose system, named COACH, that offers a versatile integrated set of tools for learning, doing, and teaching mathematics and science in a computer-based inquiry approach. Automated tracking of reference points and correction of perspective distortion in videos, state-of-the-art algorithms for data smoothing and numerical differentiation, and graphical system dynamics based modeling are some of the built-in techniques that are suitable for motion analysis. Their implementation and their application in student activities involving models of running are discussed.

Heck, André; Ellermeijer, Ton

2009-11-01

271

Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

272

Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the outburst of Sakurai's Object is the first such blast seen in modern times. Stellar outbursts observed in 1670 and 1918 may have been caused by the same phenomenon. Astronomers expect the Sun to become a white dwarf in about five billion years. A white dwarf is a dense core left after a star's normal, fusion-powered life has ended. A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 10 tons. White dwarfs can have masses up to 1.4 times that of the Sun; larger stars collapse at the end of their lives into even-denser neutron stars or black holes. Computer simulations indicated that heat-spurred convection (or "boiling") would bring hydrogen from the star's outer envelope down into the helium shell, driving a brief flash of new nuclear fusion. This would cause a sudden increase in brightness. The original computer models suggested a sequence of observable events that would occur over a few hundred years. "Sakurai's object went through the first phases of this sequence in just a few years -- 100 times faster than we expected -- so we had to revise our models," Zijlstra said. The revised models predicted that the star should rapidly reheat and begin to ionize gases in its surrounding region. "This is what we now see in our latest VLA observations," Zijlstra said. "It's important to understand this process. Sakurai's Object has ejected a large amount of the carbon from its inner core into space, both in the form of gas and dust grains. These will find their way into regions of space where new stars form, and the dust grains may become incorporated in new planets. Some carbon grains found in a meteorite show isotope ratios identical to those found in Sakurai's Object, and we think they may have come from such an event. Our results suggest this source for cosmic carbon may be far more important than we suspected before," Zijlstra added. The scientists continue to observe Sakurai's Object to take advantage of the rare opportunity to learn about the process of re-ignition. They are making new VLA observations just

2005-04-01

273

Simultaneous determination of disulphide bridge topology and three-dimensional structure using ambiguous intersulphur distance restraints: possibilities and limitations.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the native disulphide bridge topology allows the introduction of conformational restraints between remote parts of the peptide chain. This information is therefore of great importance for the successful determination of the three-dimensional structure of cysteine-rich proteins by NMR spectroscopy. In this paper we investigate the limitations of using ambiguous intersulphur restraints [Nilges, M. (1995) J. Mol. Biol., 245, 645-660] associated with NMR experimental information to determine the native disulphide bridge pattern. Using these restraints in a simulated annealing protocol we have determined the correct topology of numerous examples, including a protein with seven disulphide bridges (phospholipase A2) and a protein in which 25% of the total number of residues are cysteines (mu-conotoxin GIIIB). We have also characterised the behaviour of the method when only limited experimental data is available, and find that the proposed protocol permits disulphide bridge determination even with a small number of restraints (around 5 NOEs--including a long-range restraint--per residue). In addition, we have shown that under these conditions the use of a reduced penalty function allows the identification of misassigned NOE restraints. These results indicate that the use of ambiguous intersulphur distances with the proposed simulated annealing protocol is a general method for the determination of disulphide bridge topology, particularly interesting in the first steps of NMR study of cysteine-rich proteins. Comparison with previously proposed protocols indicates that the presented method is more reliable and the interpretation of results is straightforward. PMID:10805126

Boisbouvier, J; Blackledge, M; Sollier, A; Marion, D

2000-03-01

274

Various Ambiguities in Re-constructing Laser Pulse Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We think that mode lock laser pulses are generated by the summation process that take place between the monochromatic EM filed frequencies as if they interact with each other as shown in equation 1. In reality, the pulse generation is a collaborative interaction process between EM fields and various material medium. When we carry out the actual mode lock analysis, we do take into account of interpaly between all the temporal dynamics of the cavity gain medium, cavity round trip time and the response time of the intra cavity element (saturable absorber, Kerr medium, etc.). that really enforces the locking of the phase of the cavity spontaneous emissions. On a conceptual level, this simplistic representation of the mode locking by Eq.1 ignores all these critical physical processes. When we try to analyze a pulsed field, again we start by representing it very much like this equation, even though we can only detect the square modulus of this complex field and loose a lot of phase related information to the detectors quantum whims and their time constants. The key parameters for a light pulse are as follows. Foremost is the (i) carrier frequency, which cannot be described or imagined without its state of undulation expressed as its (ii) phase. Next is our imagined time finite (iii) carrier envelope that provides the temporal boundary of the field amplitude strength of the undulating E-field. The final parameter is the (iv) state of polarization or the unique plane along which the strength of the E-field gradient undulates. None of these filed characteristics are made self-evident to us by the fields themselves. We do not see light. Light does not see light. Light beams pass through each other without altering each others energy distribution unless there are interacting material molecules (dipoles) within the physical volume of superposition of the beams. In contrast, we can sense the material particles. Material particles sense each other and they cannot pass through each other without interacting with (scattering from) each other. Thus the interpretation of the superposition phenomenon of multiple fields on detectors should not be lumped under the mysterious "wave-particle duality" philosophy. The phenomenon of superposition can be understood better when we focus on the actual process experienced by the detecting dipoles when allowed by QM rules, they respond to and sum all the induced stimulations due to all the superposed fields followed by the proportionate energy absorption giving rise to the fringes we observe. We will present various experimental results to illustrate our arguments. Our position is that such detector behavior driven interpretations rather than the generally implied field-field interaction driven explanations, will help us better understand the ultimate nature of light and hence invent better and newer devices and instruments.

Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Prasa, Narasimha

2006-01-01

275

Reduction of the ambiguity of karst aquifer modeling through pattern matching of groundwater flow and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributive numerical simulations are an effective, process-based method for predicting groundwater resources and quality. They are based on conceptual hydrogeological models that characterize the properties of the catchment area and aquifer. Karst systems play an important role in water supply worldwide. Conceptual models are however difficult to build because of the highly developed heterogeneity of the systems. The geometry and properties of highly conductive karst conduits are generally unknown and difficult to characterize with field experiments. Due to these uncertainties numerical models of karst areas usually cannot simulate the hydraulic head distribution in the area, spring discharge and tracer breakthrough curves simultaneously on catchment scale. Especially in complex hydrogeological systems, this approach would reduce model ambiguity, which is prerequisite to predict groundwater resources and pollution risks. In this work, a distributive numerical groundwater flow and transport model was built for a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south-western Germany. For this aim, a solute transport interface for one-dimensional pipes was implemented in the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the standard three-dimensional solute transport interface for domains. The model was calibrated and hydraulic parameters could be obtained. The simulation was matched to the steady-state hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyze their influence in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. Results show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area to be employed as a prognostic tool but that the combined use of groundwater flow and transport parameters greatly reduces model ambiguity. The approach provides basic information about the conduit network not accessible for direct geometric measurements. The conduit network volume for the main karst spring in the study area could be narrowed down to approximately 100 000 m3, even though standard tracer test evaluations predicted a volume of up to 200 000 m3.

Oehlmann, Sandra; Geyer, Tobias; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

2014-05-01

276

"How about giving my things away over the Internet?" When Internet makes it easier to give things away  

E-print Network

1 "How about giving my things away over the Internet?" When Internet makes it easier to give things Away Over the Internet? When the Internet Makes It Easier to Give Things Away", in NA - Advances of Management, France [ to cite ]: Valérie Guillard and Céline Del Bucchia (2012) ,"How About Giving My Things

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Rate-gyro-integral constraint for ambiguity resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.  

PubMed

In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of ambiguity resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS ambiguity resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the ambiguity search stage. The ambiguity search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations. PMID:23793044

Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping

2013-01-01

278

Children's and adults' on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences during reading.  

PubMed

While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children's syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults' syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, 'The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage' in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, 'I think I'll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It's really nice' in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children. PMID:23349807

Joseph, Holly S S L; Liversedge, Simon P

2013-01-01

279

Ambiguity and judgments of obese individuals: no news could be bad news.  

PubMed

Stigmatization towards obese individuals has not decreased despite the increasing prevalence of obesity. Nonetheless, stigmatization remains difficult to study, given concerns about social desirability. To address this issue, this study used paired comparisons and cluster analysis to examine how undergraduates (n=189) categorized scenarios describing the health-related behaviors of obese individuals. The cluster analysis found that the scenarios were categorized into two distinct clusters. The first cluster included all scenarios with health behaviors indicating high responsibility for body weight. These individuals were perceived as unattractive, lazy, less likeable, less disciplined, and more deserving of their condition compared to individuals in the second cluster, which included all scenarios with health behaviors indicating low responsibility for body weight. Four scenarios depicted obese individuals with ambiguous information regarding health behaviors; three out of these four individuals were categorized in the high-responsibility cluster. These findings suggested that participants viewed these individuals as negatively as those who were responsible for their condition. These results have practical implications for reducing obesity bias, as the etiology of obesity is typically not known in real-life situations. PMID:19665097

Ross, Kathryn M; Shivy, Victoria A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

2009-08-01

280

Ejecta deposit thickness, heat flow, and a critical ambiguity on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo lunar heat flow measurements gave values of 21 and 16 mW m-2 which, after extrapolation based on thorium abundances, yields a global estimate of 18 mW m-2. A refinement of the assumptions of the subsurface structure and the resulting focusing of heat flux later led to a revision of the global value to 12 mW m-2. We think that to date none of the models linking the Apollo heat flow measurements has sufficiently highlighted a critical source of ambiguity. Little attention has been paid to the full magnitude of the uncertainty in these measurements caused by near-surface Thorium abundances and the local thickness of the ejecta blanket generated by the Imbrium impact. In a simple study we show that lunar heat flow is contingent upon the thickness of the ejecta blanket of the hypothetical impact. A model with an exponential decrease of Th concentration with depth can explain the difference in surface heat flow between the Apollo 15 and the Apollo 17 measurements. A constant Thorium concentration within the ejecta layer amplifies this effect. The variation in local surface Th abundance, if taken as representative of the subsurface Th distribution within the ejecta blanket, amplifies the uncertainty. We conclude that further measurements are essential for making well-founded statements about the subsurface abundance of radioactive elements, mantle heat flux and the thermal state of the Moon.

Hagermann, A.; Tanaka, S.

2006-10-01

281

Ambiguous decoding of the CUG codon alters the functionality of the Candida albicans translation initiation factor 4E.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E is an essential and highly conserved protein. As a part of the translational machinery, it plays a key role in the recruitment of mRNA via binding to its m(7)GpppN 5' terminal cap structure. The opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans is the only known eukaryotic organism with the ability to survive defects in mRNA capping, which suggests unique features of its eIF4E protein. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence of the function of the C. albicans putative gene orf19.7626 as an eIF4E protein. We also show that Ca4E(Leu116) and Ca4E(Ser116) protein variants, both of which occur naturally in C. albicans due to the ambiguous decoding of the CUG(116) codon, display different sensitivities to elevated temperature. Our results clearly point to the importance of the S4-H4 loop for the function of the Ca4E translation initiation factor, and suggest the possible regulatory role of the codon-reading ambiguity within this loop in C. albicans. We proved Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a useful tool organism for studies of C. albicans translation initiation apparatus. PMID:20491942

Feketová, Zuzana; Masek, Tomás; Vopálenský, Václav; Pospísek, Martin

2010-08-01

282

World War I Soldier Gives New Clues to Fighting Dysentery  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. World War I Soldier Gives New Clues to Fighting Dysentery Sample of bacterium that ... War I soldier is giving today's scientists important new insights into the gastrointestinal disease. Researchers focused on ...

283

Miniature interferometer terminals for earth surveying - Ambiguity and multipath with global positioning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that if the integer-cycle ambiguities of the interferometric phase observations can be correctly resolved, the baseline vector extending from the antenna of one terminal to that of another should be determinable with uncertainty much smaller than the 19-cm wavelength of the global positioning system (GPS) transmissions. A method of ambiguity resolution is proposed that is suitable for observations made with antennas of low directive gain. Although such antennas are compact, the feasibility of their use has been questioned because observations with them are susceptible to multipath interference. For short-baseline interferometric observations of GPS the method proposed is shown to yield correct ambiguity resolution despite severe multipath interference and significant sky blockage, even when instability of the frequency standards governing the separate receiving terminals limits the time span of coherent integration to five minutes.

Counselman, C. C.; Gourevitch, S. A.

1981-10-01

284

Novel ambiguities in the Seiberg-Witten map and the emergent gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A homogeneous part of the Seiberg-Witten gauge equivalence relation for gauge fields can lead to solutions that involve matter fields in such a way that the gauge equivalence and the dimensional and index structures are preserved. In particular, we consider scalar fields coupled to U(1) gauge fields. The matter fields appear non-linearly in the map. As an application, we analyze the implication of this ambiguity to emergent gravity at the first order in noncommutative parameter and show that the new ambiguity restores the possibility of conformal coupling of real scalar density field that is coupled non-minimally to the emergent gravity induced by gauge fields — a possibility that is strictly not allowed if we consider only the already known ambiguity in the Seiberg-Witten map.

Muthukumar, B.

2015-01-01

285

Ambiguous Figures – What Happens in the Brain When Perception Changes But Not the Stimulus  

PubMed Central

During observation of ambiguous figures our perception reverses spontaneously although the visual information stays unchanged. Research on this phenomenon so far suffered from the difficulty to determine the instant of the endogenous reversals with sufficient temporal precision. A novel experimental paradigm with discontinuous stimulus presentation improved on previous temporal estimates of the reversal event by a factor of three. It revealed that disambiguation of ambiguous visual information takes roughly 50?ms or two loops of recurrent neural activity. Further, the decision about the perceptual outcome has taken place at least 340?ms before the observer is able to indicate the consciously perceived reversal manually. We provide a short review about physiological studies on multistable perception with a focus on electrophysiological data. We further present a new perspective on multistable perception that can easily integrate previous apparently contradicting explanatory approaches. Finally we propose possible extensions toward other research fields where ambiguous figure perception may be useful as an investigative tool. PMID:22461773

Kornmeier, Jürgen; Bach, Michael

2011-01-01

286

Human otolith-ocular reflexes during off-vertical axis rotation: effect of frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity and motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to examine how the modulation of tilt and translation otolith-ocular responses during constant velocity off-vertical axis rotation varies as a function of stimulus frequency. Eighteen human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 30 degrees off-vertical at stimulus frequencies between 0.05 and 0.8 Hz. The modulation of torsion decreased while the modulation of horizontal slow phase velocity (SPV) increased with increasing frequency. It is inferred that the ambiguity of otolith afferent information is greatest in the frequency region where tilt (torsion) and translational (horizontal SPV) otolith-ocular responses crossover. It is postulated that the previously demonstrated peak in motion sickness susceptibility during linear accelerations around 0.3 Hz is the result of frequency segregation of ambiguous otolith information being inadequate to distinguish between tilt and translation.

Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

287

Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up  

MedlinePLUS

Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Exercise > Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up Print ... celebrate. It gives you the confidence, courage, and motivation to keep running — or doing whatever it is ...

288

Efficient decomposition of cosmic microwave background polarization maps into pure E, pure B, and ambiguous components  

SciTech Connect

Separation of the B component of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization map from the much larger E component is an essential step in CMB polarimetry. For a map with incomplete sky coverage, this separation is necessarily hampered by the presence of ambiguous modes which could be either E or B modes. I present an efficient pixel-space algorithm for removing the ambiguous modes and separating the map into pure E and B components. The method, which works for arbitrary geometries, does not involve generating a complete basis of such modes and scales the cube of the number of pixels on the boundary of the map.

Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States)

2011-04-15

289

Fence - An Efficient Parser with Ambiguity Support for Model-Driven Language Specification  

E-print Network

Model-based language specification has applications in the implementation of language processors, the design of domain-specific languages, model-driven software development, data integration, text mining, natural language processing, and corpus-based induction of models. Model-based language specification decouples language design from language processing and, unlike traditional grammar-driven approaches, which constrain language designers to specific kinds of grammars, it needs general parser generators able to deal with ambiguities. In this paper, we propose Fence, an efficient bottom-up parsing algorithm with lexical and syntactic ambiguity support that enables the use of model-based language specification in practice.

Quesada, Luis; Cortijo, Francisco J

2011-01-01

290

On the renormalization group ambiguity of perturbative QCD for R( s) in e+e- annihilation and R? in ?-decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The O( ?s3) perturbative QCD result for R( s) in e+e- annihilation is given with explicit dependence on the scale parameter. We apply the three known approaches for resolving the scheme-scale ambiguity and we fix the scale for which all of the criteria tested are satisfied. We find the four-loop R( s) within the new scheme with flavor independent perturbative coefficients: R(s)=3 limit?fQ 2f1+ {? s}/{?}+ {1}/{12}{? s}/{?}2- {? s}/{?}3 (162±05) +O(? 4s) . We find a remarkable cancellation of the Riemann ?-functions at the 3-loop level. The theoretical uncertainty of the QCD effect in R( s) is estimated at 4%. The results of the analysis of R? in ?-decay are presented.

Surguladze, Levan R.; Samuel, Mark A.

1993-07-01

291

Giving back: activist research with undocumented migrants in berlin.  

PubMed

In this article, I draw on my doctoral field work in Berlin (2008-2010), on the illness experiences of undocumented Latin American labor migrants, and on my work as an activist for the Berlin-based nongovernmental organization Medibüro, an anti-racist migrant health organization. I highlight how my attempts to 'give back,' and the various forms of engagements and commitments that resulted from it, shaped my relationships with actors in the field, the data I gathered, and the analytical framework I employed. I offer solutions on how to address these (unintended) effects of activism, and highlight the unique potential of activist research in regard to the forms of data available to the researcher and in gaining and retaining field access. By probing into some of its concrete methodological and analytical implications, I explore how to do activist research. PMID:25084824

Huschke, Susann

2015-01-01

292

Neural Predictors of Giving in to Temptation in Daily Life.  

PubMed

The ability to control desires, whether for food, sex, or drugs, enables people to function successfully within society. Yet, in tempting situations, strong impulses often result in self-control failure. Although many triggers of self-control failure have been identified, the question remains as to why some individuals are more likely than others to give in to temptation. In this study, we combined functional neuroimaging and experience sampling to determine if there are brain markers that predict whether people act on their food desires in daily life. We examined food-cue-related activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), as well as activity associated with response inhibition in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Greater NAcc activity was associated with greater likelihood of self-control failures, whereas IFG activity supported successful resistance to temptations. These findings demonstrate an important role for the neural mechanisms underlying desire and self-control in people's real-world experiences of temptations. PMID:24789842

Lopez, Richard B; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wagner, Dylan D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

2014-04-30

293

Replace-approximation method for ambiguous solutions in factor analysis of ultrasonic hepatic perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factor analysis is an efficient technique to the analysis of dynamic structures in medical image sequences and recently has been used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of hepatic perfusion. Time-intensity curves (TICs) extracted by factor analysis can provide much more diagnostic information for radiologists and improve the diagnostic rate of focal liver lesions (FLLs). However, one of the major drawbacks of factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is nonuniqueness of the result when only the non-negativity criterion is used. In this paper, we propose a new method of replace-approximation based on apex-seeking for ambiguous FADS solutions. Due to a partial overlap of different structures, factor curves are assumed to be approximately replaced by the curves existing in medical image sequences. Therefore, how to find optimal curves is the key point of the technique. No matter how many structures are assumed, our method always starts to seek apexes from one-dimensional space where the original high-dimensional data is mapped. By finding two stable apexes from one dimensional space, the method can ascertain the third one. The process can be continued until all structures are found. This technique were tested on two phantoms of blood perfusion and compared to the two variants of apex-seeking method. The results showed that the technique outperformed two variants in comparison of region of interest measurements from phantom data. It can be applied to the estimation of TICs derived from CEUS images and separation of different physiological regions in hepatic perfusion.

Zhang, Ji; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming; Hou, Wenguang; Ye, Huashan; Qiu, Wu

2010-03-01

294

Why is "that"? Structural Prediction and Ambiguity Resolution in a Very Large Corpus of English Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous psycholinguistic research has shown that a variety of contextual factors can influence the interpretation of syntactically ambiguous structures, but psycholinguistic experimentation inherently does not allow for the investigation of the role that these factors play in natural (uncontrolled) language use. We use regression modeling in…

Roland, Douglas; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Ferreira, Victor S.

2006-01-01

295

Using Semantic Ambiguity Instruction to Improve Third Graders' Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Comprehension: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment examined whether metalinguistic awareness involving the detection of semantic ambiguity can be taught, and whether this instruction improves students' reading comprehension. Lower SES third graders from a variety of cultural backgrounds (M = 8 yr. 7 mo., N = 46) were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Those receiving…

Zipke, Marcy; Ehri, Linnea C.; Cairns, Helen Smith

2009-01-01

296

The Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in Native and Near-Native Mexican Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-paced reading study first tested the prediction that the garden path effect previously observed during the processing of subject-object ambiguities in native English would not obtain in a null subject language like Spanish. The investigation then further explored whether the effect would be evident among near-native readers of Spanish…

Jegerski, Jill

2012-01-01

297

Interpretation of Ambiguous Interoceptive Stimuli in Panic Disorder and Nonclinical Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive bias in the misinterpretation of ambiguous interoceptive stimuli has been demonstrated in panic disorder. This study investigated whether this cognitive bias also occurs in people with nonclinical panic who are at risk of developing panic disorder. The responses of 25 people with nonclinical panic were compared to those of 20 people with panic disorder and 69 nonpanic controls on

Jeffrey C. Richards; David W. Austin; Marlies E. Alvarenga

2001-01-01

298

(E)pistemological Awareness, Instantiation of Methods, and Uninformed Methodological Ambiguity in Qualitative Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores epistemological awareness and instantiation of methods, as well as uninformed ambiguity, in qualitative methodological decision making and research reporting. The authors argue that efforts should be made to make the research process, epistemologies, values, methodological decision points, and argumentative logic open,…

Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Smith, Jason Jude; Hayes, Sharon B.

2009-01-01

299

Perirhinal Cortex Resolves Feature Ambiguity in Configural Object Recognition and Perceptual Oddity Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perirhinal cortex (PRh) has a well-established role in object recognition memory. More recent studies suggest that PRh is also important for two-choice visual discrimination tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that PRh contains conjunctive representations that help resolve feature ambiguity, which occurs when a task cannot easily be…

Bartko, Susan J.; Winters, Boyer D.; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

300

Sex Bias in Evaluations: Effects of Ambiguity, Job Sex-Type, and Rater Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although partially caused by sex differences in aspirations and qualifications, the underrepresentation of women in professional and managerial positions also reflects the persistence of sex discrimination at the entry level. Discrimination against women applying for traditionally male jobs seems to increase with ambiguity about the fit between…

Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor; Husted, Victoria L.

301

Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

2013-01-01

302

Reactions to Job Content Plateaus: Examining Role Ambiguity and Hierarchical Plateaus as Moderators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plateauing research often reveals a negative relationship between job content plateauing (i.e., lacking challenge in one's job) and work attitudes. This study explores situations where job content plateauing is associated with fewer negative work attitudes, revealing role ambiguity (i.e., being unclear about job duties and responsibilities) and…

McCleese, Carrie S.; Eby, Lillian T.

2006-01-01

303

Embedded Promotions in Online Services: How Goal-Relevance Ambiguity Shapes Response and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance ambiguity on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study…

Brasel, S. Adam

2010-01-01

304

Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents and Ambiguous Discrimination: The Role of Cognitive Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive appraisal has been shown to mediate the relationship between stressors and internalizing symptoms, but not among newcomer immigrant youth facing ambiguous discrimination. Using a mixed-methods design with a sample of newcomer adolescents from African, Arab, Asian, Caribbean, European, and Latin American countries, this study measured the…

Patel, Sita G.; Tabb, Kevin M.; Strambler, Michael J.; Eltareb, Fazia

2015-01-01

305

Capstone and Building Block: Helping Students Manage Ambiguity about their Futures through Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encouraging students to engage with principles and ideas is one way to address ambiguity with consistent, effective approaches in situations made up of "gray area." This includes the looming post-college world where students may be unsure about choosing between job offers, geographic locations, or even communication fields. Such…

Love, Brad; Mackert, Michael

2013-01-01

306

Making space for stories: ambiguity in the design of personal communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive personal communication technologies offer the potential for important social benefits for individual users, but also the potential for significant social difficulties and costs. In research on face-to-face social interaction, ambiguity is often identified as an important resource for resolving social difficulties. In this paper, we discuss two design cases of personal communication systems, one based on fieldwork of a

Paul M. Aoki; Allison Woodruff

2005-01-01

307

Preferences for Travel Time under Risk and Ambiguity: Implications in Path Selection and Network Equilibrium  

E-print Network

Preferences for Travel Time under Risk and Ambiguity: Implications in Path Selection and Network. In evaluating an uncertain travel time, we explicitly distinguish between risk, where probability distribution-aware CARA travel time (ACT) for evaluat- ing uncertain travel time under various attitudes of risk

Sun, Defeng

308

Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying: Ambiguity And Multipath with Global Positioning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent launching of several satellites of the global positioning system (GPS), a variety of schemes based on radio interferometry have been proposed for the accurate determination of relative positions of receiving terminals on the ground. Provided that the integer-cycle ambiguities of the interferometric phase observations can be correctly resolved, the baseline vector extending from the antenna of one

Charles C. Counselman; Sergei A. Gourevitch

1981-01-01

309

Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

1999-10-26

310

When Does the Brain Distinguish between Genuine and Ambiguous Smiles? An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the processing time course of ambiguous facial expressions with a smiling mouth but neutral, fearful, or angry eyes, in comparison with genuinely happy faces (a smile and happy eyes) and non-happy faces (neutral, fearful, or angry mouth and eyes). Participants judged whether the faces…

Calvo, Manuel G.; Marrero, Hipolito; Beltran, David

2013-01-01

311

Ambiguous Figure Perception and Theory of Mind Understanding in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in early social-cognition have found that the ability to reverse an ambiguous figure is correlated with success on theory of mind tasks (e.g. Gopnik & Rosati, 2001). The present experiment examined children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental delay to see whether a similar relationship existed. Ropar, Mitchell, and…

Sobel, David M.; Capps, Lisa M.; Gopnik, Alison

2005-01-01

312

Racial and Behavioral Cues in Black and White Children's Perceptions of Ambiguously Aggressive Acts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black and White preadolescents rated ambiguously aggressive behaviors (AABs) as more mean and threatening when perpetrators were Black. Ratings of personal characteristics were generally determined by individual behavior, not by stereotypes. Blacks were rated as stronger than Whites. Whites tended to read threat into AABs and assume perpetrators…

Sagar, H. Andrew; Schofield, Janet Ward

1980-01-01

313

Linear frequency-modulated signal detection using Radon-ambiguity transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel time-frequency technique for linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal detection is proposed. The design of the proposed detectors is based on the Radon transform of the modulus square or the envelope amplitude of the ambiguity function (AF) of the signal. A practical assumption is made that the chirp rate is the only parameter of interest. Since the AF of

Minsheng Wang; Andrew K. Chan; Charles K. Chui

1998-01-01

314

MULTIPLE FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS BY LOCATING AMBIGUITY GROUPS OF TEST EQUATION  

E-print Network

MULTIPLE FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS BY LOCATING AMBIGUITY GROUPS OF TEST EQUATION J. A circuit. 1. INTRODUCTION Fault diagnosis is an important problem of analog circuit testing. Due circuits such as component tolerance and nonlinearity, the automation level of analog fault diagnosis has

Starzyk, Janusz A.

315

Interpretation of Ambiguous Situations: Evidence for a Dissociation between Social and Physical Threat in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with an unusual profile of anxiety, characterised by increased rates of non-social anxiety but not social anxiety (Dodd and Porter, J Ment Health Res Intellect Disabil 2(2):89-109, "2009"). The present research examines whether this profile of anxiety is associated with an interpretation bias for ambiguous

Dodd, Helen F.; Porter, Melanie A.

2011-01-01

316

Large Group Intervention to Encourage Dialogue Between Directors and Workers in the Context of Organizational Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the postmodern era the entire sphere of employment is undergoing changes that create feelings of ambiguity. These changes are reflected in the use of defense mechanisms such as splits between management and employees, and alienation and dissociation. Occupational social workers are also experiencing insecurity. Although their function is to assist individuals and the organization during crises, they are not

Orit Nuttman-Shwartz; Sarit Shay

2000-01-01

317

Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

2008-01-01

318

DIVERSE RADAR PULSE-TRAIN WITH FAVOURABLE AUTOCORRELATION AND AMBIGUITY E. Mozeson and N. Levanon  

E-print Network

DIVERSE RADAR PULSE-TRAIN WITH FAVOURABLE AUTOCORRELATION AND AMBIGUITY FUNCTIONS E. Mozeson and N radar signal, mainly due to its good range and Doppler resolution. One of its drawbacks fundamental limitations on the ability of any radar waveform of constrained time-bandwidth product

Levanon, Nadav

319

Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity: A Critical Assessment of Construct Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article appraises the construct validity of role conflict and role ambiguity in organizational psychology research by tracing the process of validation from initial theory introduction to the present. Although the theoretical bases for the constructs were relatively well explicated, some conceptual shortcomings have carried over into empirical work. There are problems with the content validity of measures, a lack

Lynda A. King; Daniel W. King

1990-01-01

320

On the ideology of hypodescent: Political conservatism predicts categorization of racially ambiguous faces as Black  

E-print Network

Reports On the ideology of hypodescent: Political conservatism predicts categorization of racially T S · We examined the relation between political ideology and racial categorization. · People categorized with the tendency to categorize racially ambiguous faces as Black. · Relation between ideology and categorization

321

LIFG-Based Attentional Control and the Resolution of Lexical Ambiguities in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively…

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2011-01-01

322

Gauge ambiguities in ,,e,e N... reactions James J. Kelly  

E-print Network

of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 Received 4 June 1997 We examine the sensitivity of the distorted-wave impulse approximation for single-nucleon electromagnetic knockout from valence orbitals to ambiguities may be found in Refs. 1­5 . The plane-wave impulse approximation PWIA provides a physically appealing

Maryland at College Park, University of

323

Eye Movements and Spoken Language Comprehension: Effects of Visual Context on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When participants follow spoken instructions to pick up and move objects in a visual workspace, their eye movements to the objects are closely time-locked to referential expressions in the instructions. Two experiments used this methodology to investigate the processing of the temporary ambiguities that arise because spoken language unfolds over…

Spivey, Michael J.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Eberhard, Kathleen M.; Sedivy, Julie C.

2002-01-01

324

Learning from Ambiguously Labeled Images Timothee Cour Ben Sapp Chris Jordan Ben Taskar  

E-print Network

-convexdiscrete Multiclass Classification Scheme Ambiguity network in Season 1 of LOST We can minimize true 0-1 loss based on refusal-to-predict scheme (most confident predictions) errorratefornaming improved cues: gender classification and mouth motion/dialog co- occurrence to further constrain label sets. For example, we use gender

Plotkin, Joshua B.

325

Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

2010-01-01

326

Confronting Ambiguity, Anarchy, and Crisis in Institutional Research: Using Student Unit Record Databases in Extra-Institutional Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world of policymaking on the campuses of colleges and universities is messy, ambiguous, and contested. In this complex environment, which Kingdon (2003) has aptly called a "policy soup," the role of institutional research is often not only to provide answers to existing policy questions but to produce information to help transform ambiguity

Musoba, Glenda D.; Gross, Jacob P. K.; Hossler, Don

2008-01-01

327

A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Working Memory and Implicit Prosody in the Resolution of Adjunct Attachment Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An eye-movement monitoring experiment investigated readers' response to temporarily ambiguous sentences. The sentences were ambiguous because a relative clause could attach to one of two preceding nouns. Semantic information disambiguated the sentences. Working memory considerations predict an overall preference for the second of the two nouns, as…

Traxler, Matthew J.

2009-01-01

328

Photometric study to understand the ambiguity between accretion and chromospheric activity present in low-mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a photometric study of a sample of pre-main sequence and TTauri stars in a spectral range between G-K and some early M of masses from 0.5 to 3 M_?, in associations near the Sun (20-200 pc). We measured the excess of the UV band and found that for stars of spectral type early M and late K, the UV band increases considerably. There are two possible scenarios for such an increase: (1) Chromospheric activity, because the stars have radiative and convective cores, giving rise to magnetic activity which generates this excess present in the continuum and (2) the processes of accretion present in stars that have a disk of gas and dust, which they accrete to them by means of the magnetic lines field. Because of the ambiguity in the two effects (since they affect the same emission lines) it is difficult to distinguish which dominates. We propose that an excess of 0.2 magnitudes in the U band for our sample allows us to determine if both processes are at work, or if chromospheric activity dominates, since accretion stops at a very early age, 10 million years.

Restrepo, O. A.

2014-06-01

329

Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schrödinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering, we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and is also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

Chithiika Ruby, V.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

2015-01-01

330

Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schr$\\"{o}$dinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and are also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Li$\\'{e}$nard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

V. Chithiika Ruby; V. K. Chandrasekar; M Senthilvelan; M. Lakshmanan

2014-11-26

331

Lower Oil Prices: A Reason to Give Thanks GENE EPSTEIN  

E-print Network

Lower Oil Prices: A Reason to Give Thanks By GENE EPSTEIN Nov. 29, 2014 1:31 a.m. ET I give thanks thanks for an oil price that fell below $70 a barrel Friday, mainly because it bodes well for general early this year ("Here Comes $75 Oil," March 31). Amy Jaffe, executive director of energy

California at Davis, University of

332

Giving Tree Teachers: Women and the National Board Certification Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shel Silverstein's children's book "The Giving Tree" imparts a useful metaphor for thinking about the role of teachers--women teachers in particular. The book's namesake is the epitome of altruism, providing branches, fruit, and even her trunk so that her beloved boy might have what he desires. And so it goes for women; endless giving, nurturing,…

Johnson, Tara Star; Bruce, Mary; Graham, Peg; Oliver, Steve; Oppong, Nicholas; Park, Soonhye; Mansberger, Dorann

2005-01-01

333

A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to interview 4…

Deal, Belinda

2010-01-01

334

book review Mark Richard, When Truth Gives Out  

E-print Network

book review Mark Richard, When Truth Gives Out Oxford University Press (2008), 184 pages by Isidora Stojanovic Institut Jean Nicod - CNRS-ENS-EHESS Richard's When Truth Gives Out, written in an engaging and accessible style, develops around the idea that the notion of truth, contrary to a lot of received wisdom

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

CASE Planned Giving Ideas. The Best of CASE CURRENTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected are articles by planned giving (deferred giving) experts on institutional commitment, policies, and programs to encourage various types of gifts to higher education institutions: bequests, unitrusts, annuity trusts, charitable income trusts (lead trusts), pooled income funds, gifts of land and so on. A major article covers how to hire…

Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Garigan, Catherine S., Ed.

336

Enduring Ambiguity: Sunni Community–Syrian Regime Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper's central thesis is that authoritarian regimes can benefit from the presence of domestic (Sunni) civil activism; through a social dynamic that creates an incentive for Sunni activists to actively approach regime actors. The article poses that they thereby imply a subservience to the regime and ascribe authority to it. This dynamic is a result of a social convention

Teije Hidde Donker

2010-01-01

337

Resolving lexical ambiguity computationally with spreading activation and Polaroid Words  

E-print Network

too inflexible, and are in conflict with the experimental results mentioned above. ¯ Resolution respect for psychological reality as a design strategy (and not as an end in itself), the resolu- tion, Absity constructs a semantic object to correspond to that structure, using the semantic objects

Stevenson, Suzanne

338

Bounded Rationality, Ambiguity, and the Engineering of Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational choice involves two guesses, a guess about uncertain future consequences and a guess about uncertain future preferences. Partly as a result of behavioral studies of choice over a twenty-year period, modifications in the way the theory deals with the first guess have become organized into conceptions of bounded rationality. Recently behavioral studies of choice have examined the second guess,

James G. March

1978-01-01

339

Regularization Ambiguity Problem for the Chern-Simons Shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Chern-Simons parameter shift with the hybrid regularization consisting of the higher covariant derivative (HCD) and the Pauli-Villars (PV) regulators. We show that the shift is closely related to the parity of the regulators and get the shift and no-shift results by a suitable choice of the PV regulators. A naive treatment of the HCD term leads to incorrect value of the shift.

Nittoh, Koh-Ichi; Ebihara, Toru

340

Small wins matter in advocacy movements: giving voice to patients.  

PubMed

In this article, the various players are delineated in a story of a contested illness and patient advocacy, played out within the corridors of federal power. It is suggested that the mistreatment and negative attitudes that health care providers and others have towards those with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is possibly due to the social construction of this illness as being a "Yuppie flu" disease. Institutional factors are identified that created these norms and attributions, as well as the multiple stakeholders and constituent groups invested in exerting pressure on policy makers to effect systemic change. This article also provides examples of how the field of Community Psychology, which is fundamentally committed to/based on listening to and giving voice to patients, is broadly relevant to patient activism communities. This approach focused, over time, on epidemiological studies, the name, the case definition, and ultimately the change in CFS leadership at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Keys to this "small wins" approach were coalition building, use of "oppositional experts" (professionals in the scientific community who support patient advocacy goals) to challenge federal research, and taking advantage of developing events/shifts in power. Ultimately, this approach can result in significant scientific and policy gains, and changes in medical and public perception of an illness. PMID:21858612

Jason, Leonard A

2012-06-01

341

Chocolate and migraine: the history of an ambiguous association.  

PubMed

Migraine is a highly prevalent condition and an important cause of disability. Although the pathogenesis of this condition is complex and multifaceted, several environmental factors have been associated with development and aggravation of headache attacks. Among the various foods that have been implicated in migraine, chocolate has been regarded as detrimental on the basis of old and mostly anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this article is aimed to provide an overview on the current scientific evidence about the relationship between chocolate and migraine. Taken together, the information gathered from epidemiological and provocative studies attests that the potential causal association between chocolate and migraine remains largely enigmatic. The analysis of epidemiological surveys reveals a highly heterogeneous picture, with frequency of migraine episodes attributable to chocolate ranging from 0 to 22.5%. Even in those studies reporting a more convincing association, the risk of migraine after chocolate ingestion was found to be 2- to 3-fold lower than that reported for exposure to other conventional triggers such as stress, fasting, lack of sleep and alcohol beverages. The results of the double-blind studies are instead unequivocal, and clearly demonstrate that the risk of developing a headache attack after ingestion of chocolate is as likely as administering placebo in patients with migraine. It can hence be concluded that the widespread belief that chocolate and cocoacontaining foods should be absolutely avoided by migraine patients lacks of a reliable scientific basis. PMID:25567457

Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

2014-01-01

342

Marine Creatures and the Sea in Bronze Age Greece: Ambiguities of Meaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like most cultures, prehistoric Greek communities had an ambiguous relationship with the sea and the creatures that inhabit it. Positive and negative associations always co-existed, though the particular manifestations changed over time. By drawing together evidence of consumption of marine animals, seafaring, fishing, and iconography, this article unites disparate strands of evidence in an attempt to illuminate the relationship prehistoric Greeks had with marine creatures and the sea. Based on the marked reduction in seafood consumption after the Mesolithic and the use of marine creatures in funerary iconography in the post-palatial period, it becomes apparent that the sea—then as now—is an inherently ambiguous medium that captures both positive and negative emotions. On the one hand, the sea and the animals residing in it are strongly associated with death. On the other hand, the sea's positive dimensions, such as fertility and rebirth, are expressed in conspicuous marine consumption events.

Berg, Ina

2013-06-01

343

Adaptation to different mouth shapes influences visual perception of ambiguous lip speech.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of adaptation to mouth shapes associated with different spoken sounds (sustained /m/ or /u/) on visual perception of lip speech. Participants were significantly more likely to label ambiguous faces on an /m/-to-/u/ continuum as saying /u/ following adaptation to /m/ mouth shapes than they were in a preadaptation test. By contrast, participants were significantly less likely to label the ambiguous faces as saying /u/ following adaptation to /u/ mouth shapes than they were in a preadaptation test. The magnitude of these aftereffects was equivalent when the same individual was shown in the adaptation and test phases of the experiment and when different individuals were presented in the adaptation and test phases. These findings present novel evidence that adaptation to natural variations in facial appearance influences face perception, and they extend previous research on face aftereffects to visual perception of lip speech. PMID:20702872

Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Debruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C

2010-08-01

344

Individual differences in syntactic ambiguity resolution: Readers vary in their use of plausibility information  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated the relation between individual differences in working memory capacity and differences in the efficiency of syntactic processing. In one experiment, readers comprehended sentences containing main-verb/reduced-relative ambiguities that all resolved to the reduced-relative interpretation. High-span (but not low-span) readers processed sentences more slowly when the sentences were biased to the preferred, main-verb interpretation than when they were biased to the reduced-relative interpretation. Moreover, high-span (but not low-span) readers used information about the plausibility of the different interpretations even though low-span readers appeared to possess the requisite knowledge. In Experiment 2, readers received intensive exposure to sentences with main-verb/reduced-relative ambiguities. Exposure enhanced low-span readers’ use of plausibility information. Moreover, the effect of exposure generalized to sentences that were not included in the training materials. PMID:18426067

Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel S.

2009-01-01

345

Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions  

MedlinePLUS

Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Caring for a Seriously or Chronically Ill ... role in managing their own care. Why Include Teens? Time flies. Before you know it, your 13- ...

346

Wittgenstein on Practice and the Myth of the Giving  

E-print Network

the mystery back a step, giving rise to a fruitless regress. The point is familiar from many recent commentaries. Inter­ pretations are themselves open to interpretation; no interpretation in­ terprel'i itself. Inserting an interpretation between a...

Hurley, Susan

1995-01-01

347

17. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, GIVING A SIDE VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, GIVING A SIDE VIEW OF 45-FOOT-LONG DARBY DRYER IN DRYER BUILDING - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Refining Mill, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

348

Integrating Ambiguously Aligned Regions of DNA Sequences in Phylogenetic Analyses Without Violating Positional Homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analyses ofnon-protein-coding nucleotidesequencessuch asribosomalRNA genes, internal transcribed spacers, and introns are often impeded by regions of the alignments that are ambiguously aligned. These regions are characterized by the presence of gaps and their uncer- tain positions, no matter which optimization criteria are used. This problem is particularly acute in large-scalephylogeneticstudiesandwhenaligninghighlydivergedsequences.Accommodatingthese regions, where positional homology is likely to be violated,

PETER WAGNER; VAL ´ ERIE REEB; STEFAN ZOLLER

2000-01-01

349

Efficient High-Rate Satellite Clock Estimation for PPP Ambiguity Resolution Using Carrier-Ranges  

PubMed Central

In order to catch up the short-term clock variation of GNSS satellites, clock corrections must be estimated and updated at a high-rate for Precise Point Positioning (PPP). This estimation is already very time-consuming for the GPS constellation only as a great number of ambiguities need to be simultaneously estimated. However, on the one hand better estimates are expected by including more stations, and on the other hand satellites from different GNSS systems must be processed integratively for a reliable multi-GNSS positioning service. To alleviate the heavy computational burden, epoch-differenced observations are always employed where ambiguities are eliminated. As the epoch-differenced method can only derive temporal clock changes which have to be aligned to the absolute clocks but always in a rather complicated way, in this paper, an efficient method for high-rate clock estimation is proposed using the concept of “carrier-range” realized by means of PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. Processing procedures for both post- and real-time processing are developed, respectively. The experimental validation shows that the computation time could be reduced to about one sixth of that of the existing methods for post-processing and less than 1 s for processing a single epoch of a network with about 200 stations in real-time mode after all ambiguities are fixed. This confirms that the proposed processing strategy will enable the high-rate clock estimation for future multi-GNSS networks in post-processing and possibly also in real-time mode. PMID:25429413

Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

2014-01-01

350

Effects of referential ambiguity, time constraints and addressee orientation on the production of morphologically complex words  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five experiments, participants were asked to describe unambiguously a target picture in a picture–picture paradigm. In the same-category condition, target (e.g., water bucket) and distractor picture (e.g., ice bucket) had identical names when their preferred, morphologically simple, name was used (e.g., bucket). The ensuing lexical ambiguity could be resolved by compound use (e.g., water bucket). Simple names sufficed as

Jens Bölte; Andrea Böhl; Christian Dobel; Pienie Zwitserlood

2009-01-01

351

Resolving the ambiguities: An industrial hygiene Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) symposium  

SciTech Connect

Resolving the Ambiguities: An Industrial Hygiene (IAQ) Symposium was a one-day event designed to inform practicing industrial hygienists about highlight presentations made at Indoor Air `93. A broad range of topics was presented by invited speakers. Topics included were attempts to deal with guidelines and standards, questionnaires, odors and sensory irritation, respiratory allergies, neuroses, sick building syndrome (SBS), and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

Gammage, R.B.

1995-01-01

352

Efficient High-Rate Satellite Clock Estimation for PPP Ambiguity Resolution Using Carrier-Ranges.  

PubMed

In order to catch up the short-term clock variation of GNSS satellites, clock corrections must be estimated and updated at a high-rate for Precise Point Positioning (PPP). This estimation is already very time-consuming for the GPS constellation only as a great number of ambiguities need to be simultaneously estimated. However, on the one hand better estimates are expected by including more stations, and on the other hand satellites from different GNSS systems must be processed integratively for a reliable multi-GNSS positioning service. To alleviate the heavy computational burden, epoch-differenced observations are always employed where ambiguities are eliminated. As the epoch-differenced method can only derive temporal clock changes which have to be aligned to the absolute clocks but always in a rather complicated way, in this paper, an efficient method for high-rate clock estimation is proposed using the concept of "carrier-range" realized by means of PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. Processing procedures for both post- and real-time processing are developed, respectively. The experimental validation shows that the computation time could be reduced to about one sixth of that of the existing methods for post-processing and less than 1 s for processing a single epoch of a network with about 200 stations in real-time mode after all ambiguities are fixed. This confirms that the proposed processing strategy will enable the high-rate clock estimation for future multi-GNSS networks in post-processing and possibly also in real-time mode. PMID:25429413

Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

2014-01-01

353

A Multiple Outlier Detection Algorithm for Instantaneous Ambiguity Resolution For Carrier Phase-Based GNSS Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In GPS\\/GLONASS pseudo-range and carrier phase observations, the main errors are caused by cycle slips, multipath effects, residual atmospheric biases, orbital errors, inter-channel biases and random noise. Because of these errors instantaneous ambiguity resolution with state-of-the-art GPS techniques becomes quite difficult, and even fails if observations are seriously contaminated, which is unfortunately not an unlikely event in kinematic applications. On

Liwen Dai; Shaowei Han; Chris Rizos

354

Accuracy in categorizing perceptually ambiguous groups: a review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Since the 1940s, social psychologists have conducted research testing whether it is possible to accurately identify members of perceptually ambiguous groups. This study quantitatively reviews the research on the perception of ambiguous groups to better understand the human capacity to accurately identify others based on very subtle nonverbal cues. Standard random-effects meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the distinctions between different target groups in terms of their identifiability, as well as to compare rates of accuracy across perceptual modalities (e.g., photographs, audio, video) and other study design differences. Overall, the accuracy of identifying targets was significantly better than chance guessing (i.e., 64.5%). Furthermore, stimulus modality was found to be a moderator of accuracy. Other moderators (e.g., time of exposure, analytic approach) were identified and examined. These data help to document and characterize broad trends in the proliferating and expanding study of the perception and categorization of ambiguous social groups. PMID:23070218

Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

2013-02-01

355

Dysfunctional control by client verbal behavior: The context of reason-giving  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctional control exerted by reason-giving in adult psychopathology is interpreted from a radical behavioral perspective. Verbal-social contingencies which support the establishment of reason-giving and its control over maladaptive actions are reviewed. A contextual approach to psychotherapy, comprehensive distancing, which attempts to weaken dysfunctional verbal control is described briefly. Data relevant to therapeutic process are presented. The overall results suggest that comprehensive distancing facilitates therapeutic change through a process consistent with a behavioral analysis of reason-giving. Suggestions for further research and radical behavioral approaches to psychotherapy are discussed. PMID:22477508

Zettle, Robert D.; Hayes, Steven C.

1986-01-01

356

Ambiguous Genitalia  

MedlinePLUS

... to ask your doctor • what is my baby’s sex? • does my child need treatment now or later? • are there support ... for people dealing with this condition? • should my child see a pediatric ... of Sex Development. handbook for Parents: http://dsdguidelines.org • dsd ...

357

Ambiguous genitalia  

MedlinePLUS

... X chromosomes) has the following features: An enlarged clitoris that looks like a small penis . The urethral ... along, above, or below the surface of the clitoris. The labia may be fused and look like ...

358

Ambiguous Genitalia  

MedlinePLUS

... For instance, a baby can have an enlarged clitoris (part of the female genitals) that looks more ... of male hormones, the female fetus develops a clitoris, vagina, and labia. did you knoW? Management of ...

359

Giving Stress Away: Results of a Five-Week Stress Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5-week, 12-hour course given to the community emphasized understanding and coping with stress. At the beginning of the course several inventories were administered to the students, who also completed the instruments in a follow-up procedure 10-12 weeks after the end of the seminar. The course focused on recognition of stress signals and the…

Motiff, James P.

360

Infants’ online perception of give-and-take interactions  

PubMed Central

This research investigated infants’ online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants’ gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants’ online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants’ online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective. PMID:24973626

Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf

2014-01-01

361

Auxiliary Quantization Constraints on the Von Roos Ordering-Ambiguity at Zero Binding Energies; Azimuthally Symmetrized Cylindrical Coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using azimuthally symmetrized cylindrical coordinates, we report the consequences of zero-energy quantal states on the von Roos Hamiltonian. A position-dependent mass (PDM) M(?, ?, z) = bzj?2?+1/2 is used. We show that the zero-energy setting not only offers an additional degree of freedom toward feasible separability for the von Roos Hamiltonian, but also manifestly yields auxiliary quantized ambiguity parametric constraints (i.e. the ambiguity parameters are given in terms of quantum numbers).

Mustafa, Omar

2013-06-01

362

Collective philanthropy: describing and modeling the ecology of giving.  

PubMed

Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid. PMID:24983864

Gottesman, William L; Reagan, Andrew James; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

2014-01-01

363

Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving  

PubMed Central

Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid. PMID:24983864

Gottesman, William L.; Reagan, Andrew James; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

2014-01-01

364

Optimization of self-potential interpretation of 2-D inclined sheet-type structures based on very fast simulated annealing and analysis of ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of self-potential anomaly over multiple 2-D inclined sheet-type structure employing very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) global optimization is performed and ambiguity in the interpretation is also investigated simultaneously. Various scientists have used different formulations to compute forward response over 2-D thin sheet-type structures. Each forward formulation is represented by a set of 5 unknown variables. In principle, the forward response computed by various formulations for a given target is the same; however, optimization of different variables in the inversion leads to different kinds of ambiguity in the interpretation. Therefore, in the present study, ambiguities in the interpretation of self-potential anomaly measured over 2-D thin sheet-type structures have been analyzed for various forward approaches and the most suitable approach has been worked out that yields the least ambiguous result. It has been observed that uncertainty in the interpretation is the smallest when model parameters are described with respect to the center of the causative body (Approach 1). Moreover, this approach also yields an equivalent solution (geologically irrelevant model where the sheet extends into the air). To avoid geologically irrelevant models from Approach 1, the model is described with respect to one edge of the sheet (Approach 2); however, inversion using Approach 2 yields a large uncertainty in the interpretation. Another approach is where x and z coordinates of the negative and positive poles (Approach 3) are optimized to overcome the limitation of Approach 1. This yields smaller uncertainty in comparison to the results obtained by Approach 2. Further, Approach 3 can deal with multiple sheet-type structures without any complexity in the optimization. The study concludes that Approach 1 can be used for interpretation of isolated anomalies by discarding geologically irrelevant models, while Approach 3 is the best model to interpret the data over multiple targets. Finally, a field data has been interpreted considering Approach 3 over a multiple sheet-type structure and excellent fit between the observed and model data is demonstrated. The present optimization approach developed using VFSA global optimization for self-potential interpretation is general and can handle a large number of variables associated with a large number of sheet-type structure together.

Biswas, Arkoprovo; Sharma, S. P.

2014-06-01

365

Leveraging Search Engine Results for Query Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web query classification is significant to search engines for the purpose of efficient retrieval of ap- propriate results in response to user queries. User queries are short in nature, contain noise and are ambiguous in terms of user intent. In this paper, we present d ifferent features—such as snippets, page content and titles of search engine results for a given

Shruti K. Bhandari; Brian D. Davison

366

Faculty and Staff Giving Campaign Gift Form Designating Your Gift  

E-print Network

Faculty and Staff Giving Campaign Gift Form Designating Your Gift Making Your Gift qI attended Home Phone Number Enter the designation(s) for your gift and the portion of your total gift that each designation should receive. Individual gift amounts must add up to equal your total gift amount. If you

Dasgupta, Dipankar

367

Appendix Title Due Date Give to: General (All Clubs -  

E-print Network

Appendix Title Due Date Give to: General (All Clubs - September): D Officers List 9/12 CSC Secretary AB Request/Renewal of Outside "R Club" Membership 9/30 Kris Shanley New Clubs: A Student M Contest Agreement before game Your Club Secretary N Contest Personnel Agreement Signed

Mahon, Bradford Z.

368

Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. We analyze micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university, and focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. Consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt…

Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

2012-01-01

369

Using Classification Trees to Predict Alumni Giving for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the relative level of public support for higher education declines, colleges and universities aim to maximize alumni-giving to keep their programs competitive. Anchored in a utility maximization framework, this study employs the classification and regression tree methodology to examine characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a…

Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

2009-01-01

370

Planned Giving Administration: The Business Officer's Guide [with DVD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people associate planned giving with fancy trusts and exotic tax plans. The truth is far simpler and more profound. This book provides a comprehensive review of the subject, from the relative simplicity of outright gifts and bequests to the more complex workings of pooled income funds and retained life estates. The author lends a common sense…

Brostrom, Forrest C.

2005-01-01

371

SOMETHINGíS GOTTA GIVE ñ ARCHITECTURAL ANIMATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural animations are like Harry Langer, a fifty-something entertainment mogul played by best actor nominee Jack Nicholson in the film Somethingís Gotta Give. Theyíve been surrounded by plenty of pathetic spiritless gimmicks. And, like Harry in the film, they have suffered a heart attack. Harry did not die. Architectural animations are still around, barely. Somethingís wrong with them. When Harry

Antonio Serrato-Combe

372

Does Deficit Irrigation Give More Crop Per Drop?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DOES DEFICIT IRRIGATION GIVE MORE CROP PER DROP? Deficit irrigation can be an effective way to maximize economic returns when water supply is the limiting resource. The ARS Water Management Research Unit is conducting field studies to determine the water production functions for 4 crops common in ...

373

Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can

Fei Sun; Sailing He

2010-01-01

374

Changing endowment sizes and prices of giving in ultimatum games  

E-print Network

1 Changing endowment sizes and prices of giving in ultimatum games Kevin Haas* April 23rd 2009 Abstract This paper looks at a rich data set that was generated from ultimatum games where the players were of Proposer behavior in the ultimatum game. 1 Introduction My paper looks at data that was generated

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

375

Giving Opportunities in the Department of Physics & Astronomy  

E-print Network

Giving Opportunities in the Department of Physics & Astronomy _______________________________________________________________________ The Department of Physics and Astronomy has established different accounts to help us maintain our standard and astronomy laboratories. They are named in honor of Dr. Robert Lide, who served on the physics faculty for 35

Dai, Pengcheng

376

Giving Voice to Reluctant Learners: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study is to hear from reluctant learners about their perceptions of their experiences in middle school and the meanings they make from these. This study will give voice to students, a stakeholder group that has been traditionally silent in the literature on K-12 learning and achievement. Capturing the perceptions…

Pringle, Mark T.

2010-01-01

377

Space Place: LISA Space Mission Gives Humans a Sixth Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is related to gravity and the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission. Like a sixth sense, detecting gravity waves will give us a whole new way to see the universe. Provides an easy explanation of gravitational waves, with a link to an interactive crossword using the new vocabulary words.

2011-01-01

378

Giving Students a Fighting Chance: Pragmatics in the Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to give language learners a fighting chance outside the classroom, teachers must provide them with consciousness-raising opportunities for developing pragmatic awareness. By attending to pragmatic factors in second-language (L2) situations, student will be better able to make informed choices in negotiating effective communication. This…

McLean, Terrence

2004-01-01

379

Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Calculators AOA Partnerships Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life Page Content ? Today there are more than 121, ... using organ transplantation to treat a number of life-threatening diseases, there hasn’t been a corresponding ...

380

WORMS Panel: Leaders Give Professional Advice Women and Men  

E-print Network

WORMS Panel: Leaders Give Professional Advice to Women and Men Anna Nagurney Isenberg School November 13-16, 2011 Anna Nagurney WORMS Leaders Panel #12;Acknowledgments I would like to thank Women in Operations Research and the Management Sciences (WORMS) for sponsoring this panel and especially

Nagurney, Anna

381

Don't Give Yourself Away: Cooperation Revisited  

E-print Network

determined to reach a certain goal, a partner can have more social intelligence and be able to read the mindDon't Give Yourself Away: Cooperation Revisited Anton Nijholt University of Twente, Human Media possible elements of competitiveness. In these situations Grice's maxims on cooperation, i.e. assumptions

Nijholt, Anton

382

Practical Reasoning Using Values Giving Meaning to Values  

E-print Network

be interpreted in many ways. After giving an overview of how values are defined in social psychology, this paper. Furthermore, value systems are used for practical reasoning and allow resolving conflicts when pursuing your process. This corresponds to Perelman arguing that when people disagree, they discuss the meaning

Dignum, Virginia

383

Gift Giving, Identity, and Transformation: The AIDS Memorial Quilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those who have originated the AIDS Memorial Quilt have often referred to it as a “gift.” In this essay, the author discusses theories related to gift giving to discuss the quilt and its constructed effects for those who experience it as a gift. In particular, Weiner's notion of “inalienable possessions” is highlighted to address how the quilt, as a gift

Mary Beth Krouse

1999-01-01

384

Inductor flyback characteristic gives voltage regulator fast response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voltage regulator alternately connects an inductor in parallel and in series with the input voltage source. This flyback voltage regulator provides a regulated dc voltage to varying loads from a varying dc supply and gives fast response to load and supply changes.

Smith, G. D.

1965-01-01

385

Laparoscopic kidney donation - giving in the best way possible.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is the preferred method of living kidney donation at most transplant centres. There are various techniques, all with their own reported benefits. This editorial gives a brief overview of the various methods in the context of ensuring maximum safety and benefit to the donor without compromising kidney transplant outcomes. PMID:25216092

Thomson, David Alexander; Muller, Elmi; Kahn, Delawir

2014-06-01

386

Trigger Laws: Does Signing a Petition Give Parents a Voice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent trigger laws, according to their proponents, give parents power. Gregory McGinity, managing director of policy for the Broad Education Foundation, calls them "a way for parents' voices to be heard." Sounds good. But is the parent trigger concept a way to put parents in charge of their kids' education, or is it part of a political agenda…

Bacon, David

2011-01-01

387

2 Authors Say Routledge Recycled Their Work without Giving Credit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on two authors' work that has been recycled by Routledge without giving credit or royalty. When William E. Deal casually flipped through "Theory for Performance Studies: A Student's Guide," published this year by Routledge, he noticed a few familiar sentences. After taking a closer look, Mr. Deal, a professor of religious…

Bartlett, Thomas

2008-01-01

388

"What Advice Would You Give to Students Starting Your Course?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the author, a Biomedical Sciences student at the University of Sheffield, presents an atypical way of addressing the question "What advice would you give to students starting your course?" by transcribing the much-evoked and revered Ten Commandments, the original guide to life, into advice for new and bewildered Biomedical…

Meedin, Aneeqa

2007-01-01

389

Philanthropist Calls on Colleges to Inspire Students to Give  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges must teach their students the virtues of philanthropy if they hope to produce graduates who will give back to the institutions and to society at large, the philanthropist and businesswoman Sheila C. Johnson told attendees at The Chronicle's Presidents Forum here last week. "My hope," she continued, "is that today's graduates will set a…

Field, Kelly

2007-01-01

390

Elder Retired Volunteers Benefit From Giving Massage Therapy to Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory within-subjects study compared the effects of elder retired volunteers giving massage to infants with receiving massage themselves. Three times a week for 3 weeks, 10 elder volunteers (8 females, mean age = 70 years) received Swedish massage sessions. For another 3 weeks, three times per week, the same elderly volunteers massaged infants at a nursery school. Receiving massage

Tiffany M. Field; Maria Hernandez-Reif; Olga Quintino; Saul Schanberg; Cynthia Kuhn

1998-01-01

391

Giving the Caller the Finger: Collaborative Responsibility for Cellphone Interruptions  

E-print Network

Giving the Caller the Finger: Collaborative Responsibility for Cellphone Interruptions Stefan Marti if it is their own cellphones that are about to interrupt, each of them has the possibility to veto the call. Author Keywords Mobile communication, cellphone interruption, social polling, collaborative

Madiraju, Praveen

392

Give or Take a Century: An Eskimo Chronicle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by an Eskimo who created all the book's art work, drawings, and illustrations, this narrative portrays the theme that prior to white contact the Eskimos had a complex, satisfying, technologically developed, and progressive culture which was immobilized, fragmented, and exploited by European invaders: hence the title--give or take a…

Senungetuk, Joseph E.

393

GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

SciTech Connect

In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are proud on our work and we like to show that. Our work is necessary and useful for society. We will not hide our activities but show them and make it worth looking at them.

Codee, Hans D.K.

2003-02-27

394

Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs.  

PubMed

Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests altered emotionality, but no behavioural indicators have been studied. Decision-making under uncertain conditions, e.g., risk or ambiguity, is susceptible to emotional influences and may provide a means of assessing long-term effects of LBW in piglets. We tested LBW (N = 8) and normal-birth-weight (NBW; N = 8) male pigs in two decision-making tasks. For decision-making under risk, we developed a simple two-choice probabilistic task, the Pig Gambling Task (PGT), where an 'advantageous' option offered small but frequent rewards and a 'disadvantageous' option offered large but infrequent rewards. The advantageous option offered greater overall gain. For decision-making under ambiguity, we used a Judgement Bias Task (JBT) where pigs were trained to make an active response to 'positive' and 'negative' tone cues (signalling large and small rewards, respectively). Responses to ambiguous tone cues were rated as more or less optimistic. LBW pigs chose the advantageous option more often in later blocks of the PGT, and were scored as less optimistic in the JBT, than NBW pigs. Our findings demonstrate that LBW pigs have developed different behavioural strategies with respect to decision-making. We propose that this is guided by changes in emotionality in LBW piglets, and we provide behavioural evidence of increased negative affect in LBW piglets. PMID:25527296

Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

2015-03-01

395

An information-theoretic resolution of the ambiguity in the local hardness.  

PubMed

The ambiguity of the local hardness is resolved by using information theory to select definitions of the local hardness that are as close as possible to a well-defined approximate formula for the local hardness. A condensed local hardness is derived by using the atomic hardnesses as a reference distribution; a pointwise local hardness is derived by using the uniform electron gas as a reference distribution. This information-theoretic condensed local hardness is tested by examining electrophilic attack on some substituted pyridines. PMID:24553911

Heidar Zadeh, Farnaz; Fuentealba, Patricio; Cárdenas, Carlos; Ayers, Paul W

2014-04-01

396

Systematic all-orders method to eliminate renormalization-scale and scheme ambiguities in perturbative QCD.  

PubMed

We introduce a generalization of the conventional renormalization schemes used in dimensional regularization, which illuminates the renormalization scheme and scale ambiguities of perturbative QCD predictions, exposes the general pattern of nonconformal {?(i)} terms, and reveals a special degeneracy of the terms in the perturbative coefficients. It allows us to systematically determine the argument of the running coupling order by order in perturbative QCD in a form which can be readily automatized. The new method satisfies all of the principles of the renormalization group and eliminates an unnecessary source of systematic error. PMID:23705698

Mojaza, Matin; Brodsky, Stanley J; Wu, Xing-Gang

2013-05-10

397

Systematic All-Orders Method to Eliminate Renormalization-Scale and Scheme Ambiguities in Perturbative QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a generalization of the conventional renormalization schemes used in dimensional regularization, which illuminates the renormalization scheme and scale ambiguities of perturbative QCD predictions, exposes the general pattern of nonconformal {?i} terms, and reveals a special degeneracy of the terms in the perturbative coefficients. It allows us to systematically determine the argument of the running coupling order by order in perturbative QCD in a form which can be readily automatized. The new method satisfies all of the principles of the renormalization group and eliminates an unnecessary source of systematic error.

Mojaza, Matin; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Wu, Xing-Gang

2013-05-01

398

Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings. PMID:23946544

Rhine, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

399

Molecular Characterization of Ambiguous Mutations in HIV-1 Polymerase Gene: Implications for Monitoring HIV Infection Status and Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

Detection of recent HIV infections is a prerequisite for reliable estimations of transmitted HIV drug resistance (t-HIVDR) and incidence. However, accurately identifying recent HIV infection is challenging due partially to the limitations of current serological tests. Ambiguous nucleotides are newly emerged mutations in quasispecies, and accumulate by time of viral infection. We utilized ambiguous mutations to establish a measurement for detecting recent HIV infection and monitoring early HIVDR development. Ambiguous nucleotides were extracted from HIV-1 pol-gene sequences in the datasets of recent (HIVDR threshold surveys [HIVDR-TS] in 7 countries; n=416) and established infections (1 HIVDR monitoring survey at baseline; n=271). An ambiguous mutation index of 2.04×10-3 nts/site was detected in HIV-1 recent infections which is equivalent to the HIV-1 substitution rate (2×10-3 nts/site/year) reported before. However, significantly higher index (14.41×10-3 nts/site) was revealed with established infections. Using this substitution rate, 75.2% subjects in HIVDR-TS with the exception of the Vietnam dataset and 3.3% those in HIVDR-baseline were classified as recent infection within one year. We also calculated mutation scores at amino acid level at HIVDR sites based on ambiguous or fitted mutations. The overall mutation scores caused by ambiguous mutations increased (0.54×10-23.48×10-2/DR-site) whereas those caused by fitted mutations remained stable (7.50-7.89×10-2/DR-site) in both recent and established infections, indicating that t-HIVDR exists in drug-naïve populations regardless of infection status in which new HIVDR continues to emerge. Our findings suggest that characterization of ambiguous mutations in HIV may serve as an additional tool to differentiate recent from established infections and to monitor HIVDR emergence. PMID:24147046

Zheng, Du-Ping; Rodrigues, Margarida; Bile, Ebi; Nguyen, Duc B.; Diallo, Karidia; DeVos, Joshua R.; Nkengasong, John N.; Yang, Chunfu

2013-01-01

400

19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIERFREE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIER-FREE ACCESS FROM THE DRIVEWAY TO THE ELEVATOR. Wrought iron railings, extended upper step of stoop (indicated by the darker concrete between the two vertical posts), and wooden ramp added by the National Trust to meet modern barrier-free access codes, circa 1980. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

401

Care giving and nursing, work conditions and Humanitude®.  

PubMed

Increased lifespan in western societies causes the increase of hospitalization in the old age, notably for patient showing forms of dementia including Altzheimer disease. These patients relate poorly to care givers and nurses, and cases of maltreatment have repeatedly been reported. To prevent abuse and increase patient's quality of life, Gineste and Pelissier (2007) proposed a philosophy of care based on the Humanitude® concept. Acknowledging that being human is being vertical and related to other humans, the pillars of Humanitude® are gaze, touch, talk, and standing. These modes of relation are systematically developed in care giving techniques derived from the concept. After several studies in geriatric hospitals, to assess psychosocial and ergonomic aspects of work, we present an analysis of the gap between the logic of human care and the logic of hospital organization, impacting employees work conditions and psychological welfare. Care giving is not only a "one to one" relation with the patient but needs to be integrated in the whole organization. Psychologists and ergonomists should be instrumental in defining the project and the organization linking human care giving towards the patients and better work conditions for healthcare employees. PMID:22316980

Biquand, Sylvain; Zittel, Benoit

2012-01-01

402

The source ambiguity problem: Distinguishing the effects of grammar and processing on acceptability judgments  

PubMed Central

Judgments of linguistic unacceptability may theoretically arise from either grammatical deviance or significant processing difficulty. Acceptability data are thus naturally ambiguous in theories that explicitly distinguish formal and functional constraints. Here, we consider this source ambiguity problem in the context of Superiority effects: the dispreference for ordering a wh-phrase in front of a syntactically “superior” wh-phrase in multiple wh-questions, e.g. What did who buy? More specifically, we consider the acceptability contrast between such examples and so-called D-linked examples, e.g. Which toys did which parents buy? Evidence from acceptability and self-paced reading experiments demonstrates that (i) judgments and processing times for Superiority violations vary in parallel, as determined by the kind of wh-phrases they contain, (ii) judgments increase with exposure while processing times decrease, (iii) reading times are highly predictive of acceptability judgments for the same items, and (iv) the effects of the complexity of the wh-phrases combine in both acceptability judgments and reading times. This evidence supports the conclusion that D-linking effects are likely reducible to independently motivated cognitive mechanisms whose effects emerge in a wide range of sentence contexts. This in turn suggests that Superiority effects, in general, may owe their character to differential processing difficulty.* PMID:23539204

Hofmeister, Philip; Jaeger, T. Florian; Arnon, Inbal; Sag, Ivan A.; Snider, Neal

2012-01-01

403

Managing ambiguity and danger in an intensive therapy unit: ritual practices and sequestration.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a particular aspect of a larger ethnographic study of nursing culture in an intensive therapy unit (ITU), accomplished through participant observation over a 12-month period, followed by interviews with 15 nurses. The paper suggests that the ITU environment is perceived as 'dangerous', its dangerousness stemming from the ambiguity of its patients' conditions. Drawing on anthropological concepts of liminality, pollution, anomaly and breaching of boundaries, the paper identifies various ambiguities inherent in ITU patients' conditions. It then explores the ways in which these anomalies are managed through sequestration and other ritual and symbolic practices. Notwithstanding the undoubted scientific reasons for particular nursing practices, the paper argues that there are also ritual and symbolic elements serving other more complex purposes, both protecting patients and staff and symbolising the highly valued phenomenon of keeping patients safe. The paper identifies a contradiction inherent in nursing work in this locale inasmuch as rituals and symbolism coexist with technical and research-based elements of nursing care. PMID:17298608

Philpin, Susan

2007-03-01

404

Processing lexical ambiguity in sentential context: Eye-tracking data from brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged individuals.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify general and syndrome-specific deficits in the lexical processing of individuals with non-fluent and fluent aphasia compared to individuals without cognitive, neurological or language impairments. The time course of lexical access, as well as lexical selection and integration was studied using a visual-world paradigm in three groups of Russian speakers: 36 individuals in the control group, 15 individuals with non-fluent aphasia and eight individuals with fluent aphasia. Participants listened to temporarily ambiguous sentences wherein the context biased the interpretation of an ambiguous word toward one of its two meanings. In half of the experimental sentences, a reanalysis was needed upon encountering the disambiguating phrase. The effect of the length of the intervening material between the ambiguous word and the disambiguation point was additionally monitored. All groups of participants showed intact lexical access under slowed speech rate, but non-fluent participants experienced difficulties with timely activation of multiple referents. At later stages of lexical processing, they additionally demonstrated a specific impairment of reanalysis. The deficit in participants with fluent aphasia was not focalized at any specific stage of lexical processing. Rather, the breakdown of lexical processes in fluent aphasia was likely related to difficulties with the inhibition of irrelevant lexical activation, which is further supported by the finding that increased phonological distance between the ambiguous word and ambiguity resolution was influential to the offline performance in this group. PMID:25281888

Laurinavichyute, A K; Ulicheva, A; Ivanova, M V; Kuptsova, S V; Dragoy, O

2014-10-01

405

The Influence of Body Movements on Children’s Perception of Music with an Ambiguous Expressive Character  

PubMed Central

The theory of embodied music cognition states that the perception and cognition of music is firmly, although not exclusively, linked to action patterns associated with that music. In this regard, the focus lies mostly on how music promotes certain action tendencies (i.e., dance, entrainment, etc.). Only recently, studies have started to devote attention to the reciprocal effects that people’s body movements may exert on how people perceive certain aspects of music and sound (e.g., pitch, meter, musical preference, etc.). The present study positions itself in this line of research. The central research question is whether expressive body movements, which are systematically paired with music, can modulate children’s perception of musical expressiveness. We present a behavioral experiment in which different groups of children (7–8 years, N?=?46) either repetitively performed a happy or a sad choreography in response to expressively ambiguous music or merely listened to that music. The results of our study show indeed that children’s perception of musical expressiveness is modulated in accordance with the expressive character of the dance choreography performed to the music. This finding supports theories that claim a strong connection between action and perception, although further research is needed to uncover the details of this connection. PMID:23358805

Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc

2013-01-01

406

Leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain functions as a molecular rheostat to control codon ambiguity in Mycoplasma pathogens  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma leucyl-tRNA synthetases (LeuRSs) have been identified in which the connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) amino acid editing domain that clears mischarged tRNAs are missing (Mycoplasma mobile) or highly degenerate (Mycoplasma synoviae). Thus, these enzymes rely on a clearance pathway called pretransfer editing, which hydrolyzes misactivated aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate via a nebulous mechanism that has been controversial for decades. Even as the sole fidelity pathway for clearing amino acid selection errors in the pathogenic M. mobile, pretransfer editing is not robust enough to completely block mischarging of tRNALeu, resulting in codon ambiguity and statistical proteins. A high-resolution X-ray crystal structure shows that M. mobile LeuRS structurally overlaps with other LeuRS cores. However, when CP1 domains from different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and origins were fused to this common LeuRS core, surprisingly, pretransfer editing was enhanced. It is hypothesized that the CP1 domain evolved as a molecular rheostat to balance multiple functions. These include distal control of specificity and enzyme activity in the ancient canonical core, as well as providing a separate hydrolytic active site for clearing mischarged tRNA. PMID:23431144

Li, Li; Palencia, Andrés; Lukk, Tiit; Li, Zhi; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A.; Cusack, Stephen; Martinis, Susan A.; Boniecki, Michal T.

2013-01-01

407

Pathways to lexical ambiguity: fMRI evidence for bilateral fronto-parietal involvement in language processing.  

PubMed

Numerous functional neuroimaging studies reported increased activity in the pars opercularis and the pars triangularis (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45) of the left hemisphere during the performance of linguistic tasks. The role of these areas in the right hemisphere in language processing is not understood and, although there is evidence from lesion studies that the right hemisphere is involved in the appreciation of semantic relations, no specific anatomical substrate has yet been identified. This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared brain activity during the performance of language processing trials in which either dominant or subordinate meaning activation of ambiguous words was required. The results show that the ventral part of the pars opercularis both in the left and the right hemisphere is centrally involved in language processing. In addition, they highlight the bilateral co-activation of this region with the supramarginal gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule during the processing of this type of linguistic material. This study, thus, provides the first evidence of co-activation of Broca's region and the inferior parietal lobule, succeeding in further specifying the relative contribution of these cortical areas to language processing. PMID:24183467

Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Gracco, Vincent L; Pike, G Bruce

2014-04-01

408

Time-integrated and time-dependent angular analyses of B?J/?K?: A measurement of cos(2? with no sign ambiguity from strong phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on B?J/?K? decays using e+e-annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the ?(4S) resonance. The detector is located at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Using approximately 88×106 BB¯ pairs, we measure the decay amplitudes for the flavor eigenmodes and observe strong-phase differences indicative of final-state interactions with a significance of 7.6 standard deviations. We use the interference between the K? S-wave and P-wave amplitudes in the region of the K*(892) to resolve the ambiguity in the determination of these strong phases. We then perform an ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2? using the angular and time-dependent asymmetry in B?J/?K*0(K0S?0) decays. With sin(2? fixed at its measured value and cos(2? treated as an independent parameter, we find cos(2?=2.72+0.50-0.79(stat)±0.27(syst), determining the sign of cos(2? to be positive at 86% C.L.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Wenzel, W. A.; Barrett, M.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Morgan, S. E.; Watson, A. T.; Fritsch, M.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Steinke, M.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Wilson, F. F.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Shen, B. C.; Wang, K.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Cunha, J. Adam; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spradlin, P.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J. G.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Chen, A.; Harton, J. L.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zeng, Q.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Dickopp, M.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Petzold, A.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Sundermann, J. E.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Grenier, P.; Schrenk, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Bard, D. J.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Langenegger, U.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Taylor, G. P.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Yi, J.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Pioppi, M.; Davier, M.; Giroux, X.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; Green, M. G.; Jackson, P. S.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.

2005-02-01

409

Negative Refraction Gives Rise to the Klein Paradox  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic negative refraction in metamaterials has attracted increasingly great interest, since its first experimental verification in 2001. It potentially leads to the applications superior to conventional devices including compact antennas for mobile stations, imaging beyond the diffraction limit, and high-resolution radars, not to mention the anamolous wave propagation in fundamental optics. Here, we report how metamaterials could be used to simulate the "negative refraction of spin-zero particles interacting with a strong potential barrier", which gives rise to the Klein paradox--a counterintuitive relativistic process. We address the underlying physics of analogous wave propagation behaviours in those two entirely different domains of quantum and classical.

Durdu O. Guney; David A. Meyer

2009-07-01

410

A Value and Ambiguity-Based Ranking Method of Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and Application to Decision Making  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to develop a method for ranking trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TrIFNs) in the process of decision making in the intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Firstly, the concept of TrIFNs is introduced. Arithmetic operations and cut sets over TrIFNs are investigated. Then, the values and ambiguities of the membership degree and the nonmembership degree for TrIFNs are defined as well as the value-index and ambiguity-index. Finally, a value and ambiguity-based ranking method is developed and applied to solve multiattribute decision making problems in which the ratings of alternatives on attributes are expressed using TrIFNs. A numerical example is examined to demonstrate the implementation process and applicability of the method proposed in this paper. Furthermore, comparison analysis of the proposed method is conducted to show its advantages over other similar methods. PMID:25147854

Zeng, Xiang-tian; Li, Deng-feng; Yu, Gao-feng

2014-01-01

411

Novel r(2)(p25q31) Cytogenetic Abnormality in a Pediatric Patient With Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage.  

PubMed

Abstract We describe a case of acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage with a novel cytogenetic abnormality. A one-year-old boy presented with abnormal complete blood count findings and was found to have blasts and mild dysgranulopoiesis. The blasts showed immunophenotypic evidence of both myeloid and T-lineage differentiation. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis showed r(2)(p25q31) as the sole stem line cytogenetic defect with clonal evolution. While cytogenetic abnormalities can play critical role in the classification and prognostication of acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia, the significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage remains unclear. This finding has not been previous reported to the best of our knowledge. Keywords: acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage, cytogenetics, mixed phenotype acute leukemia. PMID:25436969

Kim, Jaehyup; Bu, Lihong; Koduru, Prasad R; Wilson, Kathleen S; Fuda, Franklin S; Kumar, Kirthi R; Timmons, Charles F; Slone, Tamra L; Luu, Hung S

2014-12-01

412

Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms  

PubMed Central

Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

2014-01-01

413

Modeling Charitable Giving Using a Box-Cox Standard Tobit Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large literature investigating the determinants of charitable giving, in particular, price and income elasticities. We find that many of the most often reported results from this literature rely on a model specification that is inappropriate when applied to recent Federal Tax File data. We develop a standard Tobit model with a Box-Cox transformation parameter that nests a

R. Hamilton Lankford; James S. Wyckoff

1991-01-01

414

Impact of individual Receiver Antenna Code Phase Variation on the Ambiguity Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) is an official IGS antenna calibration institution, calibrating carrier-phase center variations (PCV) for receiver antennas routinely in the field, using the actual GNSS satellite signals in space. Current research activities are focussed on the antenna code-phase calibration with the Hannover Concept of absolute antenna calibration. Besides PCV, the receiving antenna introduces systematic effects, currently known as Group Delay Variations (GDV), i.e. azimuth and elevation dependent code-phase delays. These delays can be determined by precisely rotating and tilting the antenna under test. Forming imedifferenced single differences with respect to a near (ca. 8m) fixed reference station, the GDV can be separated from further systematic effects like tropospheric delays, which are reduced far below the code observation noise level. Depending on the antenna design, suitable for specific applications, different magnitudes and features of GDV has been determined at IfE. In previous papers the authors could elaborate that GDV are antenna specific and they systematically affect the code observation up to 1.8m as well as the obtained coordinates, (Kersten and Schön, 2013). The impact depends on the corresponding magnitude of the GDV pattern. In several studies, improvements were obtained for static code based single point positioning (SPP) as well as for code based differential positioning when applying GDV corrections. This contribution discusses the current investigations at IfE on GDV within combined code and carrier phase processing strategies. The study of the GDV impact on the Melbourne-Wübbena linear combination (MW-LC) which is widely used for cycle slip detection and ambiguity resolution is of special interest, since due to the linear combination GDV effects on both code phases are amplified. We detect systematic effects and significant trends in the MW-LC time series due to receiver antenna specific GDV with an amount of up to 0.8-0.95 widelane cycles. Depending on the reference satellite chosen, improvements of MW-LC ambiguity fixing are obtained by considering GDV corrections. Improvements of up to one cycle can be shown. Subsequently, the impact on the coordinate time series is discussed, when ambiguities are not correctly fixed. References: Kersten, T. and Schön, S. (2013). Analysis of IfE-Robot based Group Delay Variations for the Positioning and Navigation of Mobile Platforms. In Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference 2013, April 22.-25., Vienna, Austria, pages: 10.

Kersten, T.; Schoen, S.

2013-12-01

415

Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.  

PubMed

How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

2013-01-01

416

Paedomorphic Facial Expressions Give Dogs a Selective Advantage  

PubMed Central

How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

Waller, Bridget M.; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C.; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M.; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

2013-01-01

417

Resolving current disagreements and ambiguities in the terminology of animal communication.  

PubMed

Communication is central to most interactions between organisms. There is currently considerable controversy about the evolution, function and even about the most basic definition of communication. The controversy is linked to definitional ambiguities and disagreements. Here we discuss how some recent disagreements can be resolved and offer a clear set of definitions. Central to our approach is a definition of communication as being a trade between one organism (the informer) and another (the perceiver). The informer exerts influence on the perceiver through the communication process, and the perceiver experiences a change in its informational state (that is, gains information) as a consequence of detecting the communication. We define both influence and information explicitly and delineate between signalling, deceptive communication, and situations where perceivers respond to cues rather than signals. We demonstrate how our definitions allow resolution of conflicts arising in recent publications on the definitions on communication and related terms. PMID:21902751

Ruxton, G D; Schaefer, H M

2011-12-01

418

Governing stem cell therapy in India: regulatory vacuum or jurisdictional ambiguity?  

PubMed

Stem cell treatments are being offered in Indian clinics although preclinical evidence of their efficacy and safety is lacking. This is attributed to a governance vacuum created by the lack of legally binding research guidelines. By contrast, this paper highlights jurisdictional ambiguities arising from trying to regulate stem cell therapy under the auspices of research guidelines when treatments are offered in a private market disconnected from clinical trials. While statutory laws have been strengthened in 2014, prospects for their implementation remain weak, given embedded challenges of putting healthcare laws and professional codes into practice. Finally, attending to the capacities of consumer law and civil society activism to remedy the problem of unregulated treatments, the paper finds that the very definition of a governance vacuum needs to be reframed to clarify whose rights to health care are threatened by the proliferation of commercial treatments and individualized negligence-based remedies for grievances. PMID:25431534

Tiwari, Shashank S; Raman, Sujatha

2014-10-01

419

The social ecology of resilience: addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct.  

PubMed

More than two decades after E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith (1982), N. Garmezy (1983), and M. Rutter (1987) published their research on protective mechanisms and processes that are most likely to foster resilience, ambiguity continues regarding how to define and operationalize positive development under adversity. This article argues that, because resilience occurs even when risk factors are plentiful, greater emphasis needs to be placed on the role social and physical ecologies play in positive developmental outcomes when individuals encounter significant amounts of stress. Four principles are presented as the basis for an ecological interpretation of the resilience construct: decentrality, complexity, atypicality, and cultural relativity. These 4 principles, and the research upon which they are based, inform a definition of resilience that emphasizes the environmental antecedents of positive growth. This framework can guide future theory development, research, and the design of interventions that promote well-being among populations who experience environments that inhibit resilience-promoting processes. PMID:21219271

Ungar, Michael

2011-01-01

420

Pancreaticoduodenectomy performed in a patient with situs ambiguous accompanied with isolated levocardia, malrotation, and normal spleen.  

PubMed

We report a case of common bile duct (CBD) cancer, successfully managed with pancreaticoduodenectomy, in a patient with isolated levocardia, malrotation, and situs ambiguous (without splenic anomalies). A 59-year-old male patient was referred to Chung-Ang University Hospital with epigastric pain and jaundice. CT and MRI revealed distal CBD cancer without significant lymphadenopathy. Multiple abdominal anatomic anomalies were identified preoperatively, whereas no anatomic anomalies were detected within the chest. The patient had a right-sided stomach and spleen, liver at the midline, several vascular variations around the celiac axis, and intestinal malrotation, but the inferior vena cava and portal vein were normal. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed to treat the cancer. The postoperative course was favorable, and the patient was started on combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy 15 days after the surgery. In this case study, we report that pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was successful for distal CBD cancer in a patient with rare situs anomalies. PMID:25485244

Lim, Han-Ki; Choi, Yoo Shin; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Hyun

2014-12-01

421

On current ambiguity in the interpretation of fission at intermediate excitation energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various approaches are currently used to interpret experimental data on fission. We critically examine a wide set of observables measured for fission of Po206,210 nuclei at medium excitation energy, and illustrate the ambiguity in current analysis. Dynamical calculations based on the four-dimensional Langevin equation using a macroscopic potential energy landscape are performed, and found to consistently describe available measurements. This observation calls into question the robustness of recent analysis based on statistical-model calculations and concluding, on the contrary, to substantial shell effects at the fission saddle point in Po206,210. The inconsistency in interpretation reached by the two approaches shows that, depending on the system, the conclusion can be strongly model-dependent. Although this may not be surprising, it emphasizes the today still limited reliability of firmly extracting fundamental nuclear properties from customary analysis.

Schmitt, C.; Mazurek, K.; Nadtochy, P. N.

2014-10-01

422

Governing stem cell therapy in India: regulatory vacuum or jurisdictional ambiguity?  

PubMed Central

Stem cell treatments are being offered in Indian clinics although preclinical evidence of their efficacy and safety is lacking. This is attributed to a governance vacuum created by the lack of legally binding research guidelines. By contrast, this paper highlights jurisdictional ambiguities arising from trying to regulate stem cell therapy under the auspices of research guidelines when treatments are offered in a private market disconnected from clinical trials. While statutory laws have been strengthened in 2014, prospects for their implementation remain weak, given embedded challenges of putting healthcare laws and professional codes into practice. Finally, attending to the capacities of consumer law and civil society activism to remedy the problem of unregulated treatments, the paper finds that the very definition of a governance vacuum needs to be reframed to clarify whose rights to health care are threatened by the proliferation of commercial treatments and individualized negligence-based remedies for grievances. PMID:25431534

Tiwari, Shashank S.; Raman, Sujatha

2014-01-01

423

An ambiguous truth: T. J. J. See and the surface relief of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the turn of the twentieth century the American astronomer T. J. J. See made a remarkable observation of Mercury. Though referred to in at least three printed sources it remained largely unknown until 1978. Some authorities questioned its authenticity; others took a more liberal view, but examination has since shown that while ostensibly genuine it cannot enter the historical record unchallenged, nor can it be accepted as a direct observational record because it too closely favours the beliefs of the observer. The original notebooks at the US Naval Observatory have now been released and examined, and a possible truth revealed, but in reality although it apparently substantiates the veracity of Dr See's assertion it does not do so in a direct or literal sense. A discussion of the ambiguity thus raised forms the essence of this brief communication.

Baum, R.

2011-10-01

424

The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction.  

PubMed

We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with processing light verb constructions such as "give a kiss". These constructions consist of a semantically underspecified light verb ("give") and an event nominal that contributes most of the meaning and also activates an argument structure of its own ("kiss"). This creates a mismatch between the syntactic constituents and the semantic roles of a sentence. Native speakers read German verb-final sentences that contained light verb constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a kiss"), non-light constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a rose"), and semantically anomalous constructions (e.g., *"Julius gave Anne a conversation"). ERPs were measured at the critical verb, which appeared after all its arguments. Compared to non-light constructions, the light verb constructions evoked a widely distributed, frontally focused, sustained negative-going effect between 500 and 900 ms after verb onset. We interpret this effect as reflecting working memory costs associated with complex semantic processes that establish a shared argument structure in the light verb constructions. PMID:24910498

Wittenberg, Eva; Paczynski, Martin; Wiese, Heike; Jackendoff, Ray; Kuperberg, Gina

2014-05-01

425

Why giving birth to sons could be bad for your health Giving birth to sons is bad for a mother's health, according to a new study.  

E-print Network

Why giving birth to sons could be bad for your health Giving birth to sons is bad for a mother's health, according to a new study. Giving birth to sons is more stressful for mothers and could shorten-reproductive lifespan for giving birth to many sons." Previous studies have suggested sons are especially costly

Lummaa, Virpi

426

Ambiguity--A Tool or Obstacle for Joint Productive Dialogue Activity in Deaf and Hearing Students' Reasoning about Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ambiguity of words and signs as a resource or obstacle in group discussions is studied. How deaf and hearing students aged 13-15 years elaborate on ecological concepts through dialogue is described. Group interviews were conducted with 14 hearing and 18 deaf students. Probes were used to initiate discussion about the different meanings of…

Molander, Bengt-Olov; Hallden, Ola; Lindahl, Camilla

2010-01-01

427

Ambiguities of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term at the finite temperature  

E-print Network

In this paper, we consider the finite temperature behaviour of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term in the extended Lorentz-breaking QED and demonstrate that its ambiguities whose presence has been shown earlier in the zero temperature case stay also at the finite temperature.

T. Mariz; J. R. Nascimento; A. Yu. Petrov; W. Serafim

2014-06-11

428

Semantic Similarity in a Taxonomy: An Information-Based Measure and its Application to Problems of Ambiguity in Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a measure of semantic similarity in an is-a taxonomy based on the notion of shared information content. Experimental evaluation against a benchmark set of human similarity judgments demonstrates that the measure performs significantly better than the traditional edge counting approach. The paper presents algorithms that take advantage of taxonomic similarity in resolving syntactic and semantic ambiguity, along

Philip Resnik

1999-01-01

429

ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

430

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 4, MAY 2010 2057 Analysis of Flip Ambiguities for Robust  

E-print Network

- tification of the likelihood of flip ambiguities in arbitrary sensor neighborhood geometries. Based, robust WSN localization. I. INTRODUCTION RECENT advances in integrated circuit design, embedded systems.Kannan@ nicta.com.au). B. Fidan is with the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineer- ing, University

Mao, Guoqiang

431

Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

2005-01-01

432

Fear and the Preparation of School Leaders: The Role of Ambiguity, Anxiety, and Power in Meaning Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An uncertainty has developed around the "core technology" of preparing educational leaders, making the general public question whether, in particular, university professors know what they are doing. This sense of ambiguity can also be found within the professoriate, where questioning of the knowledge base, standards, pedagogy, and university…

Young, Michelle D.; Brewer, Curtis

2008-01-01

433

When do people feel more risk? The effect of ambiguity tolerance and message source on purchasing intention of earthquake insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the impact of message source and ambiguity tolerance (AT) on risk perception and purchasing intention of earthquake insurance. Two months after Wenchuan earthquake, adult residents exposed to seismic hazard (n?=?108) were first asked to finish the AT scale and five items of risk perception. After being provided with a risk message from ‘news media’ (publicity) or

Dongqing Zhu; Xiaofei Xie; Jiaqiu Xie

2012-01-01

434

A Reading-Time Study of the Main Verb versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution by English Learners in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a self-paced reading task, the study aimed to investigate (a) whether English learners in Taiwan immediately resolve main verb versus reduced relative clause ambiguities in a similar way as native English speakers and (b) whether the learners at various English proficiency levels show diverse profiles. With analyses and syntheses of reading…

Yang, Pi-Lan; Shih, Su-Chin

2013-01-01

435

Simone De Beauvoir's Ethics and Postmodern Ambiguity: The Assertion of Freedom in the Face of the Absurd.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite de Beauvoir's language of bifurcations in her writings, she actually initiates a process of deconstructing Cartesian distinctions between the individual and society, past and present, present and future, means and ends, and ethics and freedom. The paper reconceptualizes her book, "The Ethics of Ambiguity," proposing a movement toward…

Slattery, Patrick; Morris, Marla

1999-01-01

436

Lexical Ambiguity in Statistics: What Do Students Know about the Words Association, Average, Confidence, Random and Spread?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language plays a crucial role in the classroom. The use of specialized language in a domain can cause a subject to seem more difficult to students than it actually is. When words that are part of everyday English are used differently in a domain, these words are said to have lexical ambiguity. Studies in other fields, such as mathematics and…

Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Fisher, Diane G.; Rogness, Neal T.

2009-01-01

437

Lexical Ambiguity in Statistics: How Students Use and Define the Words--Association, Average, Confidence, Random and Spread  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language plays a crucial role in the classroom. The use of specialized language in a domain can cause a subject to seem more difficult to students than it actually is. When words that are part of everyday English are used differently in a domain, these words are said to have lexical ambiguity. Studies in other fields, such as mathematics and…

Kaplan, Jennifer; Fisher, Diane G.; Rogness, Neal T.

2010-01-01

438

Multi-PRI Signal Processing for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Part II: RangeVelocity Ambiguity Mitigation  

E-print Network

Multi-PRI Signal Processing for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Part II: Range­Velocity developed to combat range­velocity (RV) ambiguity for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR). In Part I and velocity dealiasing using multi-PRI signal transmission and processing are presented. The effectiveness

Cho, John Y. N.

439

Nasal nicotine solution: a potential aid to giving up smoking?  

PubMed Central

A nasal solution was developed containing 2 mg nicotine for use as a kind of liquid snuff. Its absorption was studied in three subjects. An average peak of plasma nicotine concentrations of 86.9 nmol/l (14.1 ng/ml) was reached seven and a half minutes after taking the solution. This compared with an average peak of 158.4 nmol/l (25.7 ng/ml) one and a half minutes after completing (but seven and a half minutes after starting) a middle tar cigarette (1.4 mg nicotine) and an average peak of 52.4 nmol/l (8.5 ng/ml) after chewing nicotine gum (2 mg nicotine) for 30 minutes. The more rapid and efficient absorption of nicotine from the nasal nicotine solution than from nicotine chewing gum suggests that it might prove a useful aid to giving up smoking. Nasal nicotine solution might be particularly useful in smokers for whom the gum is less suitable on account of dentures or peptic ulcers or who experience nausea and dyspeptic symptoms from the gum. PMID:6402202

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Fernö, O

1983-01-01

440

Self-sacrifice and self-affirmation within care-giving.  

PubMed

According to the ethics of care, practices of care are sources of moral knowledge that take human relatedness into account. However, caregivers may also find themselves in situations that demand sacrifices, even to the point where their own self is at stake. This may not only be cause for concern about the risks of caregivers, the result of an unequal distribution of power, but it may as well be a chance for affirmation of one's identity, of self-attestation. As Ricoeur argues, giving of the self or even giving one's life may be the ultimate expression of one's belonging, in friendship, devotion or loyalty. Ricoeur also considers the meaning of giving a gift, which to him does not lie in any return gift, but rather in the gift as offering, as generosity. Giving is first of all a risk, a sacrifice, with only the hope that it will be received. In this article I aim to extend his argument to the realm of caregiving, thereby supporting my claim that some sort of self-sacrifice is implied in the very act of caring for others. PMID:25273334

van Nistelrooy, Inge

2014-11-01

441

Influencing Factors of Alumni Giving in Religious Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reasons that cause alumni to give to their alma mater have become more significant since 2008. In the recent issue of "Giving USA," the current recession, which began in December 2007 and continued through December 2009, has led to declines of 11.9% in giving to higher education (2010). Alumni giving and the reasons why they give has been…

Boal, John R.

2011-01-01

442

Predicting Alumni/ae Gift Giving Behavior: A Structural Equation Model Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on predicting alumni gift giving behavior at a large public research university (University of Michigan). A conceptual model was developed for predicting alumni giving behavior in order to advance the theoretical understanding of how capacity to give, motivation to give, and their interaction effect gift giving behavior.…

Mosser, John Wayne

443

Effectiveness of a Television Advertisement Campaign on Giving Cigarettes in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Methods Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement “Giving cigarettes is giving harm” were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18–45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. Results After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P < 0.001). The rate of not giving cigarettes dropped from 32.1% before the campaign to 28.5% after (P = 0.05). In the post-campaign evaluation, participants who reported seeing the advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study showed that an anti-tobacco television advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort. PMID:25196169

Qin, Yu; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Hu, Yihe; Xu, Guanqun; Ma, Jiuhua; Shi, Zumin

2014-01-01

444

14 CFR 221.150 - Method of giving power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Method of giving power of attorney. 221.150 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.150 Method of giving power of attorney. (a) Prescribed form...

2011-01-01

445

14 CFR 221.150 - Method of giving power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Method of giving power of attorney. 221.150 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.150 Method of giving power of attorney. (a) Prescribed form...

2013-01-01

446

14 CFR 221.150 - Method of giving power of attorney.  

...2014-01-01 false Method of giving power of attorney. 221.150 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.150 Method of giving power of attorney. (a) Prescribed form...

2014-01-01

447

14 CFR 221.150 - Method of giving power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Method of giving power of attorney. 221.150 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.150 Method of giving power of attorney. (a) Prescribed form...

2012-01-01

448

14 CFR 221.150 - Method of giving power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Method of giving power of attorney. 221.150 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.150 Method of giving power of attorney. (a) Prescribed form...

2010-01-01

449

Montreal Protocol: The Gift that Keeps on Giving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike many of my contemporaries, I did not begin my career with CFCs, ozone, and the Montreal Protocol. Instead, I began with climate change issue. In October 1989 I became Director of the Department of State's Office of Global Change, after the George H.W. Bush Administration agreed to host the Third Plenary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) at Georgetown University. Bert Bolin was IPCC Chair, Bill Reilly was EPA Administrator and John Sununu was White House Chief of Staff. I survived those early years and afterward had a long run with the climate change policy - lasting through six administrations. Last year I even chaired the Ad Hoc Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action in Durban at the 17th Conference of the Parties under the UN FCCC. I really plunged into the ozone issue in 2006 when I became the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environment. By then ozone was hardly ever mentioned, except to recall that the Montreal Protocol was undoubtedly the most successful multilateral environmental agreement ever undertaken - and to contrast it nostalgically with others that have not fared so well - particularly climate. Even worse, ozone was ancient history and most people thought we had solved that problem. Richard Benedict's Ozone Diplomacy had long been a staple of college courses on the global environment but few graduates saw a career in ozone, and it had become difficult to find people in government who were willing to work on it. In early 2007, my staff and I met with colleagues at EPA to brainstorm about the global effort to phase out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and move to alternatives - hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The transition from CFCs was nearing its end but HCFCs, though less potent, were still a problem for the ozone layer. We began to wonder -- could something be done to accelerate the phaseouts of HCFCs? We realized that proposing an acceleration would mean that developed countries would need to go first. Only later would they be followed by developing countries. The question was, could we do it? And if we could, how could we get others developed countries and then developing countries on side? After our internal discussions, State and EPA convened a workshop with U.S. stakeholders from the private sector and the environmental community. To our delight, both groups thought the United States should take the initiative. In retrospect, the winds were favorable - 2007 marked the 25th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol and many wanted to celebrate it with something significant. The private sector felt that it could meet an accelerated timetable for phasing out HCFCs - the technology was there. It was also clear that money in the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund had begun to decline with the developing country phaseout of CFCs and would decline even more steeply unless a new basis were found to continue it. But favorable winds do not always make for a smooth sail - and path to the accelerated phaseouts of 2007 proved challenging. At the time, practically no one thought the effort would succeed. Still, we did succeed. Yet even then it took time to for many to appreciate the significant benefits for the climate system, beyond the benefits to the stratospheric ozone layer. In fact, the continuing story of the Montreal Protocol is one of the gift that keeps on giving.

Reifsnyder, D. A.

2012-12-01

450

First three-dimensional observations of polar mesosphere winter echoes: Resolving space-time ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first three-dimensionally resolved observations of polar mesosphere winter echoes obtained with a 25 beam-experiment covering a volume of about 50 km in diameter (horizontal distance) at altitudes between 65 and 85 km. This allows us to resolve the classical space time ambiguity of single beam observations and reveals that the echoing structure was tilted in the East-West direction but showed no considerable tilt in the North-South direction. The Doppler shifts derived from the 24 off-zenith beam directions are consistent with the mean background wind measured independently by a co-located MF-radar. The time development of the 3-D echo-pattern is consistent with scattering structures that follow the constant phase lines of a medium frequency gravity wave that is propagating against the mean flow. Wave parameters derived from these observations are independently confirmed by the analysis of co-located wind measurements with the aforementioned MF-radar. Overall, the observed echo morphology in time and space is reminiscent of gravity wave breaking which is known to lead to a maximum of turbulence activity that moves with the phase of the wave.

Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.; Stober, G.; Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Zecha, M.

2011-11-01

451

When speech is ambiguous gesture steps in: Sensitivity to discourse-pragmatic principles in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Young children produce gestures to disambiguate arguments. This study explores whether the gestures they produce are constrained by discourse-pragmatic principles: person and information status. We ask whether children use gesture more often to indicate the referents that have to be specified, i.e., 3rd person and new referents, than the referents that do not have to be specified, i.e., 1st/2nd person and given referents. Chinese- and English-speaking children were videotaped while interacting spontaneously with adults, and their speech and gestures were coded for referential expressions. We found that both groups of children tended to use nouns when indicating 3rd person and new referents but pronouns or null arguments when indicating 1st/2nd person and given referents. They also produced gestures more often when indicating 3rd person and new referents, particularly when those referents were ambiguously conveyed by less explicit referring expressions (pronouns, null arguments). Thus Chinese- and English-speaking children show sensitivity to discourse-pragmatic principles not only in speech but also in gesture. PMID:20401173

So, Wing Chee; Demir, Özlem Ece; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2010-01-01

452

The Ambiguous Meanings of the Racial/Ethnic Categories Routinely used in Human Genetics Research  

PubMed Central

Many researchers are currently studying the distribution of genetic variations among diverse groups, with particular interest in explaining racial/ethnic health disparities. However, the use of racial/ethnic categories as variables in biological research is controversial. Just how racial/ethnic categories are conceptualized, operationalized, and interpreted is a key consideration in determining the legitimacy of their use, but has received little attention. We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 30 human genetics scientists from the US and Canada who use racial/ethnic variables in their research. They discussed the types of classifications they use, the criteria upon which they are based, and their methods for classifying individual samples and subjects. We found definitions of racial/ethnic variables were often lacking or unclear, the specific categories they used were inconsistent and context specific, and classification practices were often implicit and unexamined. We conclude that such conceptual and practical problems are inherent to routinely used racial/ethnic categories themselves, and that they lack sufficient rigor to be used as key variables in biological research. It is our position that it is unacceptable to persist in the constructing of scientific arguments based on these highly ambiguous variables. PMID:17959289

Hunt, Linda M.; Megyesi, Mary S

2008-01-01

453

Evidence for the ambiguity of the term constipation: the role of irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A satisfactory definition of constipation is elusive. An important and measurable element is slow colonic transit. Whole gut transit time, a proxy for colonic transit time, can be estimated from self recorded data on stool form and frequency. Our aim was to compare whole gut transit time with subjective definitions in the context of the general population. In a community based sample of 731 women aged 25-69 years the estimated whole gut transit time was compared with two subjective assessments of constipation-the woman's own perception and a symptom based definition proposed by an international working team (Rome definition). We have defined slow whole gut transit time as > 2 SD above the mean in women who seldom passed lumpy stools (that is, > 92 hours). Slow transit was present in 9.3% of the sample. Similar numbers met the subjective definitions (8.5% and 8.2%). However, the overlap between the three definitions was poor. Of 68 women with estimated slow transit, 28 had self perceived constipation, 20 had Rome defined constipation, and only 11 had both. Of subjects classified as constipated by the subjective definitions only 37% had slow transit; they had a high prevalence of irritable bowel symptoms. In conclusion, this study showed that the term constipation is ambiguous and often misleading and that attempts to base a definition on symptoms are misguided. In epidemiological studies, conclusions about the prevalence of constipation should be based on records of stool type and timing. PMID:7959204

Probert, C S; Emmett, P M; Cripps, H A; Heaton, K W

1994-01-01

454

The ambiguity of patient-centred practices: the case of a Dutch fertility clinic  

PubMed Central

When in-vitro fertilization (IVF) was introduced in the 1970s, doctors were criticized for not properly informing prospective users about its possible risks and limited success rates as well as for medicalizing fertility problems. Nowadays, many fertility clinics are seeking to improve their accountability to stakeholders through patient-centred practices. Based on an ethnographic study of a Dutch fertility clinic, outspoken in its aims to provide patient-centred medicine and to empower clients, this paper addresses how patient-centred medicine affects couples’ decision-making to use IVF and related reproductive technologies. The author contends that while patient-centred practices facilitate informed decision-making and support couples emotionally, they may also have unintended disciplining and normalizing effects. The information and support provided, the trust couples have in clinic staff, the ongoing visualization of conception mediated by medical technology – all can be seen as practices that strengthen lay people's ‘medical gaze’ in how they come to view their bodies, fertility problems and possible solutions. These unintended effects are labelled ‘the ambiguity of patient-centeredness’ as they (may) interfere with processes of autonomous decision-making. PMID:24827743

Gerrits, Trudie

2014-01-01

455

Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.  

PubMed

While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. PMID:25395222

Venema, Rachel M

2014-11-12

456

Child physical abuse risk moderates spontaneously inferred traits from ambiguous child behaviors?  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether parents at high-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed from low-risk parents in their tendency to infer positive traits and negative traits from children’s behaviors. The final sample consisted of 58 (25 low CPA risk and 33 high CPA risk) parents. Parents completed a false-recognition task, which involved viewing behavior descriptions paired with child photographs. Half of the behavior descriptions vaguely/strongly implied a trait and half of the implied traits were positive/negative. The contributions of automatic processes and controlled processes to task performance were examined using process dissociation procedures. Low CPA risk parents were significantly less likely to indicate negative traits were present in behavioral descriptions of children when negative traits were vaguely (compared to strongly) implied. In contrast, high CPA risk parents were equally likely to indicate negative traits were present regardless of whether the traits were vaguely or strongly implied. For low (but not high) CPA risk parents, automatic processes contributed significantly less to task performance when negative traits were vaguely implied compared to when the same traits were strongly implied. Given that parenting involves negotiating a seemingly endless series of ambiguous behaviors as children grow and develop, the capacity to refrain from automatically attributing negative traits to children when they exhibit vaguely negative behaviors may serve an important function in reducing risk of aggressive parenting behavior. PMID:23790508

McCarthy, Randy J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Hiraoka, Regina; Rutledge, Ericka; Jenkins, Jade

2014-01-01

457

Placing colonial ornithology: imperial ambiguities in Upper Canada, 1791-1841.  

PubMed

This paper examines the emergence of colonial ornithology in Upper Canada, 1791-1841, to determine the impact of empire and local contexts on the natural history activity. I argue that colonial ornithology emerged as a by-product of British imperialism that helped to reinforce British, upper- and middle-class, gender-specific white identities through practices of sportsman-hunting, taxidermy, natural theology, and the romantic-aesthetic. However, as this paper reveals, British imperial practices and ideas of ornithology relied on the participation of First Nations and Métis peoples, whose knowledge and skills were instrumental to British naturalists. The First Nations and Métis peoples therefore exerted a real presence in colonial ornithology in Upper Canada--albeit a subservient one in the British ornithological texts--as they positioned themselves as part of the ornithological trade with the collection and trading of specimens. Furthermore, British military officers, settlers, and tourists tapped into American scientific networks and knowledge systems rather than focusing solely on Britain as an imperial centre of accumulation. British imperial ideas and practices of colonial ornithology in Upper Canada therefore remained ambiguous during the early nineteenth century. PMID:19569389

Greer, Kirsten A

2008-01-01

458

Ambiguity domain-based identification of altered gait pattern in ALS disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The onset of a neurological disorder, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is so subtle that the symptoms are often overlooked, thereby ruling out the option of early detection of the abnormality. In the case of ALS, over 75% of the affected individuals often experience awkwardness when using their limbs, which alters their gait, i.e. stride and swing intervals. The aim of this work is to suitably represent the non-stationary characteristics of gait (fluctuations in stride and swing intervals) in order to facilitate discrimination between normal and ALS subjects. We define a simple-yet-representative feature vector space by exploiting the ambiguity domain (AD) to achieve efficient classification between healthy and pathological gait stride interval. The stride-to-stride fluctuations and the swing intervals of 16 healthy control and 13 ALS-affected subjects were analyzed. Three features that are representative of the gait signal characteristics were extracted from the AD-space and are fed to linear discriminant analysis and neural network classifiers, respectively. Overall, maximum accuracies of 89.2% (LDA) and 100% (NN) were obtained in classifying the ALS gait.

Sugavaneswaran, L.; Umapathy, K.; Krishnan, S.

2012-08-01

459

Individual Differences in Discriminatory Fear Learning under Conditions of Ambiguity: A Vulnerability Factor for Anxiety Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing conditioned stimulus (CS) and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Stress (DASS-S), but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as GAD. PMID:23755030

Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Boddez, Yannick; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

2013-01-01

460

Determinants of Private Giving to Public Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relationship between institutional factors, policy and governance factors, and macroeconomic factors and variations in overall voluntary support and its varying sources to public colleges and universities. Study results suggest that institutions at the top of the institutional hierarchy enjoy accumulative advantage in…

Liu, Ying

2006-01-01

461

What Message Should Health Educators Give regarding Electromagnetic Fields?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possibility of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) causing a number of medical conditions and common symptoms remains a concern and presents somewhat of a quandary to health educators in view of conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship of a number of EMF sources to reported symptoms in an attempt to,…

Al-Khamees, Nedaa A.

2008-01-01

462

Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Postponed: Giving Apoptosis a Break?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucoma is characterised by the preferential death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, mammalian models indicate that neurons pass through a period in which they manifest signs of neuronal damage, but have yet to fully commit to death. Mounting evidence suggests that one of the clearest indications of this process is the reduction in RGC dendritic arborisation, resulting in functional

Lilian Kisiswa; Adrian G. Dervan; Julie Albon; James E. Morgan; Michael A. Wride

2010-01-01

463

Using Blues in the Classroom: Giving Form to Feeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The blues, having been fundamental to the history and heritage of African Americans, can help kids find themselves and their cultures in the language-based activities that are part of the writing program at School #74 in Buffalo, New York. One of the chapters in the student anthology which resulted from the university/school cooperative program…

Szustak, Susan

464

Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider  

PubMed Central

Background In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG). Results Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. Conclusion We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception. PMID:22082300

2011-01-01

465

Long term follow-up of a child with ambiguous genitalia, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and unusual mosaicism.  

PubMed

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a condition of abnormal and asymmetrical gonadal development. This disorder is typically associated with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; however, other karyotypes have been rarely reported. The phenotype characterizing MGD is highly variable, although in most cases ambiguous genitalia are found. In addition, many individuals with MGD exhibit stigmata of Turner's syndrome. We describe a patient with MGD, found to have a 45,X/47,XYY karyotype, with the majority of the cell lines being 47,XYY. To our knowledge, our report is the first to describe the long-term follow-up of a patient with ambiguous genitalia diagnosed at birth with 45,X/47,XYY mosaicism. PMID:19960897

Ostrow, Vlady; De Luca, Francesco

2009-09-01

466

Inconclusive TSC Genetic Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Plan Results Reporting Staff Directory Board of Directors Endowment Fund Corporate Advisory Board Corporate Relations Policy Frequently ... a Donation Research Directed Donations Tributes Planned Giving/Endowments Partner Offers Workplace Giving/Matching Program Personal Online ...

467

An (un)clear conscience clause: the causes and consequences of statutory ambiguity in state contraceptive mandates.  

PubMed

Since 1996, twenty-eight states have adopted legislation mandating insurance coverage of prescription contraceptives for women. Most of these policies include language that allows providers to opt out of the requirement because of religious or moral beliefs-conscience clause exemptions. There is striking variation in how these exemptions are defined. This article investigates the sources and consequences of ambiguous versus precise statutory language in conscience clauses. We find that some forms of political and institutional fragmentation (party polarization and gubernatorial appointment power) are correlated with the degree of policy specificity in state contraceptive mandates. This finding reinforces previous law and policy scholarship that has shown that greater fragmentation promotes ambiguous statutory language because broad wording acts as a vehicle for compromise when actors disagree. Interestingly, it is the more precisely worded statutes that have prompted court battles. We explain this with reference to the asymmetry of incentives and mobilizing costs between those disadvantaged by broad (primarily female employees) versus precisely worded statutes (primarily Catholic organizations). Our findings suggest that the impact of statutory ambiguity on court intervention is heavily contextualized by the resources and organization of affected stakeholders. PMID:23645878

VanSickle-Ward, Rachel; Hollis-Brusky, Amanda

2013-08-01

468

How Feedback Biases Give Ineffective Medical Treatments a Good Reputation  

PubMed Central

Background Medical treatments with no direct effect (like homeopathy) or that cause harm (like bloodletting) are common across cultures and throughout history. How do such treatments spread and persist? Most medical treatments result in a range of outcomes: some people improve while others deteriorate. If the people who improve are more inclined to tell others about their experiences than the people who deteriorate, ineffective or even harmful treatments can maintain a good reputation. Objective The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that positive outcomes are overrepresented in online medical product reviews, to examine if this reputational distortion is large enough to bias people’s decisions, and to explore the implications of this bias for the cultural evolution of medical treatments. Methods We compared outcomes of weight loss treatments and fertility treatments in clinical trials to outcomes reported in 1901 reviews on Amazon. Then, in a series of experiments, we evaluated people’s choice of weight loss diet after reading different reviews. Finally, a mathematical model was used to examine if this bias could result in less effective treatments having a better reputation than more effective treatments. Results Data are consistent with the hypothesis that people with better outcomes are more inclined to write reviews. After 6 months on the diet, 93% (64/69) of online reviewers reported a weight loss of 10 kg or more while just 27% (19/71) of clinical trial participants experienced this level of weight change. A similar positive distortion was found in fertility treatment reviews. In a series of experiments, we show that people are more inclined to begin a diet with many positive reviews, than a diet with reviews that are representative of the diet’s true effect. A mathematical model of medical cultural evolution shows that the size of the positive distortion critically depends on the shape of the outcome distribution. Conclusions Online reviews overestimate the benefits of medical treatments, probably because people with negative outcomes are less inclined to tell others about their experiences. This bias can enable ineffective medical treatments to maintain a good reputation. PMID:25147101

Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

2014-01-01

469

Improved LANDSAT to give better view of earth resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch data of LANDSAT 3 is announced. The improved capability of the spacecrafts' remote sensors (the return beam vidicon and the multispectral scanner) and application of LANDSAT data to the study of energy supplies, food production, and global large-scale environmental monitoring are discussed along with the piggyback amateur radio communication satellite-OSCAR-D, the plasma Interaction Experiment, and the data collection system onboard LANDSAT 3. An assessment of the utility of LANDSAT multispectral data is given based on the research results to data from studies of LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Areas studied include agriculture, rangelands, forestry, water resources, environmental and marine resources, environmental and marine resources, cartography, land use, demography, and geological surveys and mineral/petroleum exploration.

1978-01-01

470

Pudendal nerve 3-dimensional illustration gives insight into surgical approaches.  

PubMed

The pudendal nerve is located topographically in areas in which plastic surgeon reconstruct the penis, the vagina, the perineum, and the rectum. This nerve is at risk for either compression or direct injury with neuroma formation from obstetrical, urogynecologic, and rectal surgery as well as pelvic fracture and blunt trauma. The purpose of this study was to create a 3-dimensional representation based on magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis supplemented with new anatomic dissections in men and women to delineate the location of the pudendal nerve and its branches, providing educational information both for surgical intervention and patient education. The results of this study demonstrated that most often there are at least 2, not 1, "pudendal nerves trunks" as they leave the pelvis to transverse the sacrotuberous ligament, and that there are most often 2, not 1, exit(s) from Alcock canal, one for the dorsal branch and one for the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve. PMID:24667877

Furtmüller, Georg J; McKenna, Courtney A; Ebmer, Johannes; Dellon, A Lee

2014-12-01

471

Does active engagement curricula give long-lived conceptual understanding?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both constructivist and sociocultural views of learning and instruction stresses the crucial role of active engagement. It has been demonstrated in large-scale studies that curricula that use âactive engagementâ instructional strategies achieve good results in conceptual tests. However most testing have been done at the end or immediately after a course. The important question is thus if strategies that purport to achieve high gains in conceptual tests produce a permanent change in studentâs world view from "Aristotelian" to "Newtonian" or if the effects reported are only temporary? Our data and data from Montana State University show that, after active engagement physics courses, student display a good conceptual understanding several years after instruction. It is thus concluded that some instructional strategies do achieve fundamental shifts in studentsâ conceptual framework.

Bernhard, Jonte

2012-07-13

472

Factors influencing trainers’ feedback-giving behavior: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The literature provides some insight into the role of feedback givers, but little information about within-trainer factors influencing ‘feedback-giving behaviours’. We looked for relationships between characteristics of feedback givers (self-efficacy, task perception, neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and elements of observation and feedback (frequency, quality of content and consequential impact). Methods We developed and tested several hypotheses regarding the characteristics and elements in a cross-sectional digital survey among GP trainers and their trainees in 2011 and 2012. We conducted bivariate analysis using Pearson correlations and performed multiple regression analysis. Results Sixty-two trainer-trainee couples from three Dutch institutions for postgraduate GP training participated in the study. Trainer scores on ‘task perception’ and on a scale of the trait ‘neuroticism’ correlated positively with frequency of feedback and quality of feedback content. Multiple regression analysis supported positive correlations between task perception and frequency of feedback and between neuroticism and quality of feedback content. No other correlations were found. Conclusion This study contributes to the literature on feedback giving by revealing factors that influence feedback-giving behaviour, namely neuroticism and task perception. Trainers whose task perception included facilitation of observation and feedback (task perception) and trainers who were concerned about the safety of their patients during consultations with trainees (neuroticism) engaged more frequently in observation and feedback and gave feedback of higher quality. PMID:24690387

2014-01-01

473

Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading.  

PubMed

Eye tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60 or more years) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g., park). In event-related potential (ERP) work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: Young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: High fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: High fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a trade-off between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of frontotemporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012). PMID:23687920

Stites, Mallory C; Federmeier, Kara D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

2013-11-01

474

Clinical outcome in diagnostically ambiguous foci of 'gland crowding' in the endometrium.  

PubMed

Premalignant endometrial lesions (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN)) are clonal neoplasms that arise focally and can be diagnosed using specific criteria: (1) area of glands exceeds that of stroma (glands/stroma >1), (2) nuclear and/or cytoplasmic features of epithelial cells differ between architecturally abnormal glands and normal background glands, and (3) maximum linear dimension exceeds 1?mm. However, localized groups of crowded endometrial glands may be encountered that do not fulfill all of the criteria for EIN, are interpreted as ambiguous, and are reported as 'focal gland crowding'. We conducted a retrospective study of gland crowding using a free-text index search for this term in our pathology files. The age of the patients, number of subsequent specimens, the duration, and the outcome of the follow-ups were recorded. Of the 71,579 consecutive gynecological pathology reports, 206 (0.3%) 'gland crowding' cases were identified, in which 69% (143/206) had follow-up sampling. Of these, 33 (23%) had an outcome diagnosis of EIN (27 cases; 19%) or carcinoma (6 cases; 4%). Included were 18 cases (55%) diagnosed within the first year and presumed concurrent, and an additional 15 (45%) discovered after 1 year and interpreted as a later phase of disease or new events. The term 'crowded glands' is a highly significant finding that carries a substantial risk of an outcome of EIN and occasionally malignancy. It underscores the importance of follow-up when some but not all of the criteria for EIN are encountered in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:20676062

Huang, Eric C; Mutter, George L; Crum, Christopher P; Nucci, Marisa R

2010-11-01

475

A Simple Method of Resolving the 180 Degree Ambiguity Employing the Chirality of Solar Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 180 degree ambiguity in magnetic field direction along polarity reversal boundaries can be resolved simply and reliably by a technique that we name "chiral method". For a given polarity boundary, the chiral method requires identifying the chirality of at least one solar feature related to the polarity boundary, familiarity with the one-to-one associations between the chirality of solar features, and the polarity of the network magnetic field on at least one side of the polarity boundary. We demonstrate the technique in 6 examples. The examples cover the spectrum of polarity boundaries associated with filament channels and filaments ranging from those associated with active regions to those on the quiet Sun.The applicability of the chiral method to all categories of filaments supports the view that active region filaments and quiescent filaments are the extreme ends in a continuous spectrum of filaments. An example is shown of a filament where the chirality could not be determined in low resolution images because of lack of consistency in barb orientation; however, at high resolution, all threads of this barb were found to be consistent with just one sense of chirality. The chiral method is almost universally applicable because many types of data, that reveal chirality in solar features, are now readily available over the world-wide web. Solar features that most commonly reveal chirality are filaments, filament channels, sigmoids, and both quiescent and dynamic coronal loop systems. Assuming that the chirality of the solar features is identified correctly, the method is fail-safe and physically meaningful because chirality is an observational representation of the helicity and there are clear differences between left-handed and right-handed solar structures.Support from US NSF grant ATM-0209395 and NASA grant NAG5-10852 are acknowledged for S.F.M. and Y.L.

Martin, Sara F.; Lin, Y.; Engvold, O.

2006-06-01