Sample records for give ambiguous results

  1. Image Ambiguity and Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

  2. Ambiguous Cube

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Don Rathjen

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners construct a three-dimensional ambiguous cube to explore visual illusions and how our brains interpret or misinterpret information. Learners will be surprised to see what the cube looks like when they hinder their depth perception by viewing it with only one eye.

  3. Ambiguity and underwriter decision processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Kunreuther; Jacqueline Meszaros; Robin M. Hogarth; Mark Spranca

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that risk and ambiguity affect underwriters' decisions on pricing insurance. A field study of primary-insurance underwriters in a random sample of commercial property-and-casualty insurance companies reveals that premiums are significantly higher for risks when there is either ambiguity regarding the probability of a particular event occurring and\\/or uncertainty about the magnitude of the resulting loss.

  4. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  5. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions.

  6. Range Ambiguities For A Polarimetric Spaceborne SAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Cordey; Pierluigi Mancini

    1992-01-01

    Results of modelling are presented of range ambiguities on a spaceborne polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar (SAR). Using 'interleaved-pulse' polarimetry and no additional pulse coding to suppress ambiguities, simulations have been performed of forest and ocean imaging for different numbers of near-range ambiguous swaths. Even neglecting antenna inter-channel crosstalk, which we expect to be serious in the sidelobes of an antenna's gain

  7. Stressors and coping strategies for HIV-test counselors giving rapid HIV-test results: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Grafsky, Erika L; Miller, Katye; Love, Randi

    2011-08-01

    Stress has been extensively researched in the HIV services field. Yet, research regarding stress related to HIV-test counseling has solely focused on stressors related to giving results, even though stress on the HIV test counselor can occur at many points within a counseling session. This exploratory, qualitative study examines the stressors faced and coping mechanisms utilized by HIV-test counselors at AIDS service organizations (ASOs) during rapid HIV-test counseling sessions. Forty-two HIV test counselors were interviewed regarding HIV-test counseling sessions in which they provided preliminary-positive/reactive, negative/nonreactive, and invalid results. Regardless of the test result, HIV test counselors faced stressors, including giving HIV test results; dealing with emotions; difficult clients; self-doubt; and systemic stressors. Most stress was managed through social support, preparatory coping strategies, respite, and putting things into perspective. Despite the exploratory nature of the study, the findings suggest that strengthening support bases and improving current training standards will increase the well-being of HIV test counselors. PMID:21745119

  8. Vignettes of Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

  9. Ordering Ambiguous Acts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Jewitt; Sujoy Mukerji

    2011-01-01

    We investigate what it means for one actot be more ambiguous than another. The question is evidently analogous to asking what makes one prospect rikier than another, but beliefs are neither objective nor representatable by a unique probability. Our starting point is an abstract class of preferences constructed to be (strictly) partially ordered by a more ambiguity averse relation. We

  10. Ambiguity aversion and hedging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Neilson

    The literature on asset markets with ambiguity averse traders es- tablishes that unless buyers and sellers completely disagree on the set of priors, no trade can occur. In this paper demand for the asset comes from a desire to use it to hedge against …nancial risk from other ac- tivities, and Pareto optimal trade can occur between ambiguity averse hedgers

  11. Conspicuous Giving 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Lindsay Alexandria

    2012-07-16

    When discussing charity, it is important to recognize that charity and other forms of giving are not solely done out of altruism, but can also be done out of greed and self promotion. It is especially important to recognize ...

  12. Nonperturbative Ambiguities and the Reality of Resurgent Transseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniceto, Inês; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    In a wide range of quantum theoretical settings—from quantum mechanics to quantum field theory, from gauge theory to string theory—singularities in the complex Borel plane, usually associated to instantons or renormalons, render perturbation theory ill-defined as they give rise to nonperturbative ambiguities. These ambiguities are associated to choices of an integration contour in the resummation of perturbation theory, along (singular) Stokes directions in the complex Borel plane (rendering perturbative expansions non-Borel summable along any Stokes line). More recently, it has been shown that the proper framework to address these issues is that of resurgent analysis and transseries. In this context, the cancelation of all nonperturbative ambiguities is shown to be a consequence of choosing the transseries median resummation as the appropriate family of unambiguous real solutions along the coupling-constant real axis. While the median resummation is easily implemented for one-parameter transseries, once one considers more general multi-parameter transseries the procedure becomes highly dependent upon properly understanding Stokes transitions in the complex Borel plane. In particular, all Stokes coefficients must now be known in order to explicitly implement multi-parameter median resummations. In the cases where quantum-theoretical physical observables are described by resurgent functions and transseries, the methods described herein show how one may cancel nonperturbative ambiguities, and define these observables nonperturbatively starting out from perturbation theory. Along the way, structural results concerning resurgent transseries are also obtained.

  13. Ambiguous Probabilistic Programs

    E-print Network

    2013-09-11

    ?2 distance, Hellinger distance, Variation distance, Burg entropy, and many ... further consider a number of specific instances of the ambiguity set. ...... approach to stochastic programming of heating oil. ... Chen, W., M. Sim, J. Sun, C-P Teo.

  14. Using Subcategorization to Resolve Verb Class Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lapata; Chris Brew

    1999-01-01

    Levin's (1993) taxonomy of verbs and their classes is a widely used resource for lexical semantics. In her framework, some verbs, such as give exhibit no class ambiguity. But other verbs, such as write, can inhabit more than one class. In some of these am- biguous cases the appropriate class for a particular token of a verb is immediately obvious

  15. Ionosphere-free and geometry-free triple-frequency combinations for ambiguity resolution: theory and first results with real data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Rothacher, M.

    2012-12-01

    The most recent GPS Block IIF satellites SVN62 and SVN63 and the GALILEO satellites GIOVE-A, GIOVE-B, PFM and FM2 already provide tracking data on more than two frequencies, and in the near future, all GNSS will transmit at least on three frequencies (GPS III, GLONASS KM, Galileo, COMPASS). The development of ambiguity resolution algorithms considering three (or more) frequencies is thus of crucial importance in the future. We will present a simplified general method for ambiguity resolution using triple-frequency geometry-free (GF) and ionosphere-free (IF) linear combinations with minimized noise level. Different scaling factors for the code noise on the three frequencies were introduced. Three linearly independent linear combinations are required to resolve the ambiguities on all three frequencies. Typically, ambiguity resolution on two linear combinations can easily be performed. For the third linear combination, which is the core problem of the triple-frequency ambiguity resolution, a general method using the ambiguity-corrected phase observations without any constraints was developed to search for the optimal GF and IF linear combination. We analytically demonstrated that the noise level of this third linear combination is only a function of the three frequencies and does not depend on the coefficients of the linear combination. This frequency-dependent noise factor was investigated for GPS, Galileo and COMPASS frequency triplets. The theoretical derivations were verified using real triple-frequency GPS (L1, L2, L5 from SVN62 and SVN63) and Galileo (E1, E5b, E5a from GIOVE-A, GIOVE-B, PFM and FM2) data from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) campaign of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The formal errors of the estimated ambiguities of the third linear combination using Galileo E1, E5b and E5a, which is expected to show the worst performance among all the GNSS frequency triplets, decrease in most cases to below 0.2 cycles after 400 observation epochs. A similar behavior is seen for the GPS ambiguities. An improvement of a factor of two to three can be expected, if more triple-frequency GPS satellites or if Galileo E6 signal tracking will become available for more stations in the future. This work is part of the project "Satellite and Station Clock Modeling for GNSS", which is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA).

  16. Ambiguities in Pauli-Villars regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiss, R. H. P.; Janssen, T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate regularization of scalar one-loop integrals in the Pauli-Villars subtraction scheme. The results depend on the number of subtractions, in particular the finite terms that survive after the divergences have been absorbed by renormalization. Therefore the process of Pauli-Villars regularization is ambiguous. We discuss how these ambiguities may be resolved by applying an asymptotically large number of subtractions, which results in a regularization that is automatically valid in any number of dimensions.

  17. Boundary Ambiguity in Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    Family boundary ambiguity refers to a lack of clarity as to who is in and who is out of the family system. Few studies have examined this concept in the stepfamily context, which is problematic because such definitional problems hinder our understanding of close relationships in stepfamilies. Based on a nationally representative sample of…

  18. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate. PMID:26067196

  19. Ambiguity and rational expectations equilibria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant V Ganguli; Scott Condie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proves the existence and robustness of partially-revealing rational expectations equilibria (REE) when this equilibrium concept is expanded to allow for some agents to have preferences that display ambiguity aversion. Furthermore, the generic existence of fully- revealing REE is proven for a commonly-used subset of the class of ambiguity averse preferences. This finding illustrates that models with ambiguity aversion

  20. Ambiguity in language networks

    E-print Network

    Solé, Ricard V

    2014-01-01

    Human language defines the most complex outcomes of evolution. The emergence of such an elaborated form of communication allowed humans to create extremely structured societies and manage symbols at different levels including, among others, semantics. All linguistic levels have to deal with an astronomic combinatorial potential that stems from the recursive nature of languages. This recursiveness is indeed a key defining trait. However, not all words are equally combined nor frequent. In breaking the symmetry between less and more often used and between less and more meaning-bearing units, universal scaling laws arise. Such laws, common to all human languages, appear on different stages from word inventories to networks of interacting words. Among these seemingly universal traits exhibited by language networks, ambiguity appears to be a specially relevant component. Ambiguity is avoided in most computational approaches to language processing, and yet it seems to be a crucial element of language architecture. ...

  1. Ambiguous Red Shifts

    E-print Network

    Carl E. Wulfman

    2010-10-11

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

  2. Sublexical ambiguity effect in reading Chinese disyllabic compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J-L

    2011-05-01

    For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in reading a disyllabic compound. The sublexical ambiguity of the first character was manipulated while the orthographic neighborhood sizes of the first and second character (NS1, NS2) were controlled. Subjective rating of number of meanings corresponding to a character was used as an index of sublexical ambiguity. Results showed that low sublexical ambiguity words elicited a more negative N400 than high sublexical ambiguity words when words were centrally presented. Similar patterns were found when words were presented to the left VF. Interestingly, different patterns were observed for pseudowords. With left VF presentation, high sublexical ambiguity psudowords showed a more negative N400 than low sublexical ambiguity pseudowords. In contrast, with right VF presentation, low sublexical ambiguity pseudowords showed a more negative N400 than high sublexical ambiguity pseudowords. These findings indicate that a level of morphological representation between form and meaning needs to be established and refined in Chinese. In addition, hemispheric asymmetries in the use of word information in ambiguity resolution should be taken into account, even at sublexical level. PMID:21353300

  3. The Ambiguity of the English Present Perfect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, Laura A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines grammatical and discourse-pragmatic reflexes of the existential and resultative readings of the English present perfect and presents negative and positive arguments regarding its ambiguity. It is suggested that the resultative verb represents a formal idiom and that mastery of aspectual grammar entails knowledge of form-meaning pairings.…

  4. Quantum entropic ambiguities: Ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; Queiroz, Amilcar; Vaidya, S.

    2013-07-01

    In a quantum system, there may be many density matrices associated with a state on an algebra of observables. For each density matrix, one can compute its entropy. These are, in general, different. Therefore, one reaches the remarkable possibility that there may be many entropies for a given state [R. Sorkin (private communication)]. This ambiguity in entropy can often be traced to a gauge symmetry emergent from the nontrivial topological character of the configuration space of the underlying system. It can also happen in finite-dimensional matrix models. In the present work, we discuss this entropy ambiguity and its consequences for an ethylene molecule. This is a very simple and well-known system, where these notions can be put to tests. Of particular interest in this discussion is the fact that the change of the density matrix with the corresponding entropy increase drives the system towards the maximally disordered state with maximum entropy, where Boltzman’s formula applies. Besides its intrinsic conceptual interest, the simplicity of this model can serve as an introduction to a similar discussion of systems such as colored monopoles and the breaking of color symmetry.

  5. Ambiguity, Information Acquisition and Price Swings in Asset Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Mele; Francesco Sangiorgi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies asset markets in which ambiguity averse investors face Knightian uncertainty about expected payoffs. The same investors, however, might wish to resolve their uncertainty, although not risk, by just purchasing information. In these markets, uninformed and, hence, ambiguity averse, agents may coexist with informed agents, as a result of a rational information acquisition process. Moreover, there are complementaries

  6. The Ambiguity of the Child's "Voice" in Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Sirkka

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the ambiguity of the child's "voice" in social research. Drawing on a recent research project on young children's communication difficulties, the author argues that the currently popular discourse on "listening to children" is beset with practical and ethical ambiguities that result from the "socialness" of human…

  7. A Statistical Approach for Ambiguous Sequence Mappings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When attempting to map RNA sequences to a reference genome, high percentages of short sequence reads are often assigned to multiple genomic locations. One approach to handling these “ambiguous mappings” has been to discard them. This results in a loss of data, which can sometimes be as much as 45% o...

  8. Reference dependent ambiguity aversion: theory and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianying Qiu; Utz Weitzel

    2011-01-01

    In standard models of ambiguity, the evaluation of an ambiguous asset, as of a risky asset, is considered as an independent process. In this process only information directly pertaining to the ambiguous asset is used. These models face significant challenges from the finding that ambiguity aversion is more pronounced when an ambiguous asset is evaluated alongside a risky asset than

  9. Insurer ambiguity and market failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Kunreuther; Robin Hogarth; Jacqueline Meszaros

    1993-01-01

    A series of studies investigate the decision processes of actuaries, underwriters, and reinsurers in setting premiums for ambiguous and uncertain risks. Survey data on prices reveal that all three types of these insurance decision makers are risk averse and ambiguity averse. In addition, groups appear to be influenced in their premium-setting decisions by specific reference points such as expected loss

  10. The Bas-Relief Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter N. Belhumeur; David J. Kriegman; Alan L. Yuille

    1997-01-01

    When an unknown object with Lambertian reflectance is viewed orthographically, there is an implicit ambiguity in determining its 3-d structure: we show that the object's visible surface is indistinguishable from a \\

  11. Endometrial carcinomas with ambiguous features.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Endometrial carcinomas are a heterogenous group of tumors that show variable histologies, molecular abnormalities and clinical outcomes. The idea of rigid distinctions between tumor types is appealing to pathologists, gynecologists, researchers and patients, but in a recent study where high grade endometrial carcinomas were reviewed by three experienced gynecologic pathologists, diagnostic agreement about tumor type was reached in only approximately one half of cases. In general, biologically and clinically validated diagnostic criteria are lacking for high grade endometrial carcinomas and for those that appear mixed epithelial. Until such criteria are developed, it remains important to define which morphologic patterns convey accurate clinical and biological information and which do not or might not. "Endometrial carcinomas with ambiguous features," the focus of this review, are tumors with comparatively uninformative morphologic features. Some publications indicate that gland forming and papillary endometrial carcinomas that appear morphologically low grade or ambiguous are really high grade. There are also indications that high grade endometrial carcinomas are biologically heterogeneous and that the morphologic clues we currently use to distinguish one subtype from another fail to correlate with biological data. Many tumors that appear morphologically mixed are, in fact, not biologically or clinically confused: most represent biologically "pure" tumors with variant morphology. Interesting associations between the presence of Lynch Syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma syndrome) and ambiguous morphology have been discussed in the literature. An apparent relationship between morphologic ambiguity and malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) also exists. The identity of some morphologically ambiguous endometrial carcinoma can be elucidated with immunohistochemistry or other ancillary techniques at present, but the nature of many still remains undefined. This review presents the concept of morphologically ambiguous endometrial carcinomas, proposes morphological gold standard diagnostic criteria for tumors that are not ambiguous (an effort that helps define tumors that are ambiguous), provides a relevant literature review and offers practical guidance for sorting through diagnostically challenging cases. PMID:21309260

  12. NonLocal Contexts Help Resolve Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krugman; Carl Vogel

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses nonlocal context effects in the interpretation of ambiguous utterances in natural lan- guage. We examine equivocation as a form of discourse ambiguity and demonstrate that nonlocal contexts can resolve ambiguity by providing a method for exploring the effects of global context. Of particular relevance is that the locus of ambiguity within the texts analyzed is within and

  13. Identification of syntactic ambiguities in Pashto text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Bilal; Mohammad Abid Khan; Rahman Ali

    2009-01-01

    Natural languages are inherently ambiguous. For a machine translation system, it is an essential task to resolve the ambiguities in the source language. Before resolution of ambiguities, their identification is an essential task. This research paper is about the classification and identification of syntactic ambiguities in Pashto text. Here, the identification is based on the parse trees build by the

  14. Measuring Ambiguity in HLA Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Madbouly, Abeer; Freeman, John; Maiers, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched), but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure objectively evaluates HLA typing methods and can help define acceptable HLA typing for donor recruitment. PMID:22952712

  15. An Ambiguity Aversion Framework of Security Games under Ambiguities , Xudong Luo2

    E-print Network

    Liu, Weiru

    An Ambiguity Aversion Framework of Security Games under Ambiguities Wenjun Ma1 , Xudong Luo2, uncertain, and even ambiguous strategy profiles' payoffs. To address this issue, we propose a general frame- work of security games under ambiguities based on Dempster-Shafer theory and the ambiguity aversion

  16. Teachers’ burnout, depression, role ambiguity and conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Papastylianou; Maria Kaila; Michael Polychronopoulos

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers’ burnout in primary education as related to depression and\\u000a role conflict–ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary\\u000a Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The results showed that\\u000a of the three factors

  17. Asymmetry and Ambiguity in Newsvendor Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karthik Natarajan; Melvyn Sim; Joline Uichanco

    The traditional decision-making framework for newsvendor models is to assume a distribution of the underlying demand. However, the resulting optimal policy is typically sensitive to the choice of the distribution. A more conservative approach is to assume that the distribution belongs to a set parameterized by a few known moments. An ambiguity-averse newsvendor would choose to maximize the worst-case profit.

  18. Nonperturbative Ambiguities and the Reality of Resurgent Transseries

    E-print Network

    Aniceto, Inês

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of quantum theoretical settings -- from quantum mechanics to quantum field theory, from gauge theory to string theory -- singularities in the complex Borel plane, usually associated to instantons or renormalons, render perturbation theory ill-defined as they give rise to nonperturbative ambiguities. These ambiguities are associated to choices of an integration contour in the resummation of perturbation theory, along (singular) Stokes directions in the complex Borel plane (rendering perturbative expansions non-Borel summable along any Stokes line). More recently, it has been shown that the proper framework to address these issues is that of resurgent analysis and transseries. In this context, the cancelation of all nonperturbative ambiguities is shown to be a consequence of choosing the transseries median resummation as the appropriate family of unambiguous real solutions along the coupling-constant real axis. While the median resummation is easily implemented for one-parameter transseries, onc...

  19. Performance analysis of multiple PRF technique for ambiguity resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    For short wavelength spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ambiguity in Doppler centroid estimation occurs when the azimuth squint angle uncertainty is larger than the azimuth antenna beamwidth. Multiple pulse recurrence frequency (PRF) hopping is a technique developed to resolve the ambiguity by operating the radar in different PRF's in the pre-imaging sequence. Performance analysis results of the multiple PRF technique are presented, given the constraints of the attitude bound, the drift rate uncertainty, and the arbitrary numerical values of PRF's. The algorithm performance is derived in terms of the probability of correct ambiguity resolution. Examples, using the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-SAR parameters, demonstrate that the probability of correct ambiguity resolution obtained by the multiple PRF technique is greater than 95 percent and 80 percent for the SIR-C and X-SAR applications, respectively. The success rate is significantly higher than that achieved by the range cross correlation technique.

  20. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  1. Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Gilles; Allaway, Heather C. M.; Demel, Michael; Golemis, Adrianos; Kindrat, Alexandra N.; Melinyshyn, Alexander N.; Merali, Tahir; Thirsk, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5–6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70–30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of “illusory” depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues. PMID:26146839

  2. On the Dangers of Administrative Ambiguity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Harvey

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ambiguous situations in university administration can often act to the detriment of democratic functioning, and that, in contrast, structured processes, far from impeding, can actually facilitate the democratic process. Distinguishes between malevolent and benevolent ambiguity. (DMM)

  3. Avoiding Lexical Ambiguities: Does Prior Experience Help? 

    E-print Network

    Burns, Rebecca

    2008-06-27

    This study examined whether speakers avoid lexical ambiguities in a communication task by avoiding ambiguous descriptions when two interpretations are plausible and, furthermore, whether this avoidance is increased after ...

  4. Avoiding Lexical Ambiguities: Does Prior Experience Help? 

    E-print Network

    Nierop, Katharine

    2008-06-27

    The present study examined whether speakers avoided the production of lexically ambiguous target labels in a referential communication task (e.g., avoiding the ambiguous bare homophone mouse when pictures of both a computer ...

  5. Underspecification of syntactic ambiguities: evidence from self-paced reading.

    PubMed

    Swets, Benjamin; Desmet, Timothy; Clifton, Charles; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Syntactically ambiguous sentences are sometimes read faster than disambiguated strings. Models of parsing have explained this tendency by appealing either to a race in the construction of alternative structures or to reanalysis. However, it is also possible that readers of ambiguous sentences save time by strategically underspecifying interpretations of ambiguous attachments. In a self-paced reading study, participants viewed sentences with relative clauses that could attach to one of two sites. Type of question was also manipulated between participants in order to test whether goals can influence reading/parsing strategies. The experiment revealed an ambiguity advantage in reading times, but only when participants expected superficial comprehension questions. When participants expected queries about relative clause interpretation, disambiguating regions were inspected with more care, and the ambiguity advantage was attenuated. However, even when participants expected relative clause queries, question-answering times suggested underspecified representations of ambiguous relative clause attachments. The results support the construal and "good-enough" models of parsing. PMID:18323075

  6. Where Does Sociopragmatic Ambiguity Come From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Susan Meredith

    Sociopragmatic ambiguity (SPA) is claimed here to differ from other, better-known types of ambiguity, in terms of its locus, cause, and effect. SPA is characteristic of whole-discourse features rather than of lexical items or phrases. The ambiguity is one of social rather than ideational or semantic meaning. It is claimed that SPA arises through…

  7. Implications of Ambiguity for Scientometric Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    The essence of Scientomatics is precise measurement. Yet the measurements made in Scientometric research are steeped in ambiguity. This article explores the nature of ambiguity in measurement, probes for mechanisms that allow regularities to be discovered in an environment in which ambiguity is pronounced, and describes Lotka's law (often used to…

  8. Ambiguity aversion and rational herd behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyong Dong; Qingyang Gu; Xu Han

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on herd behaviour in financial markets in the context of the sequential trading model and points out the importance of incorporating ambiguity into the framework. Although Ford et al. (2005) have applied the Choquet-expected-utility theory to analyse the relationship between ambiguity and herd behaviour, their model does not allow for the separation between ambiguity and

  9. Preference Relativity, Ambiguity and Social Welfare Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhijun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    In the real world many social and economic decisions have to be made with imperfect information and uncertainty. In the past two decades, economists and mathematicians have devoted a great deal of time and effort into the study of ambiguity and much progress has been made in modeling ambiguity. Decision models under ambiguity have been widely used in portfolio selection,

  10. Learning and Asset Prices under Ambiguous Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Trojani; Markus Leippold; Paolo Vanini

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new continuous time framework to study asset prices under learning and ambiguity aversion. In a partial information Lucas economy with time additive power utility, a discount for ambiguity arises if and only if the elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) is above one. Then, ambiguity increases equity premia and volatilities, and lowers interest rates. Very low EIS estimates

  11. The Bas-Relief Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter N. Belhumeur; David J. Kriegman; Alan L. Yuille

    1999-01-01

    When an unknown object with Lambertian reflectance is viewed orthographically, there is an implicit ambiguity in determining its 3-d structure: we show that the object's visible surface f(x, y) is indistinguishable from a “generalized bas-relief” transformation of the object's geometry, \\u000a$$ {\\\\bar f} $$\\u000a (x, y) = ?f(x, y) + µx + ?y, and a corresponding transformation on the object's

  12. Role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction in nurse executives.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Theresa; Sabo, Carolyn E

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a cross-sectional correlational survey design of nurse executives' (NEs') views on role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, and depression. A total of 380 surveys were returned from 1000 randomly selected participants. Four instruments were utilized, 1 for demographic data and 3 established instruments. Results indicated that the respondents had low to moderate amounts of role ambiguity, high levels of job satisfaction, low levels of depression, a negative relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity and job satisfaction, and a positive relationship between role conflict and depression. Furthermore, although levels of role conflict are decreasing, levels of role ambiguity are increasing. Neither educational level nor age was related to the dependent variables. Role conflict and role ambiguity are both forms of role stress. This study indicates that stress levels are not overwhelming to the NE and may be encouraging development of required skills. Healthcare organizations will continue to evolve and increase in complexity putting pressure on NEs in their many roles. Although this study did not consider strategies for coping with stress, this important avenue needs to be considered as NEs move forward with more extensive roles in the leadership of our healthcare system. PMID:20023564

  13. Social anxiety and interpretation of ambiguous smiles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether social anxiety facilitates the discrimination between genuine and ambiguous smiles. Socially anxious (N=20) and nonanxious (N=20) participants categorized as "happy" or "not happy" faces with either (1) a truly happy expression (i.e., happy eyes and a smile), (2) truly nonhappy expressions (e.g., angry eyes and an angry mouth), or (3) blended expressions with a smiling mouth and nonhappy (e.g., angry, sad, etc.) eyes. Results indicated that, relative to nonanxious participants, those high in social anxiety were more likely to judge as "not happy" any blended expression with nonhappy eyes, and they were faster in judging as "not happy" the blended expressions with angry, fearful, or disgusted eyes (but not those with sad, surprised, or neutral eyes). These results suggest, respectively, that social anxiety inhibits a benign interpretation of all the ambiguous expressions with a smile, and speeds up the detection of threatening eyes in such expressions. Importantly, no differences appeared as a function of social anxiety for truly happy or nonhappy faces. This rules out a response-bias explanation, and also reveals that social anxiety does not affect sensitivity in the recognition of prototypical expressions. PMID:23662633

  14. Possible ambiguities in the equation of state for neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi; Ryu, C. Y. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Deliduman, Cemsinan [Department of Physics, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Bomonti 34380, Istanbul (Turkey); Güngör, Can; Kele?, Vildan [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Physics Engineering Department, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, Grant J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    We addressed possible ambiguities on the properties of neutron stars (NSs) estimated in theoretical sides. First, roles of hyperons inside the NS are discussed through various relativistic mean field (RMF) theories. In particular, the extension of SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry to SU(3) flavor symmetry is shown to give rise to the increase of hyperon threshold density, similarly to the Fock term effects in RMF theories. As a result, about 2.0 solar mass is obtained with the hyperons. Second, the effect by the modified f(R) gravity, which leaves a room for the dark energy in the Einstein equation to be taken into account, is discussed for the NS in a strong magnetic field (MF). Our results show that the modified gravity with the Kaluza-Klein electro-magnetism theory expanded in terms of a length scale parameter may reasonably describe the NS in strong MF, so called magnetar. Even the super-soft equation of state is shown to be revived by the modified f(R) gravity.

  15. Giving Medicine to Children

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... be tough to get them to take their medicine. Watch this video for tips from an FDA ...

  16. A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.

  17. Sequence data - Magnitude and implications of some ambiguities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.; Jukes, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    A stochastic model is applied to the divergence of the horse-pig lineage from a common ansestor in terms of the alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin and fibrinopeptides. The results are compared with those based on the minimum mutation distance model of Fitch (1972). Buckwheat and cauliflower cytochrome c sequences are analyzed to demonstrate their ambiguities. A comparative analysis of evolutionary rates for various proteins of horses and pigs shows that errors of considerable magnitude are introduced by Glx and Asx ambiguities into evolutionary conclusions drawn from sequences of incompletely analyzed proteins.

  18. Ambiguity’s aftermath: How age differences in resolving lexical ambiguity affect subsequent comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2012-01-01

    When ambiguity resolution is difficult, younger adults recruit selection-related neural resources that older adults do not. To elucidate the nature of those resources and the consequences of their recruitment for subsequent comprehension, we embedded noun/verb homographs and matched unambiguous words in syntactically well-specified but semantically neutral sentences. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase whose head noun was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating past findings, younger but not older adults elicited sustained frontal negativity to homographs compared to unambiguous words. On the subsequent head nouns, younger adults showed plausibility effects in all conditions, attesting to successful meaning selection through suppression. In contrast, older adults showed smaller plausibility effects following ambiguous words and failed to show plausibility effects when the context picked out the homograph’s non-dominant meaning (i.e., they did not suppress the contextually-irrelevant dominant meaning). Meaning suppression processes, reflected in the frontal negativity, thus become less available with age, with consequences for subsequent comprehension. PMID:22321956

  19. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity: Integration of the Literature and Directions for Future Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Van Sell; Randall S. Schuler

    1981-01-01

    Although research on role conflict and ambiguity has been extensive, there has been only moderate consistency in the focus and results of the research, while several areas of role conflict and ambiguity research are still relatively unexamined. This paper suggests that a framework for organizing the recent research may assist in consolidating the field and providing an understanding of where

  20. Lexical and Referential Cues to Sentence Interpretation: An Investigation of Children's Interpretations of Ambiguous Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Bavin, Edith L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of children's (aged 3;5-9;8) comprehension of sentences containing ambiguity of prepositional phrase (PP) attachment. Results from a picture selection study (N=90) showed that children use verb semantics and preposition type to resolve the ambiguity, with older children also showing sensitivity to the…

  1. Giving Something Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, James R.; Costello, Charles P.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Ignatian Lay Volunteer Corps (ILVC), an organization of retired people who volunteer to serve the poor by teaching and counseling. Suggests that ILVC volunteers want to help others as a way of giving back what they have been given. (AJL)

  2. Processing Deliberate Ambiguity in Newspaper Headlines: Double Grounding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brone, Geert; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processing and appreciation of double grounding, a form of intentional ambiguity often used in the construction of headlines. For example, in "Russia takes the froth off Carlsberg results," the key element, "takes the froth off," is significant both metaphorically, where it refers to the detrimental impact of…

  3. AMBIG: Automated Ambiguity-Resolution Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Crouch, A.

    2014-04-01

    AMBIG is a fast, automated algorithm for resolving the 180° ambiguity in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide ambiguity-resolved data for the general user community.

  4. Ring Chromosome 13 and Ambiguous Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Özsu, Elif; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Gül; ?pekçi, Belk?s

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum. PMID:24932608

  5. Ring chromosome 13 and ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Ozsu, Elif; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Gül; Ipekçi, Belk?s

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum. PMID:24932608

  6. Learning and Asset Prices Under Ambiguous Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Leippold; Fabio Trojani; Paolo Vanini

    2008-01-01

    In a Lucas exchange economy with standard power utility, we study asset prices under learning and ambiguous information. In contrast with models featuring only learning or ambiguity, our model is successful in matching the equity premium, the interest rate, and the volatility of stock returns under empirically reasonable parameters. Our closed-form formulas also show that a severe downward bias arises

  7. Ambiguity in portfolio selection Georg Pflug

    E-print Network

    Pflug, Georg

    Ambiguity in portfolio selection Georg Pflug David Wozabal Abstract In this paper, we consider the problem of finding optimal portfolios in cases when the underlying probability model is not perfectly Introduction: The ambiguity problem The decision about optimal composition of a portfolio is a complex pro

  8. Evidence against Competition during Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gompel, R.P.G.; Pickering, M.J.; Pearson, J.; Liversedge, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    We report three eye-movement experiments that investigated whether alternative syntactic analyses compete during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Previous research (Traxler, Pickering, & Clifton, 1998; Van Gompel, Pickering, & Traxler, 2001) has shown that globally ambiguous sentences are easier to process than disambiguated sentences, suggesting…

  9. Healing of large midline wounds in infants: unlike in adults, does conservative approach give better results? Two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suliman, M Taifour

    2006-09-01

    The case of two infants with large midline wounds, one with an omphalocele and the other with a lumbosacral wound secondary to ruptured meningocele, is reported wherein the advantages of leaving such wounds in infants to heal spontaneously over surgical intervention are shown. In this report, the cases are discussed and the literature is reviewed. It is concluded that the midline wounds in infants yield better results if left to heal spontaneously. PMID:16984581

  10. Tolerance for ambiguity among medical students: implications for their selection, training and practice.

    PubMed

    Geller, G; Faden, R R; Levine, D M

    1990-01-01

    The practice of medicine has always been characterized by uncertainty. Yet, attempts to study tolerance for uncertainty in medicine have been few, and limited to its influence on specialty preferences and test-ordering behavior. In particular, studies have not investigated how the process of socialization into the medical profession affects tolerance for uncertainty. Based on the assumption that uncertainty and ambiguity are related concepts, a modified version of a tolerance for ambiguity scale was used to study Johns Hopkins medical students' (N = 386) tolerance for ambiguity (TFA) through 4 yr of medical school. In addition, using alcoholism as an example of a clinically ambiguous condition, the association between students' tolerance for ambiguity and their perceived role in diagnosing and treating alcoholism was also investigated. Results indicate that tolerance for ambiguity (1) does not change throughout medical school, (2) is lower among men, whites and students who are younger when they begin medical school, (3) is higher among prospective psychiatrists than surgeons, and (4) is lower among students who do not feel responsible for diagnosing and treating alcoholism. These findings suggest that tolerance for ambiguity may, indeed, affect practitioners' career choices and performance and that selection of medical students may be more important than medical training per se in influencing students' tolerance for ambiguity. If medical schools admitted students who possess a high tolerance for ambiguity, quality of care for ambiguous conditions might improve, imbalances in physician supply and practice patterns might be reduced, and the increasing ambiguity in medical practice might be better acknowledge and accepted. PMID:2218644

  11. Autologous transplantation gives encouraging results for young adults with favorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia, but is not improved with gemtuzumab ozogamicin

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhuoxin; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; Paietta, Elisabeth M.; Racevskis, Janis; Dewald, Gordon; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Tallman, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a prospective, randomized phase 3 trial evaluating the use of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in an intensive consolidation approach in 657 patients 17-60 years of age. Patients in first complete remission (CR1) after cytarabine and standard- or high-dose daunorubicin induction received 2 cycles of consolidation with high-dose cytarabine followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell collection. The 352 patients who entered consolidation were randomized to receive GO (n = 132) or not (n = 138) and then proceeded to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). GO was given to 67 patients. Median follow-up was 50.9 months. Results of the intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated a 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 33.6% versus 35.9% (P = .54) and an overall survival (OS) of 41.3% versus 41.9% (P = .52) for those randomized to receive GO versus no GO, respectively. Patients with favorable- and intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with high-dose daunorubicin and autologous HCT had 4-year DFS rates of 60% and 40% and OS rates of 80% and 49.3%, respectively. For younger AML patients in CR1, autologous HCT should be considered in favorable- and intermediate-cytogenetic risk patients who do not have an allogeneic donor. The addition of a single dose of GO in this setting did not improve outcomes. This trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00049517. PMID:21415269

  12. SciGirls Summer Camp is the result of a partnership between the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and our local public television station, WFSU. This camp gives middle school girls the opportunity to work with STEM professionals

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    SciGirls Summer Camp is the result of a partnership between the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and our local public television station, WFSU. This camp gives middle school girls the opportunity to work with STEM professionals on hands-on projects. Each summer the MagLab hosts a pair of two-week SciGirls

  13. Disclosing ambiguous gene aliases by automatic literature profiling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Retrieving pertinent information from biological scientific literature requires cutting-edge text mining methods which may be able to recognize the meaning of the very ambiguous names of biological entities. Aliases of a gene share a common vocabulary in their respective collections of PubMed abstracts. This may be true even when these aliases are not associated with the same subset of documents. This gene-specific vocabulary defines a unique fingerprint that can be used to disclose ambiguous aliases. The present work describes an original method for automatically assessing the ambiguity levels of gene aliases in large gene terminologies based exclusively in the content of their associated literature. The method can deal with the two major problems restricting the usage of current text mining tools: 1) different names associated with the same gene; and 2) one name associated with multiple genes, or even with non-gene entities. Important, this method does not require training examples. Results Aliases were considered “ambiguous” when their Jaccard distance to the respective official gene symbol was equal or greater than the smallest distance between the official gene symbol and one of the three internal controls (randomly picked unrelated official gene symbols). Otherwise, they were assigned the status of “synonyms”. We evaluated the coherence of the results by comparing the frequencies of the official gene symbols in the text corpora retrieved with their respective “synonyms” or “ambiguous” aliases. Official gene symbols were mentioned in the abstract collections of 42 % (70/165) of their respective synonyms. No official gene symbol occurred in the abstract collections of any of their respective ambiguous aliases. In overall, querying PubMed with official gene symbols and “synonym” aliases allowed a 3.6-fold increase in the number of unique documents retrieved. Conclusions These results confirm that this method is able to distinguish between synonyms and ambiguous gene aliases based exclusively on their vocabulary fingerprint. The approach we describe could be used to enhance the retrieval of relevant literature related to a gene. PMID:21210969

  14. Three to six ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy data fitting.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, J Ross

    2012-05-01

    Several important ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy (IS) model data-fitting results are identified and illustrated by means of complex-nonlinear-least-squares (CNLS) fits of experimental and synthetic frequency response data. A well-known intrinsic ambiguity, following from Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, arises from the indistinguishability in external measurements of conduction and displacement currents. Usual fit models for either dielectric or conductive-system situations, such as the Davidson-Cole one, only involve a strength parameter, a dielectric constant, a characteristic relaxation time, and a fractional exponent and lead to no additional ambiguities. But the situation is different for more powerful and useful general models, such as ordinary or anomalous diffusion Poisson-Nernst-Planck ones: PNP and PNPA, used here, whose historical background, current status, and applicability are described and discussed herein. They apply to two different kinds of experimental IS situations and involve several additional, potentially free fit parameters, such as the mobilities of positive and negative charge carriers, and generation-recombination parameters that determine the partial or complete dissociation of a neutral entity of concentration N(0) into positive and negative charge carriers of equal concentration, c(0). Then, several additional ambiguities appear that may require information about the material system involved for their adequate resolution. PMID:22481085

  15. Three to six ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy data fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, J. Ross

    2012-05-01

    Several important ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy (IS) model data-fitting results are identified and illustrated by means of complex-nonlinear-least-squares (CNLS) fits of experimental and synthetic frequency response data. A well-known intrinsic ambiguity, following from Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations, arises from the indistinguishability in external measurements of conduction and displacement currents. Usual fit models for either dielectric or conductive-system situations, such as the Davidson-Cole one, only involve a strength parameter, a dielectric constant, a characteristic relaxation time, and a fractional exponent and lead to no additional ambiguities. But the situation is different for more powerful and useful general models, such as ordinary or anomalous diffusion Poisson-Nernst-Planck ones: PNP and PNPA, used here, whose historical background, current status, and applicability are described and discussed herein. They apply to two different kinds of experimental IS situations and involve several additional, potentially free fit parameters, such as the mobilities of positive and negative charge carriers, and generation-recombination parameters that determine the partial or complete dissociation of a neutral entity of concentration N0 into positive and negative charge carriers of equal concentration, c0. Then, several additional ambiguities appear that may require information about the material system involved for their adequate resolution.

  16. Confidence Intervals: Giving Meaning to your results

    E-print Network

    Gilleland, Eric

    ­ Physics · Sampling ­ Verification statistic is a realization of a random process ­ What if the experiment rights reserved. Confidence Intervals (CI's) "If we re-run the experiment 100 times, and create 100 (1. ­ Normal approximation CI's are most common. ­ Quick and easy. #12;copyright 2009, UCAR, all rights

  17. Give Me... Your Huddled Masses...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ambiguity in the attitudes of the U. S. and Canadian governments toward what are perceived as "real" refugees and more dubious asylum seekers. Outlines policies toward asylum seekers, points out inconsistencies, and notes some recently proposed changes in immigration law. (SLD)

  18. Theory of carrier phase ambiguity resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and\\u000a navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling\\u000a of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this\\u000a contribution a brief review

  19. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at “best” probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of “best” estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity. PMID:26042081

  20. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  1. Yang-Mills analogues of the Immirzi ambiguity

    E-print Network

    R. Gambini; O. Obregon; J. Pullin

    1998-01-15

    We draw parallels between the recently introduced ``Immirzi ambiguity'' of the Ashtekar-like formulation of canonical quantum gravity and other ambiguities that appear in Yang-Mills theories, like the $\\theta$ ambiguity. We also discuss ambiguities in the Maxwell case, and implication for the loop quantization of these theories.

  2. The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    1995-01-01

    The GPS double difference carrier phase measurements are ambiguous by an unknown integer number of cycles. High precision relative GPS positioning based on short observational timespan data, is possible, when reliable estimates of the integer double difference ambiguities can be determined in an efficient manner. In this contribution a new method is introduced that enables very fast integer least-squares estimation

  3. Endogenous incompleteness of financial markets: The role of ambiguity and ambiguity aversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2009-01-01

    Incompleteness of financial markets has been widely questioned in the literature, but traditional research has been mainly focused on the role of transaction costs and asymmetric information in determining such incompleteness. This paper, instead, focuses on agents’ preferences, showing that the introduction of ambiguity and ambiguity aversion may induce investors to restrict their trading to a simpler set of assets,

  4. Clarity and ambiguity in psychoanalytic practice.

    PubMed

    Szajnberg, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    The author explores the presence and the essential tension between clarity and ambiguity as processes within our minds that become prominent in psychoanalysis. We learn from aesthetics and literary criticism that ambiguity can shade from taut disorganization to tolerating life's richness; clarity can range from a concrete fixity to a lucid grasp of one's state of mind. This article responds to Wallerstein's (1991) challenge to find common ground in psychoanalytic practice: We attempt this by avoiding metapsychological jargon and relying on more experience-near terms, such as clarity and ambiguity. The article also refers to Sandler's (1983) concept of implicit theory-that psychoanalysts use "preconscious, overlapping but not fully integrated models" (Sandler, 1988, p. 388)-in this case explicating how clarity and ambiguity are frequent but implicit phenomena in clinical work. Identifying these and the essential tension between them permits us to both improve training and identify our clinical efforts. The analyst's and analysand's tolerance of the tension between clarity and ambiguity facilitates increased structuralization and emotional robustness. PMID:21500957

  5. Improving the estimation of fractional-cycle biases for ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianghui; Shi, Chuang; Ge, Maorong; Dodson, Alan H.; Lou, Yidong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2012-08-01

    Ambiguity resolution dedicated to a single global positioning system (GPS) station can improve the accuracy of precise point positioning. In this process, the estimation accuracy of the narrow-lane fractional-cycle biases (FCBs), which destroy the integer nature of undifferenced ambiguities, is crucial to the ambiguity-fixed positioning accuracy. In this study, we hence propose the improved narrow-lane FCBs derived from an ambiguity-fixed GPS network solution, rather than the original (i.e. previously proposed) FCBs derived from an ambiguity-float network solution. The improved FCBs outperform the original FCBs by ensuring that the resulting ambiguity-fixed daily positions coincide in nature with the state-of-the-art positions generated by the International GNSS Service (IGS). To verify this improvement, 1 year of GPS measurements from about 350 globally distributed stations were processed. We find that the original FCBs differ more from the improved FCBs when fewer stations are involved in the FCB estimation, especially when the number of stations is less than 20. Moreover, when comparing the ambiguity-fixed daily positions with the IGS weekly positions for 248 stations through a Helmert transformation, for the East component, we find that on 359 days of the year the daily RMS of the transformed residuals based on the improved FCBs is smaller by up to 0.8 mm than those based on the original FCBs, and the mean RMS over the year falls evidently from 2.6 to 2.2 mm. Meanwhile, when using the improved rather than the original FCBs, the RMS of the transformed residuals for the East component of 239 stations (i.e. 96.4% of all 248 stations) is clearly reduced by up to 1.6 mm, especially for stations located within a sparse GPS network. Therefore, we suggest that narrow-lane FCBs should be determined with ambiguity-fixed, rather than ambiguity-float, GPS network solutions.

  6. Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences

    PubMed Central

    Vitello, Sylvia; Warren, Jane E.; Devlin, Joseph T.; Rodd, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., “bark,” “bank”). Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretation of an ambiguous word. Here we used fMRI to investigate this hypothesis. 20 native British English monolinguals were scanned whilst listening to sentences that contained an ambiguous word. To induce semantic reinterpretation, the disambiguating information was presented after the ambiguous word and delayed until the end of the sentence (e.g., “the teacher explained that the BARK was going to be very damp”). These sentences were compared to well-matched unambiguous sentences. Supporting the reinterpretation hypothesis, these ambiguous sentences produced more activation in both the LIFG and the left posterior inferior temporal cortex. Importantly, all but one subject showed ambiguity-related peaks within both regions, demonstrating that the group-level results were driven by high inter-subject consistency. Further support came from the finding that activation in both regions was modulated by meaning dominance. Specifically, sentences containing biased ambiguous words, which have one more dominant meaning, produced greater activation than those with balanced ambiguous words, which have two equally frequent meanings. Because the context always supported the less frequent meaning, the biased words require reinterpretation more often than balanced words. This is the first evidence of dominance effects in the spoken modality and provides strong support that frontal and temporal regions support the updating of semantic representations during speech comprehension. PMID:25120445

  7. Smelling directions: Olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shenbing; Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Senses of smells are often accompanied by simultaneous visual sensations. Previous studies have documented enhanced olfactory performance with concurrent presence of congruent color- or shape- related visual cues, and facilitated visual object perception when congruent smells are simultaneously present. These visual object-olfaction interactions suggest the existences of couplings between the olfactory pathway and the visual ventral processing stream. However, it is not known if olfaction can modulate visual motion perception, a function that is related to the visual dorsal stream. We tested this possibility by examining the influence of olfactory cues on the perceptions of ambiguous visual motion signals. We showed that, after introducing an association between motion directions and olfactory cues, olfaction could indeed bias ambiguous visual motion perceptions. Our result that olfaction modulates visual motion processing adds to the current knowledge of cross-modal interactions and implies a possible functional linkage between the olfactory system and the visual dorsal pathway. PMID:25052162

  8. Charitable giving expenditures and the faith factor.

    PubMed

    Showers, Vince E; Showers, Linda S; Beggs, Jeri M; Cox, James E

    2011-01-01

    Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity good at all levels of income, while other categories of giving are generally found to be luxury goods. Further, those who gave to religion were found to give more to education and charity then those not giving to religion, and higher education households were more likely to give to religion than households with less education. This analysis suggests that there may be more to religious giving behavior than has been assumed in prior studies and underscores the need for further research into the motivation for religious giving. Specifically, these findings point to an enduring, internal motivation for giving rather than an external, “What do I get for what I give,” motive. PMID:21322897

  9. [The ambiguity of the bioethics' principles].

    PubMed

    Pardo Caballos, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The principles of the bioethics, coined in United States at the end of the seventies and diffused in our social environment one decade later, enclose inside a semantic ambiguity that here it is analyzed in their master lines; this ambiguity oscillates between a relativistic meaning and another agreed with the classic concept of Nature; this ambiguity has been transmitted to who, being part of the field of the Hippocratic medical ethics, have adopted its terminology, and these are the immense majority of the medical class. This phenomenon is easily leading towards the abandonment of the medical ethics based on the natural law (the Hippocratic-Christian tradition), to make it finish in a more or less clear relativism. to avoid this problem, some solutions in the field of the medical ethical terminology are proposed. PMID:20405972

  10. PRF-ambiguity resolving by wavelength diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamler, Richard; Runge, Hartmut

    1991-11-01

    For high-precision synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing, the determination of the Doppler centroid is indispensable. The Doppler frequency estimated from azimuth spectra, however, suffers from the fact that the data are sampled with the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and an ambiguity about the correct PRF band remains. A novel algorithm to resolve this ambiguity is proposed. It uses the fact that the Doppler centroid depends linearly on the transmitted radar frequency for a given antenna squint angle. This dependence is not subject to RF ambiguities. It can be measured by Fourier-transforming the SAR data in the range direction and estimating the Doppler centroid at each range frequency. The achievable accuracy is derived theoretically and verified with Seasat data of different scene content. The algorithm works best with low contrast scenes, where the conventional look correlation technique fails. It needs no iterative processing of the SAR data and causes only low computational load.

  11. Textbook presentations of weight: Conceptual difficulties and language ambiguities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David

    2015-06-01

    The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties for learners, especially for accelerating objects where the scale reading is different from the gravitational force. But while the underlying physical constructs behind the two referents for the term weight (and their relation to each other) are well understood scientifically, it is unclear how the concept of weight should be introduced to students and how the language ambiguities should be dealt with. We investigated treatments of weight in a sample of twenty introductory college physics textbooks, analyzing and coding their content based on the definition adopted, how the distinct constructs were dealt with in various situations, terminologies used, and whether and how language issues were handled. Results indicate that language-related issues, such as different, inconsistent, or ambiguous uses of the terms weight, "apparent weight," and "weightlessness," were prevalent both across and within textbooks. The physics of the related constructs was not always clearly presented, particularly for accelerating bodies such as astronauts in spaceships, and the language issue was rarely addressed. Our analysis of both literature and textbooks leads us to an instructional position which focuses on the physics constructs before introducing the term weight, and which explicitly discusses the associated language issues.

  12. Visual Working Memory Contents Bias Ambiguous Structure from Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Triesch, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM) can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM. PMID:23527141

  13. Ambiguity resolution analysis in incremental parsing of natural language.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabrizio; Frasconi, Paolo; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Sturt, Patrick; Soda, Giovanni

    2005-07-01

    Incremental parsing gains its importance in natural language processing and psycholinguistics because of its cognitive plausibility. Modeling the associated cognitive data structures, and their dynamics, can lead to a better understanding of the human parser. In earlier work, we have introduced a recursive neural network (RNN) capable of performing syntactic ambiguity resolution in incremental parsing. In this paper, we report a systematic analysis of the behavior of the network that allows us to gain important insights about the kind of information that is exploited to resolve different forms of ambiguity. In attachment ambiguities, in which a new phrase can be attached at more than one point in the syntactic left context, we found that learning from examples allows us to predict the location of the attachment point with high accuracy, while the discrimination amongst alternative syntactic structures with the same attachment point is slightly better than making a decision purely based on frequencies. We also introduce several new ideas to enhance the architectural design, obtaining significant improvements of prediction accuracy, up to 25% error reduction on the same dataset used in previous work. Finally, we report large scale experiments on the entire Wall Street Journal section of the Penn Treebank. The best prediction accuracy of the model on this large dataset is 87.6%, a relative error reduction larger than 50% compared to previous results. PMID:16121736

  14. Perceptions of Boundary Ambiguity in the Process of Leaving an Abusive Partner.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    The process of leaving an abusive partner has been theorized using the Stages of Change Model. Although useful, this model does not account for changes in relational boundaries unique to the process of leaving. Using family stress and feminist perspectives, this study sought to integrate boundary ambiguity into the Stages of Change Model. Boundary ambiguity is defined as a perception of uncertainty as to who is in or out of a family system (Boss & Greenberg, 1984). Twenty-five mothers who had temporarily or permanently left their abusers were interviewed. Data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. Results identify types, indicators of, and mothers' responses to boundary ambiguity throughout the five stages of change. Most mothers and abusers fluctuated between physical and psychological presence and absence over multiple separations. The integration of boundary ambiguity into the Stages of Change Model highlights the process of leaving an abusive partner as systemic, fluid, and nonlinear. PMID:25286330

  15. GNSS ambiguity resolution with controllable failure rate for long baseline network RTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bofeng; Shen, Yunzhong; Feng, Yanming; Gao, Weiguang; Yang, Ling

    2014-02-01

    Many large-scale GNSS CORS networks have been deployed around the world to support various commercial and scientific applications. To make use of these networks for real-time kinematic positioning services, one of the major challenges is the ambiguity resolution (AR) over long inter-station baselines in the presence of considerable atmosphere biases. Usually, the widelane ambiguities are fixed first, followed by the procedure of determination of the narrowlane ambiguity integers based on the ionosphere-free model in which the widelane integers are introduced as known quantities. This paper seeks to improve the AR performance over long baseline through efficient procedures for improved float solutions and ambiguity fixing. The contribution is threefold: (1) instead of using the ionosphere-free measurements, the absolute and/or relative ionospheric constraints are introduced in the ionosphere-constrained model to enhance the model strength, thus resulting in the better float solutions; (2) the realistic widelane ambiguity precision is estimated by capturing the multipath effects due to the observation complexity, leading to improvement of reliability of widelane AR; (3) for the narrowlane AR, the partial AR for a subset of ambiguities selected according to the successively increased elevation is applied. For fixing the scalar ambiguity, an error probability controllable rounding method is proposed. The established ionosphere-constrained model can be efficiently solved based on the sequential Kalman filter. It can be either reduced to some special models simply by adjusting the variances of ionospheric constraints, or extended with more parameters and constraints. The presented methodology is tested over seven baselines of around 100 km from USA CORS network. The results show that the new widelane AR scheme can obtain the 99.4 % successful fixing rate with 0.6 % failure rate; while the new rounding method of narrowlane AR can obtain the fix rate of 89 % with failure rate of 0.8 %. In summary, the AR reliability can be efficiently improved with rigorous controllable probability of incorrectly fixed ambiguities.

  16. Why clowns taste funny: the relationship between humor and semantic ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Davis, Matthew H; Rodd, Jennifer M; Owen, Adrian M

    2011-06-29

    What makes us laugh? One crucial component of many jokes is the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings. In this functional MRI study of normal participants, the neural mechanisms that underlie our experience of getting a joke that depends on the resolution of semantically ambiguous words were explored. Jokes that contained ambiguous words were compared with sentences that contained ambiguous words but were not funny, as well as to matched verbal jokes that did not depend on semantic ambiguity. The results confirm that both the left inferior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in processing the semantic aspects of language comprehension, while a more widespread network that includes both of these regions and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally is involved in processing humorous verbal jokes when compared with matched nonhumorous material. In addition, hearing jokes was associated with increased activity in a network of subcortical regions, including the amygdala, the ventral striatum, and the midbrain, that have been implicated in experiencing positive reward. Moreover, activity in these regions correlated with the subjective ratings of funniness of the presented material. These results allow a more precise account of how the neural and cognitive processes that are involved in ambiguity resolution contribute to the appreciation of jokes that depend on semantic ambiguity. PMID:21715632

  17. Ambiguity function for a bistatic radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tsao; M. Slamani; P. Varshney; D. Weiner; H. Schwarzlander; S. Borek

    1997-01-01

    A new framework for the ambiguity function for a bistatic radar is presented. Modeling of radar measurements of a slowly fluctuating point target involving delay and Doppler shift is considered. Effects of bistatic geometry on these measurements are discussed in detail. It is shown by means of two examples that geometry factors play an important role in the shape of

  18. Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

  19. Asymmetry and Ambiguity in Newsvendor Models

    E-print Network

    2008-07-11

    Jul 11, 2008 ... case? Usually, if there is lack of information about a distribution, there is a ... If a system is known to contain asymmetry, then it is important to have ...... Ambiguous risk measures have been studied in the context of portfolio management (Calafiore [10]; ...... Using the semivariance to estimate safety-first rules.

  20. Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

  1. Ambiguity and Risk in Global Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ui

    This paper introduces global games with multiple priors, in which players are am- biguity averse having maxmin expected utility preferences, and studies how the dis- tinction between risk and ambiguity matters in a global game analysis. It proposes a tractable procedure to obtain a unique equilibrium and to conduct comparative statics. As applications, global game models of currency attacks and

  2. Ionosphere Weighted GPS Cycle Ambiguity Resolution1

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    1 Ionosphere Weighted GPS Cycle Ambiguity Resolution1 George Chia Liu, Gérard Lachapelle Department approach to mitigate the high ionospheric effect has been either to reduce the inter-station separation or to form ionosphere-free observables. Neither is satisfactory: the first restricts the operating range

  3. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  4. Ambiguity and uncertainty in Ellsberg and Shackle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Basili; Carlo Zappia

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the similarities between Ellsberg's and Shackle's frameworks for discussing the limits of the probabilistic approach to decision theory are more important than usually admitted. The paper discusses the grounds on which the ambiguity surrounding the decision-maker in Ellsberg's urn experiments can be deemed analogous to the uncertainty faced by Shackle's entrepreneur taking ‘crucial decisions’. The two

  5. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  6. The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-01-01

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

  7. The Ambiguity of Bradford's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Elizabeth A.

    1972-01-01

    Recent discussion of Bradford's law of scatter has been founded on two formulations that are not mathematically equivalent. A method of comparing the two formulations against empirical data is developed, and the results using four sets of existing data are discussed. (12 references) (Author/NH)

  8. Intolerance of ambiguity in students entering medical school.

    PubMed

    DeForge, B R; Sobal, J

    1989-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity is the perception of ambiguous situations as a threat. Medical students with differing levels of intolerance of ambiguity may select medical specialties based upon the amount of ambiguity existing in the practice of each specialty. A cross-sectional survey at one state university administered Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale to all entering first-year medical students for four consecutive years (N = 609) to investigate patterns of intolerance of ambiguity in relationship with demographic variables and initial medical specialty preference. The medical students in this study were more intolerant of ambiguity than those first studied by Budner in 1962. Students entering in 1985 were slightly more intolerant of ambiguity than students in 1988. Students age 23 and older were less intolerant of ambiguity than students 18-22 years old. Men and students with natural/physical science undergraduate majors were more intolerant of ambiguity than their counterparts. However, medical specialty preference was not related to intolerance of ambiguity. Intolerance of ambiguity may be a personality trait or a learned characteristic, and needs further investigation. PMID:2705020

  9. Interferometric GPS Ambiguity Resolution \\Lambda T. Craig Poling

    E-print Network

    Interferometric GPS Ambiguity Resolution \\Lambda T. Craig Poling Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics. The Maximum a Posteriori Ambiguity Search (MAPAS) method for GPS ambiguity resolution first introduced in [8 is successfully applied to real GPS satellite data with cycle slips and satellite switches due to satellite

  10. Reaction to public information in asset markets: does ambiguity matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brice Corgnet; Praveen Kujal; David Porter

    2010-01-01

    We report experiments that examine trader reaction to ambiguity when dividend information is revealed sequentially. We find that experienced traders are better at internalizing ambiguity than inexperienced subjects. No significant differences are observed in the ambiguity versus control treatments regarding prices, price volatility and volumes for experienced subjects. However, relative to the control, prices are higher, volatility greater and trading

  11. The Effect of Role Ambiguity on Competitive State Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Mark R.; Bray, Steven R.; Eys, Mark A.; Carron, Albert V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety among high school athletes playing field hockey. Surveys of male and female field hockey players in the United Kingdom indicated that ambiguity concerning the scope of one's offensive responsibilities was predictive cognitive state anxiety, while ambiguity

  12. Detecting Ambiguous Author Names in Crowdsourced Scholarly Data

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    Detecting Ambiguous Author Names in Crowdsourced Scholarly Data Xiaoling Sun, Jasleen Kaur, Lino--The name ambiguity problem is a challenge in many areas, especially in the field of bibliographic digital libraries. For example, in services that use citation data to compute the impact of authors, ambiguous names

  13. Decoding covert shifts of attention induced by ambiguous visuospatial cues

    PubMed Central

    Trachel, Romain E.; Clerc, Maureen; Brochier, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Simple and unambiguous visual cues (e.g., an arrow) can be used to trigger covert shifts of visual attention away from the center of gaze. The processing of visual stimuli is enhanced at the attended location. Covert shifts of attention modulate the power of cerebral oscillations in the alpha band over parietal and occipital regions. These modulations are sufficiently robust to be decoded on a single trial basis from electroencephalography (EEG) signals. It is often assumed that covert attention shifts are under voluntary control, and that they also occur in more natural and complex environments, but there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. We address this important issue by using random-dot stimuli to cue one of two opposite locations, where a visual target is presented. We contrast two conditions, one in which the random-dot motion is predictive of the target location, and the other, in which it provides ambiguous information. Behavioral results show attention shifts in anticipation of the visual target, in both conditions. In addition, using the common spatial patterns (CSPs) algorithm, we extract EEG power features in the alpha-band (around 10 Hz) that best discriminate the attended location in single trials. We obtain a significant decoding accuracy in 7/10 subjects using a cross-validation procedure applied in the predictive condition. Interestingly, similar accuracy (significant in 5/10 subjects) is obtained when the CSPs trained in the predictive condition are tested in the ambiguous condition. In agreement with this result, we find that the CSPs show very similar topographies in both conditions. These results shed a new light on the behavioral and EEG correlates of visuospatial attention in complex visual environments. This study demonstrates that alpha-power features could be used in brain–computer interfaces to decode covert attention shifts in an environment containing ambiguous spatial information. PMID:26150780

  14. GNSS triple-frequency geometry-free and ionosphere-free track-to-track ambiguities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Rothacher, Markus

    2015-06-01

    During the last few years, more and more GNSS satellites have become available sending signals on three or even more frequencies. Examples are the GPS Block IIF and the Galileo In-Orbit-Validation (IOV) satellites. Various investigations have been performed to make use of the increasing number of frequencies to find a compromise between eliminating different error sources and minimizing the noise level, including the investigations in the triple-frequency geometry-free (GF) and ionosphere-free (IF) linear combinations, which eliminate all the geometry-related errors and the first-order term of the ionospheric delays. In contrast to the double-difference GF and IF ambiguity resolution, the resolution of the so-called track-to-track GF and IF ambiguities between two tracks of a satellite observed by the same station only requires one receiver and one satellite. Most of the remaining errors like receiver and satellite delays (electronics, cables, etc.) are eliminated, if they are not changing rapidly in time, and the noise level is reduced theoretically by a factor of square root of two compared to double-differences. This paper presents first results concerning track-to-track ambiguity resolution using triple-frequency GF and IF linear combinations based on data from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) from April 29 to May 9, 2012 and from December 23 to December 29, 2012. This includes triple-frequency phase and code observations with different combinations of receiver tracking modes. The results show that it is possible to resolve the combined track-to-track ambiguities of the best two triple-frequency GF and IF linear combinations for the Galileo frequency triplet E1, E5b and E5a with more than 99.6% of the fractional ambiguities for the best linear combination being located within ± 0.03 cycles and more than 98.8% of the fractional ambiguities for the second best linear combination within ± 0.2 cycles, while the fractional parts of the ambiguities for the GPS frequency triplet L1, L2 and L5 are more disturbed by errors as e.g. the uncalibrated Phase Center Offsets (PCOs) and Phase Center Variations (PCVs), that have not been considered. The best two GF and IF linear combinations between tracks are helpful to detect problems in data and receivers. Furthermore, resolving the track-to-track ambiguities is helpful to connect the single-receiver ambiguities on the normal equation level and to improve ambiguity resolution.

  15. Resolving Implementation Ambiguity and Improving SURF

    E-print Network

    Abeles, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) has emerged as one of the more popular feature descriptors and detectors in recent years. Due to SURF's complexity and ambiguities found in its description, performance and algorithmic details between these implementations vary widely. To resolve these ambiguities a set of general techniques for feature stability is defined based on the smoothness rule and applied to SURF. Additional new improvements to SURF are proposed for speed and stability. To illustrate the importance of these implementation details, a performance study of popular SURF implementations is done. By utilizing all the suggested improvements it is possible to create a SURF implementation which is several times faster and/or more stable.

  16. Cognitive psychology's ambiguities: Some suggested remedies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Guilford

    1982-01-01

    Points out that one of cognitive psychology's greatest handicaps has been the ambiguity of many of its concepts. One consequence has been less-than-adequate communication among experimental investigators. The new, common view that emphasizes information processing has offered a basis for the solution to this problem. The author's definition of intelligence and structure-of-intellect model offer, for general use, a systematic collection

  17. Revisiting Combinatorial Ambiguities at Hadron Colliders with MT2

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip; McCaskey, Mathew; Noonan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to resolve combinatorial issues in multi-particle final states at hadron colliders. The use of kinematic variables such as MT2 and invariant mass significantly reduces combinatorial ambiguities in the signal, but at a cost of losing statistics. We illustrate this idea with gluino pair production leading to 4 jets $+\\met$ in the final state as well as $t\\bar{t}$ production in the dilepton channel. Compared to results in recent studies, our method provides greater efficiency with similar purity

  18. A Mixture Approach to Vagueness and Ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gert

    2013-01-01

    When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity) with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness). The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions. PMID:23667627

  19. Single receiver phase ambiguity resolution with GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce; Harvey, Nate; Moore, Angelyn W.; Owen, Susan; Weiss, Jan P.

    2010-05-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) data processing algorithms typically improve positioning solution accuracy by fixing double-differenced phase bias ambiguities to integer values. These “double-difference ambiguity resolution” methods usually invoke linear combinations of GPS carrier phase bias estimates from pairs of transmitters and pairs of receivers, and traditionally require simultaneous measurements from at least two receivers. However, many GPS users point position a single local receiver, based on publicly available solutions for GPS orbits and clocks. These users cannot form double differences. We present an ambiguity resolution algorithm that improves solution accuracy for single receiver point-positioning users. The algorithm processes dual- frequency GPS data from a single receiver together with wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the global network of GPS receivers that were used to generate the orbit and clock solutions for the GPS satellites. We constrain (rather than fix) linear combinations of local phase biases to improve compatibility with global phase bias estimates. For this precise point positioning, no other receiver data are required. When tested, our algorithm significantly improved repeatability of daily estimates of ground receiver positions, most notably in the east component by approximately 30% with respect to the nominal case wherein the carrier biases are estimated as real values. In this “static” test for terrestrial receiver positions, we achieved daily repeatability of 1.9, 2.1 and 6.0 mm in the east, north and vertical (ENV) components, respectively. For kinematic solutions, ENV repeatability is 7.7, 8.4, and 11.7 mm, respectively, representing improvements of 22, 8, and 14% with respect to the nominal. Results from precise orbit determination of the twin GRACE satellites demonstrated that the inter-satellite baseline accuracy improved by a factor of three, from 6 to 2 mm up to a long-term bias. Jason-2/Ocean Surface Topography Mission precise orbit determination tests results implied radial orbit accuracy significantly below the 10 mm level. Stability of time transfer, in low-Earth orbit, improved from 40 to 7 ps. We produced these results by applying this algorithm within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) GIPSY/OASIS software package and using JPL’s orbit and clock products for the GPS constellation. These products now include a record of the wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the underlying global network of GPS stations. This implies that all GIPSY-OASIS positioning users can now benefit from this capability to perform single-receiver ambiguity resolution.

  20. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that the GIF resolution hypothesis is completely valid for non-rotational periodic motions. Additionally, human perception of translation is impaired without visual or spatial reference. The performance of ground-base subjects in estimating tilt after brief training is comparable with that of crewmembers without training.

  1. Give.org Charity Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A useful service available on the web from the Better Business Bureaus Wise Giving Alliance. The service "promotes ethical standards within the charitable community, provides information to the public on charitable organizations, and educates individual and corporate donors on wise giving." Give.org issues reports on non-profit organizations based on the number of inquiries received for an organization. Included with most reports is information on an organization's "background, current programs, governing body, fund-raising practices, tax-exempt status, finances, and indication of whether or not the organization complies with the BBB Standards for Charitable Solicitations."

  2. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ... 160 mg/5 ml per dose). Continue Giving Acetaminophen Refer to the following dosage charts for the ...

  3. Is ambiguity tolerance malleable? Experimental evidence with potential implications for future research

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Megan L.; Camp, Richaurd; Milner, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    We conducted two research studies to address the malleability of tolerance of ambiguity (TA) by manipulating situational ambiguity. Students participated in a semester-end assessment of their management skills (n = 306). In Study 1, students in low and moderate ambiguity conditions had significantly higher post-experiment TA, more positive change in self-efficacy, and marginally higher faculty ratings. In Study 2, a control group (n = 103) did not participate in the assessment and was established for comparison to the first study results. The Study 2 students reported TA significantly lower than Study 1 students in the low and moderate ambiguity conditions. The control group TA was not significantly different from that of the Study 1 high ambiguity condition. This further suggested TA’s situational malleability, as those who had controlled access to structured information appeared to have increased their TA over that observed in the other two groups. These results suggest that TA may be malleable. We review the relevant literature, offer hypotheses, report our analyses and findings, and then propose future research, and potential prescriptive applications in such areas as management development, assessment, and decision-making. PMID:26042059

  4. A United Methodist approach to end-of-life decisions: intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions.

    PubMed

    Thobaben, James R

    1997-12-01

    The position of the United Methodist Church on end-of-life decisions is best described as intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions or both. The paper analyzes the official position of the denomination and then considers the actions of a U.M.C. bishop who served as a foreman for a trial of Dr. Jack Kevorkian. In an effort to find some common ground within an increasingly divided denomination, the work concludes with a consideration of the work of John Wesley and his approach to human death. PMID:11655315

  5. Effects of pitch accents in attachment ambiguity resolution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has found that listeners prefer to attach ambiguous syntactic constituents to nouns produced with a pitch accent (Schafer et al., 1996). This study examines what factors underlie previously established accent attachment effects by testing whether these effects are driven by a preference to attach syntactic constituents to new or important information (the Syntax Hypothesis) or whether there is a bias to respond to post-sentence probe questions with an accented word (the Salience Hypothesis). One of the predictions of the Salience Hypothesis is that selection of accented words should be greater when a sentence is complex and processing resources are limited. The results from the experiments presented here show that the probability of listeners’ selecting accented words when asked about the interpretation of a relative clause varies with sentence type: listeners selected accented words more frequently in long sentences than in short sentences, consistent with the predictions of the Salience Hypothesis. Furthermore, Experiment 4 demonstrates that listeners are more likely to respond to post-sentence questions with accented words than with non-accented words, even when no ambiguity is present, and even when the response results in an incorrect answer. These findings suggest that accent-driven attachment effects found in earlier studies reflect a post-sentence selection process rather than a syntactic processing mechanism. PMID:22287815

  6. Ambiguity between self and other: Individual differences in action attribution.

    PubMed

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-09-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to attribute actions to self or other. This variance is thought to explain, in part, the experience of voice-hearing. Misattribution can also be context-driven. For example, causal ambiguity can arise when the actions of two or more individuals are coordinated and produce similar effects (e.g., music-making). Experience in such challenging contexts may refine skills of action attribution. Forty participants completed a novel finger-tapping task which parametrically manipulated the proportion of control that 'self' versus 'other' possessed over resulting auditory tones. Results showed that action misattribution peaked in the middle of the self-to-other continuum and was biased towards other. This pattern was related to both high hallucination-proneness and to low musical-experience. Findings suggest not only that causal ambiguity plays a key role in agency but also that action attribution abilities may improve with practice, potentially providing an avenue for remediation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25956971

  7. Discrete ambiguity in the nonrelativistic optical potential for 12C at 400 MeV and its resolution by spin-rotation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauhoff, W.

    1985-01-01

    Proton elastic scattering from 12C at 398 MeV is studied in terms of a phenomenological nonrelativistic optical potential. It is shown that cross-section and polarization data alone lead to a discrete ambiguity in the potential. The sign of the real central and imaginary spin-orbit term can be changed simultaneously. Measurement of the spin-rotation function resolves this ambiguity. Analyses of inelastic scattering do not give clear preference for either sign.

  8. To Give or Not to Give? That Is the Question

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Theologis; Ronald W. Davis

    2004-01-01

    While Hamlet experienced ''suffering caused by the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.,'' many modern day scientists have similar feelings when asked to give and share published data and materials with other members of our community. Herein, we argue that being on the side of the fence that advocates sharing freely published data and materials is an acceptable practice in

  9. Range ambiguity suppression for multiple-input, multiple-output synthetic aperture radar system using azimuth phase coding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Robert; Deng, Yunkai; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiulian

    2014-01-01

    For synthetic aperture radar (SAR), range ambiguity causes a great deterioration in imaging performance. To suppress range ambiguity, the azimuth phase coding (APC) technique stands out for its effectiveness with a low implementation complexity among the available approaches. With proper phase modulation and demodulation, the position of an ambiguous signal is shifted in Doppler spectrum and then part of the ambiguity can be filtered out by an azimuth filter. However, since the suppression performance heavily depends on the system oversampling rate, the APC technique cannot achieve the same suppression performance for a multichannel SAR system compared with a single-channel SAR system. A method to suppress the range ambiguity for multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) SAR system based on APC technique is presented. By taking advantage of more phase centers of the MIMO SAR, a proper azimuth beamformer weight vector can be computed to null out the ambiguity position in the azimuth frequency domain and reconstruct the useful signal; thus most of the ambiguity components can be significantly suppressed. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth's gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  11. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Harm, D L.; Rupert, A. H.; Guedry, F. E.; Reschke, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Our general hypothesis is that the central nervous system utilizes both multi-sensory integration and frequency segregation as neural strategies to resolve the ambiguity of tilt and translation stimuli. Movement in an altered gravity environment, such as weightlessness without a stable gravity reference, results in new patterns of sensory cues. For example, the semicircular canals, vision and neck proprioception provide information about head tilt on orbit without the normal otolith head-tilt position that is omnipresent on Earth. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances reported by crewmembers during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  12. Assessment of correct fixing rate for precise point positioning ambiguity resolution on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan

    2013-06-01

    Ambiguity resolution (AR) for a single receiver has been a popular topic in Global Positioning System (GPS) recently. Ambiguity-resolution methods for precise point positioning (PPP) have been well documented in recent years, demonstrating that it can improve the accuracy of PPP. However, users are often concerned about the reliability of ambiguity-fixed PPP solution in practical applications. If ambiguities are fixed to wrong integers, large errors would be introduced into position estimates. In this paper, we aim to assess the correct fixing rate (CFR), i.e., number of ambiguities correctly fixing to the total number of ambiguities correctly and incorrectly fixing, for PPP user ambiguity resolution on a global scale. A practical procedure is presented to evaluate the CFR of PPP user ambiguity resolution. GPS data of the first 3 days in each month of 2010 from about 390 IGS stations are used for experiments. Firstly, we use GPS data collected from about 320 IGS stations to estimate global single-differenced (SD) wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs). The quality of UPDs is evaluated. We found that wide-lane UPD estimates have a rather small standard deviation (Std) between 0.003 and 0.004 cycles while most of Std of narrow-lane estimates are from 0.01 to 0.02 cycles. Secondly, many experiments have been conducted to investigate the CFR of integer ambiguity resolution we can achieve under different conditions, including reference station density, observation session length and the ionospheric activity. The results show that the CFR of PPP can exceed 98.0 % with only 1 h of observations for most user stations. No obvious correlation between the CFR and the reference station density is found. Therefore, nearly homogeneous CFR can be achieved in PPP AR for global users. At user end, higher CFR could be achieved with longer observations. The average CFR for 30-min, 1-h, 2-h and 4-h observation is 92.3, 98.2, 99.5 and 99.7 %, respectively. In order to get acceptable CFR, 1 h is a recommended minimum observation time. Furthermore, the CFR of PPP can be affected by diurnal variation and geomagnetic latitude variation in the ionosphere. During one day at the hours when rapid ionospheric variations occur or in low geomagnetic latitude regions where equatorial electron density irregularities are produced relatively frequently, a significant degradation of the CFR is demonstrated.

  13. Resolving GPS carrier phase ambiguities for a low Earth orbit spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yoke T.

    The application of GPS carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution to low Earth orbit spacecraft missions has been a topic of great interest in recent years. This advanced processing technique may make it possible to achieve higher orbit accuracy for spacecraft that carry GPS receivers. The research described here addresses a number of aspects of GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution as applied to the Jason-1 altimetric mission. When GPS carrier phase ambiguities are correctly resolved, the phase measurements will effectively act as very precise pseudorange measurements. This leads to improvement in the GPS derived orbit solutions for Jason-1. The advanced-codeless BlackJack GPS receiver, onboard Jason-1, that enables the retrieval of pseudorange and carrier phase observables on the L1 and L2 frequencies promises the possibility of applying such a technique. Both the orbits of Jason-1 and the GPS satellites are estimated simultaneously in the orbit determination process. Carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution is applied to the best determined reduced-dynamic Jason-1 and dynamic GPS satellite orbit solutions. The ambiguity resolution approach first resolves the wide-lane integer phase ambiguities. The narrow-lane phase ambiguities are then constrained to integers using the resolved wide-lane integer phase biases. This approach does not require a search process. Instead it uses the error covariance matrix to select the best determined set of double-differenced phase biases. A confidence test procedure is implemented to resolved the wide-lane and narrow-lane phase biases to correct integers. The performance of the GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution method is evaluated through a few orbit accuracy assessment tests. These assessment tests include the orbit overlap differences, intercomparison with SLR-DORIS based solutions, the high elevation SLR bias analysis and the sea surface height crossover residuals. An error budget study is created to investigate the effects of incorrectly fixed phase biases and the GPS orbit errors on Jason-1 orbit solutions. The results from 29 days of data analysis show modest improvement of 11% in Jason-1 radial orbit accuracy after resolving carrier phase ambiguities. The crosstrack and alongtrack orbit overlap components exhibit slightly better improvement of 25% and 12% respectively. The orbit offset with the SLR-DORIS based orbits show sub-centimeter level influence after ambiguity resolution. The overall effect is hardly noticeable which probably reflects the dominance of SLR-DORIS orbit errors in the differences. In analyzing the geocenter offset in the Terrestial Reference Frame (TRF), the mean offsets in the x, y and z-axis also show sub-centimeter (less than 6%) improvements. As for the high elevation laser range bias and the sea surface height residual analysis, both demonstrated sub-millimeter improvement after resolving phase ambiguities. With the Jason-1 radial orbit accuracy reaching 1 cm, it is reasonable to achieve millimeter or sub-millimeter improvements in each orbit assessment test. Furthermore, the performance of carrier phase ambiguity resolution can be partially hampered by the presence of incorrectly fixed phase biases. With a short observation time span of 29 days, it is rather difficult to confidently deduce the impact of GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution on the Jason-1 orbit accuracy and the orbit centering along the Earth's spin axis.

  14. The Market for Charitable Giving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. List

    2011-01-01

    Through good and bad economic times, charitable gifts have continued to roll in largely unabated over the past half century. In a typical year, total charitable gifts of money now exceed 2 percent of gross domestic product. Moreover, charitable giving has nearly doubled in real terms since 1990, and the number of nonprofit organizations registered with the IRS grew by

  15. How the Other Half Gives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Debbie

    1989-01-01

    Although women still don't give quite as much as men to charitable causes, some of the old development cliches are changing. Colleges admit that they are partly to blame. In the past, colleges set low expectations for alumnae, and the response made for a self-fulfilling prophecy. (MLW)

  16. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  17. Ambiguous science and the visual representation of the real

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbold, Curtis Robert

    The emergence of visual media as prominent and even expected forms of communication in nearly all disciplines, including those scientific, has raised new questions about how the art and science of communication epistemologically affect the interpretation of scientific phenomena. In this dissertation I explore how the influence of aesthetics in visual representations of science inevitably creates ambiguous meanings. As a means to improve visual literacy in the sciences, I call awareness to the ubiquity of visual ambiguity and its importance and relevance in scientific discourse. To do this, I conduct a literature review that spans interdisciplinary research in communication, science, art, and rhetoric. Furthermore, I create a paradoxically ambiguous taxonomy, which functions to exploit the nuances of visual ambiguities and their role in scientific communication. I then extrapolate the taxonomy of visual ambiguity and from it develop an ambiguous, rhetorical heuristic, the Tetradic Model of Visual Ambiguity. The Tetradic Model is applied to a case example of a scientific image as a demonstration of how scientific communicators may increase their awareness of the epistemological effects of ambiguity in the visual representations of science. I conclude by demonstrating how scientific communicators may make productive use of visual ambiguity, even in communications of objective science, and I argue how doing so strengthens scientific communicators' visual literacy skills and their ability to communicate more ethically and effectively.

  18. Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge

    E-print Network

    Crassidis, John L.

    1 Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge John L measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude

  19. Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Bilger, M.D.; Haigler, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our results suggest that restricting identifications to the family level is not a good method of resolving ambiguous taxa, whereas generating OTUs works well provided that documentation issues are addressed. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  20. Removal of ambiguity of two-dimensional power spectra obtained by processing ship radar images of ocean waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, V.; Rosenthal, W.; Ziemer, F.

    1985-01-01

    The usual spatial power spectra of ocean wave images taken from PPI of a ship radar show an ambiguity in the wave propagation direction. A simple numerical procedure is suggested and realized to remove this ambiguity. It makes use of the data from two consecutive turns of the radar antenna as well as of the wave dispersion law. The results obtained show a good agreement with the ground truth.

  1. How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?

    PubMed

    Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

    2010-08-26

    The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467

  2. A Code for Reducing Figure-Ground Ambiguities in Tactile Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    This study of six adults with blindness tested a code that facilitates the interpretation of tactile outline graphics by reducing potential ambiguities in figure-ground, slope, and curvature. Results found all subjects learned the code in less than two hours and successfully matched coded graphics to targeted objects. (Author/CR)

  3. Essentialist Thinking Predicts Decrements in Children's Memory for Racially Ambiguous Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Schultz, Jennifer R.; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R.; Maddox, Keith B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Past research shows that adults often display poor memory for racially ambiguous and racial outgroup faces, with both face types remembered worse than own-race faces. In the present study, the authors examined whether children also show this pattern of results. They also examined whether emerging essentialist thinking about race predicts…

  4. Ambiguous Loss in a Non-Western Context: Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguous loss has become a standard theory for understanding the impact of situations where the presence of a family member is subject to ambiguity. A number of studies of ambiguous loss have been made in a range of situations of ambiguity, but almost all have been firmly located within a Western cultural context. Here, ambiguous loss is explored…

  5. Action detection in complex scenes with spatial and temporal ambiguities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuxiao Hu; Liangliang Cao; Fengjun Lv; Shuicheng Yan; Yihong Gong; Thomas S. Huang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the detection of seman- tic human actions in complex scenes. Unlike conven- tional action recognition in well-controlled environments, action detection in complex scenes suffers from cluttered backgrounds, heavy crowds, occluded bodies, and spatial- temporal boundary ambiguities caused by imperfect hu- man detection and tracking. Conventional algorithms are likely to fail with such spatial-temporal ambiguities. In

  6. Computational Humour: Utilizing Cross-Reference Ambiguity for Conversational

    E-print Network

    Nijholt, Anton

    Computational Humour: Utilizing Cross-Reference Ambiguity for Conversational Jokes Hans Wim Tinholt jokes. The approach is based on the SSTH. Using a simple script representa- tion, it is shown that cross in generating conversational humour. 1 Introduction Many jokes are based on ambiguity. A joke often originates

  7. Not So Black and White: Memory for Ambiguous Group Members

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R; Ivcevic, Zorana; Adams, Reginald B

    2013-01-01

    Exponential increases in multi-racial identities expected over the next century, creates a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as “own” or “other” race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the “own-race bias.” We hypothesized that perceivers would not be motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and would therefore have some difficulty remembering them. Both racially-ambiguous and other-race faces were misremembered more often than own-race faces (Study 1), though memory for ambiguous faces was improved among perceivers motivated to include biracial individuals in the in-group (Study 2). Racial labels assigned to racially ambiguous faces determined memory for these faces, suggesting that uncertainty provides the motivational context for discounting ambiguous faces in memory (Study 3). Finally, an inclusion motivation fostered cognitive associations between racially-ambiguous faces and the in-group. Moreover, the extent to which perceivers associated racially-ambiguous faces with the in-group predicted memory for ambiguous faces and accounted for the impact of motivation on memory (Study 4). Thus, memory for biracial individuals seems to involve a flexible person construal process shaped by motivational factors. PMID:19309203

  8. Ambiguous decision trees for mining concept-drifting data streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Liu; Xue Li; Weicai Zhong

    2009-01-01

    In real world situations, explanations for the same observations may be different depending on perceptions or contexts. They may change with time especially when concept drift occurs. This phenomenon incurs ambiguities. It is useful if an algorithm can learn to reflect ambiguities and select the best decision according to context or situation. Based on this viewpoint, we study the problem

  9. Coping with Ambiguity in Knowledge-based Natural Language Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    analysis component of the KANT Knowledge- based Machine Translation system to cope with ambigu- ity. 1 INTRODUCTION The KANT system [Nyberg and Mitamura, 1992] is a Knowledge-based Machine TranslationCoping with Ambiguity in Knowledge-based Natural Language Analysis Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M

  10. Coping with Ambiguity in Knowledgebased Natural Language Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    analysis component of the KANT Knowledge­ based Machine Translation system to cope with ambigu­ ity. 1 INTRODUCTION The KANT system [Nyberg and Mitamura, 1992] is a Knowledge­based Machine TranslationCoping with Ambiguity in Knowledge­based Natural Language Analysis Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M

  11. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

  12. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  13. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  14. Ambiguity Functions for Spatially Coherent and Incoherent Multistatic Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Derham; S. Doughty; C. Baker; K. Woodbridge

    2010-01-01

    The ambiguity function is a key tool for determining the target resolution capability of a radar system. Recently, multistatic radar systems have been proposed where target detection is jointly performed on a vector of captured signals arising from multiple spatially dispersed transmitters and\\/or receivers. In the work presented here, expressions for the ambiguity functions of such systems are derived based

  15. Perceived Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Teacher Burnout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Schwab; Edward F. Iwanicki

    1982-01-01

    This study of 469 classroom teachers examined the relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity to teacher burnout. Three aspects of burnout were examined: feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or negative attitudes toward students, and feelings of a lack of personal accomplishment. Two of the more important findings were: (1) role conflict and role ambiguity explained a statistically significant amount

  16. Integer Ambiguity Resolution for Low Earth Orbiting Spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. T. Yoon; G. L. Kruizinga; K. Gold; G. Born; S. R. Nerem; M. M. Watkins

    2001-01-01

    This study is an attempt to resolve GPS integer phase ambiguities for two low Earth orbiting (LEO) spacecrafts, SAC-C and CHAMP. Integer ambiguity resolution holds great promise for improving orbit determination accuracy and reference frame realization using geodetic satellites. We initiated this study by examining the statistical distribution of the wide lane and narrow lane double-differenced GPS phase biases for

  17. Ambiguity in Financial Markets: Herding and Contrarian Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The paper studies the impact of ambiguity on history-dependant beahviour in the standard microstructure model of financial markets. We show that differences in ambiguity attitudes between market makers and traders can generate contrarian and herding behaviour in stock markets where assets are traded sequentially and trading prices are endogenously determined. We also show the mispricing can be only short-term, and

  18. U.S./Arab Reflections on Our Tolerance for Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2012-01-01

    As the authors, a Midwestern American educational administration professor and a Middle Eastern Iraqi doctoral candidate, have continued to interact over the past 3 years, both have come to appreciate the importance of increasing their tolerance for ambiguity--ambiguities in examining cultural, linguistic, and religious customs and complexities in…

  19. Not so black and white: memory for ambiguous group members.

    PubMed

    Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R; Adams, Reginald B; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2009-04-01

    Exponential increases in multiracial identities, expected over the next century, create a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as their own- or other-race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the own-race bias. The authors hypothesized that perceivers are not motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and therefore have some difficulty remembering these individuals. Both racially ambiguous and other-race faces were misremembered more often than own-race faces (Study 1), though memory for ambiguous faces was improved among perceivers motivated to include biracial individuals in the in-group (Study 2). Racial labels assigned to racially ambiguous faces determined memory for these faces, suggesting that uncertainty provides the motivational context for discounting ambiguous faces in memory (Study 3). Finally, an inclusion motivation fostered cognitive associations between racially ambiguous faces and the in-group. Moreover, the extent to which perceivers associated racially ambiguous faces with the in-group predicted memory for ambiguous faces and accounted for the impact of motivation on memory (Study 4). Thus, memory for biracial individuals seems to involve a flexible person construal process shaped by motivational factors. PMID:19309203

  20. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity. PMID:25891407

  1. Effects of frequency disparities on trading of an ambiguous tone between two competing auditory objects

    E-print Network

    Lee, Adrian KC

    Effects of frequency disparities on trading of an ambiguous tone between two competing auditory contains ambiguous sound elements, the ambiguous elements "trade" between competing sources studies have directly tested whether such trading occurs. While some studies found trading, trading failed

  2. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN MULTI-ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS: INFLUENCE OF CAUSAL AND OUTCOME AMBIGUITIES

    E-print Network

    Priestley, Jennifer Lewis

    KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN MULTI-ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS: INFLUENCE OF CAUSAL AND OUTCOME AMBIGUITIES knowledge. This paper investigates the two knowledge transfer ambiguities in multi-organizational networks outcome ambiguity was found to be highly relevant. Keywords: Knowledge Management, Inter

  3. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Constance M.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Oliva, Aude

    2014-01-01

    In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front vs. behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or “bouncing” to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual awareness. PMID:25642180

  4. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Constance M; Bainbridge, Wilma A; Oliva, Aude

    2014-01-01

    In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front vs. behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or "bouncing" to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound's motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual awareness. PMID:25642180

  5. The (IR-)relevance of the Gribov ambiguity in SU(2)×U(1) gauge theories with fundamental Higgs matter

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M.A.L., E-mail: caprimarcio@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dudal, D., E-mail: david.dudal@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Krijgslaan 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Guimaraes, M.S., E-mail: msguimaraes@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Justo, I.F., E-mail: igorfjusto@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sorella, S.P., E-mail: sorella@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2014-04-15

    It is well accepted that dealing with the Gribov ambiguity has a major impact on correlation functions in gauge-fixed Yang–Mills theories, in particular in the low momentum regime where standard perturbation theory based on the Faddeev–Popov approach fails. Recent results, derived from functional tools (Dyson–Schwinger equations or exact RG) or the effective Gribov–Zwanziger action method, pointed towards e.g. gauge boson correlation functions that are not compatible with the properties of observable degrees of freedom. Although such an observation is a welcome feature for gauge theories exhibiting confinement, it would be a discomfort for gauge theories supplemented with Higgs fields, cf. the experimental success of the electroweak model based on a SU(2)×U(1) gauge group. The purpose of this short note is to assure that the effective action resolution to the Gribov ambiguity reduces to the standard Faddeev–Popov method in the perturbative regime of sufficiently small coupling/large Higgs condensate, thereby not compromising the physical particle spectrum of massive gauge bosons and a massless photon for the SU(2)×U(1) gauge–Higgs model. The closer the theory gets to the limit of vanishing Higgs condensate, the more the Gribov problem resurfaces with all its consequences. We give some speculations w.r.t. the Fradkin–Shenker insights about the phase diagram. -- Highlights: •Gribov horizon influences gauge propagators in a strong-coupling regime. •No influence of Gribov horizon in weak-coupling. •Inclusion of U(1) factor leads to very rich behavior of propagators.

  6. Biasing the perception of ambiguous vocal affect: a TMS study on frontal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Donhauser, Peter W; Belin, Pascal; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Several sources of evidence point toward a link between asymmetry of prefrontal brain activity and approach-withdrawal tendencies. Here, we tested the causal nature of this link and examined if the categorization of an ambiguous approach- or withdrawal-related vocal signal can be biased by manipulating left and right frontal neural activity. We used voice morphing of affective non-verbal vocalizations to create individually tailored affectively ambiguous stimuli on an Anger-Fear continuum-two emotions that represent extremes on the approach-withdrawal dimension. We tested perception of these stimuli after 10 min of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or over the vertex (control), a technique that has transient inhibitory effects on the targeted brain region. As expected, ambiguous stimuli were more likely perceived as expressing Anger (approach) than Fear (withdrawal) after right prefrontal compared with left prefrontal or control stimulation. These results provide the first evidence that the manipulation of asymmetrical activity in prefrontal cortex can change the explicit categorization of ambiguous emotional signals. PMID:23784072

  7. Ambiguity and regularization in parallel MRI.

    PubMed

    Gol, Derya; Potter, Lee C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate the parallel magnetic resonance imaging(pMRI) as a multichannel blind deconvolution problem with subsampling. First, the model allows formal characterization of image solutions consistent with data obtained by uniform subsampling of k-space. Second, the model allows analysis of the minimum set of required calibration data. Third, the filter bank formulation provides analysis of the sufficient sizes of interpolation kernels in widely used reconstruction techniques. Fourth, the model suggests principled development of regularization terms to fight ambiguity and ill-conditioning; specifically, subspace regularization is adapted from the blind image super-resolution work of Sroubek et al. [11]. Finally, characterization of the consistent set of image solutions leads to a cautionary comment on L1 regularization for the peculiar class of piece-wise constant images. Thus, it is proposed that the analysis of the subsampled blind deconvolution task provides insight into both the multiply determined nature of the pMRI task and possible design strategies for sampling and reconstruction. PMID:22254930

  8. PFC neurons reflect categorical decisions about ambiguous stimuli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jefferson E; Buschman, Timothy J; Miller, Earl K

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether PFC neuron activity reflects categorical decisions in monkeys categorizing ambiguous stimuli. A morphing system was used to systematically vary stimulus shape and precisely define category boundaries. Ambiguous stimuli were centered on a category boundary, that is, they were a mix of 50% of two prototypes and therefore had no category information, so monkeys guessed at their category membership. We found that the monkeys' trial-by-trial decision about the category membership of an ambiguous image was reflected in PFC activity. Activity to the same ambiguous image differed significantly, depending on which category the monkey had assigned it to. This effect only occurred when that scheme was behaviorally relevant. These indicate that PFC activity reflects categorical decisions. PMID:24405188

  9. On the characteristics of ASCAT wind direction ambiguities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Portabella, M.; Stoffelen, A.; Verhoef, A.

    2013-04-01

    The inversion of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) backscatter measurement triplets generally leads to two wind ambiguities with similar wind speed values and opposite wind directions. However, for up-, down- and crosswind (with respect to the mid-beam azimuth direction) cases, the inversion often leads to three or four wind solutions. In most of such cases, the inversion residuals or maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) of the third and fourth solutions (i.e. high-rank solutions) are substantially higher than those of the first two (low-rank) ambiguities. This indicates a low probability for the high-rank solutions and thus essentially dual ambiguity. This paper investigates the characteristics of ASCAT high-rank wind solutions under different conditions with the objective of developing a method for rejecting the spurious high-rank solutions. The implementation of this rejection procedure improves the effectiveness of the ASCAT wind quality control (QC) and ambiguity removal procedures.

  10. Single receiver phase ambiguity resolution with GPS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willy Bertiger; Shailen D. Desai; Bruce Haines; Nate Harvey; Angelyn W. Moore; Susan Owen; Jan P. Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) data processing algorithms typically improve positioning solution accuracy by fixing double-differenced\\u000a phase bias ambiguities to integer values. These “double-difference ambiguity resolution” methods usually invoke linear combinations\\u000a of GPS carrier phase bias estimates from pairs of transmitters and pairs of receivers, and traditionally require simultaneous\\u000a measurements from at least two receivers. However, many GPS users point position

  11. PRF Ambiguity Detrmination for Radarsat ScanSAR System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1998-01-01

    PRF ambiguity is a potential problem for a spaceborne SAR operated at high frequencies. For a strip mode SAR, there were several approaches to solve this problem. This paper, however, addresses PRF ambiguity determination algorithms suitable for a burst mode SAR system such as the Radarsat ScanSAR. The candidate algorithms include the wavelength diversity algorithm, range look cross correlation algorithm, and multi-PRF algorithm.

  12. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Which Cognitive Developments Are Necessary to Experience Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, M.J.; Wimmer, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    In two experiments involving one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds we examined the claim that a complex understanding of ambiguity is required to experience reversal of ambiguous stimuli [Gopnik, A., & Rosati, A. (2001). Duck or rabbit? Reversing ambiguous figures and understanding ambiguous representations. Developmental Science, 4,…

  13. Giving Meaning to the Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Horton

    2007-02-01

    When learning, students yearn for meaning, challenge, and relevance. Integrated learning fulfills these desires by limiting the compartmentalization of learning--providing a more coherent learning environment. Too often, mathematics and the physical sciences are taught as separate entities. Yet, many commonalities exist, especially between chemistry and Algebra II and between physics and pre-calculus (including trigonometry). This article presents three specific examples of an integrated curriculum approach that illustrates the connections between science, math, and physics through inquiry-based instruction. As a result, students' learning experiences will become more meaningful and valued.

  14. Giving curriculum planners an edge

    PubMed Central

    Oandasan, Ivy F.; Archibald, Douglas; Authier, Louise; Lawrence, Kathrine; McEwen, Laura April; Palacios, Maria; Parkkari, Marie; Plant, Heidi; Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To pilot a survey of family medicine residents entering residency, describing their exposure to family medicine and their perspectives related to their future intentions to practise family medicine, in order to inform curriculum planners; and to test the methodology, feasibility, and utility of delivering a longitudinal survey to multiple residency programs. Design Pilot study using surveys. Setting Five Canadian residency programs. Participants A total of 454 first-year family medicine residents were surveyed. Main outcome measures Residents’ previous exposure to family medicine, perspectives on family medicine, and future practice intentions. Results Overall, 70% of first-year residents surveyed responded (n = 317). Although only 5 residency programs participated, respondents included graduates from each of the medical schools in Canada, as well as international medical graduates. Among respondents, 92% felt positive or strongly positive about their choice to be family physicians. Most (73%) indicated they had strong or very strong exposure to family medicine in medical school, yet more than 40% had no or minimal exposure to key clinical domains of family medicine like palliative care, home care, and care of underserved groups. Similar responses were found about residents’ lack of intention to practise in these domains. Conclusion Exposure to clinical domains in family medicine could influence future practice intentions. Surveys at entrance to residency can help medical school and family medicine residency planners consider important learning experiences to include in training.

  15. Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, E.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A.; Pieralli, F.; Myers, R. M.; Busoni, L.; Tozzi, A.; Stefanini, P.

    2006-06-01

    In the technological development for the ELTs, one of the key activities is the phasing and alignment of the primary mirror segments. To achieve the phasing accuracy of a small fraction of the wavelength, an optical sensor is required. In 2005 has been demonstrated that the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor can be employed in closed loop to correct simultaneously piston, tip and tilt errors of segmented mirror. The Pyramid Phasing Sensor (PYPS) is based on the sensing of phase step on the segment edges; this kind of phasing sensors have the common limitation of the signal ambiguity induced by the phase periodicity of ??/? on the mirror surface step ?, when the wavelength ? is used for the sensing. In this paper we briefly describe three different techniques that allow to solve the phase ambiguity with PYPS. As first we present experimental results on the two wavelengths closed loop procedure proposed by Esposito in 2001; in the laboratory test the multi-wavelength procedure allowed to exceed the sensor capture range of +/-?/2 and simultaneously retrieve the differential piston of the 32 mirror segments starting from random positions in a 3.2 ? wavefront range, the maximum allowed by the mirror stroke. Then we propose two new techniques based respectively on the segment and wavelength sweep. The Segment Sweep Technique (SST) has been successfully applied during the experimental tests of PYPS at the William Herschel Telescope, when 13 segments of the NAOMI DM has been phased starting from a random position in a 15? range. The Wavelength Sweep Technique (WST) has been subject of preliminary tests in the Arcetri laboratories in order to prove the concept. Each technique has different capture range, accuracy and operation time, so that each can solve different tasks required to an optical phasing sensor in the ELT application. More in detail the WST and SST could be used combined for the first mirror phasing when the calibration required for the closed loop operations are not yet available. Then the closed loop capture range can be extended from +/-?/2 to +/-10? with the multi-wavelength closed loop technique.

  16. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause. PMID:25711096

  17. Reduction of Phase Ambiguity in an Offset-QPSK Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff; Kinman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Proposed modifications of an offset-quadri-phase-shift keying (offset-QPSK) transmitter and receiver would reduce the amount of signal processing that must be done in the receiver to resolve the QPSK fourfold phase ambiguity. Resolution of the phase ambiguity is necessary in order to synchronize, with the received carrier signal, the signal generated by a local oscillator in a carrier-tracking loop in the receiver. Without resolution of the fourfold phase ambiguity, the loop could lock to any of four possible phase points, only one of which has the proper phase relationship with the carrier. The proposal applies, more specifically, to an offset-QPSK receiver that contains a carrier-tracking loop like that shown in Figure 1. This carrier-tracking loop does not resolve or reduce the phase ambiguity. A carrier-tracking loop of a different design optimized for the reception of offset QPSK could reduce the phase ambiguity from fourfold to twofold, but would be more complex. Alternatively, one could resolve the fourfold phase ambiguity by use of differential coding in the transmitter, at a cost of reduced power efficiency. The proposed modifications would make it possible to reduce the fourfold phase ambiguity to twofold, with no loss in power efficiency and only relatively simple additional signal-processing steps in the transmitter and receiver. The twofold phase ambiguity would then be resolved by use of a unique synchronization word, as is commonly done in binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). Although the mathematical and signal-processing principles underlying the modifications are too complex to explain in detail here, the modifications themselves would be relatively simple and are best described with the help of simple block diagrams (see Figure 2). In the transmitter, one would add a unit that would periodically invert bits going into the QPSK modulator; in the receiver, one would add a unit that would effect different but corresponding inversions of bits coming out of the QPSK demodulator. The net effect of all the inversions would be that depending on which lock point the carrier-tracking loop had selected, all the output bits would be either inverted or non-inverted together; hence, the ambiguity would be reduced from fourfold to twofold, as desired.

  18. Assumptions and ambiguities in nonplanar acoustic soliton theory

    SciTech Connect

    Verheest, Frank [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium) [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Hellberg, Manfred A. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)] [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2014-02-15

    There have been many recent theoretical investigations of the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic modes with cylindrical or spherical symmetry. Through a reductive perturbation analysis based on a quasiplanar stretching, a modified form of the Korteweg-de Vries or related equation is derived, containing an additional term which is linear in the electrostatic potential and singular at time t?=?0. Unfortunately, these analyses contain several restrictive assumptions and ambiguities which are normally neither properly explained nor discussed, and severely limit the applicability of the technique. Most glaring are the use of plane-wave stretchings, the assumption that shape-preserving cylindrical modes can exist and that, although time is homogeneous, the origin of time (which can be chosen arbitrarily) needs to be avoided. Hence, only in the domain where the nonlinear modes are quasiplanar, far from the axis of cylindrical or from the origin of spherical symmetry can acceptable but unexciting results be obtained. Nonplanar nonlinear modes are clearly an interesting topic of research, as some of these phenomena have been observed in experiments. However, it is argued that a proper study of such modes needs numerical simulations rather than ill-suited analytical approximations.

  19. Assumptions and ambiguities in nonplanar acoustic soliton theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2014-02-01

    There have been many recent theoretical investigations of the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic modes with cylindrical or spherical symmetry. Through a reductive perturbation analysis based on a quasiplanar stretching, a modified form of the Korteweg-de Vries or related equation is derived, containing an additional term which is linear in the electrostatic potential and singular at time t = 0. Unfortunately, these analyses contain several restrictive assumptions and ambiguities which are normally neither properly explained nor discussed, and severely limit the applicability of the technique. Most glaring are the use of plane-wave stretchings, the assumption that shape-preserving cylindrical modes can exist and that, although time is homogeneous, the origin of time (which can be chosen arbitrarily) needs to be avoided. Hence, only in the domain where the nonlinear modes are quasiplanar, far from the axis of cylindrical or from the origin of spherical symmetry can acceptable but unexciting results be obtained. Nonplanar nonlinear modes are clearly an interesting topic of research, as some of these phenomena have been observed in experiments. However, it is argued that a proper study of such modes needs numerical simulations rather than ill-suited analytical approximations.

  20. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

  1. Auditory Scene Analysis: The Sweet Music of Ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Pressnitzer, Daniel; Suied, Clara; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2011-01-01

    In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis (ASA), or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, ASA uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener). After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit) knowledge of the rules of ASA and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music. PMID:22174701

  2. Eye movements and the identification of spatially ambiguous words during Chinese sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    INHOFF, ALBRECHT W.; WU, CAILI

    2009-01-01

    Readers of Chinese must generally determine word units in the absence of visually distinct interword spaces. In the present study, we examined how a sequence of Chinese characters is parsed into words under these conditions. Eye movements were monitored while participants read sentences with a critical four-character (C1234) sequence. Three partially overlapping character groupings formed legal words in the ambiguous condition (C12, C23, and C34), two of which corresponded to context-consistent words (C12 and C34). Two nonoverlapping groupings corresponded to legal words in the control conditions (C12 and C34). In two experiments, readers spent more time viewing the critical character sequence and its two center characters (C23) in the ambiguous condition. These results argue against the strictly serial assignment of characters to words during the reading of Chinese text. PMID:16615382

  3. Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent Environments: Towards a More Reliable Context Managing System

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Modeling and managing correctly the user context in Smart Environments is important to achieve robust and reliable systems. When modeling reality we must take into account its ambiguous nature. Considering the uncertainty and vagueness in context data information it is possible to attain a more precise picture of the environment, thus leading to a more accurate inference process. To achieve these goals we present an ontology that models the ambiguity in intelligent environments and a data fusion and inference process that takes advantage of that extra information to provide better results. Our system can assess the certainty of the captured measurements, discarding the unreliable ones and combining the rest into a unified vision of the current user context. It also models the vagueness of the system, combining it with the uncertainty to obtain a richer inference process. PMID:22666068

  4. On reducing ambiguity in the interpretation of transient electromagnetic sounding data

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. [Inst. for Petroleum Research and Geophysics, Holon (Israel); Plooy, A. du [CISR, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Earth, Marine and Atmospheric Science and Technology; Eckard, M. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik and Meteorologie

    1994-01-01

    An attempt to resolve non-uniqueness in the interpretation of transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding data using measured data alone is made. It is shown in the various examples studied that sufficiently early time measurements can be the determining factor in reducing the ambiguity caused by model equivalence. The early delay times thus play a dual role in transient soundings: they are responsible for resolving shallow structures and they may eliminate the ambiguity in the interpretation of geoelectric parameters of deeper targets. This is illustrated by the results of a follow-up TEM survey at the Dead Sea coast of Israel where the use of supplementary early time measurements allowed non-uniqueness in the determination of the depth to fresh/saline groundwater interface to be resolved.

  5. Perceiving racism in ambiguous situations: who relies on easy-to-use information?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2010-01-01

    In situations that are ambiguous with regard to the presence of discrimination, how do people arrive at their conclusions that discrimination has (or has not) taken place? This question was examined from a motivated social cognition perspective via the interaction of two factors: the prototype effect--the notion that ambiguously discriminatory behavior is more likely to be perceived as discriminatory when the executor is prototypical and the need for cognitive closure--the tendency to jump hastily to and seize on an answer. Results provided replicating evidence of the prototype effect among European American participants but not among African American participants. Specifically, European Americans were likely to perceive ambiguously racist behavior enacted by a prototypical executor (i.e., a White person) as more discriminatory than the same behavior exhibited by a non-prototypical executor (i.e., a Black person). African American participants, on the other hand, showed no reliance on this simple cognitive heuristic. Furthermore, results showed that European Americans with a higher need for cognitive closure were more likely to rely on the easy-to-use information offered by prototypes. These findings are discussed from a motivated social cognition perspective. PMID:20575334

  6. Interpretive biases for ambiguous information in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Wilhelm, Sabine; McNally, Richard J; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Baer, Lee; Jenike, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    Anxiety-disordered patients and individuals with high trait anxiety tend to interpret ambiguous information as threatening. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether interpretive biases would also occur in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is characterized by a preoccupation with imagined defects in one's appearance. We tested whether BDD participants, compared with obsessive-compulsive disorder participants and healthy controls, would choose threatening interpretations for ambiguous body-related, ambiguous social, and general scenarios. As we hypothesized, BDD participants exhibited a negative interpretive bias for body-related scenarios and for social scenarios, whereas the other groups did not. Moreover, both clinical groups exhibited a negative interpretive bias for general scenarios. PMID:15107765

  7. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  8. Ambiguity of structure determination from a minimum of diffraction intensities.

    PubMed

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed; Leggas, Dimitri; Tsodikov, Oleg V

    2014-07-01

    Although the ambiguity of the crystal structures determined directly from diffraction intensities has been historically recognized, it is not well understood in quantitative terms. Bernstein's theorem has recently been used to obtain the number of one-dimensional crystal structures of equal point atoms, given a minimum set of diffraction intensities. By a similar approach, the number of two- and three-dimensional crystal structures that can be determined from a minimum intensity data set is estimated herein. The ambiguity of structure determination from the algebraic minimum of data increases at least exponentially fast with the increasing structure size. Substituting lower-resolution intensities by higher-resolution ones in the minimum data set has little or no effect on this ambiguity if the number of such substitutions is relatively small. PMID:25970192

  9. GIVE: a general interactive visualization environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Xubo; Cai Wenli; Shi Jiaoying

    1997-01-01

    We present a data flow based software platform called GIVE (General Interactive Visualization Environment). GIVE owns a data flow kernel, a visual programming interface and an extensible module library. It greatly enhances the efficiency of building visualization programs. GIVE has the following distinctive features: it introduces control nodes and procedure nodes into traditional data flow architecture, so it can support

  10. When language comprehension reflects production constraints: Resolving ambiguities with the help of past experience

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Thornton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A key assumption in language comprehension is that biases in behavioral data, such as the tendency to interpret John said that Mary left yesterday to mean that yesterday modifies the syntactically local verb left, not the distant verb said, reflect inherent biases in the language comprehension system. In the present article, an alternative production–distribution–comprehension (PDC) account is pursued; this account states that comprehension biases emerge from different interpretation frequencies in the language, which themselves emerge from pressures on the language production system to produce some structures more than others. In two corpus analyses and two self-paced reading experiments, we investigated these claims for verb modification ambiguities, for which phrase length is hypothesized to shape production. The results support claims that tendencies to produce short phrases before long ones create distributional regularities for modification ambiguities in the language and that learning over these regularities shapes comprehenders’ interpretations of modification ambiguities. Implications for the PDC and other accounts are discussed. PMID:19933460

  11. Benefits of using culturally unfamiliar stimuli in ambiguous emotion identification: A cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Kohl, Waldemar; Luettgenau, Julia; Triantafillou, Susanna; Ohrmann, Patricia; Satoh, Shinji; Minoshita, Seiko

    2015-07-30

    A novel emotion recognition task that employs photos of a Japanese mask representing a highly ambiguous stimulus was evaluated. As non-Asians perceive and/or label emotions differently from Asians, we aimed to identify patterns of task-performance in non-Asian healthy volunteers with a view to future patient studies. The Noh mask test was presented to 42 adult German participants. Reaction times and emotion attribution patterns were recorded. To control for emotion identification abilities, a standard emotion recognition task was used among others. Questionnaires assessed personality traits. Finally, results were compared to age- and gender-matched Japanese volunteers. Compared to other tasks, German participants displayed slowest reaction times on the Noh mask test, indicating higher demands of ambiguous emotion recognition. They assigned more positive emotions to the mask than Japanese volunteers, demonstrating culture-dependent emotion identification patterns. As alexithymic and anxious traits were associated with slower reaction times, personality dimensions impacted on performance, as well. We showed an advantage of ambiguous over conventional emotion recognition tasks. Moreover, we determined emotion identification patterns in Western individuals impacted by personality dimensions, suggesting performance differences in clinical samples. Due to its properties, the Noh mask test represents a promising tool in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. PMID:25933477

  12. Top-down influences on ambiguous perception: the role of stable and transient states of the observer

    PubMed Central

    Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The world as it appears to the viewer is the result of a complex process of inference performed by the brain. The validity of this apparently counter-intuitive assertion becomes evident whenever we face noisy, feeble or ambiguous visual stimulation: in these conditions, the state of the observer may play a decisive role in determining what is currently perceived. On this background, ambiguous perception and its amenability to top-down influences can be employed as an empirical paradigm to explore the principles of perception. Here we offer an overview of both classical and recent contributions on how stable and transient states of the observer can impact ambiguous perception. As to the influence of the stable states of the observer, we show that what is currently perceived can be influenced (1) by cognitive and affective aspects, such as meaning, prior knowledge, motivation, and emotional content and (2) by individual differences, such as gender, handedness, genetic inheritance, clinical conditions, and personality traits and by (3) learning and conditioning. As to the impact of transient states of the observer, we outline the effects of (4) attention and (5) voluntary control, which have attracted much empirical work along the history of ambiguous perception. In the huge literature on the topic we trace a difference between the observer's ability to control dominance (i.e., the maintenance of a specific percept in visual awareness) and reversal rate (i.e., the switching between two alternative percepts). Other transient states of the observer that have more recently drawn researchers' attention regard (6) the effects of imagery and visual working memory. (7) Furthermore, we describe the transient effects of prior history of perceptual dominance. (8) Finally, we address the currently available computational models of ambiguous perception and how they can take into account the crucial share played by the state of the observer in perceiving ambiguous displays. PMID:25538601

  13. Determining the point of subjective ambiguity of ambiguous biological-motion figures with perspective cues.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl

    2010-02-01

    Orthographic frontal/back projections of biological-motion figures are bistable: The point-light figure in principle can be perceived either as facing toward the viewer or as facing away from the viewer. Some point-light actions--for example, walking--elicit a strong "facing bias": Despite the absence of objective cues to depth, observers tend to interpret the figure as facing toward the viewer in most of the cases. In this article, we present and experimentally validate a technique that affords full experimental control of the perceived in-depth orientation of point-light figures. We demonstrate that by parametrically manipulating the amount of perspective information in the stimulus, it is possible to obtain any desired level of subjective ambiguity. Directions for future research, in which this technique can be fruitfully implemented, are suggested. Program code of a demo is provided that can be modified easily for program code of new experiments. The demo and QuickTime movie files illustrating our perspective manipulation technique may be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20160296

  14. Sublexical Ambiguity Effect in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in…

  15. Computational Resolving PP attachment Ambiguities with MemoryBased

    E-print Network

    Tilburg, Universiteit van

    , Madrid 1997 (CoNLL97) ILK­03 Resolving PP attachment Ambiguities with Memory­Based Learning Jakub Zavrel of Memory­Based Learning to the problem of Prepositional Phrase attachment disam­ biguation. We compare resolution is Prepositional Phrase (PP) attachment. Several sources of infor­ mation can be used to resolve

  16. Children's Use of Gesture in Ambiguous Pronoun Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich Smith, Whitney; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether children can use gesture to inform their interpretation of ambiguous pronouns. Specifically, we ask whether four- to eight-year-old English-speaking children are sensitive to information contained in co-referential localizing gestures in video narrations. The data show that the older (7-8 years of age) but not younger…

  17. Hemispheric Differences in Context Sensitivity During Lexical Ambiguity Resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Titone

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of contextual constraint on lexical ambiguity resolution in the cerebral hemispheres. A cross-modal priming variant of the divided visual field task was utilized in which subjects heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions to targets semantically related to dominant and subordinate meanings. Experiment 1 showed priming in both hemispheres of dominant

  18. From Contract Drafting to Software Specification: Linguistic Sources of Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Kamsties; Michael M. Krieger

    2001-01-01

    This handbook is about writing software requirements specifications and legal contracts, two kinds of docu- ments with similar needs for completeness, consistency, and precision. Particularly when these are written, as they usually are, in natural language, ambiguity—by any definition—is a major cause of their not specifying what they should. Simple misuse of the language in which the document is written

  19. Ambiguity Resolution in Search Engine Using Natural Language Web Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azeez Nureni Ayofe; Azeez Raheem Ajetola; Ade Stanley Oyewole

    2009-01-01

    Our aim is to create NLWA technique which will be able to retrieve resources from a knowledge base in a more efficient way to respond to the ambiguity problem that occurs when performing the search using the search engine. This system was implemented with the fundamental concept of Natural Language Processing (NLP) whereby it differentiates the similar meaning (synonyms) or

  20. Analysis of Non Ambiguous BOC Signal Acquisition Performance

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Analysis of Non Ambiguous BOC Signal Acquisition Performance Vincent Heiries, TeSA Daniel Roviras is responsible for research activities on GNSS2 signals, including BOC modulations and GPSIIF-L5. Vincent of three methods al- lowing to acquire and track a BOC signal unambiguously : the Bump-Jumping technique

  1. Evaluation of Compass Ambiguity Resolution Performance Using Geometric-Based

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    Evaluation of Compass Ambiguity Resolution Performance Using Geometric-Based Techniques Satellite Division. ABSTRACT The Chinese GNSS system, Compass, is expected to be operational in the near application areas involving Compass will be carrier-phase based precise positioning. However, the associated

  2. Utilization of Prosodic Information in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Two self paced listening experiments examined the role of prosodic phrasing in syntactic ambiguity resolution. In Experiment 1, the stimuli consisted of early closure sentences (e.g., "While the parents watched, the child sang a song.") containing transitive-biased subordinate verbs paired with plausible direct objects or intransitive-biased…

  3. Children's Interpretation of Ambiguous Focus in Sentences with "Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.; White, Diane; Filik, Ruth; Jaz, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    We report 3 studies investigating children's and adults' interpretation of ambiguous focus in sentences containing the focus-sensitive quantifier only. In each experiment, child and adult participants compared sentences with only in a preverbal position and counterpart sentences without only against a series of pictures depicting events that…

  4. Knowledge sources for disambiguating highly ambiguous verbs in machine translation

    E-print Network

    Specia, Lucia

    1 Knowledge sources for disambiguating highly ambiguous verbs in machine translation LUCIA SPECIA (WSD) is one of the most challenging outstanding problems in the current machine translation systems algorithm, in a new WSD approach. 1 Introduction Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) in Machine Translation (MT

  5. Thomas Jennings Pace: Learning to Cope with Ambiguity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark III

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how, in his speech communication classes, Thomas Jennings Pace taught the tolerance for ambiguity as a major device for learning and living. Presents Pace's concept of achieving communication (as opposed to mere persuasion) by using dialogue and learning to discriminate between the mundane and the significant. (JD)

  6. Coping with Ambiguity and Unknown Words through Probabilistic Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph M. Weischedel; Marie Meteer; Richard M. Schwartz; Lance A. Ramshaw; Jeff Palmucci

    1993-01-01

    From spring 1990 through fall 1991, we performed a battery of small experiments to test the effectiveness of supplementing knowledge-based techniques with probabilistic models. This paper reports our experiments in predicting parts of speech of highly ambiguous words, predicting the intended interpretation of an utterance when more than one interpretation satisfies all known syntactic and semantic constraints, and learning caseframe

  7. Prosody and the Interpretation of Hierarchically Ambiguous Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although significant attention has been devoted to prosody in discourse production, relatively little is known about prosody's effect on discourse interpretation. This article explores the ability of synthetic manipulations of prosody to bias interpretation of discourse ambiguities where a first sentence is linked to two following sentences…

  8. Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degani, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

  9. Ambiguous Argument as Advocacy in Organizational Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellnow, Timothy L.; Ulmer, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    Posits that organizations in crisis situations must address multiple audiences with distinct needs. Analyzes the public communication offered by Jack in the Box restaurants during a food poisoning outbreak. Finds that ambiguity may provide organizations with a means for satisfying the divergent needs of their audiences--even where these distinct…

  10. Comprehension: fMRI studies of Semantic Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Rodd; Matthew H. Davis

    A number of regions of the temporal and frontal lobes are known to be important for spoken language comprehension, yet we do not have a clear understanding of their functional role(s). In particular, there is considerable disagreement about which brain regions are involved in the semantic aspects of comprehension. Two functional magnetic resonance studies use the phenomenon of semantic ambiguity

  11. Accessing lexical ambiguity: Effects of context and dominance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Tabossi; Lucia Colombo; Remo Job

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the effects of sentential context and frequency of meaning (dominance) on the lexical access of ambiguous words. Two experiments were carried out using Swinney's (1979) cross-modal paradigm. The sentential contexts were constructed in such a way as to make salient the most characteristic features of either the dominant (Experiment 1) or the secondary (Experiment 2) meaning of

  12. Dynamic portfolio choice under ambiguity and regime switching mean returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hening Liu

    2011-01-01

    I examine a continuous-time intertemporal consumption and portfolio choice problem under ambiguity, where expected returns of a risky asset follow a hidden Markov chain. Investors with Chen and Epstein's (2002) recursive multiple priors utility possess a set of priors for unobservable investment opportunities. The optimal consumption and portfolio policies are explicitly characterized in terms of the Malliavin derivatives and stochastic

  13. Fuzzy measures and asset prices: accounting for information ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umberto Cherubini

    1997-01-01

    A recent stream of literature has suggested that many market imperfections or ‘puzzles’ can be easily explained once information ambiguity, or knightian uncertainty is taken into account. Here we propose a parametric representation of this concept by means of a special class of fuzzy measures, known as g?-measures. The parameter ? may be considered an indicator of uncertainty. Starting with

  14. Ambiguity aversion in asset market: Experimental study of home bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noah Myungy

    The equity market home bias occurs when the investors over-invest in their home country assets. The equity market home bias is a paradox because the investors are not hedging their risk optimally. Even with unrealistic levels of risk aversion, the equity market home bias cannot be explained using the standard mean- variance model. We propose ambiguity aversion to be the

  15. Ambiguity, Accessibility, and a Division of Labor for Communicative Success

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    People talk to be understood, and so they should produce utterances that are easy for their listeners to understand. I begin this chapter by describing evidence showing that speakers rarely avoid sentences that are ambiguous, even though ambiguity is a factor that is well known to cause difficulty for listeners. Instead, speakers seem to choose utterances that are especially easy for them to say, specifically by producing more accessible, easy-to-think-of material sooner, and less accessible, harder-to-think-of material later. If speakers produce utterances that are easy to say but not utterances that are easy to understand, how is it that we understand each other? A third line of evidence shows that even when sentences are structurally ambiguous, they’re likely to include enough information for comprehenders to figure out what they mean. This suggests that speakers produce ambiguous utterances simply because they can -- because the grammar of their language will only let them produce utterances that are unambiguous enough to be understood most of the time anyway. And so, we understand each other because speakers produce utterances efficiently even if they’re not optimally understandable; addressees do what they need to to understand their speakers; and the grammar makes sure everything works out properly. PMID:19710948

  16. Resolving and Mediating Ambiguous Contexts for Pervasive Care Environments

    E-print Network

    Julien, Christine

    ), context state (Si) and situation space (Ri), and attempts to incorporate various intuitions that should, a significant challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services for healthcare applications is the ability to deal with ambiguous contexts to prevent hazardous situations. In this work, we

  17. Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

  18. Violent Comic Books and Perceptions of Ambiguous Provocation Situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Kirsh; Paul V. Olczak

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading very violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situations, independent of trait hostility. 119 introductory psychology students read either a violent comic book, Curse of the Spawn, or a mildly violent comic book, Archie & Friends. After reading the comic books, participants read six shor t stories in

  19. Role Ambiguity in Institutional Marketing and Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muston, Ray A.

    1985-01-01

    Academic and student services officers from the largest 61 state university users of American College Testing (ACT) data systems were surveyed. The study revealed a high degree of role ambiguity and organizational resistance to enrollment management strategies. A need for clarity and coordination in organizational performance is demonstrated.…

  20. Absence of Real Evidence against Competition during Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    Using evidence from eye-tracking studies, Van Gompel, Pickering, Pearson, and Liversedge (2005) have argued against currently implemented constraint-based models of syntactic ambiguity resolution. The case against these competition models is based on a mismatch between reported patterns of reading data and the putative predictions of the models.…

  1. PICS-Ord: unlimited coding of ambiguous regions by pairwise identity and cost scores ordination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We present a novel method to encode ambiguously aligned regions in fixed multiple sequence alignments by 'Pairwise Identity and Cost Scores Ordination' (PICS-Ord). The method works via ordination of sequence identity or cost scores matrices by means of Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA). After identification of ambiguous regions, the method computes pairwise distances as sequence identities or cost scores, ordinates the resulting distance matrix by means of PCoA, and encodes the principal coordinates as ordered integers. Three biological and 100 simulated datasets were used to assess the performance of the new method. Results Including ambiguous regions coded by means of PICS-Ord increased topological accuracy, resolution, and bootstrap support in real biological and simulated datasets compared to the alternative of excluding such regions from the analysis a priori. In terms of accuracy, PICS-Ord performs equal to or better than previously available methods of ambiguous region coding (e.g., INAASE), with the advantage of a practically unlimited alignment size and increased analytical speed and the possibility of PICS-Ord scores to be analyzed together with DNA data in a partitioned maximum likelihood model. Conclusions Advantages of PICS-Ord over step matrix-based ambiguous region coding with INAASE include a practically unlimited number of OTUs and seamless integration of PICS-Ord codes into phylogenetic datasets, as well as the increased speed of phylogenetic analysis. Contrary to word- and frequency-based methods, PICS-Ord maintains the advantage of pairwise sequence alignment to derive distances, and the method is flexible with respect to the calculation of distance scores. In addition to distance and maximum parsimony, PICS-Ord codes can be analyzed in a Bayesian or maximum likelihood framework. RAxML (version 7.2.6 or higher that was developed for this study) allows up to 32-state ordered or unordered characters. A GTR, MK, or ORDERED model can be applied to analyse the PICS-Ord codes partition, with GTR performing slightly better than MK and ORDERED. Availability An implementation of the PICS-Ord algorithm is available from http://scit.us/projects/ngila/wiki/PICS-Ord. It requires both the statistical software, R http://www.r-project.org and the alignment software Ngila http://scit.us/projects/ngila. PMID:21214904

  2. Acquiring 3D Full-body Motion from Noisy and Ambiguous Input

    E-print Network

    Lou, Hui

    2012-07-16

    camera. The common theme that underlies two approaches is the use of prior knowledge embedded in pre-recorded motion capture database to reduce the reconstruction ambiguity caused by noisy and ambiguous input and constrain the solution to lie...

  3. Everyday information in American philanthropy: informed giving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M. Hayes

    2011-01-01

    Philanthropic activity is not well studied by social scientists, although the scholarly literature is increasing. The behavior of wealthy donors has received attention, but there is scant research on the giving behavior of the average American and even less on information-seeking as part of that behavior. Endogenous and exogenous forces have shaped American giving. This paper describes those forces in

  4. Using Convergent Design Processes to Surface Hidden Ambiguity and Conflict in Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Barnes

    2003-01-01

    In a volatile and politically-charged design environment such as healthcare information systems (IS), ambiguity and conflict play significant roles in the success or failure of development efforts. However, the relationship between ambiguity and conflict is complex. Resolving ambiguity during IS requirements analysis may not readily lead to conflict resolution, since even the most innocent and well-intentioned probes for hidden requirements

  5. Reaction to Public Information in Markets: How Much Does Ambiguity Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brice Corgnet; Praveen Kujal; David Porter

    2011-01-01

    In real world situations the fundamental value of an asset is ambiguous. Recent theory has incorporated ambiguity in the dividend process and the information observed by investors, and studied its effect on asset prices. In this paper we experimentally study trader reaction to ambiguity when dividend information is revealed sequentially. Price changes are consistent with news revelation regarding the dividend

  6. UNCERTAINTY, OPPORTUNISM, AND GOVERNANCE: THE EFFECTS OF VOLATILITY AND AMBIGUITY ON FORMAL AND RELATIONAL CONTRACTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN J. CARSON

    2006-01-01

    Comparing the effectiveness of contractual and relational governance in constraining opportunism under conditions of volatility and ambiguity, we hypothesize that rela- tional contracts will be robust to volatility but not to ambiguity, whereas formal contracts will be robust to ambiguity but not to volatility. Data from 125 interorgani- zational relationships involving R&D for new-product development support these hypotheses. Our findings

  7. Measures of Ambiguity of Computational Verbs Based on Computational Verb Collapses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yang; Yi Guo

    2007-01-01

    The ambiguity of computational verbs is measured by using Shannon entropy. The ambiguities in the states and in the dynamics of computational verbs are studied based on the simplest computational verb collapses; namely, samples of the evolving functions of computational verbs at the ends of life spans. The ambiguities in the states of computational verbs can be either increased or

  8. Disjunctive ambiguity and the performance of Flannery O'connor's “the displaced person”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Ellsworth Tallant

    1986-01-01

    Narrative ambiguity, a concept which has only recently achieved prominence in literary criticism, has important implications for the performance of literature. This essay explores disjunctive narrative ambiguity and how it differs from other, similar literary devices. Specifically, this essay suggests group and solo performance techniques that can preserve and, in many cases, feature the disjunctive ambiguity in Flanner O'Connor's “The

  9. Ambiguous Loss after Lesbian Couples with Children Break up: A Case for Same-Gender Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of ambiguous loss is applied to structural ambiguity and personal transcendence in the parent-child relationship following a same-gender relational ending. Working recursively through the six guidelines of ambiguous loss (finding meaning, tempering mastery, reconstructing identity, normalizing ambivalence, revising attachment, and…

  10. Boundary Ambiguity in Parents with Chronically Ill Children: Integrating Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Holm, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    This article integrates theory and research related to boundary ambiguity in parents of children with a chronic health condition. We propose that boundary ambiguity is a risk factor for psychological distress in these parents. Clinical applications and a case example highlight how boundary ambiguity can be assessed and managed in clinical settings…

  11. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    PubMed

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area. PMID:22458916

  12. Analysis of the ambiguity function for an FM signal derived from the Lorenz chaotic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappu, Chandra S.; Flores, Benjamin C.; deBroux, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    In prior work, we showed that any one of the state variables of the Lorenz chaotic flow can be used effectively as the instantaneous frequency of an FM signal. We further investigated a method to improve chaotic-wideband FM signals for high resolution radar applications by introducing a compression factor to the Lorenz flow equations and by varying two control parameters, namely ? and ?, to substantially increase the bandwidth of the signal. In this paper, we obtain an empirical quadratic relationship between these two control parameters that yields a high Lyapunov exponent which allows the Lorenz flow to quickly diverge from its initial state. This, in turn, results in an FM signal with an agile center frequency that is also chaotic. A time-frequency analysis of the FM signal shows that variable time-bandwidth products of the order of 105 and wide bandwidths of approximately 10 GHz are achievable over short segments of the signal. Next, we compute the average ambiguity function for a large number of short segments of the signal with positive range-Doppler coupling. The resulting ambiguity surface is shaped as a set of mountain ridges that align with multiple range-Doppler coupling lines with low self-noise surrounding the peak response. Similar results are achieved for segments of the signal with negative range-Doppler coupling. The characteristics of the ambiguity surface are directly attributed to the frequency agility of the FM signal which could be potentially used to counteract electronic counter measures aimed at traditional chirp radars.

  13. King v. Burwell: Desperately Seeking Ambiguity in Clear Statutory Text.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jonathan H; Cannon, Michael F

    2015-06-01

    Does the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 authorize tax credits within the thirty-six states that failed to establish health insurance exchanges? That is the question presented in Pruitt v. Burwell, Halbig v. Burwell, King v. Burwell, and Indiana v. IRS. The plaintiffs argue that the statute is clear and forecloses any possibility of tax credits in federal exchanges. The government argues that the statute plainly authorizes tax credits in federal exchanges, or is at least ambiguous on the question. Mere disagreement is not evidence of ambiguity. Reaching the truth requires wading deep into each side's arguments. Whether the relevant text is viewed in isolation or in its full statutory context, the ACA authorizes tax credits only in exchanges established by the states. PMID:25425084

  14. Punctuated equilibrium based on a locally ambiguous niche.

    PubMed

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Sakiyama, Tomoko; Murakami, Hisashi

    2014-09-01

    Punctuated equilibrium, recently regarded as the power law distribution of lifespan, is estimated with respect to self-organized criticality. Previous explanations were based on a global property, such as the selection of species depending on their fitness, however a particular entity defined through such global property cannot be relevant to the notion of "self". Here, we introduce local ambiguity of a niche with respect to function and define a function network by using two types of maps. Due to the local complex structure of the function network, motif and lateral connections, some species are easily replaced by others, and other species have long lives. Punctuated equilibrium can, therefore, be explained by local ambiguous interaction, which suggests the notion of self and supports the idea of self-organized criticality. PMID:24905426

  15. Integer-ambiguity resolution in astronomy and geodesy

    E-print Network

    Lannes, André

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in astronomical aperture synthesis have revealed the existence of integer-ambiguity problems. Those problems, which appear in the self-calibration procedures of radio imaging, have been shown to be similar to the nearest-lattice point (NLP) problems encountered in high-precision geodetic positioning, and in global navigation satellite systems. In this paper, we analyse the theoretical aspects of the matter and propose new methods for solving those NLP problems. The related optimization aspects concern both the preconditioning stage, and the discrete-search stage in which the integer ambiguities are finally fixed. Our algorithms, which are described in an explicit manner, can easily be implemented. They lead to substantial gains in the processing time of both stages. Their efficiency was shown via intensive numerical tests.

  16. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (221 K) Acetaminophen Safety (Podcast) On this page Overdosing Has Been ...

  17. Give and Take Films and Videocassettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Patricia K.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the twelve part Give & Take series which introduces junior and senior high students to economic reasoning and decision making. Describes the contents of each segment and provides teaching suggestions for implementing this series in the classroom. (JDH)

  18. Situational ambiguity and gendered patterns of arrest for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299

  19. Cesare Lombroso: Methodological ambiguities and brilliant intuitions.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Uberto; Verde, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    This paper on Cesare Lombroso aims to assess his contribution to the criminological sciences. Although much praised worldwide, Lombroso was also the target of scathing criticism and unmitigated condemnation. Examination of Lombroso's method of data collection and analysis reveals his weakness. Indeed, his approach was extremely naive, simplistic and uncritical, aimed at irrefutably demonstrating the hypotheses that he championed, without exercising the methodological caution that was already beginning to characterize scientific research in his day. However, we must acknowledge that his biological theories of crime are undergoing new developments as a result of the recent success of biological psychiatry. On the other hand we should recognize that his work was not limited to his biological central theory; rather, it covered a range of cues and concepts, for the most part ignored, that demonstrate his interest in the economic, cultural and social factors that impact on crime. For these reasons, Lombroso appears to have anticipated many modern conceptions regarding delinquent behavior and criminal justice, such as those of restorative justice, the so-called "situational" theories of criminal behavior and white collar crime. PMID:22154472

  20. Right semantic modulation of early MEG components during ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, Yuval; Lavidor, Michal; Goldstein, Abraham

    2013-11-15

    The time-line of lexical ambiguity resolution in bilateral neuronal networks was investigated using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a semantic decision task. Dominant and subordinate associations of ambiguous words are considered to be processed in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. In the experiment, ambiguous words were followed by dominant or subordinate associations (manipulated between blocks) or by unrelated target words, and participants (N=25) decided whether the words in each pair were related or not. Subordinate meaning blocks elicited greater changes in the magnetic fields relative to dominant ones over the right, but not the left hemisphere (LH) at 150-235 ms from target onset, a time window corresponding to the M/N170 M/EEG component. Beamforming analysis localized the differential right hemisphere (RH) activity at the perisylvian area, including the homologue regions of Broca's and Wernicke's. At a later stage (235-390 ms) there was no significant difference between the two meaning conditions. We suggest that the RH language regions assist the LH in integrating subordinate disambiguating clues to preceding context during the M170 time window. PMID:23707585

  1. Neural Substrates for Judgment of Self-Agency in Ambiguous Situations

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Hirokata; Goto, Yurie; Maeda, Takaki; Kato, Motoichiro; Umeda, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The sense of agency is the attribution of oneself as the cause of one’s own actions and their effects. Accurate agency judgments are essential for adaptive behaviors in dynamic environments, especially in conditions of uncertainty. However, it is unclear how agency judgments are made in ambiguous situations where self-agency and non-self-agency are both possible. Agency attribution is thus thought to require higher-order neurocognitive processes that integrate several possibilities. Furthermore, neural activity specific to self-attribution, as compared with non-self-attribution, may reflect higher-order critical operations that contribute to constructions of self-consciousness. Based on these assumptions, the present study focused on agency judgments under ambiguous conditions and examined the neural correlates of this operation with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed a simple but demanding agency-judgment task, which required them to report on whether they attributed their own action as the cause of a visual stimulus change. The temporal discrepancy between the participant’s action and the visual events was adaptively set to be maximally ambiguous for each individual on a trial-by-trial basis. Comparison with results for a control condition revealed that the judgment of agency was associated with activity in lateral temporo-parietal areas, medial frontal areas, the dorsolateral prefrontal area, and frontal operculum/insula regions. However, most of these areas did not differentiate between self- and non-self-attribution. Instead, self-attribution was associated with activity in posterior midline areas, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest that deliberate self-attribution of an external event is principally associated with activity in posterior midline structures, which is imperative for self-consciousness. PMID:23977268

  2. Satiation or availability? Effects of attention, memory, and imagery on the perception of ambiguous figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horlitz, Krista L.; O'Leary, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The prolonged-inspection technique has been used to demonstrate effects of satiation on the perception of ambiguous figures. We propose that the inspection phase, in which subjects view an unambiguous version of the stimulus prior to observing the ambiguous figure, does not create neural fatigue but rather provides a context in which the alternative percept is apprehended and gains perceptual strength through processes such as imagination or memory. The consequent availability of the alternative organization drives the perceptual phenomena that have been thought to reflect satiation. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that (1) preexperimental exposure to the target figures and (2) allocation of attention to the inspection figures were both necessary in order to obtain results similar to those predicted by the satiation model. In Experiment 2, we obtained similar results, finding that effects of prior inspection were greater the greater the amount and availability of information regarding the alternative percept during the inspection phase. Subjects who generated visual images of the noninspected alternative during inspection yielded results comparable to those from subjects to whom both versions were presented visually.

  3. Effects of task-switching on neural representations of ambiguous sound input.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Elyse S; Bregman, Albert S; Lee, Wei-Wei

    2014-09-30

    The ability to perceive discrete sound streams in the presence of competing sound sources relies on multiple mechanisms that organize the mixture of the auditory input entering the ears. Many studies have focused on mechanisms that contribute to integrating sounds that belong together into one perceptual stream (integration) and segregating those that come from different sound sources (segregation). However, little is known about mechanisms that allow us to perceive individual sound sources within a dynamically changing auditory scene, when the input may be ambiguous, and heard as either integrated or segregated. This study tested the question of whether focusing on one of two possible sound organizations suppressed representation of the alternative organization. We presented listeners with ambiguous input and cued them to switch between tasks that used either the integrated or the segregated percept. Electrophysiological measures indicated which organization was currently maintained in memory. If mutual exclusivity at the neural level was the rule, attention to one of two possible organizations would preclude neural representation of the other. However, significant MMNs were elicited to both the target organization and the unattended, alternative organization, along with the target-related P3b component elicited only to the designated target organization. Results thus indicate that both organizations (integrated and segregated) were simultaneously maintained in memory regardless of which task was performed. Focusing attention to one aspect of the sounds did not abolish the alternative, unattended organization when the stimulus input was ambiguous. In noisy environments, such as walking on a city street, rapid and flexible adaptive processes are needed to help facilitate rapid switching to different sound sources in the environment. Having multiple representations available to the attentive system would allow for such flexibility, needed in everyday situations to maintain stable auditory percepts, and to allow rapid scanning of interesting events in a busy environment. PMID:25281308

  4. GNSS Carrier Phase Integer Ambiguity Resolution with Camera and Satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Ambiguity Resolution is the key to high precision position and attitude determination with GNSS. However, ambiguity resolution of kinematic receivers becomes challenging in environments with substantial multipath, limited satellite availability and erroneous cycle slip corrections. There is a need for other sensors, e.g. inertial sensors that allow an independent prediction of the position. The change of the predicted position over time can then be used for cycle slip detection and correction. In this paper, we provide a method to improve the initial ambiguity resolution for RTK and PPP with vision-based position information. Camera images are correlated with geo-referenced aerial/ satellite images to obtain an independent absolute position information. This absolute position information is then coupled with the GNSS and INS measurements in an extended Kalman filter to estimate the position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, angular rates, code multipath and biases of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. The camera and satellite images are matched based on some characteristic image points (e.g. corners of street markers). We extract these characteristic image points from the camera images by performing the following steps: An inverse mapping (homogenous projection) is applied to transform the camera images from the driver's perspective to bird view. Subsequently, we detect the street markers by performing (a) a color transformation and reduction with adaptive brightness correction to focus on relevant features, (b) a subsequent morphological operation to enhance the structure recognition, (c) an edge and corner detection to extract feature points, and (d) a point matching of the corner points with a template to recognize the street markers. We verified the proposed method with two low-cost u-blox LEA 6T GPS receivers, the MPU9150 from Invensense, the ASCOS RTK corrections and a PointGrey camera. The results show very precise and seamless position and attitude estimates in an urban environment with substantial multipath.

  5. Give.org Charity Reports Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A useful service available on the web from the Better Business Bureaus Wise Giving Alliance. The service "promotes ethical standards within the charitable community, provides information to the public on charitable organizations, and educates individual and corporate donors on wise giving." Give.org issues reports on non-profit organizations based on the number of inquiries received for an organization. They are available at this website or through the mail (see website for address). An index to the current reports is arranged alphabetically for easy browsing. Included with most reports is information on an organization's "background, current programs, governing body, fund-raising practices, tax-exempt status, finances, and indication of whether or not the organization complies with the 23 voluntary BBB Standards for Charitable Solicitations."

  6. Thinkers and feelers: Emotion and giving.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Katie E

    2015-07-01

    Voluntary organizations, such as religious congregations, ask their members to contribute money as a part of membership and rely on these contributions for their survival. Yet often only a small cadre of members provides the majority of the contributions. Past research on congregational giving focuses on cognitive rational processes, generally neglecting the role of emotion. Extending Collins' (2004) interaction ritual theory, I predict that individuals who experience positive emotions during religious services will be more likely to give a higher proportion of their income to their congregation than those who do not. Moreover, I argue that this effect will be amplified in congregational contexts characterized by high aggregate levels of positive emotion, strictness, dense congregational networks, and expressive rituals. Using data from the 2001 U.S. Congregational Life Survey and multilevel modeling, I find support for several of these hypotheses. The findings suggest that both cognitive and emotional processes underlie congregational giving. PMID:26004489

  7. Concealment of Give-Away Parts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    The outline of an animal is not the only feature that might give it away. Often some part of it, perhaps its eyes or its legs or its tail, might also be a clue. In this activity, these parts are called giveaway parts . The function of the first activity is to consider the problem of eye concealment more carefully as students investigate the usefulness of an eye stripe. In the second activity, the frog's give-away parts will be inspected through a series of exercises.

  8. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. PMID:23445457

  9. Tactile input and empathy modulate the perception of ambiguous biological motion

    PubMed Central

    Yiltiz, Hörmetjan; Chen, Lihan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has shown that task-irrelevant auditory cues can bias perceptual decisions regarding directional information associated with biological motion, as indicated in perceptual tasks using point-light walkers (PLWs) (Brooks et al., 2007). In the current study, we extended the investigation of cross-modal influences to the tactile domain by asking how tactile input resolves perceptual ambiguity in visual apparent motion, and how empathy plays a role in this cross-modal interaction. In Experiment 1, we simulated the tactile feedback on the observers' fingertips when the (upright or inverted) PLWs (comprised of either all red or all green dots) were walking (leftwards or rightwards). The temporal periods between tactile events and critical visual events (the PLW's feet hitting the ground) were manipulated so that the tap could lead, synchronize, or lag the visual foot-hitting-ground event. We found that the temporal structures between tactile (feedback) and visual (hitting) events systematically biases the directional perception for upright PLWs, making either leftwards or rightwards more dominant. However, this effect was absent for inverted PLWs. In Experiment 2, we examined how empathy modulates cross-modal capture. Instead of giving tactile feedback on participants' fingertips, we gave taps on their ankles and presented the PLWs with motion directions of approaching (facing toward observer)/receding (facing away from observer) to resemble normal walking postures. With the same temporal structure, we found that individuals with higher empathy were more subject to perceptual bias in the presence of tactile feedback. Taken together, our findings showed that task-irrelevant tactile input can resolve the otherwise ambiguous perception of the direction of biological motion, and this cross-modal bias was mediated by higher level social-cognitive factors, including empathy. PMID:25750631

  10. Should We Give Essay Tests? You Bet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Mike

    1985-01-01

    The author states that by neglecting to give essay tests, teachers not only eliminate the motivation to read and write but also fail to test for a deep understanding of the material. The author presents guidelines for designing essay questions. (CT)

  11. Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skari, Lisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies,…

  12. Profiles of Effective Corporate Giving Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knauft, E. B.

    A research study of 48 United States corporate giving programs is described. The companies are generally large or mid-range in size and represent 15 different business and industry classifications. The size of their contributions programs ranged from $98,000 to $53 million in annual grants, with a median of $4.3 million. About three-fourths of the…

  13. Todd Baumann Gives a Thumbs Up

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist Todd Baumann gives a thumbs up after setting the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Butta Bean during the 2011 Flood. USGS uses the ADCP to make streamflow measurements. The ADCP emits soundwaves through the water column, which rebound off particles in the water ...

  14. Anniversary Giving High School Students the Confidence

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    40th Anniversary Giving High School Students the Confidence to Seek Higher Education Seven years excelled in WCC's Certified Nurse's Aide training. I couldn't have done it without the previous experiences,250 "PaCES is one of the most successful grants the Harold K. L. Castle Foundation has ever awarded

  15. Giving to Glasgow: the Scholarships Fund

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    Giving to Glasgow: the Scholarships Fund #12;#12;01 Your choice to make a gift creates more scholarships, which means: More opportunity Since 1451 we've been creating opportunities for the talented and dedicated. Creating new Talent Scholarships means that the people who have the ability to come here can do

  16. How to give a heparin shot

    MedlinePLUS

    Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the heparin bottle label. Make sure it is the right medicine. Make ... Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Choose where to give the shot. Keep a chart of places you’ve ...

  17. How to Give Your Child Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to give it "every 6 hours," that generally means the medicine is taken 4 times a day (for example, at breakfast, lunch, supper, ... to take medicine. “Take every 8 hours" generally means the medicine should be taken 3 times a day. Even when your child begins to ...

  18. fi- R Factors giving Chloramphenicol Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Hedges; Naomi Datta

    1971-01-01

    ALTHOUGH many fi+ R factors confer resistance to chloramphenicol, fi- R factors seldom do. Watanabe et al.1 stated in 1964 that all the naturally occurring fi- R factors which they had studied lacked chloramphenicol resistance. In our laboratory, no fi- R factor giving chloramphenicol resistance has been observed among several hundred drug-resistant strains of enteric bacteria. In 1968 Watanabe, Furuse

  19. Interpreting quantifier scope ambiguity: evidence of heuristic first, algorithmic second processing.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Veena D

    2013-01-01

    The present work suggests that sentence processing requires both heuristic and algorithmic processing streams, where the heuristic processing strategy precedes the algorithmic phase. This conclusion is based on three self-paced reading experiments in which the processing of two-sentence discourses was investigated, where context sentences exhibited quantifier scope ambiguity. Experiment 1 demonstrates that such sentences are processed in a shallow manner. Experiment 2 uses the same stimuli as Experiment 1 but adds questions to ensure deeper processing. Results indicate that reading times are consistent with a lexical-pragmatic interpretation of number associated with context sentences, but responses to questions are consistent with the algorithmic computation of quantifier scope. Experiment 3 shows the same pattern of results as Experiment 2, despite using stimuli with different lexical-pragmatic biases. These effects suggest that language processing can be superficial, and that deeper processing, which is sensitive to structure, only occurs if required. Implications for recent studies of quantifier scope ambiguity are discussed. PMID:24278439

  20. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hung Jung

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  1. In defense of competition during syntactic ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Vosse, Theo; Kempen, Gerard

    2009-02-01

    In a recent series of publications (Traxler et al. J Mem Lang 39:558-592, 1998; Van Gompel et al. J Mem Lang 52:284-307, 2005; see also Van Gompel et al. (In: Kennedy, et al.(eds) Reading as a perceptual process, Oxford, Elsevier pp 621-648, 2000); Van Gompel et al. J Mem Lang 45:225-258, 2001) eye tracking data are reported showing that globally ambiguous (GA) sentences are read faster than locally ambiguous (LA) counterparts. They argue that these data rule out "constraint-based" models where syntactic and conceptual processors operate concurrently and syntactic ambiguity resolution is accomplished by competition. Such models predict the opposite pattern of reading times. However, this argument against competition is valid only in conjunction with two standard assumptions in current constraint-based models of sentence comprehension: (1) that syntactic competitions (e.g., Which is the best attachment site of the incoming constituent?) are pooled together with conceptual competitions (e.g., Which attachment site entails the most plausible meaning?), and (2) that the duration of a competition is a function of the overall (pooled) quality score obtained by each competitor. We argue that it is not necessary to abandon competition as a successful basis for explaining parsing phenomena and that the above-mentioned reading time data can be accounted for by a parallel-interactive model with conceptual and syntactic processors that do not pool their quality scores together. Within the individual linguistic modules, decision-making can very well be competition-based. PMID:18521754

  2. On the Problem of Ambiguity of Electromagnetic Potential

    E-print Network

    A. V. Gritsunov

    2013-07-01

    In the self-sufficient potential formalism, treating all electromagnetic phenomena as natural or forced oscillations of some distributed electromagnetic oscillating system (Minkowski space-time), the electromagnetic potential must be considered as some relative measure describing deviation of the system from its "undisturbed" state (when both natural and forced oscillations are absent). Therefore, there is no ambiguity in the gauge of one: all components of the potential four-vector are asymptotically verging towards zero while the distance from all free charges and currents enlarges. Such interpretation turns the electromagnetic potential into a physically real value.

  3. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  4. Improving combinatorial ambiguities of tt¯ events using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyun Su

    2014-06-01

    We present a method for resolving the combinatorial issues in the tt¯ lepton+jets events occurring at the Tevatron collider. By incorporating multiple information into an artificial neural network, we introduce a novel event reconstruction method for such events. We find that this method significantly reduces the number of combinatorial ambiguities. Compared to the classical reconstruction method, our method provides significantly higher purity with the same efficiency. We illustrate the reconstructed observables for the realistic top-quark mass and the forward-backward asymmetry measurements. A Monte Carlo study shows that our method provides meaningful improvements in the top-quark measurements using the same amount of data as other methods.

  5. Improving Combinatorial Ambiguities of ttbar Events Using Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Ji Hyun Shim; Hyun Su Lee

    2014-02-17

    We present a method for resolving the combinatorial issues in the \\ttbar lepton+jets events occurring at the Tevatron collider. By incorporating multiple information into an artificial neural network, we introduce a novel event reconstruction method for such events. We find that this method significantly reduces the number of combinatorial ambiguities. Compared to the classical reconstruction method, our method provides significantly higher purity with same efficiency. We illustrate the reconstructed observables for the realistic top-quark mass and the forward-backward asymmetry measurements. A Monte Carlo study shows that our method provides meaningful improvements in the top-quark measurements using same amount of data as other methods.

  6. Carica papaya latex lipase: sn -3 stereoselectivity or short-chain selectivity? Model chiral triglycerides are removing the ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; D. Montet; J. Graille

    1995-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are usually located at positionsn-3 in natural triglycerides, particulary in dairy fats. As a result, it is extremely difficult to differentiate betweensn-3 stereospecificity and short-chain typoselectivity in many lipases and acyltransferases that perform in this way. This ambiguity\\u000a can be removed through successive use of a chiral triglyceride with a short fatty acid in positionsn-1 and of

  7. Semantic Similarity in a Taxonomy: An Information-Based Measure and its Application to Problems of Ambiguity in Natural Language

    E-print Network

    Resnik, P

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a measure of semantic similarity in an IS-A taxonomy based on the notion of shared information content. Experimental evaluation against a benchmark set of human similarity judgments demonstrates that the measure performs better than the traditional edge-counting approach. The article presents algorithms that take advantage of taxonomic similarity in resolving syntactic and semantic ambiguity, along with experimental results demonstrating their effectiveness.

  8. Statistical analysis of the ambiguities in the asteroid period determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Bartczak, P.; Dudzi?ski, G.

    2014-07-01

    A synodic period of an asteroid can be derived from its lightcurve by standard methods like Fourier-series fitting. A problem appears when results of observations are based on less than a full coverage of a lightcurve and/or high level of noise. Also, long gaps between individual lightcurves create an ambiguity in the cycle count which leads to aliases. Excluding binary systems and objects with non-principal-axis rotation, the rotation period is usually identical to the period of the second Fourier harmonic of the lightcurve. There are cases, however, where it may be connected with the 1st, 3rd, or 4th harmonic and it is difficult to choose among them when searching for the period. To help remove such uncertainties we analysed asteroid lightcurves for a range of shapes and observing/illuminating geometries. We simulated them using a modified internal code from the ISAM service (Marciniak et al. 2012, A&A 545, A131). In our computations, shapes of asteroids were modeled as Gaussian random spheres (Muinonen 1998, A&A, 332, 1087). A combination of Lommel-Seeliger and Lambert scattering laws was assumed. For each of the 100 shapes, we randomly selected 1000 positions of the spin axis, systematically changing the solar phase angle with a step of 5°. For each lightcurve, we determined its peak-to-peak amplitude, fitted the 6th-order Fourier series and derived the amplitudes of its harmonics. Instead of the number of the lightcurve extrema, which in many cases is subjective, we characterized each lightcurve by the order of the highest-amplitude Fourier harmonic. The goal of our simulations was to derive statistically significant conclusions (based on the underlying assumptions) about the dominance of different harmonics in the lightcurves of the specified amplitude and phase angle. The results, presented in the Figure, can be used in individual cases to estimate the probability that the obtained lightcurve is dominated by a specified Fourier harmonic. Some of the conclusions are: (1) the 4th harmonic dominates about 1 percent of lightcurves only at low amplitudes (A<0.1 mag, ? < 40°). (2) The dominance of the 3rd harmonic can be observed more often only in the case of near-Earth asteroids, observed at ? > 30°; for the main-belt asteroids (MBAs), it can be present only in small amplitude lightcurves (A < 0.1 mag). (3) The 1st harmonic is present quite often in the low-amplitude (A < 0.2 mag) lightcurves of MBAs; for NEAs it can be seen even in high-amplitude lightcurves (A<0.7~mag for ?? 40°, A<0.9~mag for ? ? 50°). (4) In 100 percent of the cases, the 2nd harmonic dominates the lightcurves of MBAs whose amplitudes A > 0.2 mag.

  9. Giving Presentations in Elementary Schools: Best Practices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resources identifies best practices for giving presentations or talks in elementary classrooms and was developed to help scientists and engineers who have been asked to visit an elementary classroom. It provides helpful suggestions before, during, and after the presentation, as well questions for the teacher (e.g., what content do you want me to cover, what have students already learned about this content?).

  10. Giving Presentations in Middle Schools: Best Practices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resources identifies best practices for giving presentations or talks in middle school classrooms and was developed to help scientists and engineers who have been asked to visit a middle school classroom. It provides helpful suggestions before, during, and after the presentation, as well questions for the teacher (e.g., what content do you want me to cover, what have students already learned about this content?).

  11. Resolution of sensory ambiguities for gaze stabilization requires a second neural integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Andrea M.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously move in the world and maintain stable visual perception depends critically on the contribution of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) to gaze stabilization. It is traditionally believed that semicircular canal signals drive compensatory responses to rotational head disturbances (rotational VOR), whereas otolith signals compensate for translational movements [translational VOR (TVOR)]. However, a sensory ambiguity exists because otolith afferents are activated similarly during head translations and reorientations relative to gravity (i.e., tilts). Extra-otolith cues are, therefore, necessary to ensure that dynamic head tilts do not elicit a TVOR. To investigate how extra-otolith signals contribute, we characterized the temporal and viewing distance-dependent properties of a TVOR elicited in the absence of a lateral acceleration stimulus to the otoliths during combined translational/rotational motion. We show that, in addition to otolith signals, angular head position signals derived by integrating sensory canal information drive the TVOR. A physiological basis for these results is proposed in a model with two distinct integration steps. Upstream of the well known oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator, the model incorporates a separate integration element that could represent the "velocity storage integrator," whose functional role in the oculomotor system has so far remained controversial. We propose that a key functional purpose of the velocity storage network is to temporally integrate semicircular canal signals, so that they may be used to extract translation information from ambiguous otolith afferent signals in the natural and functionally relevant bandwidth of head movements.

  12. Ionospheric effects in uncalibrated phase delay estimation and ambiguity-fixed PPP based on raw observable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shengfeng; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-05-01

    Zero-difference (ZD) ambiguity resolution (AR) reveals the potential to further improve the performance of precise point positioning (PPP). Traditionally, PPP AR is achieved by Melbourne-Wübbena and ionosphere-free combinations in which the ionosphere effect are removed. To exploit the ionosphere characteristics, PPP AR with L1 and L2 raw observable has also been developed recently. In this study, we apply this new approach in uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) generation and ZD AR and compare it with the traditional model. The raw observable processing strategy treats each ionosphere delay as an unknown parameter. In this manner, both a priori ionosphere correction model and its spatio-temporal correlation can be employed as constraints to improve the ambiguity resolution. However, theoretical analysis indicates that for the wide-lane (WL) UPD retrieved from L1/L2 ambiguities to benefit from this raw observable approach, high precision ionosphere correction of better than 0.7 total electron content unit (TECU) is essential. This conclusion is then confirmed with over 1 year data collected at about 360 stations. Firstly, both global and regional ionosphere model were generated and evaluated, the results of which demonstrated that, for large-scale ionosphere modeling, only an accuracy of 3.9 TECU can be achieved on average for the vertical delays, and this accuracy can be improved to about 0.64 TECU when dense network is involved. Based on these ionosphere products, WL/narrow-lane (NL) UPDs are then extracted with the raw observable model. The NL ambiguity reveals a better stability and consistency compared to traditional approach. Nonetheless, the WL ambiguity can be hardly improved even constrained with the high spatio-temporal resolution ionospheric corrections. By applying both these approaches in PPP-RTK, it is interesting to find that the traditional model is more efficient in AR as evidenced by the shorter time to first fix, while the three-dimensional positioning accuracy of the RAW model outperforms the combination model by about . This reveals that, with the current ionosphere models, there is actually no optimal strategy for the dual-frequency ZD ambiguity resolution, and the combination approach and raw approach each has merits and demerits.

  13. Fast integer least-squares estimation for GNSS high-dimensional ambiguity resolution using lattice theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jazaeri; A. R. Amiri-Simkooei; M. A. Sharifi

    GNSS ambiguity resolution is the key issue in the high-precision relative geodetic positioning and navigation applications.\\u000a It is a problem of integer programming plus integer quality evaluation. Different integer search estimation methods have been\\u000a proposed for the integer solution of ambiguity resolution. Slow rate of convergence is the main obstacle to the existing methods\\u000a where tens of ambiguities are involved.

  14. Impact of code and phase biases and clock modelling on ambiguity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orliac, E.; Dach, R.; Wang, K.; Rothacher, M.; Hugentobler, U.; Voithenleitner, D.; Heinze, M.; Svehla, D.

    2012-12-01

    We present the final findings of the project "Satellite and Station Clock Modelling for GNSS" funded by ESA. In particular, intra- and inter-GNSS phase biases were investigated, considering GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo. Recommendations are drawn with respect to ambiguity resolution on the non-double differencing level. Still in the context of ambiguity resolution, the impact of modelling stable receiver clocks (typically H-Maser) is also investigated; special attention is paid to track-to-track ambiguities.

  15. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

    2012-07-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  16. Stochastic exploration of ambiguities for nonrigid shape recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Fua, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Recovering the 3D shape of deformable surfaces from single images is known to be a highly ambiguous problem because many different shapes may have very similar projections. This is commonly addressed by restricting the set of possible shapes to linear combinations of deformation modes and by imposing additional geometric constraints. Unfortunately, because image measurements are noisy, such constraints do not always guarantee that the correct shape will be recovered. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a stochastic sampling approach to efficiently explore the set of solutions of an objective function based on point correspondences. This allows us to propose a small set of ambiguous candidate 3D shapes and then use additional image information to choose the best one. As a proof of concept, we use either motion or shading cues to this end and show that we can handle a complex objective function without having to solve a difficult nonlinear minimization problem. The advantages of our method are demonstrated on a variety of problems including both real and synthetic data. PMID:22547426

  17. Auditory cortex encodes the perceptual interpretation of ambiguous sound.

    PubMed

    Kilian-Hütten, Niclas; Valente, Giancarlo; Vroomen, Jean; Formisano, Elia

    2011-02-01

    The confounding of physical stimulus characteristics and perceptual interpretations of stimuli poses a problem for most neuroscientific studies of perception. In the auditory domain, this pertains to the entanglement of acoustics and percept. Traditionally, most study designs have relied on cognitive subtraction logic, which demands the use of one or more comparisons between stimulus types. This does not allow for a differentiation between effects due to acoustic differences (i.e., sensation) and those due to conscious perception. To overcome this problem, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans and pattern-recognition analysis to identify activation patterns that encode the perceptual interpretation of physically identical, ambiguous sounds. We show that it is possible to retrieve the perceptual interpretation of ambiguous phonemes-information that is fully subjective to the listener-from fMRI measurements of brain activity in auditory areas in the superior temporal cortex, most prominently on the posterior bank of the left Heschl's gyrus and sulcus and in the adjoining left planum temporale. These findings suggest that, beyond the basic acoustic analysis of sounds, constructive perceptual processes take place in these relatively early cortical auditory networks. This disagrees with hierarchical models of auditory processing, which generally conceive of these areas as sets of feature detectors, whose task is restricted to the analysis of physical characteristics and the structure of sounds. PMID:21289180

  18. A physical-model-based, field-wise and self-contained algorithm for removing directional ambiguities of ocean surface winds retrieved from scatterometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Joon

    2000-09-01

    An algorithm is introduced to remove the directional ambiguities in ocean surface winds measured by scatterometers, which requires scatterometer data only. It is based on two versions of PBL (planetary boundary layer) models and a low-pass filter. A pressure field is first derived from the median-filtered scatterometer winds, is then noise-filtered, and is finally converted back to the winds, respectively, by an inverted PBL model, a smoothing algorithm, and a PBL model. The derived wind field is used to remove the directional ambiguities in the scatterometer data. This new algorithm is applied to Hurricane Eugene and produces results comparable to those from the current standard ambiguity removal algorithm for NASA/JPL SeaWinds project, which requires external numerical weather forecast/analyses data.

  19. The spatial-temporal ambiguity in auroral modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. H.; Roble, R. G.; Kopp, J.; Abreu, V. J.; Rusch, D. W.; Brace, L. H.; Brinton, H. C.; Hoffman, R. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Kayser, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the time-dependent models of the aurora which show that various ionospheric parameters respond to the onset of auroral ionization with different time histories. A pass of the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite over Poker Flat, Alaska, and ground based photometric and photographic observations have been used to resolve the time-space ambiguity of a specific auroral event. The density of the O(+), NO(+), O2(+), and N2(+) ions, the electron density, and the electron temperature observed at 280 km altitude in a 50 km wide segment of an auroral arc are predicted by the model if particle precipitation into the region commenced about 11 min prior to the overpass.

  20. Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

  1. Ambiguity and nonidentifiability in the statistical analysis of neural codes

    PubMed Central

    Amarasingham, Asohan; Geman, Stuart; Harrison, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Many experimental studies of neural coding rely on a statistical interpretation of the theoretical notion of the rate at which a neuron fires spikes. For example, neuroscientists often ask, “Does a population of neurons exhibit more synchronous spiking than one would expect from the covariability of their instantaneous firing rates?” For another example, “How much of a neuron’s observed spiking variability is caused by the variability of its instantaneous firing rate, and how much is caused by spike timing variability?” However, a neuron’s theoretical firing rate is not necessarily well-defined. Consequently, neuroscientific questions involving the theoretical firing rate do not have a meaning in isolation but can only be interpreted in light of additional statistical modeling choices. Ignoring this ambiguity can lead to inconsistent reasoning or wayward conclusions. We illustrate these issues with examples drawn from the neural-coding literature. PMID:25934918

  2. Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern. PMID:21175671

  3. Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

    Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

  4. Giving-up Density: Do ducks ever really give up on foraging?

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Giving-up Density: Do ducks ever really give up on foraging? Heath M. Hagy, Ph.D. Graduate Seminar;Experiment 1 #12;Dabbling Ducks Experiment 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 November December January February DabblingDucks/ha/site Control Disk Mow #12;Seeds and Tubers 200 400 600

  5. Space-time ambiguity functions for electronically scanned ISR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swoboda, John; Semeter, Joshua; Erickson, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Electronically steerable array (ESA) technology has recently been applied to incoherent scatter radar (ISR) systems. These arrays allow for pulse-to-pulse steering of the antenna beam to collect data in a three-dimensional region. This is in direct contrast to dish-based antennas, where ISR acquisition is limited at any one time to observations in a two-dimensional slice. This new paradigm allows for more flexibility in the measurement of ionospheric plasma parameters. Multiple ESA-based ISR systems operate currently in the high-latitude region where the ionosphere is highly variable in both space and time. Because of the highly dynamic nature of the ionosphere in this region, it is important to differentiate between measurement-induced artifacts and the true behavior of the plasma. Often, three-dimensional ISR data produced by ESA systems are fitted in a spherical coordinate space and then the parameters are interpolated to a Cartesian grid, potentially introducing error and impacting the reconstructions of the plasma parameters. To take advantage of the new flexibility inherent in ESA systems, we present a new way of analyzing ISR observations through use of the space-time ambiguity function. The use of this new measurement ambiguity function allows us to pose the ISR observational problem in terms of a linear inverse problem whose goal is the estimate of the time domain lags of the intrinsic plasma autocorrelation function used for parameter fitting. The framework allows us to explore the impact of nonuniformity in plasma parameters in both time and space. We discuss examples of possible artifacts in high-latitude situations and discuss possible ways of reducing them and improving the quality of data products from electronically steerable ISRs.

  6. Remediation of context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: preliminary data with ambiguous sentences

    PubMed Central

    Besche-Richard, Chrystel; Terrien, Sarah; Lesgourgues, Marion; Béchiri-Payet, Célia; Gierski, Fabien; Limosin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Background Processing of contextual information is essential for the establishment of good interpersonal relations and communicational interactions. Nevertheless, it is known that schizophrenic patients present impairments in the processing of contextual information. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the remediation of context processing in schizophrenic patients. Methods Thirty-one schizophrenic patients and 28 matched healthy participants were included in this study. All participants were assessed on verbal knowledge (Mill-Hill test) and depression intensity (Beck Depression Scale 21 items). Schizophrenic patients were also assessed on thought, language, and communication disorders (Thought, Language and Communication scale). All participants completed a disambiguation task with two different levels of contextualization (high or low context) and a context-processing remediation task containing social scenarios that included ambiguous words and were presented with two different types of instruction: with or without context explanation. Results For the disambiguation task, results showed no effect of group, but a main effect of context, with better performances in the high-context than the low-context condition. For the context-processing remediation task, results showed a main effect of group: The performance of schizophrenic patients who had received explanations differed from that both of healthy participants and of schizophrenic patients who had not received explanations. Conclusion This study revealed that for all participants, the structuring of context had a positive effect on the contextual integration of ambiguous words. Concerning the remediation task, explanations about the strategies that could be used to take context into account improved the schizophrenic patients’ performances. This allows us to consider new methods of remediation that could improve social interaction in schizophrenia. PMID:25516712

  7. Early Morphological Processing Is Sensitive to Morphemic Meanings: Evidence from Processing Ambiguous Morphemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    In three priming experiments, we investigated whether the meanings of ambiguous morphemes were activated during word recognition. Using a meaning generation task, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the dominant meaning of individually presented ambiguous morphemes was reported more often than did other less frequent meanings. Also, participants tended…

  8. Perceived Racism and Affective Responses to Ambiguous Interpersonal Interactions among African American Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary G. Bennett; Marcellus M. Merritt; Christopher L. Edwards; John J. Sollers

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined affective responses to ambiguous interpersonal interactions containing both ambiguous and overtly racist content. Participants included 74 African American males (ages 18-47), half of whom heard a depiction of a negative social interaction with blatantly racist content (BRC). The remaining participants heard a similar scenario containing no racist content (NRC). Negative affect scores were higher for those

  9. Threat Vigilance in Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence: A Pilot Study Utilizing the Ambiguous Situations Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Coyne; Paula M. Barrett; Amanda L. Duffy

    2000-01-01

    Research has found that children exposed to family violence exhibit higher rates of maladjustment. We review relevant literature on family violence, marital conflict, and cognitive factors implicated in child behaviour problems. A bias toward perceiving threat in ambiguous contexts has been identified as one factor mediating both aggressive and anxious behaviour disorders. We conducted a study utilizing the ambiguous situations

  10. Children's Gender Orientation and Perceptions of Female, Male, and Gender-Ambiguous Animal Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel; Reichman, Shiri; Fund, Liat

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effects of preadolescents' gender orientation on social perception of animal characters whose gender was clearly female, male, or gender-ambiguous. Children's gender orientation did not influence perceptions of the gender of characters that were clearly female and male, but did influence perceptions of ambiguous characters. Children's…

  11. Are Sex-Role Orientation, Cognitive Style, and Tolerance for Ambiguity Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Naomi G.; O'Connell, Agnes N.

    The relationship between self-described sex roles and two measures of cognitive style (intolerance for ambiguity and level of abstractness-concreteness) were explored. Subjects were 87 male and 204 female college students. The Schroder and Streufert measure of cognitive style, the Budner Intolerance for Ambiguity Scale (1962), and the Bem Sex Role…

  12. Exploiting Degrees of Inflectional Ambiguity: Stem Form and the Time Course of Morphological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkonen, Pirita; Niemi, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared sublexical and supralexical approaches to morphological processing with unambiguous and ambiguous inflected words and words with ambiguous stems in 3 masked and unmasked priming experiments in Finnish. Experiment 1 showed equal facilitation for all prime types with a short 60-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) but significant…

  13. Ambiguous Loss Research, Theory, and Practice: Reflections after 9-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    This article contains an overview of three decades of research, theory development, and clinical application about ambiguous loss. Although the work includes both physical and psychological types of ambiguous loss, the focus is the aftermath of 9-11 (September 11, 2001) when the World Trade Center collapsed following terrorist attacks. On the…

  14. Anxiety and the interpretation of ambiguous facial expressions: The influence of contextual cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Blanchette; Anne Richards; Adele Cross

    2007-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigate how anxiety influences interpretation of ambiguous facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, we examine whether anxiety modulates the effect of contextual cues on interpretation. Participants saw ambiguous facial expressions. Simultaneously, positive or negative contextual information appeared on the screen. Participants judged whether each expression was positive or negative. We examined the impact of verbal and visual

  15. The Relationship of Role Conflict and Ambiguity and Perceived Organizational Characteristics between Superintendents and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William E.; Forney, Janet Williams

    Superintendents and principals from 50 Pennsylvania school districts were asked to complete two questionnaires each to test, first, the relationships between superintendents' and principals' role conflict and ambiguity and, second, the relationship between superintendents' role conflict and ambiguity and their perceptions of their districts'…

  16. Organizational Cultures and the Denial, Channeling, and Acceptance of Ambiguity. Research Report No. 807R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joanne; Meyerson, Debra

    This document explores the relationship between ambiguity and the ambiguous concept of culture which is of fundamental interest to organizational culture researchers. After an overview of the topic, a matrix framework for understanding different approaches to studying cultures is presented. The matrix framework is used to contrast two paradigms…

  17. Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically…

  18. Multistatic ambiguity function - A tool for waveform selection in distributed radar systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Bradaric; Gerard T. Capraro; Michael C. Wicks

    2009-01-01

    The multistatic ambiguity function has been proposed as a tool for analyzing and designing multistatic radar systems. It was demonstrated through previous examples that multistatic radar system performances (e.g. probability of detection, range and velocity resolution) can be improved by shaping the multistatic ambiguity function through waveform selection, sensor positioning and adequate weighting of different receivers. In this work we

  19. Performance Improvement of Wald Test for Resolving GPS Integer Ambiguity Using a Baseline-Length Constraint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunsung Lee; Sebum Chun; Young Jae Lee; Teasam Kang; Gyu-In Jee; Mamoun F. Abdel-Hafez

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the baseline-length information is directly modeled as a measurement for the Wald test, which speeds up the resolution convergence of the integer ambiguity of GPS carrier phase measurements. The convergent speed improvement is demonstrated using numerical simulation and real experiments. It is also shown that the integer ambiguities can be resolved using only four actual satellite measurements

  20. Resolving GPS carrier phase ambiguities for a low Earth orbit spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoke T. Yoon

    2004-01-01

    The application of GPS carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution to low Earth orbit spacecraft missions has been a topic of great interest in recent years. This advanced processing technique may make it possible to achieve higher orbit accuracy for spacecraft that carry GPS receivers. The research described here addresses a number of aspects of GPS carrier phase ambiguity resolution as

  1. Liquidity and Asset Prices in Rational Expectations Equilibrium with Ambiguous Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Ozsoylev; Jan Werner

    2007-01-01

    The quality of information in financial asset markets is ofte n hard to estimate. This paper analyzes information transmission in asset markets when agents treat information of un- known quality as ambiguous. We study the effects of information ambiguity on asset prices, trading volume, and market liquidity in noisy rational expectations equilibrium. We consider a market with risk-averse informed investors,

  2. Multiple prospect framing and decision behavior: The mediational roles of perceived riskiness and perceived ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasan Venkatraman; John A. Aloysius; Fred D. Davis

    2006-01-01

    Decision makers facing a multiple prospect, which is a bundle of single prospects, are influenced by whether outcome information is framed narrowly (segregated) or broadly (aggregated). The present research hypothesizes perceived riskiness and perceived ambiguity as two distinct mediators of the effect of broad versus narrow prospect framing on decision behavior. Perceived riskiness and perceived ambiguity were conceptually defined as

  3. Explaining and Predicting the Choice of Organizational Form: Integrating Performance Ambiguity and Asset Specificity Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Mahoney; Regina C. McNally

    2004-01-01

    Organization theory suggests that various forms of performance ambiguity have governance implications for the strategic choice of control mechanism in organizational forms (e.g., Eisenhardt, 1985; Ouchi, 1979). Transaction costs theory emphasizes asset specificity as an important predictor of organizational form (e.g., Williamson, 1996). The current paper provides a new synthesis of performance ambiguity and asset specificity to better explain and

  4. Ambiguity Detection in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: Is Central Coherence or Theory of Mind Impaired?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Gierski, Fabien; Motte, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of central coherence skills and theory of mind competences in ambiguity detection in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). We sought to pinpoint the level at which AS individuals experience difficulty detecting semantic ambiguity and identify the factors that account for their problems. We…

  5. A Method to Resolve Ambiguity of Interpretation of English Sentences for Intelligent English Learning Support Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenobu KUNICHIKA; Minoru HONDA; Tsukasa HIRASHIMA; Akira TAKEUCHI

    This paper presents a method of ambiguity resolution for natural language processing in intelligent English learning support systems. Ambiguity of interpretation of sentences is one of the most important problems for intelligent language learning support systems which allow learners input composed sentences freely. Our system has a question and answer function which asks learners the contents of a story. Our

  6. Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Yarowsky

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.

  7. Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rah, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for ambiguous relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment ambiguity is interesting to study possible transfer…

  8. Ambiguity in portfolio selection Georg Ch. Pflug und David Wozabal 1

    E-print Network

    Pflug, Georg

    Ambiguity in portfolio selection Georg Ch. Pflug und David Wozabal 1 Abstract In this paper, we consider the problem of finding optimal portfolios in cases when the underlying probability model Introduction: The ambiguity problem The decision about optimal composition of a portfolio is a complex process

  9. Ambiguous Belonging and the Challenge of Inclusion: Parent Perspectives on School Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorgie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Boundary ambiguity occurs when members of a family are confused or uncertain regarding roles, responsibilities and subsystem configurations within the family. Research suggests that perception of boundary ambiguity is associated with family stress despite internal and external resource availability. It has been suggested that research on family…

  10. PERCEPTUAL EQUIVALENCE OF TWO KINDS OF AMBIGUOUS SPEECH STIMULI* Bruno H. Repp

    E-print Network

    PERCEPTUAL EQUIVALENCE OF TWO KINDS OF AMBIGUOUS SPEECH STIMULI* Bruno H. Repp Abstract. Stimuli) was apparently the first to construct whole stimulus continua that way. His technique is interesting, especially between an ambiguous stimulus created by superimposing two unambiguous stimuli and one characterized

  11. As Far As Words Go: Activities for Understanding Ambiguous Language and Humor, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul

    2009-01-01

    Understanding ambiguous words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language ambiguities they encounter inside…

  12. Midwestern Millennial University Students' Tolerance for Ambiguity in a Period of Complex World Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2012-01-01

    Though age and gender do not affect students' knowledge of global issues and associated ambiguity, the academic major of undergraduates did. Students' combined perceptions on knowledge of these issues and their associated ambiguities varied among the four academic groups of majors. Unlike teacher education majors and in combined other majors…

  13. Classical and quantum quasi-free position-dependent mass: Pöschl-Teller and ordering ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Mustafa, Omar

    2013-05-01

    We argue that the classical and quantum mechanical correspondence may play a basic role in the fixation of the ordering ambiguity parameters. We use quasi-free position-dependent masses in the classical and quantum frameworks. The effective Pöschl-Teller model is used as a manifested reference potential to elaborate on the reliability of the ordering ambiguity parameters available in the literature.

  14. Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution Hugh Rabagliati

    E-print Network

    Pylkkänen, Liina

    with the feather. Here, the ambiguity arises over where to attach the prepositional phrase with the feather, as an instrument phrase attached to the verb (tickling using the feather) or as a modifier of the noun (the frog holding the feather). Five-year-olds can resolve these ambiguities using bottom-up cues such as lexical

  15. Global motion coherence can influence the representation of ambiguous local motion

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Alan

    of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences, University College London, UKPeter Scarfe Department of Cognitive and space. Here, we show that the direction of an aftereffect produced by ambiguous local motion signals: Scarfe, P., & Johnston, A. (2011). Global motion coherence can influence the representation of ambiguous

  16. Typical Ambiguity: Trying to Have Your Cake and Eat it too.

    E-print Network

    Feferman, Solomon

    without its being named in that way) was in Bertrand Russell's development of the theory of classes of disambiguation can be carried out in some systematic way. Russell made use of typical ambiguity in the theory with a brief tour of Russell's uses of typical ambiguity, including his treatment of the statement Cls Cls

  17. Translational Ambiguity Rephrased Danit Ben-Ari*, Daniel M. Berry**, Mori Rimon*

    E-print Network

    Berry, Daniel M.

    to humans, due to their extensive world knowledge, may present ambiguities to automatic parsers valid parses): (1) The management requests control information. (2) Visiting grandfather will take up to the bank. (6) The thief stole two million dollars from the bank. · Implicit ambiguity not explicitly

  18. The Kindergarten Path Effect Revisited: Children's Use of Context in Processing Structural Ambiguities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weighall, Anna R.

    2008-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that ambiguous spoken sentences are resolved efficiently, exploiting multiple cues--including referential context--to select the intended meaning. Paradoxically, children appear to be insensitive to referential cues when resolving ambiguous sentences, relying instead on statistical properties intrinsic to the…

  19. Medical Student and Junior Doctors' Tolerance of Ambiguity: Development of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a…

  20. Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2015-02-01

    At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may alter the time-dependence of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is possible to remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to 0Ne~ 6, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of ± 0.01 without adding significant contribution to the spectral index. The corrections to the spectral index (and the amplitude) could be important in considering global behavior of the corrected spectrum, although they can be neglected in the estimation of the spectrum and its spectral index at the pivot scale. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be due to such fields, can be used to nullify tension between BICEP2 and Planck experiments.

  1. Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation

    E-print Network

    Kazunori Kohri; Tomohiro Matsuda

    2015-01-15

    At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may alter the time-dependence of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is possible to remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to $N_e\\sim 60$, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of $\\pm 0.01$ without adding significant contribution to the spectral index. The corrections to the spectral index (and the amplitude) could be important in considering global behavior of the corrected spectrum, although they can be neglected in the estimation of the spectrum and its spectral index at the pivot scale. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be due to such fields, can be used to nullify tension between BICEP2 and Planck experiments.

  2. Mediation misgivings: ambiguous clinical and public health interpretations of natural direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Ashley I; Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological innovation is giving rise to an increasing number of applied papers in medical and epidemiological journals in which natural direct and indirect effects are estimated. However, there is a longstanding debate on whether such effects are relevant targets of inference in population health. In light of the repeated calls for a more pragmatic and consequential epidemiology, we review three issues often raised in this debate: (i) the use of composite cross-world counterfactuals and the need for cross-world independence assumptions; (ii) interventional vs non-interventional identifiability; and (iii) the interpretational ambiguity of natural direct and indirect effect estimates. We use potential outcomes notation and directed acyclic graphs to explain 'cross-world' assumptions, illustrate implications of this assumption via regression models and discuss ensuing issues of interpretation. We argue that the debate on the relevance of natural direct and indirect effects rests on whether one takes as a target of inference the mathematical object per se, or the change in the world that the mathematical object represents. We further note that public health questions may be better served by estimating controlled direct effects. PMID:24860122

  3. An Ambiguous Statement Called 'Tetrad Postulate' and the Correct Field Equations Satisfied by the Tetrad Fields

    E-print Network

    Waldyr A. Rodrigues Jr.; Quintino A. Gomes de Souza

    2008-01-06

    The names tetrad, tetrads, cotetrads, have been used with many different meanings in the physical literature, not all of them, equivalent from the mathematical point of view. In this paper we introduce unambiguous definitions for each one of those terms, and show how the old miscellanea made many authors to introduce in their formalism an ambiguous statement called `tetrad postulate', which has been source of many misunderstandings, as we show explicitly examining examples found in the literature. Since formulating Einstein's field equations intrinsically in terms of cotetrad fields theta^{a}, a = 0,1,2,3 is an worth enterprise, we derive the equation of motion of each theta^{a} using modern mathematical tools (the Clifford bundle formalism and the theory of the square of the Dirac operator). Indeed, we identify (giving all details and theorems) from the square of the Dirac operator some noticeable mathematical objects, namely, the Ricci, Einstein, covariant D'Alembertian and the Hodge Laplacian operators, which permit to show that each theta^{a} satisfies a well defined wave equation. Also, we present for completeness a detailed derivation of the cotetrad wave equations from a variational principal. We compare the cotetrad wave equation satisfied by each theta^{a} with some others appearing in the literature, and which are unfortunately in error.

  4. Perceptions of ambiguously unpleasant interracial interactions: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Marino, Teresa L; Negy, Charles; Hammons, Mary E; McKinney, Cliff; Asberg, Kia

    2007-11-01

    Despite a general consensus in the United States that overtly racist acts are unacceptable, many ambiguous situations in everyday life raise questions of whether racism has influenced a person's behavior in an interracial encounter. The authors of the present study sought to (a) examine simultaneously an array of variables thought to be related to perceived racism and (b) investigate how the contribution of these variables may differ with respect to the asymmetry hypothesis, which suggests that acts of discrimination from a dominant person toward a subordinate person will be viewed as more biased than if the situation were reversed. The authors used a dual structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that ethnic identity significantly predicted perceived racism. In addition, the extent to which cognitive interpretation style significantly predicted perceived racism depended on the ethnicity of participants involved in the interaction. PMID:18044276

  5. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research

    PubMed Central

    McLain, David L.; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity. PMID:25972818

  6. Specular objects in range cameras: reducing ambiguities by motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas NygArds; A. Wernersson

    1994-01-01

    Range cameras using structured light and triangulation are essentially based on the assumption of one diffuse reflection from the measured surfaces, Specular and transparent objects usually give multiple reflections and direct triangulation can give different types of `ghosts' in the range images. These `ghosts' are likely to cause serious errors during gripping operations. As the robot moves some of the

  7. Rocking or rolling--perception of ambiguous motion after returning from space.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive an accurate representation of spatial orientation. Adaptive changes during spaceflight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions after return to Earth. The purpose of this study was to compare tilt and translation motion perception in astronauts before and after returning from spaceflight. We hypothesized that these stimuli would be the most ambiguous in the low-frequency range (i.e., at about 0.3 Hz) where the linear acceleration can be interpreted either as a translation or as a tilt relative to gravity. Verbal reports were obtained in eleven astronauts tested using a motion-based tilt-translation device and a variable radius centrifuge before and after flying for two weeks on board the Space Shuttle. Consistent with previous studies, roll tilt perception was overestimated shortly after spaceflight and then recovered with 1-2 days. During dynamic linear acceleration (0.15-0.6 Hz, ±1.7 m/s2) perception of translation was also overestimated immediately after flight. Recovery to baseline was observed after 2 days for lateral translation and 8 days for fore-aft translation. These results suggest that there was a shift in the frequency dynamic of tilt-translation motion perception after adaptation to weightlessness. These results have implications for manual control during landing of a space vehicle after exposure to microgravity, as it will be the case for human asteroid and Mars missions. PMID:25354042

  8. A Columbine study: giving voice, hearing meaning.

    PubMed

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by giving voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience. PMID:19256102

  9. Dictator game giving: Rules of fairness versus acts of kindness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Bolton; Elena Katok; Rami Zwick

    1998-01-01

    .   In both dictator and impunity games, one player, the dictator, divides a fixed amount of money between himself and one other,\\u000a the recipient. Recent lab studies of these games have produced seemingly inconsistent results, reporting substantially divergent\\u000a amounts of dictator giving. Also, one prominent explanation for some of these differences, the impact of experimenter observation,\\u000a displayed weak explanatory power

  10. Doctoral Alumni Giving: Motivations for Donating to the University of Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastroieni, Anita

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain the specific motivations behind doctoral alumni giving. Most U.S. colleges and universities depend on alumni giving to supplement revenues from tuition and governmental support; however, relatively little alumni giving is generated from PhD graduates. The result is untapped revenue for doctoral-granting institutions.…

  11. Analysis of genetic code ambiguity arising from nematode-specific misacylated tRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Kiyofumi; Mori, Masaru; Andachi, Yoshiki; Tomita, Masaru; Kohara, Yuji; Kanai, Akio

    2015-01-01

    The faithful translation of the genetic code requires the highly accurate aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs). However, it has been shown that nematode-specific V-arm-containing tRNAs (nev-tRNAs) are misacylated with leucine in vitro in a manner that transgresses the genetic code. nev-tRNA(Gly) (CCC) and nev-tRNA(Ile) (UAU), which are the major nev-tRNA isotypes, could theoretically decode the glycine (GGG) codon and isoleucine (AUA) codon as leucine, causing GGG and AUA codon ambiguity in nematode cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the functionality of nev-tRNAs and their impact on the proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the 3' end regions of the nev-tRNAs showed that they had matured correctly, with the addition of CCA, which is a crucial posttranscriptional modification required for tRNA aminoacylation. The nuclear export of nev-tRNAs was confirmed with an analysis of their subcellular localization. These results show that nev-tRNAs are processed to their mature forms like common tRNAs and are available for translation. However, a whole-cell proteome analysis found no detectable level of nev-tRNA-induced mistranslation in C. elegans cells, suggesting that the genetic code is not ambiguous, at least under normal growth conditions. Our findings indicate that the translational fidelity of the nematode genetic code is strictly maintained, contrary to our expectations, although deviant tRNAs with misacylation properties are highly conserved in the nematode genome. PMID:25602944

  12. Substrate Ambiguous Enzymes within the Escherichia coli Proteome Offer Different Evolutionary Solutions to the Same Problem

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sylvia Hsu-Chen; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many enzymes exhibit some catalytic promiscuity or substrate ambiguity. These weak activities do not affect the fitness of the organism under ordinary circumstances, but can serve as potential evolutionary precursors of new catalytic functions. We wondered whether different proteins with the same substrate ambiguous activity evolve differently under identical selection conditions. Patrick et al. (Patrick WM, Quandt EM, Swartzlander DB, Matsumura I. 2007. Multicopy suppression underpins metabolic evolvability. Mol Biol Evol. 24:2716–2722.) previously showed that three multicopy suppressors, gph, hisB, and ytjC, rescue ?serB Escherichia coli cells from starvation on minimal media. We directed the evolution of variants of Gph, histidinol phosphatase (HisB), and YtjC that complemented ?serB more efficiently, and characterized the effects of the amino acid changes, alone and in combination, upon the evolved phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) activity. Gph and HisB are members of the HAD superfamily of hydrolases, but they adapted through different, kinetically distinguishable, biochemical mechanisms. All of the selected mutations, except N102T in YtjC, proved to be beneficial in isolation. They exhibited a pattern of antagonistic epistasis, as their effects in combination upon the kinetic parameters of the three proteins in reactions with phosphoserine were nonmultiplicative. The N102T mutation exhibited sign epistasis, as it was deleterious in isolation but beneficial in the context of other mutations. We also showed that the D57N mutation in the chromosomal copy of hisB is sufficient to suppress the ?serB deletion. These results in combination show that proteomes can offer multiple mechanistic solutions to a molecular recognition problem. PMID:23728795

  13. Violation of contextual generalization of the Leggett–Garg inequality for recognition of ambiguous figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masanari; Hashimoto, Takahisa; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

    2014-12-01

    We interpret the Leggett–Garg (LG) inequality as a kind of contextual probabilistic inequality in which one combines data collected in experiments performed for three different contexts. In the original version of the inequality, these contexts have a temporal nature and they are represented by three pairs of instances of time, ({{t}1},{{t}2}),({{t}2},{{t}3}),({{t}3},{{t}4}), where {{t}1}\\lt {{t}2}\\lt {{t}3}. We generalize LG conditions of macroscopic realism and noninvasive measurability in a general contextual framework. Our formulation is performed in purely probabilistic terms: the existence of the context-independent joint probability distribution P and the possibility of reconstructing the experimentally found marginal (two-dimensional) probability distributions from P. We derive an analog of the LG inequality, ‘contextual LG inequality’, and use it as a test of ‘quantum-likeness’ of statistical data collected in a series of experiments on the recognition of ambiguous figures. In our experimental study, the figure under recognition is the Schröder stair, which is shown with rotations for different angles. Contexts are encoded by dynamics of rotations: clockwise, anticlockwise and random. Our data demonstrated violation of the contextual LG inequality for some combinations of the aforementioned contexts. Since in quantum theory and experiments with quantum physical systems, this inequality is violated, e.g. in the form of the original LG-inequality, our result can be interpreted as a sign that the quantum-like models can provide a more adequate description of the data generated in the process of recognition of ambiguous figures.

  14. Diversifying search results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Agrawal; Sreenivas Gollapudi; Alan Halverson; Samuel Ieong

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of answering ambiguous web queries in a setting where there exists a taxonomy of information, and that both queries and documents may belong to more than one category according to this taxonomy. We present a systematic approach to diversifying results that aims to minimize the risk of dissatisfaction of the average user. We propose an algorithm

  15. Altered emotional and BOLD responses to negative, positive and ambiguous performance feedback in OCD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael P I; Nitsch, Alexander M; Schlösser, Ralf; Koch, Kathrin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Wagner, Gerd; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    While abnormal processing of performance feedback has been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), neural responses to different kinds of feedback information, especially to ambiguous feedback are widely unknown. Using fMRI and a performance adaptive time-estimation task, we acquired blood oxygenation level-dependant responses and emotional ratings to positive, negative and ambiguous performance feedback in patients and healthy controls. Negative and ambiguous feedback led to increased levels of anxiety, guilt and shame in patients. Both negative and ambiguous feedback, as compared to positive feedback, induced increased activation of the insular cortex in patients. Furthermore, patients showed no differential activation to negative feedback in the putamen and to ambiguous feedback in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Finally, negative feedback induced increased activation in the midcingulate cortex in patients compared to controls. Findings indicate that both negative and ambiguous performance feedbacks are associated with abnormal negative emotions and altered brain activation, in particular increased insula activation, while activation in the putamen and VMPFC does not differentiate between feedback types in OCD patients. This suggests a parallel pattern of increased and decreased neural sensitivity to different kinds of feedback information and a general emotional hyperresponsivity to negative and ambiguous performance feedback in OCD. PMID:23893850

  16. Parents' experiences of having a baby with ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mailme de Souza; de Paiva-E-Silva, Roberto Benedito; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals must be aware of the impact on parents of the birth of children with ambiguous genitalia. This study aimed to analyze the experiences and perceptions of such parents. Parents of 30 children who were evaluated in a reference center for disorders of sex development (DSD) were interviewed. The questionnaire covered the prenatal period, the moment they were told about the disorder, initial management by health professionals, and problems they experienced. Only two cases were detected during pregnancy. The news was usually given to the mother alone by pediatricians. Most parents kept it secret and avoided exposing the baby to the prejudice of others. Parents of children who were referred without sex assignment usually held a personal belief of their child's sex. Previous assignment was based on clinical examination and/or karyotype. Spreading knowledge about DSD could increase awareness of this issue, thus reducing parents' shock and societal stigma. Training of neonatal care teams is required to avoid assignment before evaluation. PMID:26068900

  17. NICE's selective application of differential discounting: ambiguous, inconsistent, and unjustified.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, James F; Paulden, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recently recommended differential discounting of costs and health effects in the economic appraisal of health care interventions in certain circumstances. The recommendation was published in an amendment to NICE's Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal. The amendment states that differential discounting should be applied where "treatment effects are both substantial in restoring health and sustained over a very long period (normally at least 30 years)." Renewed interest in differential discounting from NICE is welcome; however, the recommendation's selective application of differential discounting raises a number of concerns. The stated criteria for applying differential discounting are ambiguous. The rationale for the selective application of differential discounting has not been articulated by NICE and is questionable. The selective application of differential discounting leads to several inconsistencies, the most concerning of which is the lower valuation of health gains for those with less than 30 years remaining life expectancy, which can be interpreted as age discrimination. Furthermore, the discount rates chosen by NICE do not appear to be informed by recent advances in the theoretical understanding of differential discounting. NICE's apparent motivation for recommending differential discounting was to ensure a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio for a pediatric oncology drug. While flexibility may be appropriate to allow some interventions that exceed conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds to be adopted, the selective adjustment of appraisal methods is problematic and without justification. PMID:25128041

  18. Method for ambiguity resolution in range-Doppler measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M. (inventor); Miller, Lee S. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for resolving range and Doppler target ambiguities when the target has substantial range or has a high relative velocity in which a first signal is generated and a second signal is also generated which is coherent with the first signal but at a slightly different frequency such that there exists a difference in frequency between these two signals of Delta f(sub t). The first and second signals are converted into a dual-frequency pulsed signal, amplified, and the dual-frequency pulsed signal is transmitted towards a target. A reflected dual-frequency signal is received from the target, amplified, and changed to an intermediate dual-frequency signal. The intermediate dual-frequency signal is amplified, with extracting of a shifted difference frequency Delta f(sub r) from the amplified intermediate dual-frequency signal done by a nonlinear detector. The final step is generating two quadrature signals from the difference frequency Delta f(sub t) and the shifted difference frequency Delta f(sub r) and processing the two quadrature signals to determine range and Doppler information of the target.

  19. Global positioning system network analysis with phase ambiguity resolution applied to crustal deformation studies in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Da-Nan; Bock, Yehuda

    1989-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is developed for multisession adjustment of GPS data with simultaneous orbit determination and ambiguity resolution. Application of the algorithm to the analysis of data from a five-year campaign in progress in southern and central California to monitor tectonic motions using observations by GPS satellites, demonstrates improvements in estimates of station position and satellite orbits when the phase ambiguities are resolved. Most of the phase ambiguities in the GPS network were resolved, particularly for all the baselines of geophysical interest in California.

  20. Phase-ambiguity resolution for QPSK modulation systems. Part 1: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien Manh

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 reviews the current phase-ambiguity resolution techniques for QPSK coherent modulation systems. Here, those known and published methods of resolving phase ambiguity for QPSK with and without Forward-Error-Correcting (FEC) are discussed. The necessary background is provided for a complete understanding of the second part where a new technique will be discussed. An appropriate technique to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is recommended for consideration in future standards on phase-ambiguity resolution for QPSK coherent modulation systems.

  1. Pipe flow measurements of turbulence and ambiguity using laser-Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, N. S.; Dunning, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The laser-Doppler ambiguities predicted by George and Lumley (1973) have been verified experimentally for turbulent pipe flows. Experiments were performed at Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 15,000 at the center line and near the wall. Ambiguity levels were measured from power spectral densities of FM demodulated laser signals and were compared with calculations based on the theory. The turbulent spectra for these water flows after accounting for the ambiguity were equivalent to hot-film measurements at similar Reynolds numbers. The feasibility of laser-Doppler measurements very close to the wall in shear flows is demonstrated.

  2. Giving Pediatric Immunizations the Priority They Deserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalala, Donna E.

    1993-01-01

    Stresses the need for increased federal, state, and local support for child immunizations resulting from the alarming increases in the incidence of rubella and other infectious diseases, and endorses the Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices recently published in the "Journal of the American Medical Association." (MDM)

  3. Give Better Feedback on Engineering Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Robert, Jr.; Graham, Tony; Kapur, Arjun; Rhodes, Craig; Blackwell, Ellinor

    2005-01-01

    Most, if not all, systems have a mechanism that collects information to facilitate monitoring performance. This information is primarily used to modify the system to make it more efficient in performing desired tasks and, thus, attaining desired results. Similar to electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic systems, the feedback mechanism in an…

  4. Saharan dust gives clues to weather patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sun Wong

    The influence of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on convection over the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa was investigated using satellite measurements of atmospheric temperature and moisture and of dust concentrations in the SAL. Results suggest that dust is not an effective proxy to track the SAL as it moves west and that other tracking techniques are required to track the air mass as it moves far from the continent.

  5. Is it time to give up?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The world's coral reefs show rapid decline as a result of environmental change. Coral reef communities and organisms are stressed, potentially mortally, by (1) rising temperature, (2) rising atmospheric/surface ocean CO2 levels, (3) rising human populations, and (4) local aspects of climate change other than temperature. Further increase in all of these stressors is certain; the future rates and magnitudes of items 1-3 can be estimated with confidence to be substantially greater than changes in the recent past.

  6. Role conflict and ambiguity of CEOs in international joint ventures: a transaction cost perspective.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y; Shenkar, O; Luo, Y; Nyaw, M K

    2001-08-01

    Insights from transaction cost economics were used to study the boundary conditions underlying the role conflict and ambiguity of 265 CEOs in Chinese-based international joint ventures. Role conflict and ambiguity were lower when the contract between parents was more complete. Contract completeness fully mediated the effects of parent objective gap and parent formalization on role ambiguity but only partially so in the case of role conflict. Role conflict was lower when the foreign parent was dominant in the venture but higher when the local parent was dominant. Role conflict and ambiguity were inversely related to cultural distance. Neither construct had a detrimental effect on international joint venture performance. Implications for role theory are discussed. PMID:11519659

  7. Synthesis of a cross-ambiguity function, prescribed with respect to modulus and phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikov, V. I.

    1980-09-01

    A method for the synthesis of the cross-ambiguity function of two signals is presented. The function is the best quadratic approximation to an arbitrary function of two variables which is prescribed with respect to modulus and phase.

  8. Learning from Ambiguously Labeled Images Timothee Cour Ben Sapp Chris Jordan Ben Taskar

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    -label loss (treats each example as having multiple valid labels) Before After "Hillary Clinton, Secretary and closed captions set of speakers in scene Obama? Clinton? Obama? Clinton? Obama Clinton ambiguous

  9. What difference does a robot make? managing ambiguity in distributed knowledge work

    E-print Network

    Beane, Matthew I. (Matthew Ian)

    2014-01-01

    What difference does robotic telepresence make to the management of ambiguity in distributed knowledge work? We examined this question in a post-surgical intensive care where remote medical workers struggled to coordinate ...

  10. Towards PPP-RTK: Ambiguity resolution in real-time precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Teferle, F. N.; Meng, X.; Dodson, A. H.

    2011-05-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution at a single station can be achieved by introducing predetermined uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs) into the float ambiguity estimates of precise point positioning (PPP). This integer resolution technique has the potential of leading to a PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic) model where PPP provides rapid convergence to a reliable centimeter-level positioning accuracy based on an RTK reference network. Nonetheless, implementing this model is technically subject to how rapidly we can fix wide-lane ambiguities, stabilize narrow-lane UPD estimates, and achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. To investigate these issues, we used 7 days of 1-Hz sampling GPS data at 91 stations across Europe. We find that at least 10 min of observations are required for most receiver types to reliably fix about 90% of wide-lane ambiguities corresponding to high elevations, and over 20 min to fix about 90% of those corresponding to low elevations. Moreover, several tens of minutes are usually required for a regional network before a narrow-lane UPD estimate stabilizes to an accuracy of far better than 0.1 cycles. Finally, for hourly data, ambiguity resolution can significantly improve the accuracy of epoch-wise position estimates from 13.7, 7.1 and 11.4 cm to 0.8, 0.9 and 2.5 cm for the East, North and Up components, respectively, but a few tens of minutes is required to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. Therefore, from the timeliness aspect, our PPP-RTK model currently cannot satisfy the critical requirement of instantaneous precise positioning where ambiguity-fixed solutions have to be achieved within at most a few seconds. However, this model can still be potentially applied to some near-real-time remote sensing applications, such as the GPS meteorology.

  11. Rapid re-convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianghui; Meng, Xiaolin; Dodson, Alan H.; Ge, Maorong; Teferle, Felix N.

    2010-12-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution at a single receiver can be achieved if the fractional-cycle biases are separated from the ambiguity estimates in precise point positioning (PPP). Despite the improved positioning accuracy by such integer resolution, the convergence to an ambiguity-fixed solution normally requires a few tens of minutes. Even worse, these convergences can repeatedly occur on the occasion of loss of tracking locks for many satellites if an open sky-view is not constantly available, consequently totally destroying the practicability of real-time PPP. In this study, in case of such re-convergences, we develop a method in which ionospheric delays are precisely predicted to significantly accelerate the integer ambiguity resolution. The effectiveness of this method consists in two aspects: first, wide-lane ambiguities can be rapidly resolved using the ionosphere-corrected wide-lane measurements, instead of the noisy Melbourne-Wübbena combination measurements; second, narrow-lane ambiguity resolution can be accelerated under the tight constraints derived from the ionosphere-corrected unambiguous wide-lane measurements. In the test at 90 static stations suffering from simulated total loss of tracking locks, 93.3 and 95.0% of re-convergences to wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguity resolutions can be achieved within five epochs of 1-Hz measurements, respectively, even though the time latency for the predicted ionospheric delays is up to 180 s. In the test at a mobile van moving in a GPS-adverse environment where satellite number significantly decreases and cycle slips frequently occur, only when the predicted ionospheric delays are applied can the rate of ambiguity-fixed epochs be dramatically improved from 7.7 to 93.6% of all epochs. Therefore, this method can potentially relieve the unrealistic requirement of a continuous open sky-view by most PPP applications and improve the practicability of real-time PPP.

  12. Cancer fear and the interpretation of ambiguous information related to cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Miles; Sanne Voorwinden; Andrew Mathews; Laura C. Hoppitt; Jane Wardle

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that people with a high fear of cancer would be more likely to interpret ambiguous information about cancer in a negative manner compared with people low on cancer fear. Adults (n=47) aged 50–70, who scored either high (n=16) or low (n=31) on cancer fear, took part in a laboratory-based ambiguous sentences task. Participants were presented with

  13. "How about giving my things away over the Internet?" When Internet makes it easier to give things away

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 "How about giving my things away over the Internet?" When Internet makes it easier to give things Away Over the Internet? When the Internet Makes It Easier to Give Things Away", in NA - Advances of Management, France [ to cite ]: Valérie Guillard and Céline Del Bucchia (2012) ,"How About Giving My Things

  14. Resolving the 180° Ambiguity in Solar Vector Magnetic Field Data: Evaluating the Effects of Noise, Spatial Resolution, and Method Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham; Crouch, A. D.; Metcalf, Thomas R.; Gary, G. Allen; Jing, Ju; Liu, Y.

    2009-11-01

    The objective testing of algorithms for performing ambiguity resolution in vector magnetic field data is continued, with an examination of the effects of noise in the data. Through the use of analytic magnetic field models, two types of noise are “added” prior to resolving: noise to simulate Poisson photon noise in the observed polarization spectra, and a spatial binning to simulate the effects of unresolved structure. The results are compared through the use of quantitative metrics and performance maps. We find that while no algorithm severely propagates the effects of Poisson noise beyond very local influences, some algorithms are more robust against high photon-noise levels than others. In the case of limited spatial resolution, loss of information regarding fine-scale structure can easily result in erroneous solutions. Our tests imply that photon noise and limited spatial resolution can act so as to make assumptions used in some ambiguity resolution algorithms no longer consistent with the observed magnetogram. We confirm a finding of the earlier comparison study that results can be very sensitive to the details of the treatment of the observed boundary and the assumptions governing that treatment. We discuss the implications of these findings, given the relative sensitivities of the algorithms to the two sources of noise tested here. We also touch on further implications for interpreting observational vector magnetic field data for general solar physics research.

  15. A hierarchical linear modeling analysis of working memory and implicit prosody in the resolution of adjunct attachment ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Matthew J

    2009-10-01

    An eye-movement monitoring experiment investigated readers' response to temporarily ambiguous sentences. The sentences were ambiguous because a relative clause could attach to one of two preceding nouns. Semantic information disambiguated the sentences. Working memory considerations predict an overall preference for the second of the two nouns, as does the late closure principle (Frazier, On comprehending sentences: Syntactic parsing strategies. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut. West Bend, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club, 1979). Previous studies assessing preferences for such items have obtained mixed results. On-line assessments show that working memory affects the degree of preference for the first noun, with lower capacity readers having a greater preference for the second noun (Felser et al., Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics, 11, 127-163, 2003; Traxler, Memory & Cognition, 35, 1107-1121, 2007). Off-line assessments indicate the opposite pattern of preferences when the test sentences are displayed on a single line (Swets et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 64-81, 2007). However, when implicit prosody is manipulated by displaying the sentences with a break between the second noun and the relative clause, the off-line assessments indicate that readers prefer to attach the relative clause to the first noun. In this experiment, readers' undertook a working memory assessment and then read test sentences that were displayed across two lines, with a break appearing after the second noun and before the relative clause. The eye-tracking data indicated an overall preference to attach the relative clause to the first noun, and there was little indication that working memory moderated the degree of preference for this configuration. Hence, it appears that readers' implicit prosodic contours rapidly affect resolution of adjunct attachment ambiguities. PMID:19377881

  16. The Snodgrass and Vanderwart set revisited: norms for object manipulability and for pictorial ambiguity of objects, chimeric objects, and nonobjects.

    PubMed

    Magnié, M N; Besson, M; Poncet, M; Dolisi, C

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a standardized set of 480 black-and-white line drawings, half meaningful and half meaningless. Meaningful pictures represent a common object, and were selected from the Snodgrass and Vanderwart set (1980). Meaningless pictures include 120 chimeric objects (made up of two halves of real objects) and 120 nonobjects, that were constructed from the meaningful pictures while controlling for visual complexity. We report the results of two experiments designed to standardize the revisited Snodgrass and Vanderwart set along two important dimensions for picture processing: object manipulability (Experiment 1) and pictorial ambiguity (Experiment 2). The relevance of these dimensions is discussed. Experiment 1 permit us to sort objects into four manipulability categories (i.e., the ease and distinctiveness with which use of the object can be mimed) and to propose a manipulability index. This experiment provides additional evidence for a partial overlap in the dichotomy between man-made objects and living things, on the one hand, and manipulable and unmanipulable objects, on the other hand. In Experiment 2, a pictorial ambiguity index was computed for meaningful and meaningless pictures. The results of this experiment point the distinction between chimeric objects and nonobjects showing that chimeric objects are more complex to process than nonobjects and objects. This standardized set of pictures provides a database and an hopefully useful tool for research in cognitive neuroscience. PMID:12911106

  17. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  18. Ambiguous results of an attempt to withdraw barbiturates in epilepsy patients with intellectual disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Huber; M. Bocchicchio; I. Hauser; V. Horstmann; G. Jokeit; T. May; T. Meinert; E. Robertson; H. Schorlemmer; L. Schulz; W. Wagner; M. Seidel

    2009-01-01

    Phenobarbital and primidone frequently have adverse effects on mental functions. Therefore, an attempt was made to taper barbiturates in 85 patients out of a resident population with epilepsy and intellectual disability who were selected according to clinical criteria. The objectives were to reduce the use of barbiturates, to improve the patients’ cognitive and psychological state, and to reduce polypharmacy while

  19. Trading Spaces: How Humans and Humanoids use Speech and Gesture to Give Directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine Cassell; Stefan Kopp; Paul A. Tepper; Kim Ferriman; Kristina Striegnitz

    Humans frequently accompany direction-giving with gestures. These gestures have been shown to have the same underlying conceptual structure as diagrams and direction-giving language, but the puzzle is how they communicate given that their form is not codified, and may in fact differ from one person to the next. Based on results from a study on language and gesture in direction-giving,

  20. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, J.; Robinson, S. E.; McCubbin, J.; Lowery, C. L.; Eswaran, H.; Murphy, P.; Preissl, H.

    2007-02-01

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined.

  1. Understanding Alumni Giving: Theory and Predictors of Donor Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study tests a theoretical model of alumni giving developed inductively from prior research. Donor status is directly predicted by willingness to give, alumni involvement, perceptions of the economic environment, perceived need, charitable preferences, receipt of a scholarship and capacity to give along with several indirect predictors.…

  2. How Do Family Caregivers of Older People Give Up Caregiving?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Peyrovi, Hamid; Joolaee, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Population aging has social, economic and political consequences. Most family caregivers prefer to care for their family member older person with chronic disease at home. Despite traditional culture within Iranian families, in some cases, hospitalization of the elderly in nursing home is inevitable, and this affects the old person and his/her family. The aim of this study was to explain how Iranian family cargivers give up caring their older person with chronic condition at home. Methods A grounded theory approach was used to conduct the study. The study setting included four nursing homes under the auspices of Iran Welfare Organization. Fourteen participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected from December 2010 to March 2011 by Semi-structured interviews lasting about 17 to 95 minutes (average 52 minutes). Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Three main categories appeared at the end of the analysis: “going out of the road of usual life”, “challenge of meeting older person, family and caregivers care needs”, and “the appearance of inconstancy in the family”. They explained exclusively how family caregivers of old people give up caregiving. Conclusion Health care providers are recommended to become familiar with challenges of family caregivers in taking care of older person with chronic disease at home, and then organize their supportive and consulting actions according to family situations in order to improve the life quality of older person and family caregivers. PMID:26171407

  3. Various Ambiguities in Re-constructing Laser Pulse Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Prasa, Narasimha

    2006-01-01

    We think that mode lock laser pulses are generated by the summation process that take place between the monochromatic EM filed frequencies as if they interact with each other as shown in equation 1. In reality, the pulse generation is a collaborative interaction process between EM fields and various material medium. When we carry out the actual mode lock analysis, we do take into account of interpaly between all the temporal dynamics of the cavity gain medium, cavity round trip time and the response time of the intra cavity element (saturable absorber, Kerr medium, etc.). that really enforces the locking of the phase of the cavity spontaneous emissions. On a conceptual level, this simplistic representation of the mode locking by Eq.1 ignores all these critical physical processes. When we try to analyze a pulsed field, again we start by representing it very much like this equation, even though we can only detect the square modulus of this complex field and loose a lot of phase related information to the detectors quantum whims and their time constants. The key parameters for a light pulse are as follows. Foremost is the (i) carrier frequency, which cannot be described or imagined without its state of undulation expressed as its (ii) phase. Next is our imagined time finite (iii) carrier envelope that provides the temporal boundary of the field amplitude strength of the undulating E-field. The final parameter is the (iv) state of polarization or the unique plane along which the strength of the E-field gradient undulates. None of these filed characteristics are made self-evident to us by the fields themselves. We do not see light. Light does not see light. Light beams pass through each other without altering each others energy distribution unless there are interacting material molecules (dipoles) within the physical volume of superposition of the beams. In contrast, we can sense the material particles. Material particles sense each other and they cannot pass through each other without interacting with (scattering from) each other. Thus the interpretation of the superposition phenomenon of multiple fields on detectors should not be lumped under the mysterious "wave-particle duality" philosophy. The phenomenon of superposition can be understood better when we focus on the actual process experienced by the detecting dipoles when allowed by QM rules, they respond to and sum all the induced stimulations due to all the superposed fields followed by the proportionate energy absorption giving rise to the fringes we observe. We will present various experimental results to illustrate our arguments. Our position is that such detector behavior driven interpretations rather than the generally implied field-field interaction driven explanations, will help us better understand the ultimate nature of light and hence invent better and newer devices and instruments.

  4. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PMID:22985116

  5. 1 Introduction Every view of our visual world gives rise to an infinite number of interpretations.

    E-print Network

    Mitroff, Stephen

    , ambiguous. According to a satiation theory ambiguous-figure reversals occur though a process analogous neurons', which are not fatigued, dominate. Extending this analogy, perceiving a duck in figure 1a ^ down explanations. Further, those children who make these `spontaneous' reversals are more likely

  6. Children's and adults' on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences during reading.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Holly S S L; Liversedge, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children's syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults' syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, 'The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage' in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, 'I think I'll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It's really nice' in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children. PMID:23349807

  7. High fives motivate: the effects of gestural and ambiguous verbal praise on motivation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Bradley J.; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2014-01-01

    The type of praise children receive influences whether children choose to persist after failure. One mechanism through which praise affects motivation is through the causal attributions inferred from language. For example, telling a child “You got an A on the test because you’re smart,” provides an explicit link between possessing a trait and an outcome, specifically that intelligence causes success. Nonetheless, most praise given to children is ambiguous, or lacks explicit attributions (e.g., “yea” or a thumbs up). To investigate the effects of ambiguous praise on motivation, we randomly assigned 95 5–6-year-old children to a praise condition (verbal trait; verbal effort; verbal ambiguous; or gestural) and measured motivation using task persistence, self-evaluations, and eye fixations on errors. Ambiguous praise, similar to verbal effort praise, produced higher persistence and self-evaluations, and fewer fixations on error after failure compared to verbal trait praise. Interestingly, gestures produced the highest self-evaluations. Thus, praise without explicit attributions motivated as well or better than praise explicitly focused on effort, which may suggest that children interpret ambiguous praise in the most beneficial manner. PMID:25221532

  8. Enhancement of Directional Ambiguity Removal Skill in Scatterometer Data Processing Using Planetary Boundary Layer Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Pak, Kyung S.; Dunbar, R. Scott; Hsiao, S. Vincent; Callahan, Philip S.

    2000-01-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) models are utilized to enhance directional ambiguity removal skill in scatterometer data processing. The ambiguity in wind direction retrieved from scatterometer measurements is removed with the aid of physical directional information obtained from PBL models. This technique is based on the observation that sea level pressure is scalar and its field is more coherent than the corresponding wind. An initial wind field obtained from the scatterometer measurements is used to derive a pressure field with a PBL model. After filtering small-scale noise in the derived pressure field, a wind field is generated with an inverted PBL model. This derived wind information is then used to remove wind vector ambiguities in the scatterometer data. It is found that the ambiguity removal skill can be improved when the new technique is used properly in conjunction with the median filter being used for scatterometer wind dealiasing at JPL. The new technique is applied to regions of cyclone systems which are important for accurate weather prediction but where the errors of ambiguity removal are often large.

  9. Aversion to Ambiguity Regarding Medical Tests and Treatments: Measurement, Prevalence, and Relationship to Sociodemographic Factors

    PubMed Central

    HAN, PAUL K. J.; REEVE, BRYCE B.; MOSER, RICHARD P.; KLEIN, WILLIAM M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Aversion to “ambiguity”—uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of risk-related information—is an important problem that may influence judgments and decisions about medical interventions. Ambiguity aversion (AA) varies among individuals, however, and has been understudied in the health domain. To explore this phenomenon further, we developed a new theory-based measure of aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments, and examined the prevalence and association of AA with sociodemographic factors. The “AA-Med” scale was developed using a large survey sample of the U.S. public (n = 4,398), and scale psychometric properties and the population distribution of AA were evaluated. The scale demonstrated acceptable reliability (? = .73) and validity as ascertained by association with respondents’ interest in a hypothetical ambiguous cancer screening test. Ambiguity aversion (AA) was associated with older age, non-White race, lower education and income, and female sex. The AA-Med scale is a promising new measure, and AA is associated with several sociodemographic factors. We discuss implications of these findings and potential applications of the scale for future research. PMID:19731127

  10. The difference between ``giving a rose'' and ``giving a kiss'': Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    The difference between ``giving a rose'' and ``giving a kiss'': Sustained neural activity associated with processing light verb constructions such as ``give a kiss''. These construc- tions consist and also activates an argument structure of its own (``kiss''). This creates a mismatch between

  11. The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    1 The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": Sustained neural activity associated with processing light verb constructions such as "give a kiss". These constructions consist and also activates an argument structure of its own ("kiss"), which creates a mismatch between

  12. Neural predictors of giving in to temptation in daily life.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Richard B; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wagner, Dylan D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2014-07-01

    The ability to control desires, whether for food, sex, or drugs, enables people to function successfully within society. Yet, in tempting situations, strong impulses often result in self-control failure. Although many triggers of self-control failure have been identified, the question remains as to why some individuals are more likely than others to give in to temptation. In this study, we combined functional neuroimaging and experience sampling to determine if there are brain markers that predict whether people act on their food desires in daily life. We examined food-cue-related activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), as well as activity associated with response inhibition in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Greater NAcc activity was associated with greater likelihood of self-control failures, whereas IFG activity supported successful resistance to temptations. These findings demonstrate an important role for the neural mechanisms underlying desire and self-control in people's real-world experiences of temptations. PMID:24789842

  13. Novel Ambiguities in the Seiberg-Witten Map and the Emergent Gravity

    E-print Network

    B. Muthukumar

    2015-01-23

    A homogeneous part of the Seiberg-Witten gauge equivalence relation for gauge fields can lead to solutions that involve matter fields in such a way that the gauge equivalence and the dimensional and index structures are preserved. In particular, we consider scalar fields coupled to U(1) gauge fields. The matter fields appear non-linearly in the map. As an application, we analyze the implication of this ambiguity to emergent gravity at the first order in noncommutative parameter and show that the new ambiguity restores the possibility of conformal coupling of real scalar density field that is coupled non-minimally to the emergent gravity induced by gauge fields -- a possibility that is strictly not allowed if we consider only the already known ambiguity in the Seiberg-Witten map.

  14. 1 × 10?16 frequency transfer by GPS PPP with integer ambiguity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Gérard; Kanj, Amale; Loyer, Sylvain; Delporte, Jérôme; Mercier, Flavien; Perosanz, Félix

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the time community has been using the precise point positioning (PPP) technique which uses GPS phase and code observations to compute time and frequency links. However, progress in atomic clocks implies that the performance of PPP frequency comparisons is a limiting factor in comparing the best frequency standards. We show that a PPP technique where the integer nature of phase ambiguities is preserved consitutes significant improvement of the classical use of floating ambiguities. We demonstrate that this integer-PPP technique allows frequency comparisons with 1? × ?10?16 accuracy in a few days and can be readily operated with existing products.

  15. Microcomputer programs for back translation of protein to DNA sequences and analysis of ambiguous DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mount, D W; Conrad, B

    1984-01-11

    Three computer programs are described which may be used to translate a DNA sequence into a protein sequence, back translate the protein sequence into an ambiguous DNA sequence, and then do pattern searching in the ambiguous sequence. The programs are written in the C programming language, have been compiled to run on a microcomputer under the CP/M 80 operating system, and may be copied in binary format through a modem. They are also to become available for the IBM/PC. PMID:6546440

  16. Efficient decomposition of cosmic microwave background polarization maps into pure E, pure B, and ambiguous components

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Separation of the B component of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization map from the much larger E component is an essential step in CMB polarimetry. For a map with incomplete sky coverage, this separation is necessarily hampered by the presence of ambiguous modes which could be either E or B modes. I present an efficient pixel-space algorithm for removing the ambiguous modes and separating the map into pure E and B components. The method, which works for arbitrary geometries, does not involve generating a complete basis of such modes and scales the cube of the number of pixels on the boundary of the map.

  17. Genome annotation errors in pathway databases due to semantic ambiguity in partial EC numbers

    PubMed Central

    Green, M. L.; Karp, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a new type of systematic annotation error in genome and pathway databases that results from the misinterpretation of partial Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers such as ‘1.1.1.-’. This error results in the assignment of genes annotated with a partial EC number to many or all biochemical reactions that are annotated with the same partial EC number. That inference is faulty because of the ambiguous nature of partial EC numbers. We have observed this type of error in multiple databases, including KEGG, VIMSS and IMG, all of which assign genes to KEGG pathways. The Escherichia coli subset of the KEGG database exhibits this error for 6.8% of its gene-reaction assignments. For example, KEGG contains 17 reactions that are annotated with EC 1.1.1.-. A group of three E.coli genes, b1580 [putative dehydrogenase, NAD(P)-binding, starvation-sensing protein], b3787 (UDP-N-acetyl-d-mannosaminuronic acid dehydrogenase) and b0207 (2,5-diketo-d-gluconate reductase B), is assigned to 15 of those reactions, despite experimental evidence indicating different single functions for two of the three genes. Furthermore, the databases (DBs) are internally inconsistent in that the description of gene functions for genes with partial EC numbers is inconsistent with the activities implied by reactions to which the genes were assigned. We infer that these inconsistencies result from the processing used to match gene products to reactions within KEGG's metabolic pathways. These errors affect scientists who use these DBs as online encyclopedias and they affect bioinformaticists who use these DBs to train and validate newly developed algorithms. PMID:16034025

  18. Giving with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Andreoni

    1989-01-01

    Models of giving have often been based on altruism. Examples include charity and intergenerational transfers. The literatures on both subjects have centered around neutrality hypotheses: charity is subject to complete crowding out, while intergenerational transfers are subject to Ricardian equivalence. This paper formally develops a model of giving in which altruism is not \\

  19. Tips for Giving ClearTalks Kayvon Fatahalian

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    Tips for Giving ClearTalks Kayvon Fatahalian August 2013 Disclaimer:This talk uses example slides will be taken by the authors, and it is simply interpreted as professional critique (see tip 13). Credit: I Akeley to name a few) #12;My motivation I have found I give nearly the same feedback over and over

  20. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to interview 4…

  1. 20 CFR 639.4 - Who must give notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of the initial layoff is required to give notice when it becomes reasonably...any plant closing or mass layoff which takes place up to and including the effective...60 days of purchase, the seller may give notice to affected employees as an...

  2. Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators

    E-print Network

    V. Chithiika Ruby; V. K. Chandrasekar; M Senthilvelan; M. Lakshmanan

    2014-11-26

    We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schr$\\"{o}$dinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and are also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Li$\\'{e}$nard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

  3. Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithiika Ruby, V.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schrödinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering, we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and is also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

  4. Coping With Ambiguity in a LargeScale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan,

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    In an interlingual knowledge­based machine trans­ lation system, ambiguity arises when the source lan­ guage analyzerCoping With Ambiguity in a Large­Scale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan, Teruko Mitamura, Eric H. Nyberg, 3rd Center for Machine Translation Carnegie

  5. Coping With Ambiguity in a Large-Scale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan,

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    In an interlingual knowledge-based machine trans- lation system, ambiguity arises when the source lan- guage analyzerCoping With Ambiguity in a Large-Scale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan, Teruko Mitamura, Eric H. Nyberg, 3rd Center for Machine Translation Carnegie

  6. A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Working Memory and Implicit Prosody in the Resolution of Adjunct Attachment Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    An eye-movement monitoring experiment investigated readers' response to temporarily ambiguous sentences. The sentences were ambiguous because a relative clause could attach to one of two preceding nouns. Semantic information disambiguated the sentences. Working memory considerations predict an overall preference for the second of the two nouns, as…

  7. An Ambiguous Statement Called the "tetrad Postulate" and the Correct Field Equations Satisfied by the Tetrad Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Waldyr A.; Souza, Quintino A. G.

    The names tetrad, tetrads, cotetrads have been used with many different meanings in the physics literature, not all of them equivalent from the mathematical point of view. In this paper, we introduce unambiguous definitions for each of those terms, and show how the old miscellanea made many authors introduce in their formalism an ambiguous statement called the "tetrad postulate," which has been the source of much misunderstanding, as we show explicitly by examining examples found in the literature. Since formulating Einstein's field equations intrinsically in terms of cotetrad fields ?a, a = 0, 1, 2, 3 is a worthy enterprise, we derive the equation of motion of each ?a using modern mathematical tools (the Clifford bundle formalism and the theory of the square of the Dirac operator). Indeed, we identify (giving all details and theorems) from the square of the Dirac operator some noticeable mathematical objects, namely, the Ricci, Einstein, covariant D'Alembertian and the Hodge Laplacian operators, which permit us to show that each ?a satisfies a well-defined wave equation. Also, we present for completeness a detailed derivation of the cotetrad wave equations from a variational principle. We compare the cotetrad wave equation satisfied by each ?a with some others appearing in the literature, and which are unfortunately in error.

  8. Reciprocity is not give and take: asymmetric reciprocity to positive and negative acts.

    PubMed

    Keysar, Boaz; Converse, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiunwen; Epley, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Unlike economic exchange, social exchange has no well-defined "value." It is based on the norm of reciprocity, in which giving and taking are to be repaid in equivalent measure. Although giving and taking are colloquially assumed to be equivalent actions, we demonstrate that they produce different patterns of reciprocity. In five experiments utilizing a dictator game, people reciprocated in like measure to apparently prosocial acts of giving, but reciprocated more selfishly to apparently antisocial acts of taking, even when the objective outcomes of the acts of giving and taking were identical. Additional results demonstrate that acts of giving in social exchanges are perceived as more generous than objectively identical acts of taking, that taking tends to escalate, and that the asymmetry in reciprocity is not due to gaining versus losing resources. Reciprocity appears to operate on an exchange rate that assigns value to the meaning of events, in a fashion that encourages prosocial exchanges. PMID:19121138

  9. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    PubMed

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging. PMID:25740332

  10. Making space for stories: ambiguity in the design of personal communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Aoki; Allison Woodruff

    2005-01-01

    Pervasive personal communication technologies offer the potential for important social benefits for individual users, but also the potential for significant social difficulties and costs. In research on face-to-face social interaction, ambiguity is often identified as an important resource for resolving social difficulties. In this paper, we discuss two design cases of personal communication systems, one based on fieldwork of a

  11. Resolving PP attachment Ambiguities with Memory-Based Jakub Zavrel, Walter Daelemans, Jorn Veenstra

    E-print Network

    Resolving PP attachment Ambiguities with Memory-Based Learning Jakub Zavrel, Walter Daelemans, Jorn-Based Learning to the problem of Prepositional Phrase attachment disam- biguation. We compare Memory is Prepositional Phrase (PP) attachment. Several sources of infor- mation can be used to resolve PP attachment am

  12. The Professional Negotiator: Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Motivation To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Robert E.; Miskel, Cecil

    The investigation examined the relationship among role conflict, role ambiguity, and motivation to work of teacher-negotiators. The theoretical rationale for the study was formulated from the finding of Walton and McKersie, Deutsch, Vidmar and McGrath, and Blum concerning the negotiator's conflict with his adversary, his dependence on his…

  13. Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

  14. The Consequences of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity among Junior High School Administrators in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul; Chang, Derray

    Findings from a study that investigated the consequences of role conflict, role ambiguity, and demographic and organizational factors on work satisfaction and somatic complaints are presented in this paper. Data were derived from a survey administered to 225 Taipei (Taiwan) junior high school administrators, which elicited 211 responses (a 93…

  15. Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying: Ambiguity And Multipath with Global Positioning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Counselman; Sergei A. Gourevitch

    1981-01-01

    With the recent launching of several satellites of the global positioning system (GPS), a variety of schemes based on radio interferometry have been proposed for the accurate determination of relative positions of receiving terminals on the ground. Provided that the integer-cycle ambiguities of the interferometric phase observations can be correctly resolved, the baseline vector extending from the antenna of one

  16. Effects of work load, role ambiguity, and Type A personality on anxiety, depression, and heart rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Caplan; Kenneth W. Jones

    1975-01-01

    Studied Type A personality (hard driving, persistent, involved in work) as a conditioner of the effects of quantitative work load and role ambiguity (stresses) on anxiety, depression, resentment, and heart rate (strains) among 73 male users (mean age, 23 yrs) of a university computer system that was approaching a 23-day shutdown. Each respondent was his own control. Stress, personality, and

  17. Tinkering with Material Resources: Operating under Ambiguous Conditions in Rock Construction Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styhre, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ethnographic studies of, for instance, laboratory work show that practices never reach a full closure but are always open to contingencies and ambiguities, making it possible to accommodate new empirical findings. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that this is true also for less "high-brow" work in, for example, the construction…

  18. Interpretation of Ambiguous Interoceptive Stimuli in Panic Disorder and Nonclinical Panic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Richards; David W. Austin; Marlies E. Alvarenga

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive bias in the misinterpretation of ambiguous interoceptive stimuli has been demonstrated in panic disorder. This study investigated whether this cognitive bias also occurs in people with nonclinical panic who are at risk of developing panic disorder. The responses of 25 people with nonclinical panic were compared to those of 20 people with panic disorder and 69 nonpanic controls on

  19. Ambiguity function for bistatic SAR and its application in SS-BSAR performance analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cherniakov; T. Zeng; E. Plakidis

    2003-01-01

    The ambiguity function (AF) for bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BSAR) is deduced and the performance of space-surface bistatic SAR (SS-BSAR) is analyzed. SS-BSAR can operate utilizing non-cooperative transmitters such as GPS, GALILEO, etc due to its bistatic nature.

  20. Linear frequency-modulated signal detection using Radon-ambiguity transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minsheng Wang; Andrew K. Chan; Charles K. Chui

    1998-01-01

    A novel time-frequency technique for linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal detection is proposed. The design of the proposed detectors is based on the Radon transform of the modulus square or the envelope amplitude of the ambiguity function (AF) of the signal. A practical assumption is made that the chirp rate is the only parameter of interest. Since the AF of

  1. Eye Movements and Spoken Language Comprehension: Effects of Visual Context on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Michael J.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Eberhard, Kathleen M.; Sedivy, Julie C.

    2002-01-01

    When participants follow spoken instructions to pick up and move objects in a visual workspace, their eye movements to the objects are closely time-locked to referential expressions in the instructions. Two experiments used this methodology to investigate the processing of the temporary ambiguities that arise because spoken language unfolds over…

  2. Engineering Objects for Collaboration: Strategies of Ambiguity and Clarity at Knowledge Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, William C.; Leonardi, Paul M.; Bailey, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that boundary objects gain meaning through group interaction. Drawing from the literature on strategic ambiguity, we explore the possibility that individuals strategically create potential boundary objects in an attempt to shape the meanings that groups develop. From ethnographic observations of automotive engineers, we…

  3. Puppets of Terror: The Limits and Opportunities of Creating Ambiguity about Terrorists and Terrorism through Humor

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Puppets of Terror: The Limits and Opportunities of Creating Ambiguity about Terrorists and Terrorism through Humor Lydia Davey1 1 Department of Communications, IU School of Liberal Arts, IUPUI the enemy enables people to view other human beings as worthy of death. Since 9/11, the labels of "terror

  4. Preferences for Travel Time under Risk and Ambiguity: Implications in Path Selection and Network Equilibrium

    E-print Network

    Sun, Defeng

    Preferences for Travel Time under Risk and Ambiguity: Implications in Path Selection and Network the preferences for uncertain travel time in which the probability distribu- tion may not be fully characterized. In evaluating an uncertain travel time, we explicitly distinguish between risk, where probability distribution

  5. Parental Deployment and Youth in Military Families: Exploring Uncertainty and Ambiguous Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Mancini, Jay A.; Wilcox, Ryan M.; Grass, Saralyn R.; Grass, Gabriel A.

    2007-01-01

    Parental deployment has substantial effects on the family system, among them ambiguity and uncertainty. Youth in military families are especially affected by parental deployment because their coping repertoire is only just developing; the requirements of deployment become additive to normal adolescent developmental demands. Focus groups were used…

  6. Enhancing Preschoolers' Understanding of Ambiguity in Communication: A Training Study on Misunderstandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmiol, Ana M.; Vinden, Penelope G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding knowledge acquisition involves a comprehension of the relationship between a person's access to relevant information and that person's subsequent knowledge. This report investigates how preschoolers improve in their ability to evaluate the effects of two distinct types of messages--ambiguous and informative--on a listener's…

  7. Management of intersexuality. Guidelines for dealing with persons with ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Diamond, M; Sigmundson, H K

    1997-10-01

    Following the publication of our article about a classic case of sex reassignment, the media attention was rapid and widespread, as was the reaction of many clinicians. Some wanted to comment or ask questions, but many contacted us directly or indirectly, asking for specific guidelines on how to manage cases of traumatized or ambiguous genitalia. PMID:9343018

  8. Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity: Evidence for a Dissociation between Implicit Understanding and Explicit Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.; Smith, Shannon; Chambers, Craig G.

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds were asked to assess an adult listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided an ambiguous or unambiguous description of the sticker location. When preschoolers possessed private knowledge about the sticker location, the location they chose indicated that they judged a description to be…

  9. Reading Sentences with a Late Closure Ambiguity: Does Semantic Information Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sigrid

    2002-01-01

    Three studies are reported that addressed methodological problems in Stowe's (1989) study, which reported that semantic information eliminates garden paths in sentences with direct object versus subject ambiguity, such as in "Even before the police stopped the driver was frightened." Findings support a sentence processing system relying on…

  10. Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

  11. Sex Bias in Evaluations: Effects of Ambiguity, Job Sex-Type, and Rater Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor; Husted, Victoria L.

    Although partially caused by sex differences in aspirations and qualifications, the underrepresentation of women in professional and managerial positions also reflects the persistence of sex discrimination at the entry level. Discrimination against women applying for traditionally male jobs seems to increase with ambiguity about the fit between…

  12. The Neural Mechanisms of Speech Comprehension: fMRI studies of Semantic Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Rodd; Matthew H. Davis

    2005-01-01

    A number of regions of the temporal and frontal lobes are known to be important for spoken language comprehension, yet we do not have a clear understanding of their functional role(s). In particular, there is considerable disagreement about which brain regions are involved in the semantic aspects of comprehension. Two functional magnetic resonance studies use the phenomenon of semantic ambiguity

  13. An Ambiguous, Contested Terrain: Governance Models for a New South African Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of education governance in South Africa during the 1990s. It outlines ambiguities within and between competing policies, tracing the historical trajectory and explaining its outcome. Apartheid governance, the attempts to reform it, policy options originating within the anti-apartheid movement, and the law passed…

  14. Is it Social Influence on Beliefs Under Ambiguity? A Possible Explanation for Volatility Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hammad A. Siddiqi

    2006-01-01

    Influencing and being influenced by others is the very essence of human behaviour. We put forward an exploratory asset-pricing model allowing for social influence on investor judgments under ambiguity. The time series of returns generated by our model displays volatility clustering, a puzzling stylised fact observed in financial markets. This suggests that social influence on investor judgments may be playing

  15. Family Boundary Ambiguity: A 30-Year Review of Theory, Research, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Olson, Chad D.; Buckmiller, Nicolle

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction 30 years ago, family boundary ambiguity (BA) has been a widely used construct in family stress research and clinical intervention. In this article, we present a comprehensive and interdisciplinary review of published research studies that have used BA as a primary variable. Our review identified 37 studies investigating BA…

  16. Accuracy: Dealing with Ambiguous Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana.

    E-print Network

    to modeling and calibration errors as a source of inaccu­ racy in stereo vision systems. By modeling errors a banana. --- Groucho Marx A problem shared by virtually all stereo methods is that of ambiguous matches are compared in a purely local fashion, and the effects can be seen in disparity estimates that are wildly

  17. A Middleware Framework for Ambiguous Context Mediation in Smart Healthcare Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmalya Roy; Gautham Pallapa; Sajal K. Das

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitous healthcare applications envision future computing and networking environments as being filled with sensors that can determine various types of contexts of its inhabitants, such as location, activity and vital signs. While such information is useful in providing context-sensitive services to the inhabitants to promote intelligent independent living, however in reality, both sensed and interpreted contexts may often be ambiguous.

  18. Analysis of slow-frequency-hop satellite communications using ambiguity functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica A. Pursley; Thomas G. Macdonald

    2002-01-01

    Factors that designers of future satellite systems must consider include the spacing of channels, the shaping of the transmitted pulse, and the resilience of the system to errors in estimating the timing and frequency of the received signal. In this paper it is demonstrated that each of these concerns can be addressed by using an analysis based on the ambiguity

  19. The cosmological vacuum ambiguity, effective actions, and transplanckian effects in inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koenraad Schalm; Gary Shiu; Jan Pieter van der Schaar

    2004-01-01

    We provide a prescription for parametrizing the vacuum choice ambiguity in cosmological settings. We introduce an arbitrary boundary action representing the initial conditions. A Lagrangian description is moreover the natural setting to study decoupling of high-energy physics. RG flow affects the boundary interactions. As a consequence the boundary conditions are sensitive to high-energy physics through irrelevant terms in the boundary

  20. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  1. University Administration and the Language of Management: Seven Types of Ambiguity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, James

    2002-01-01

    Considers that the prevalence of excellence may reveal more about the spread of sloganeering in support of brands otherwise indistinguishable to consumers than it does any change in institutional philosophies or management techniques. Offers a sample of seven types of management ambiguity with brief exegeses; branding, market share, success, core…

  2. Coping with Syntactic Ambiguity or How to Put the Block in the Box on the Table

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Ward Church; Ramesh S. Patil

    1982-01-01

    Sentences are far more ambiguous than one might have thought. There may be hundreds, perhaps thousands, of syntactic parse trees for certain very natural sentences of English. This fact has been a major problem confronting natural language processing, especially when a large percentage of the syntactic parse trees are enumerated during semantic\\/pragmatic processing. In this paper we propose some methods

  3. Isotropy, Reciprocity and the Generalized Bas-Relief Ambiguity Satya P. Mallick2

    E-print Network

    Quan, Long

    that additive diffuse and specular components of reflectance often differ in color [15]. Two important hav- ing an additive non-Lambertian reflectance component, and we show that the GBR ambiguity is resolved by any non- Lambertian reflectance function that is isotropic and spa- tially invariant. The key

  4. Parallel line raster eliminates ambiguities in reading timing of pulses less than 500 microseconds apart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, A. P.

    1966-01-01

    Parallel horizontal line raster is used for precision timing of events occurring less than 500 microseconds apart for observation of hypervelocity phenomena. The raster uses a staircase vertical deflection and eliminates ambiguities in reading timing of pulses close to the end of each line.

  5. Nref: In healthy adults, a larger Nref is evoked to ambiguous anaphors relative to unambiguous anaphors

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    Nref: In healthy adults, a larger Nref is evoked to ambiguous anaphors relative to unambiguous that mismatch antecedent gender relative to matching pronouns in healthy adults (e.g., Osterhout et al Resolution in Schizophrenia Tali Ditman1, Kana Okano2, Gena Gorlin2, Donald Goff1, & Gina R. Kuperberg1,2 1

  6. A Fine Risk To Be Run? The Ambiguity of Eros and Teacher Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Describes teachers as often being in a place of tension between responding to students as persons and responding to students in their institutional-defined roles. Studies the significance of communicative ambiguity for responsibility, and explores what is ethically at stake for teachers in erotic form of communication. Contains 14 references. (JS)

  7. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents and Ambiguous Discrimination: The Role of Cognitive Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Tabb, Kevin M.; Strambler, Michael J.; Eltareb, Fazia

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive appraisal has been shown to mediate the relationship between stressors and internalizing symptoms, but not among newcomer immigrant youth facing ambiguous discrimination. Using a mixed-methods design with a sample of newcomer adolescents from African, Arab, Asian, Caribbean, European, and Latin American countries, this study measured the…

  8. Metaphor, Ambiguity, and Motive in Evolutionary Biology: W. D. Hamilton and the "Gene's Point of View"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journet, Debra

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the power of ambiguous metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…

  9. "The Times They Are a Changing": Undertaking Qualitative Research in Ambiguous, Conflictual, and Changing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacen, Lea; Chaitin, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article explores qualitative research issues that arise when researchers engage in study within their own ambiguous, unstable, conflictual, and rapidly changing society. We explore the topics of the relationship between the researcher and the context, the difficulty in choosing relevant research questions under such conditions, and the…

  10. Explanation of Ambiguous Advertisements: A Developmental Study with Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Forty students aged 9-18 were asked to explain the meanings of lexically ambiguous advertisements from magazines, newspapers, and brochures. Older subjects explained the meanings correctly more frequently than younger subjects. The psychological meanings of the ads were found to be more difficult to explain than the physical meanings. (Author/JDD)

  11. Ambiguous Loss, Family Stress, and Infant Attachment during Times of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Lisa A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the interdependent nature of infants and their parents who are experiencing wartime deployment and reunion. Research supports the contention that the cumulative effects of stress place families at risk; the experience of ambiguous loss changes as family roles change throughout the cycle of deployment; and parental absence has…

  12. An Ambiguity-Controlled Morphological Analyzer for Modern Standard Arabic Modelling Finite State Networks

    E-print Network

    1 An Ambiguity-Controlled Morphological Analyzer for Modern Standard Arabic Modelling Finite State takes in analyzing a sentence, and the greater the number of parses it produces. Xerox Arabic Finite State Morphology and Buckwalter Arabic Morphological Analyzer are two of the best known, well documented

  13. Tracking and Localizing Moving Targets in the Presence of Phase Measurement Ambiguities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongqiang Cheng; Xuezhi Wang; Terry Caelli; Bill Moran

    2011-01-01

    When tracking a target using phase-only signal re- turns, range ambiguities due to the modulo in measured signal phases are a major issue. Standard approaches to such problems would typically involve the use of Diophantine equations. In this paper, a simpler and robust solution is examined which uses look-up tables defined between the phase measurement and target location spaces to

  14. Parsing with Focus Particles in Context: Eye Movements during the Processing of Relative Clause Ambiguities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2005-01-01

    Sedivy (2002) proposed that using "only" and prior referential context to specify contrastive focus can guide the parsing of relative clause ambiguities. We report two studies investigating this hypothesis, using sentences that either temporarily allowed or disallowed a transitive main clause interpretation. Sentence completions demonstrated that…

  15. Dimensions of Ambiguous Loss in Couples Coping with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.; Wilcox, Karen L.; Barham, Elizabeth J.; Winston, Brianne L.

    2007-01-01

    We applied the theory of ambiguous loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the…

  16. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  17. Ambiguity in Social Network Data for Presence, Sensitive-Attribute, Degree and Relationship Privacy Protection.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Mehri; Haghjoo, Mostafa S; Miyaneh, Eynollah Khanjari

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining privacy in network data publishing is a major challenge. This is because known characteristics of individuals can be used to extract new information about them. Recently, researchers have developed privacy methods based on k-anonymity and l-diversity to prevent re-identification or sensitive label disclosure through certain structural information. However, most of these studies have considered only structural information and have been developed for undirected networks. Furthermore, most existing approaches rely on generalization and node clustering so may entail significant information loss as all properties of all members of each group are generalized to the same value. In this paper, we introduce a framework for protecting sensitive attribute, degree (the number of connected entities), and relationships, as well as the presence of individuals in directed social network data whose nodes contain attributes. First, we define a privacy model that specifies privacy requirements for the above private information. Then, we introduce the technique of Ambiguity in Social Network data (ASN) based on anatomy, which specifies how to publish social network data. To employ ASN, individuals are partitioned into groups. Then, ASN publishes exact values of properties of individuals of each group with common group ID in several tables. The lossy join of those tables based on group ID injects uncertainty to reconstruct the original network. We also show how to measure different privacy requirements in ASN. Simulation results on real and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our framework, which protects from four types of private information disclosure, preserves data utility in tabular, topological and spectrum aspects of networks at a satisfactory level. PMID:26110762

  18. Ambiguity in Social Network Data for Presence, Sensitive-Attribute, Degree and Relationship Privacy Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Mehri; Haghjoo, Mostafa S.; Miyaneh, Eynollah Khanjari

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining privacy in network data publishing is a major challenge. This is because known characteristics of individuals can be used to extract new information about them. Recently, researchers have developed privacy methods based on k-anonymity and l-diversity to prevent re-identification or sensitive label disclosure through certain structural information. However, most of these studies have considered only structural information and have been developed for undirected networks. Furthermore, most existing approaches rely on generalization and node clustering so may entail significant information loss as all properties of all members of each group are generalized to the same value. In this paper, we introduce a framework for protecting sensitive attribute, degree (the number of connected entities), and relationships, as well as the presence of individuals in directed social network data whose nodes contain attributes. First, we define a privacy model that specifies privacy requirements for the above private information. Then, we introduce the technique of Ambiguity in Social Network data (ASN) based on anatomy, which specifies how to publish social network data. To employ ASN, individuals are partitioned into groups. Then, ASN publishes exact values of properties of individuals of each group with common group ID in several tables. The lossy join of those tables based on group ID injects uncertainty to reconstruct the original network. We also show how to measure different privacy requirements in ASN. Simulation results on real and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our framework, which protects from four types of private information disclosure, preserves data utility in tabular, topological and spectrum aspects of networks at a satisfactory level. PMID:26110762

  19. FM echolocating bats shift frequencies to avoid broadcast–echo ambiguity in clutter

    PubMed Central

    Hiryu, Shizuko; Bates, Mary E.; Simmons, James A.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Sonar broadcasts are followed by echoes at different delays from objects at different distances. When broadcasts are emitted rapidly in cluttered surroundings, echo streams from successive broadcasts overlap and cause ambiguity in matching echoes to corresponding broadcasts. To identify reactions to ambiguity in clutter, echolocating bats that emit multiple-harmonic FM sounds were trained to fly into a dense, extended array of obstacles (multiple rows of vertically hanging chains) while the sonar sounds the bat emitted were recorded with a miniature radio microphone carried by the bat. Flight paths were reconstructed from thermal-infrared video recordings. Successive rows of chains extended more than 6 m in depth, so each broadcast was followed by a series of echoes from multiple rows of chains that lasted up to 40 ms. Bats emitted sounds in pairs (“strobe groups”) at short (20–40 ms) interpulse intervals (IPIs) alternating with longer IPIs (>50 ms). For many short IPIs, the stream of echoes from the first broadcast was still arriving when the second broadcast was emitted. This overlap caused ambiguity about matching echoes with broadcasts. Bats shifted frequencies of the first sound in each strobe group upward and the second sound downward by 3–6 kHz. When overlap and ambiguity ceased, frequency shifts ceased also. Frequency differences were small compared with the total broadcast band, which was 75–80 kHz wide, but the harmonic structure of echoes enhances the differences in spectrograms. Bats could use time–frequency comparisons of echoes with broadcasts to assign echoes to the corresponding broadcasts and thus avoid ambiguity. PMID:20351291

  20. Ambiguities in visual perception. The aperture problem and the role of eye movements in perceptual bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, L. C. J.

    2006-06-01

    The research reported in this thesis is devoted to visual ambiguities. First, we investigated the assigned binocular disparity for an 'infinitely' long line, which was occluded at the flanks (aperture problem). We showed that from a geometrical point of view, matching of the partially occluded line occurred in the horizontal direction when the occluders were well defined in terms of horizontal and vertical disparity. However, when matching of the occluders was ambiguous, the intersections between the occluded test line and the occluders played a role in the determination of the assigned horizontal disparity of the test line.In the next chapter we investigated the perception of a slanted plane when the depth cues of binocular disparity and linear perspective were manipulated independently. When these cues specify similar slants these cues are combined to provide one single percept. When the conflict between the two cues is large, then the percept alternates between a perspective-dominated percept and a disparity-dominated percept (slant rivalry). For this specific stimulus, we found that eye movements are not essential for perceptual alternations to occur and that on average there is no positive correlation between perceptual flips and both (micro)saccades and blinks that occurred prior to a perceptual flip. Further, we compared results for perceptual rivalry (in our study Necker cube rivalry and slant rivalry) and binocular rivalry (binocular grating rivalry and house-face rivalry). We found that, at the moments of perceptual alternations, there is high positive correlation between saccades and perceptual alternations for binocular rivalry, rather than for perceptual rivalry. For perceptual rivalry we found small differences in fixation positions at the moment of perceptual flips to the two different percepts.We investigated whether there was an interaction between voluntary control in percept dominance and eye movement schemes (for slant, necker cube and house-face rivalry). In separate experimental trials subjects were instructed to either view the stimulus in a natural way (without trying to influence the reversal rate) or to try to hold one specific percept. We found that the pattern of temporal correlation did not change with these different voluntary control conditions, indicating that subjects did not use different eye movement schemes in order to exert voluntary control (although the amount of correlation could be different for different voluntary control conditions). We did find small differences in fixation positions at the moments of perceptual alternations between the two different hold-percept conditions for each paradigm.Finally, we investigated whether the high correlation between saccades and perceptual alternations for binocular rivalry represented an intrinsic link between saccades and perceptual alternations or if this correlation is due to the retinal changes caused by the saccades. By using grating stimuli, which by definition are repetitive in space, we distinguished saccades that did produce local retinal image changes from saccades that did not. We found that there is a strong (causal) correlation between specific local retinal image changes and percept dominance (even for fixational saccades), indicating that retinal image changes are crucial for the correlation between saccades and perceptual alternations.

  1. 84. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. 253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. Secondhand Pot Smoke Can Give Bystanders Mild 'High'

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_152627.html Secondhand Pot Smoke Can Give Bystanders Mild 'High' Experiment in unventilated room found some ... were turned off, the researchers "found positive drug effects in the first few hours, a mild sense ...

  4. An investigation of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and role conflict and ambiguity in a sample of Chinese undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Norman, I J

    2006-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, role conflict and ambiguity, and demographic variables associated with retention of nurses within the Chinese healthcare workforce. A hypothetical model derived from a review of research studies investigating relationships between these variables was tested in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of all the final year nursing students in a medical university in China. Seventy-one out of the total sample of 75 final year nursing students completed the questionnaire, producing a response rate of 95%. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and a negative relationship between job satisfaction and role conflict and ambiguity. These results largely support the hypothesised associations between variables found in research studies derived mainly from samples of Western qualified nurses. However, contrary to previous studies, the findings suggest that aspirations to work in a clinical post are associated with high job satisfaction, and degree level student nurses have relatively high job satisfaction. The main implications for nursing education and practice are that educators and clinical mentors should work collaboratively to reduce the gap between theory and practice, specifically to improve the quality of student nurses' clinical experience in China and elsewhere. Positive clinical placement experience is related to high job satisfaction, and so, potentially, to improved retention. Future studies are needed which investigate changes in job satisfaction and other related variables over time, which have student nurse samples that are sufficient to enable the predictive value of these variables on retention in the healthcare workforce to be investigated. PMID:16338032

  5. The relationship between social anxiety and the perception of depth-ambiguous biological motion stimuli is mediated by inhibitory ability.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F

    2015-05-01

    Orthographically projected biological motion stimuli are depth-ambiguous. Consequently, their projection when oriented towards the viewer is the same as when oriented away. Despite this, observers tend to interpret such stimuli as facing the viewer more often. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. An implication of this theory is that the facing-towards percept may be perceived as more threatening than the facing-away percept. Given this, as well as the finding that anxious individuals have been found to display an attentional bias towards threatening stimuli, we reasoned that more anxious individuals might have stronger facing-the-viewer biases. Furthermore, since anxious individuals have been found to perform poorer on inhibition tasks, we hypothesized that inhibitory ability would mediate the relationship between anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias (i.e., difficulty inhibiting the threatening percept). Exploring individual differences, we asked participants to complete anxiety questionnaires, to perform a Go/No-Go task, and then to complete a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer biases. As hypothesized, we found that both greater anxiety and weaker inhibitory ability were associated with greater facing-the-viewer biases. In addition, we found that inhibitory ability significantly mediated the relationship between anxiety and facing-the-viewer biases. Our results provide further support that the facing-the-viewer bias is sensitive to the sociobiological relevance of biological motion stimuli, and that the threat bias for ambiguous visual stimuli is mediated by inhibitory ability. PMID:25747575

  6. Investment Behavior under Ambiguity: The Case of Pessimistic Decision Makers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Ludwig; Alexander Zimper

    2004-01-01

    We define pessimistic, respectively optimistic, investors as CEU (Choquet expected utility) decision makers who update their pessimistic, respectively optimistic, beliefs according to a pessimistic (Dempster-Shafer), respectively optimistic, update rule. This paper then demonstrates that, in contrast to optimistic investors, pessimistic investors may strictly prefer investing in an illiquid asset to investing in a liquid asset. Key to our result is

  7. Resolving lexical ambiguity computationally with spreading activation and Polaroid Words

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Suzanne

    too inflexible, and are in conflict with the experimental results mentioned above. ¯ Resolution respect for psychological reality as a design strategy (and not as an end in itself), the resolu- tion, Absity constructs a semantic object to correspond to that structure, using the semantic objects

  8. Automatic Access of the Meanings of Ambiguous Words in Context: Some Limitations of Knowledge-Based Processing. Technical Report No. 240.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenberg, Mark S.; And Others

    Five experiments were conducted on the ways that college students processed ambiguous words in sentences. Two classes of ambiguous words (noun-noun and noun-verb) and two types of context (priming and nonpriming) were investigated using a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) priming paradigm. Noun-noun ambiguities consisted of two semantically…

  9. What drives the gender gap in charitable giving? Lower empathy leads men to give less to poverty relief.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Wimer, Christopher; Owens, Lindsay A

    2015-07-01

    We draw upon past research on gender and prosocial emotions in hypothesizing that empathy can help explain the gender gap in charitable giving. In a nationally representative survey, we found that men reported less willingness to give money or volunteer time to a poverty relief organization, gaps that were mediated by men's lower reported feelings of empathy toward others. We also experimentally tested how effective a variety of different ways of framing poverty relief were for promoting giving. Framing poverty as an issue that negatively affects all Americans increased men's willingness to donate to the cause, eliminating the gender gap. Mediation analysis revealed that this "aligned self-interest" framing worked by increasing men's reported poverty concern, not by changing their understanding of the causes of poverty. Thus, while men were generally less motivated by empathy, they responded to a framing that recast charitable giving as consistent with their self-interest. Exposure to the same framing, however, led women to report lower willingness to volunteer time for poverty relief, suggesting that framing giving as consistent with self-interest may discourage those who give because of an empathic response to poverty. PMID:26004450

  10. Infants' online perception of give-and-take interactions.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-10-01

    This research investigated infants' online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants' gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants' online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants' online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective. PMID:24973626

  11. Infants’ online perception of give-and-take interactions

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated infants’ online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants’ gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants’ online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants’ online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective. PMID:24973626

  12. Discussions of Ambiguities on Current Operators in Exclusive (e,e'p) Reactions for Intermediate Electron Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheoun, Myung Ki; Kim, K. S.

    2004-08-01

    Possible ambiguities in the theoretical interpretation of exclusive (e,e'p) reactions are discussed on the basis of realistic model calculations. Gauge ambiguity, medium effects, and contribution of the ? current are evaluated in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) where the four momentum transfer square |q?|2 is less than 0.5 (GeV/c)2. The gauge ambiguity effects are shown to be about 10% in the small missing momentum region and about 20% maximally in the high missing momentum region. Medium effects of about 6-10% appear mainly in the small missing momentum region. The ?-resonance current influences the high missing momentum region by about 10% maximally.

  13. Studying the grammatical aspects of word recognition: lexical priming, parsing, and syntactic ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jared M; Kim, Albert; Trueswell, John C

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported examining the relationship between lexical and syntactic processing during language comprehension, combining techniques common to the on-line study of syntactic ambiguity resolution with priming techniques common to the study of lexical processing. By manipulating grammatical properties of lexical primes, we explore how lexically based knowledge is activated and guides combinatory sentence processing. Particularly, we find that nouns (like verbs, see Trueswell & Kim, 1998) can activate detailed lexically specific syntactic information and that these representations guide the resolution of relevant syntactic ambiguities pertaining to verb argument structure. These findings suggest that certain principles of knowledge representation common to theories of lexical knowledge--such as overlapping and distributed representations--also characterize grammatical knowledge. Additionally, observations from an auditory comprehension study suggest similar conclusions about the lexical nature of parsing in spoken language comprehension. They also suggest that thematic role and syntactic preferences are activated during word recognition and that both influence combinatory processing. PMID:12647563

  14. Marine Creatures and the Sea in Bronze Age Greece: Ambiguities of Meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Ina

    2013-06-01

    Like most cultures, prehistoric Greek communities had an ambiguous relationship with the sea and the creatures that inhabit it. Positive and negative associations always co-existed, though the particular manifestations changed over time. By drawing together evidence of consumption of marine animals, seafaring, fishing, and iconography, this article unites disparate strands of evidence in an attempt to illuminate the relationship prehistoric Greeks had with marine creatures and the sea. Based on the marked reduction in seafood consumption after the Mesolithic and the use of marine creatures in funerary iconography in the post-palatial period, it becomes apparent that the sea—then as now—is an inherently ambiguous medium that captures both positive and negative emotions. On the one hand, the sea and the animals residing in it are strongly associated with death. On the other hand, the sea's positive dimensions, such as fertility and rebirth, are expressed in conspicuous marine consumption events.

  15. Multistatic ambiguity function — A tool for waveform selection in distributed radar systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Bradaric; G. T. Capraro; M. C. Wicks

    2008-01-01

    Summary form only given. The desire to anticipate, find, fix, track, target, engage, and assess, anything, anytime, anywhere (A2F2TE4A) by the US Air Force will require changes to how we modify, build, and deploy monostatic and multistatic radar systems. The multistatic ambiguity function has been proposed as a tool for analyzing and designing multistatic radar systems. It was demonstrated through

  16. The Role of Working Memory in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution: A Psychometric Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Swets; Timothy Desmet; David Z. Hambrick; Fernanda Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    In 2 studies, the authors used a combination of psychometric and experimental techniques to investigate the effects of domain-general and domain-specific working memory factors on offline decisions concerning attachment of an ambiguous relative clause. Both studies used English and Dutch stimuli presented to English- and Dutch-speaking participants, respectively. In Study 1, readers with low working memory spans were less likely

  17. Variable Perception of White Noise in Ambiguous Phonetic Contexts: The Case of \\/p\\/ and \\/f

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeriy Shafiro; Lawrence J. Raphael

    2007-01-01

    The roles of spectro-temporal coherence, lexical status, and word position in the perception of speech in acoustic signals\\u000a containing a mixture of speech and nonspeech sounds were investigated. Stimuli consisted of nine (non)words in which either\\u000a white noise was inserted only into the silent interval preceding and\\/or following the onset of vocalic transitions ambiguous\\u000a between \\/p\\/ and \\/f\\/, or in

  18. Phase ambiguity of the threshold amplitude in pp->pppi{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, G. [G. V. K. Academy, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560082 (India); Padmanabha, G. [G. V. K. Academy, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560082 (India); Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Thomas, Sujith [G. V. K. Academy, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560082 (India); K. S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560056 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Measurements of spin observables in pp->p-vectorp-vectorpi{sup 0} are suggested to remove the phase ambiguity of the threshold amplitude. The suggested measurements complement the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility data on p-vectorp-vector->pppi{sup 0} to completely determine all the 12 partial wave amplitudes taken into consideration by Meyer et al. [Phys. Rev. C 63, 064002 (2001)] and Deepak et al. [Phys. Rev. C 72, 024004 (2005)].

  19. Liquidity and asset prices in rational expectations equilibrium with ambiguous information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Ozsoylev; Jan Werner

    2011-01-01

    The quality of information in financial asset markets is often hard to estimate. Reminiscent of the famous Ellsberg paradox,\\u000a investors may be unable to form a single probability belief about asset returns conditional on information signals and may\\u000a act on the basis of ambiguous (or multiple) probability beliefs. This paper analyzes information transmission in asset markets\\u000a when agents’ information is

  20. An approach for instantaneous ambiguity resolution for medium- to long-range multiple reference station networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hu; D. A. Abbey; N. Castleden; W. E. Featherstone; C. Earls; O. Ovstedal; D. Weihing

    2005-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (AR) is a prerequisite for all high-precision (centimetre level) GPS applications that utilise multiple reference station (MRS) networks. However, due to the presence of distance-dependent GPS errors, notably atmospheric refraction, AR across the network is difficult on an epoch-by-epoch basis, especially for medium- to long-range (typically 30–130 km as used here) MRS networks. This paper presents an approach

  1. Young children’s classification, stereotyping and play behaviour for gender neutral and ambiguous toys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle D. Cherney; Jessica Dempsey

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three? to five?year?old children’s play behaviour and understanding about gender. Overall, children did not

  2. Why batch and user evaluations do not give the same results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Turpin; William R. Hersh

    2001-01-01

    Much system-oriented evaluation of information retrieval systems has used the Cranfield approach based upon queries run against test collections in a batch mode. Some researchers have questioned whether this approach can be applied to the real world, but little data exists for or against that assertion. We have studied this question in the context of the TREC Interactive Track. Previous

  3. Closed treatment of displaced middle-third fractures of the clavicle gives poor results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Hill; Michael H. McGuire; Lynn A. Crosby

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated 242 consecutive fractures of the clavicle in adults which had been treated conservatively. Of these, 66 (27%) were originally in the middle third of the clavicle and had been completely displaced. We reviewed 52 of these patients at a mean of 38 months after injury. Eight of the 52 fractures (15%) had developed nonunion, and 16 patients (31%)

  4. Chocolate and migraine: the history of an ambiguous association.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent condition and an important cause of disability. Although the pathogenesis of this condition is complex and multifaceted, several environmental factors have been associated with development and aggravation of headache attacks. Among the various foods that have been implicated in migraine, chocolate has been regarded as detrimental on the basis of old and mostly anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this article is aimed to provide an overview on the current scientific evidence about the relationship between chocolate and migraine. Taken together, the information gathered from epidemiological and provocative studies attests that the potential causal association between chocolate and migraine remains largely enigmatic. The analysis of epidemiological surveys reveals a highly heterogeneous picture, with frequency of migraine episodes attributable to chocolate ranging from 0 to 22.5%. Even in those studies reporting a more convincing association, the risk of migraine after chocolate ingestion was found to be 2- to 3-fold lower than that reported for exposure to other conventional triggers such as stress, fasting, lack of sleep and alcohol beverages. The results of the double-blind studies are instead unequivocal, and clearly demonstrate that the risk of developing a headache attack after ingestion of chocolate is as likely as administering placebo in patients with migraine. It can hence be concluded that the widespread belief that chocolate and cocoacontaining foods should be absolutely avoided by migraine patients lacks of a reliable scientific basis. PMID:25567457

  5. Adolescents' risk-taking behavior is driven by tolerance to ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A; Roy, Amy K; Ruderman, Lital; Manson, Kirk; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2012-10-16

    Adolescents engage in a wide range of risky behaviors that their older peers shun, and at an enormous cost. Despite being older, stronger, and healthier than children, adolescents face twice the risk of mortality and morbidity faced by their younger peers. Are adolescents really risk-seekers or does some richer underlying preference drive their love of the uncertain? To answer that question, we used standard experimental economic methods to assess the attitudes of 65 individuals ranging in age from 12 to 50 toward risk and ambiguity. Perhaps surprisingly, we found that adolescents were, if anything, more averse to clearly stated risks than their older peers. What distinguished adolescents was their willingness to accept ambiguous conditions--situations in which the likelihood of winning and losing is unknown. Though adults find ambiguous monetary lotteries undesirable, adolescents find them tolerable. This finding suggests that the higher level of risk-taking observed among adolescents may reflect a higher tolerance for the unknown. Biologically, such a tolerance may make sense, because it would allow young organisms to take better advantage of learning opportunities; it also suggests that policies that seek to inform adolescents of the risks, costs, and benefits of unexperienced dangerous behaviors may be effective and, when appropriate, could be used to complement policies that limit their experiences. PMID:23027965

  6. Lexical conflation and edible iconicity: two sources of ambiguity in American vernacular health terminology.

    PubMed

    Stvan, Laurel Smith

    2007-01-01

    Examination of lexical items in naturally occurring vernacular prose shows patterns of ambiguities in how Americans discuss health issues. Samples from the Freiburg-Brown corpus of American English and varied registers of popular health writing found online reveal two principles of naming beliefs that crosscut the uses of many ambiguous terms: the semantic principle of 'lexical conflation' and the semiotic principle of 'edible iconicity'. Both are shown to reflect sources of nutritional conceptualizations. Lexical conflation is illustrated by uses of fat, cholesterol, sugar, oil, and germ, with modifiers shown to help disambiguate terms. Edible iconicity, where meaning is attached to the visible form of what is ingested and characteristics of a food are believed to transfer to the person who eats it, is illustrated through aspects of hard, white, and hot. Applications are suggested that take into account the influence on nutritional choices that can occur when lay people misinterpret specialized information as signifying a nonspecialist sense. Recognition of these two principles has the potential to affect public health policy by helping practitioners to identify and modify ambiguous words, and to take into account tendencies to interpret metaphors literally, especially regarding iconic ingredients and their presumed effect upon the body. PMID:18052818

  7. Adolescents’ risk-taking behavior is driven by tolerance to ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A.; Roy, Amy K.; Ruderman, Lital; Manson, Kirk; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents engage in a wide range of risky behaviors that their older peers shun, and at an enormous cost. Despite being older, stronger, and healthier than children, adolescents face twice the risk of mortality and morbidity faced by their younger peers. Are adolescents really risk-seekers or does some richer underlying preference drive their love of the uncertain? To answer that question, we used standard experimental economic methods to assess the attitudes of 65 individuals ranging in age from 12 to 50 toward risk and ambiguity. Perhaps surprisingly, we found that adolescents were, if anything, more averse to clearly stated risks than their older peers. What distinguished adolescents was their willingness to accept ambiguous conditions—situations in which the likelihood of winning and losing is unknown. Though adults find ambiguous monetary lotteries undesirable, adolescents find them tolerable. This finding suggests that the higher level of risk-taking observed among adolescents may reflect a higher tolerance for the unknown. Biologically, such a tolerance may make sense, because it would allow young organisms to take better advantage of learning opportunities; it also suggests that policies that seek to inform adolescents of the risks, costs, and benefits of unexperienced dangerous behaviors may be effective and, when appropriate, could be used to complement policies that limit their experiences. PMID:23027965

  8. The influence of prosodic structure on the resolution of temporary syntactic closure ambiguities.

    PubMed

    Speer, S R; Kjelgaard, M M; Dobroth, K M

    1996-03-01

    This paper investigates the influence of prosodic structure on the process of sentence comprehension, with a specific focus on the relative contributions of syntactic and prosodic information to the resolution of temporary syntactic closure ambiguities. We argue that prosodic structure provides an initial memory representation for spoken sentences, and that information from this prosodic representation is available to inform syntactic parsing decisions. This view makes three predictions for the processing of temporary syntactic ambiguity: 1. When prosodic and syntactic boundaries coincide, syntactic processing should be facilitated. 2. When prosodic boundaries are placed at misleading points in syntactic structure, syntactic processing should show interference effects. 3. The processing difficulties that have been reliably demonstrated in reading experiments for syntactically complex sentences should disappear when those sentences are presented with a felicitous prosodic structure in listening experiments. These predictions were confirmed by series of experiments measuring end-of-sentence comprehension time and cross-modal naming time for sentences with temporary syntactic closure ambiguities. Sentences with coinciding or conflicting prosodic and syntactic boundaries were compared to a prosodic baseline condition. PMID:8667298

  9. Extracurricular Sports May Give Kids' Academics a Boost

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Give Kids' Academics a Boost Study suggests these activities might improve kids' attention span, self-control To use the sharing ... answer two questions: firstly, does participation in extracurricular ... on how engaged the kids were in the classroom. The researchers also hoped ...

  10. Chacona Johnson talks Wayne State giving Chacona Johnson's name is

    E-print Network

    Baskaran, Mark

    and go from there. No matter if you're donating $100 or $1 million, the giving comes because you care for one reason: "The Wayne State community is great!" For restaurant opening updates, email tvulaj continuing on in higher education this fall, including 80 who enrolled at Wayne State. This summer

  11. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. We analyze micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university, and focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. Consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt…

  12. Using Classification Trees to Predict Alumni Giving for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2009-01-01

    As the relative level of public support for higher education declines, colleges and universities aim to maximize alumni-giving to keep their programs competitive. Anchored in a utility maximization framework, this study employs the classification and regression tree methodology to examine characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a…

  13. WORMS Panel: Leaders Give Professional Advice Women and Men

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    WORMS Panel: Leaders Give Professional Advice to Women and Men Anna Nagurney Isenberg School November 13-16, 2011 Anna Nagurney WORMS Leaders Panel #12;Acknowledgments I would like to thank Women in Operations Research and the Management Sciences (WORMS) for sponsoring this panel and especially

  14. Deep water gives up another secret Craig E. Manning1

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    COMMENTARY Deep water gives up another secret Craig E. Manning1 Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 Just as water is essential for life as we that constrain one of water's most important properties at deep-earth conditions: its dielec- tric constant

  15. The Intention to Give Up Smoking: Disease Versus Social Dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ho

    1998-01-01

    An expanded protection motivation model was used to investigate the intention to give up smoking. Because smoking has both physiological and social-psychological foundations, the model was expanded to include the social dimensions as well as the original disease dimensions as predictors of health behavior. The participants were 96 current smokers (35 male and 61 female) in Australia; 44 were young

  16. Philanthropist Calls on Colleges to Inspire Students to Give

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Colleges must teach their students the virtues of philanthropy if they hope to produce graduates who will give back to the institutions and to society at large, the philanthropist and businesswoman Sheila C. Johnson told attendees at The Chronicle's Presidents Forum here last week. "My hope," she continued, "is that today's graduates will set a…

  17. Changing endowment sizes and prices of giving in ultimatum games

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1 Changing endowment sizes and prices of giving in ultimatum games Kevin Haas* April 23rd 2009 Abstract This paper looks at a rich data set that was generated from ultimatum games where the players were of Proposer behavior in the ultimatum game. 1 Introduction My paper looks at data that was generated

  18. Space Place: LISA Space Mission Gives Humans a Sixth Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is related to gravity and the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission. Like a sixth sense, detecting gravity waves will give us a whole new way to see the universe. Provides an easy explanation of gravitational waves, with a link to an interactive crossword using the new vocabulary words.

  19. Undergraduate Financial Aid and Subsequent Alumni Giving Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Dugan; Charles H. Mullin; John J. Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Data on 2,822 Vanderbilt University graduates are used to investigate alumni giving behavior during the eight years after graduation. A two stage model accounting for incidental truncation is used to first estimate the likelihood of making a contribution and second estimate the average gift size conditional on contributing. The type of financial aid received as an undergraduate appears to have

  20. Undergraduate financial aid and subsequent alumni giving behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Marr; Charles H. Mullin; John J. Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    We investigate alumni giving behavior during the eight years after graduation with data on 2822 Vanderbilt University graduates. We estimate both the likelihood of making a contribution and the expected gift size, conditional on contributing. The type of financial aid received as an undergraduate appears to have a greater influence on subsequent alumni generosity than the amount received. Adding a

  1. President Gauck gives a speach at Charles University

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    President Gauck gives a speach at Charles University Compiled 8.5.2014 9:56:30 by Document Globe of the Federal Republic of Germany Joachim Gauck described our alma mater, Charles University, as a symbol of cooperation and understanding between nations. "The university has been a true reflection of historical events

  2. Receiving, Giving, and Taking in Relationships: A Developmental Psychological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article identifies the different stages or levels of psychosocial maturity in receiving, giving, and taking as indicators of the level of development of a given family or client. The proposed model spotlights specific beliefs, attitudes, and myths that guide client interactions and establishes baselines of behavior and setting goals for…

  3. Water Conservation We want to give you the latest infor-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    treatment plants and septic systems. Household water and energy conservation are inescapably linkedHousehold Water Conservation #12;2 Foreword We want to give you the latest infor- mation on water and il- lustrate how important conservation is in reducing water and energy use and wasteflows to sewage

  4. The Early Childhood Community Gives Back: Exchange Center Makeover Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood community gives back. With the extreme generosity of the "Exchange" Makeover Project partners, Jewel's Learning Center, selected as the winner of the Center Makeover, will be awarded with new and innovative tools to help build an even stronger educational foundation for the children attending the center. Included will be new…

  5. Practical Reasoning Using Values Giving Meaning to Values

    E-print Network

    Dignum, Virginia

    be interpreted in many ways. After giving an overview of how values are defined in social psychology, this paper. Furthermore, value systems are used for practical reasoning and allow resolving conflicts when pursuing your process. This corresponds to Perelman arguing that when people disagree, they discuss the meaning

  6. Exploring differences and similarities in tolerance for ambiguity and associative creativity among sceptics, moderate and strong paranormal believers 

    E-print Network

    Guesnet, Naya

    2011-06-29

    The relationship between paranormal beliefs and tolerance of ambiguity was explored in sceptics, moderate and strong paranormal believers. Those groups were de ned for New Age Philosophy (NAP) and Traditional Paranormal ...

  7. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are proud on our work and we like to show that. Our work is necessary and useful for society. We will not hide our activities but show them and make it worth looking at them.

  8. The role of stimulus ambiguity and movement in spatial navigation: a multiple memory systems analysis of location discrimination.

    PubMed

    White, Norman M

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews recent findings about how rats navigate by learning to discriminate among locations. The assumption underlying the experiments and their interpretation is that the information required to do this is learned by three independent, parallel memory systems. One system processes cognitive information (or "knowledge"), a second system processes reinforced stimulus-response associations and a third processes Pavlovian conditioned responses in the form of stimulus-affect associations. The information stored in each system produces behavior that, in some cases, results in a location discrimination. The present experiments focus on three factors that influence what each system learns and whether the resulting memory produces behavior that results in a location discrimination. One factor is whether the locations to be discriminated can be identified by unique, unambiguous stimuli or whether they are ambiguously associated with the same stimuli. The second factor is whether the stimuli are observed passively or whether the rats move among them, voluntarily or involuntarily. The third factor is whether or not the rats perform specific reinforced responses in the presence of the stimuli. Instances of co-operative behavioral outputs from memory systems that facilitate location discriminations and of competitive outputs that impede discriminations are described. PMID:15464405

  9. Decomposing desert and tangibility effects in a charitable giving experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Reinstein; Gerhard Riener

    2012-01-01

    Several papers have documented that when subjects play with standard laboratory “endowments” they make less self-interested\\u000a choices than when they use money they have either earned through a laboratory task or brought from outside the lab. In the\\u000a context of a charitable giving experiment we decompose this into two common artifacts of the laboratory: the intangibility\\u000a of money (or experimental

  10. Birth order, sex of child, and maternal help-giving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Rothbart; Myron Rothbart

    1976-01-01

    As part of a larger study of birth order, sex of child, and mother—child interaction, mothers were asked to supervise their child's performance on memory and puzzle tasks. Subjects were 56 5-year-old boys and girls and their mothers, half with a same-sex older sibling, half with a same-sex younger sibling. Mothers showed no differences in spontaneous help-giving as a function

  11. Care giving and nursing, work conditions and Humanitude®.

    PubMed

    Biquand, Sylvain; Zittel, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Increased lifespan in western societies causes the increase of hospitalization in the old age, notably for patient showing forms of dementia including Altzheimer disease. These patients relate poorly to care givers and nurses, and cases of maltreatment have repeatedly been reported. To prevent abuse and increase patient's quality of life, Gineste and Pelissier (2007) proposed a philosophy of care based on the Humanitude® concept. Acknowledging that being human is being vertical and related to other humans, the pillars of Humanitude® are gaze, touch, talk, and standing. These modes of relation are systematically developed in care giving techniques derived from the concept. After several studies in geriatric hospitals, to assess psychosocial and ergonomic aspects of work, we present an analysis of the gap between the logic of human care and the logic of hospital organization, impacting employees work conditions and psychological welfare. Care giving is not only a "one to one" relation with the patient but needs to be integrated in the whole organization. Psychologists and ergonomists should be instrumental in defining the project and the organization linking human care giving towards the patients and better work conditions for healthcare employees. PMID:22316980

  12. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taekjun; Lee, Donghwa; Kim, Hyungjin; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach. PMID:26151203

  13. to give you essential information and insights into patents, patenting and com-mercializationofyourresearchresultsandtechnologies.Withrelevantandinterac-

    E-print Network

    Lagergren, Jens

    to give you essential information and insights into patents, patenting and com research results and technologies · Patent and manage the patenting process ThePatent and skill-building Patent Booster training, a one-day event teaching you how to protect and turn your

  14. ORIGINAL CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Open Access Platelet-dependent thrombography gives a

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ORIGINAL CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Open Access Platelet-dependent thrombography gives a distinct platelets as platelet dysfunction has been described to occur during CPB. Results: Our main finding was that CPB-induced coagulopathy was differently appreciated depending on the presence or absence of platelets

  15. Modeling Charitable Giving Using a Box-Cox Standard Tobit Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hamilton Lankford; James S. Wyckoff

    1991-01-01

    There is a large literature investigating the determinants of charitable giving, in particular, price and income elasticities. We find that many of the most often reported results from this literature rely on a model specification that is inappropriate when applied to recent Federal Tax File data. We develop a standard Tobit model with a Box-Cox transformation parameter that nests a

  16. Referential choice across the lifespan: why children and elderly adults produce ambiguous pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte; Hoeks, John C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, children, young adults and elderly adults were tested in production and comprehension tasks assessing referential choice. Our aims were (1) to determine whether speakers egocentrically base their referential choice on the preceding linguistic discourse or also take into account the perspective of a hypothetical listener and (2) whether the possible impact of perspective taking on referential choice changes with increasing age, with its associated changes in cognitive capacity. In the production task, participants described picture-based stories featuring two characters of the same gender, making it necessary to use unambiguous forms; in the comprehension task, participants interpreted potentially ambiguous pronouns at the end of similar orally presented stories. Young adults (aged 18–35) were highly sensitive to the informational needs of hypothetical conversational partners in their production and comprehension of referring expressions. In contrast, children (aged 4–7) did not take into account possible conversational partners and tended to use pronouns for all given referents, leading to the production of ambiguous pronouns that are unrecoverable for a listener. This was mirrored in the outcome of the comprehension task, where children were insensitive to the shift of discourse topic marked by the speaker. The elderly adults (aged 69–87) behaved differently from both young adults and children. They showed a clear sensitivity to the other person's perspective in both production and comprehension, but appeared to lack the necessary cognitive capacities to keep track of the prominence of discourse referents, producing more potentially ambiguous pronouns than young adults, though fewer than children. In conclusion then, referential choice seems to depend on perspective taking in language, which develops with increasing linguistic experience and cognitive capacity, but also on the ability to keep track of the prominence of discourse referents, which is gradually lost with older age. PMID:24771955

  17. 3D structure determination of the Crh protein from highly ambiguous solid-state NMR restraints.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Gardiennet, Carole; Blanchet, Christophe; Baldus, Marc; Nilges, Michael; Malliavin, Thérèse; Böckmann, Anja

    2008-03-19

    In a wide variety of proteins, insolubility presents a challenge to structural biology, as X-ray crystallography and liquid-state NMR are unsuitable. Indeed, no general approach is available as of today for studying the three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins and protein fibrils. We here demonstrate, at the example of the microcrystalline model protein Crh, how high-resolution 3D structures can be derived from magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR distance restraints for fully labeled protein samples. First, we show that proton-mediated rare-spin correlation spectra, as well as carbon-13 spin diffusion experiments, provide enough short, medium, and long-range structural restraints to obtain high-resolution structures of this 2 x 10.4 kDa dimeric protein. Nevertheless, the large number of 13C/15N spins present in this protein, combined with solid-state NMR line widths of about 0.5-1 ppm, induces substantial ambiguities in resonance assignments, preventing 3D structure determination by using distance restraints uniquely assigned on the basis of their chemical shifts. In the second part, we thus demonstrate that an automated iterative assignment algorithm implemented in a dedicated solid-state NMR version of the program ARIA permits to resolve the majority of ambiguities and to calculate a de novo 3D structure from highly ambiguous solid-state NMR data, using a unique fully labeled protein sample. We present, using distance restraints obtained through the iterative assignment process, as well as dihedral angle restraints predicted from chemical shifts, the 3D structure of the fully labeled Crh dimer refined at a root-mean-square deviation of 1.33 A. PMID:18284240

  18. Choice in the context of informal care-giving.

    PubMed

    Arksey, Hilary; Glendinning, Caroline

    2007-03-01

    Extending choice and control for social care service users is a central feature of current English policies. However, these have comparatively little to say about choice in relation to the informal carers of relatives, friends or older people who are disabled or sick. To explore the realities of choice as experienced by carers, the present paper reviews research published in English since 1985 about three situations in which carers are likely to face choices: receiving social services; the entry of an older person to long-term care; and combining paid work and care. Thirteen electronic databases were searched, covering both the health and social care fields. Databases included: ASSIA; IBSS; Social Care Online; ISI Web of Knowledge; Medline; HMIC; Sociological Abstracts; INGENTA; ZETOC; and the National Research Register. The search strategy combined terms that: (1) identified individuals with care-giving responsibilities; (2) identified people receiving help and support; and (3) described the process of interest (e.g. choice, decision-making and self-determination). The search identified comparatively few relevant studies, and so was supplemented by the findings from another recent review of empirical research on carers' choices about combining work and care. The research evidence suggests that carers' choices are shaped by two sets of factors: one relates to the nature of the care-giving relationship; and the second consists of wider organisational factors. A number of reasons may explain the invisibility of choice for carers in current policy proposals for increasing choice. In particular, it is suggested that underpinning conceptual models of the relationship between carers and formal service providers shape the extent to which carers can be offered choice and control on similar terms to service users. In particular, the exercise of choice by carers is likely to be highly problematic if it involves relinquishing some unpaid care-giving activities. PMID:17286678

  19. Real-time Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Meng, X.; Teferle, F. N.; Dodson, A. H.; Ge, M.; Shi, C.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    Real-time provision of information on large scale crustal deformation during an earthquake can be crucial in assessing property damage and managing relief operations. Moreover, such a real-time monitoring system may even lead to the accurate prediction of earthquakes in future and help the subsequent studies on the mechanism involved. During the past two decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements have been extensively applied to investigate such processes in the geosciences. Precise point positioning (PPP) using GPS based on single stations can achieve comparable accuracies to conventional relative positioning, when precise satellite orbits and clocks, and Earth rotation products are used. Thus, PPP does not need any reference stations to achieve high positioning accuracy, e.g. at the millimetre level in static and centimetre level in kinematic applications. This has both technical and economic advantages and may be the only feasible option in some specific applications such as Tsunami early warning systems. However, unlike relative positioning, PPP suffers from unresolved integer ambiguities, which prevented further accuracy improvements within short observation periods or in real-time. On account of the great potential of PPP, we developed a prototype real-time PPP system which also employs ambiguity resolution at a single station. This development is based on the PANDA (Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst) software, which was originally developed at Wuhan University in China, and has been significantly refined by the authors. To assess this system, about 30 stations from the EUREF Permanent Network Internet Protocol (EUREF-IP) pilot project are used to produce the real-time satellite clocks, with satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) fixed to the predicted part of the IGS (International GNSS Service) ultra-rapid products. This is followed by the estimation of the uncalibrated hardware delays (UHD), which are crucial in resolving the ambiguities. Finally, all products (clocks, orbits, UHDs and ERPs) are provided in real-time to allow PPP with ambiguity resolution. Through the simulation of this prototype real-time PPP system, we show that significant accuracy improvements can be achieved, which are of significance to real-time applications in the geosciences.

  20. Does Trapping Influence Decision-Making under Ambiguity in White-Lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari)?

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha; Fernandes, Iurianny Karla; Costa, Thaise Silva Oliveira; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama; Mendl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is an endangered species whose bold anti-predator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more ‘pessimistic’ decisions under ambiguity. If so, this would indicate (i) that the procedure may induce a negative affective state and hence have welfare implications, and (ii) that the species is able to adopt a cautious response style despite its bold phenotype. Eight individuals were trained to ‘go’ to a baited food bowl when a positive auditory cue (whistle; CS+) was given and to ‘no-go’ when a negative cue (horn A; CS-) was sounded to avoid a loud sound and empty food bowl. An ‘ambiguous’ auditory cue (bell; CSA) was presented to probe decision-making under ambiguity. Individuals were subjected to three tests in the order: T1 (control-no trap), T2 (24h after-trap procedure), and T3 (control-no trap). In each test, each animal was exposed to 10 judgement bias trials of each of the three cue types: CS+,CS-,CSA. We recorded whether animals reached the food bowl within 60s (‘go’ response) and their response speed (m/s). The animals varied in their responses to the CSA cue depending on test type. In all tests, animals made more ‘go’ responses to CS+ than CSA. During control tests (T1 and T3), the peccaries showed higher proportions of ‘go’ responses to CSA than to CS-. In T2, however, the animals showed similar proportions of ‘go’ responses to CSA and CS-, treating the ambiguous cue similarly to the negative cue. There were differences in their response speed according to cue type: peccaries were faster to respond to CS+ than to CS- and CSA. Trapping thus appeared to cause a ‘pessimistic’ judgement bias in peccaries, which may reflect a negative affective state with implications for the welfare and management of captive individuals, and also function to increase caution and survival chances following such an event in the wild environment. PMID:26061658