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1

Penalized GNSS Ambiguity Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the process of resolving the carrier phase ambiguities as integers. It is the key to fast and high precision GNSS positioning and it applies to a great variety of GNSS models which are currently in use in navigation, surveying, geodesy and geophysics. A new principle of carrier phase ambiguity resolution is introduced. The idea is to give the user the possibility to assign penalties to the possible outcomes of the ambiguity resolution process: a high penalty for an incorrect integer outcome, a low penalty for a correct integer outcome and a medium penalty for the real valued float solution. As a result of the penalty assignment, each ambiguity resolution process has its own overall penalty. Using this penalty as the objective function which needs to be minimized, it is shown which ambiguity mapping has the smallest possible penalty. The theory presented is formulated using the class of integer aperture estimators as a framework. This class of estimators was introduced elsewhere as a larger class than the class of integer estimators. Integer aperture estimators, being of a hybrid nature, can have integer outcomes as well as non-integer outcomes. The minimal penalty ambiguity estimator is an example of an integer aperture estimator. The computational steps involved for determining the outcome of the minimal penalty estimator are given. The additional complexity in comparison with current practice is minor, since the optimal integer estimator still plays a major role in the solution of the minimal penalty ambiguity estimator.

Teunissen, P. J. G.

2004-11-01

2

Real-time PPP with undifferenced integer ambiguity resolution, experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to solve the GPS zero-difference measurement equations with integer ambiguities has been recently introduced at CNES. When the method is applied to data from a global network of GPS receivers it provides a consistent set of satellite orbits and clocks, which have an ‘integer' property: phase residuals for any receiver computed using these orbits and clocks easily reveal integer ambiguities. The presentation focuses on the application of this novel approach to the computation of real-time orbits and clocks for the GPS constellation, and the benefit of using these products for real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with integer ambiguity fixing of user receivers. In this method, real-time corrections to extrapolated IGS IGU orbits are estimated at the same time as all other relevant parameters by a Kalman filter which processes measurements from a world-wide stations network. The filter performs zero-difference ambiguity fixing in real-time. Two results are presented; the first with one month of raw data taken from the IGS, the second with raw data taken from the Internet in real-time using the NTRIP protocol. Relative to IGS final orbits, the 3-D precision of the real-time orbits is about 3 cm RMS. When these constellation orbits and clocks are used to perform real-time PPP for receivers outside of the reference network, the horizontal precision obtained using zero-difference integer ambiguity fixing is close to 1 cm RMS. This is about one order of magnitude better than standard solutions, which rely upon floating ambiguity fixing, close to the precision of RTK. We present several ‘site survey' type real-time experiments conducted at CNES that confirm these results. Advantages and drawbacks of this new integer-PPP method with respect to RTK are outlined. These topics include mainly the time to convergence, the baselines size and the associated precision. Some specific applications of this new method, especially those that cannot be obtained using a standard RTK method are proposed. Finally, ongoing and future work conducted at CNES on real-time applications is outlined. This work concerns mainly the development of a real-time integer PPP demonstrator. The goal and architecture of this demonstrator is presented, as well as the current development state and some preliminary results.

Laurichesse, Denis; Mercier, Flavien

2010-05-01

3

PS-1: Metastatic Pulmonary Liposarcoma: Complete Resection Gives Better Results?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary liposarcoma of the lung is extremely rare with only 11 cases reported worldwide. However, metastatic pulmonary liposarcoma was reported around 15% out of all metastatic pulmonary soft tissue sarcoma. Case report: A case of 53 year-old man who presented with mass at left scapular region was referred to our unit in June 2006. He had history of thigh liposarcoma 14 years back which was operated and received a course of radiotherapy. However, he denied of having chest pain, shortness of breath or any other respiratory symptom. Biopsy of the mass came back as liposarcoma (round cell type). CT scan showed presence of left pleural base mass. He underwent left posterolateral thoracotomy and excision of infrascapular as well as intrathoracic mass 3 months later. Post operatively was complicated by hypovolemic shock and anemia. He was put under intensive care monitoring and discharged well at day 52 post-operatively. He was supposed to come for oncology appointment in December 2006 for radiotherapy. Discussion & Conclusions: Pulmonary liposarcoma can be devided into 4 main subtypes; myxoid, round cell, well differentiated and pleomorphic, which have different post operative survival rate. Five years survival rate of metastatic liposarcoma varies from as high as 77% in myxoid type as low as 18 % in round cell type. Even though metastatic pulmonary liposarcoma has the worst prognosis compared to other soft tissue sarcomas, some studies and centres believe that complete resection will give better prognostic value in term of survival rate and recurrences.

Ikhwan, SM; Zulkarnain, H; Ziyadi, MG; Mahmood, Z

2008-01-01

4

Study Finds Charter Networks Give No Clear Edge on Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on a national study of middle school students in 40 charter networks which finds that, when it comes to having an impact on student achievement, results vary and, overall, charter students do not learn dramatically more than their counterparts in regular public schools. The findings from the research group Mathematica and the…

Shah, Nirvi

2011-01-01

5

[Frozen embryo transfer protocol: Does spontaneous cycle give good results?  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Frozen embryos' transfer optimize the pregnancy rates per retrieval. In France, 60% of transfer cycles occur in stimulated cycles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of frozen embryo transfers in spontaneous, substituted and stimulated cycle. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study includes patients who are 18-43years old and had a frozen embryo transfer between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2008. Three transfer protocols have been used: the spontaneous cycle (group 1), substituted cycle (group 2), and stimulated cycle (group 3). The characteristics of couples, embryonic parameters and data transfer cycles, and their outcomes were evaluated. RESULT(S): Among the 333 patients, 132 were included in the first group, 24 in the second group and 177 in the third group. After checking the homogeneity of the three groups, we found pregnancy rates (respectively 20.49 vs 13.04% and 11.32%, P=0.0348), and deliveries (respectively 13.93 vs 8,7 and 6.29%, P=0.0314), significantly higher in spontaneous cycles. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Currently there is no consensus on the best technique for endometrial preparation for frozen embryo transfer. Our results support transfers in spontaneous cycle for normo-ovulating patients. Natural cycles can achieve good pregnancy rates while minimizing the costs and side effects. PMID:22342107

El Bahja, D; Hertz, P; Schweitzer, T; Lestrade, F; Ragage, J-P

2012-02-15

6

Image ambiguity and fluency.  

PubMed

Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

2013-09-05

7

Differentiating ambiguity and ambiguity attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to show how ambiguity, and a decision maker (DM)'s response to it, can be modelled formally in the context of a general decision model. We introduce a relation derived from the DM's preferences, called “unambiguous preference”, and show that it can be represented by a set of probabilities. We provide such set with a

Paolo Ghirardato; Fabio Maccheroni; Massimo Marinaccia

2004-01-01

8

The Ambiguity in Immunology  

PubMed Central

In the present article, we discuss the various ambiguous aspects of the immune system that render this complex biological network so highly flexible and able to defend the host from different external invaders. This ambiguity stems mainly from the property of the immune system to be both protective and harmful. Immunity cannot be fully protective without producing a certain degree of damage (immunopathology) to the host. The balance between protection and tissue damage is, therefore, critical for the establishment of immune homeostasis and protection. In this review, we will consider as ambiguous, various immunological tactics including: (a) the opposing functions driving immune responses, immune-regulation, and contra-regulation, as well as (b) the phenomenon of chronic immune activation as a result of a continuous cross-presentation of apoptotic T cells by dendritic cells. All these plans participate principally to maintain a state of chronic low-level inflammation during persisting infections, and ultimately to favor the species survival.

Barnaba, Vincenzo; Paroli, Marino; Piconese, Silvia

2012-01-01

9

Fast computation of invariant geometric moments: a new method giving correct results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invariant geometric moments have been widely used in shape analysis and pattern recognition. Using a discrete version of Green's theorem, the authors propose a method for fast computation of the moments in binary images. The method is similar to-and as efficient as-the previous method of Li and Shen (1991). But the precision is largely improved. The new method gives exactly

Luren Yang; Fritz Albregtsen

1994-01-01

10

Ambiguity of Reference and Listeners' Reaction in a Naturalistic Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies the extent to which preschool children use pronoun ambiguity in a naturalistic setting, the circumstances in which ambiguity arises, and how the preschool children respond to such ambiguity. Results show that ambiguity of reference frequently occurs, especially when verbal disambiguation only is possible. Ambiguity did not influence…

Van Hekken, Suus M. J.; And Others

1980-01-01

11

Fermionic entanglement ambiguity in noninertial frames  

SciTech Connect

We analyze an ambiguity in previous works on entanglement of fermionic fields in noninertial frames. This ambiguity, related to the anticommutation properties of field operators, leads to nonunique results when computing entanglement measures for the same state. We show that the ambiguity disappears when we introduce detectors, which are in any case necessary as a means to probe the field entanglement.

Montero, Miguel; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-B, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

2011-06-15

12

Phase retrieval techniques for radar ambiguity problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar ambiguity function plays a central role in the theory of radar signals. Its absolute value (¦A(u)¦) measures the correlation between the signal u emitted by the radar transmitter and its echo after reaching a moving target. It is important to know signals that give rise to ambiguity functions of given shapes. Therefore, it is also important to know

Philippe Jaming

1999-01-01

13

Risk, ambiguity, and insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments, economically sophisticated subjects, including professional actuaries, priced insurance both as consumers and as firms under conditions of ambiguity. Findings support implications of the Einhorn-Hogarth ambiguity model: (1) For low probability-of-loss events, prices of both consumers and firms indicated aversion to ambiguity; (2) As probabilities of losses increased, aversion to ambiguity decreased, with consumers exhibiting ambiguity

Robin M. Hogarth; Howard Kunreuther

1989-01-01

14

Would All Statins Be Equally Capable of Giving the Results of Jupiter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jupiter was a trial of individuals without hyperlipidemia, but with elevated high-sensitivity C Reactive protein (CRP) levels. Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. The results suggest that elevated CRP may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events. A statin drug which lowers levels of CRP as well as cholesterol may have a favorable effect when given

Carlos Dujovne

15

Combination of statistical approaches for analysis of 2-DE data gives complementary results.  

PubMed

Five methods for finding significant changes in proteome data have been used to analyze a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis data set. We used both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (Partial Least Squares with jackknife, Cross Model Validation, Power-PLS and CovProc) methods. The gels were taken from a time-series experiment exploring the changes in metabolic enzymes in bovine muscle at five time-points after slaughter. The data set consisted of 1377 protein spots, and for each analysis, the data set were preprocessed to fit the requirements of the chosen method. The generated results were one list from each analysis method of proteins found to be significantly changed according to the experimental design. Although the number of selected variables varied between the methods, we found that this was dependent on the specific aim of each method. CovProc and P-PLS focused more on getting the minimum necessary subset of proteins to explain properties of the samples. These methods ended up with less selected proteins. There was also a correlation between level of significance and frequency of selection for the selected proteins. PMID:19367717

Grove, Harald; Jørgensen, Bo M; Jessen, Flemming; Søndergaard, Ib; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hollung, Kristin; Indahl, Ulf; Faergestad, Ellen M

2008-12-01

16

SAR ambiguous range suppression.  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2006-09-01

17

Willingness-to-pay and willingness-to-accept for risky and ambiguous lotteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former studies have shown that people tend to give buying prices that are lower than selling prices. In our study, we investigate if this willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay disparity is affected by ambiguity. Using a Becker, DeGroot, and Marschak procedure, we elicit buying, selling, short-selling, and short-buying prices. The results indicate that subjects clearly distinguish between risky and ambiguous lotteries and

Roselies Eisenberger; Martin Weber

1995-01-01

18

Renormalon ambiguities in NRQCD operator matrix elements  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the renormalon ambiguities that appear in factorization formulas in QCD. Our analysis contains a simple argument that the ambiguities in the short-distance coefficients and operator matrix elements are artifacts of dimensional-regularization factorization schemes and are absent in cutoff schemes. We also present a method for computing the renormalon ambiguities in operator matrix elements and apply it to a computation of the ambiguities in the matrix elements that appear in the NRQCD factorization formulas for the annihilation decays of {ital S}-wave quarkonia. Our results, combined with those of Braaten and Chen for the short-distance coefficients, provide an explicit demonstration that the ambiguities cancel in the physical decay rates. In addition, we analyze the renormalon ambiguities in the Gremm-Kapustin relation and in various definitions of the heavy-quark mass. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bodwin, G.T. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, Y. [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

1999-09-01

19

Renormalon ambiguities in NRQCD operator matrix elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the renormalon ambiguities that appear in factorization formulas in QCD. Our analysis contains a simple argument that the ambiguities in the short-distance coefficients and operator matrix elements are artifacts of dimensional-regularization factorization schemes and are absent in cutoff schemes. We also present a method for computing the renormalon ambiguities in operator matrix elements and apply it to a computation of the ambiguities in the matrix elements that appear in the NRQCD factorization formulas for the annihilation decays of S-wave quarkonia. Our results, combined with those of Braaten and Chen for the short-distance coefficients, provide an explicit demonstration that the ambiguities cancel in the physical decay rates. In addition, we analyze the renormalon ambiguities in the Gremm-Kapustin relation and in various definitions of the heavy-quark mass.

Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Chen, Yu-Qi

1999-09-01

20

Emphasizing Behavioural Host-Range: The Key to Resolving Ambiguous Host-Specificity Results on Lantana camara L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host-range extension by natural enemies under laboratory conditions continues to plague the interpretation of host-specificity results. Candidate biocontrol agents presently under evaluation for release on L. camara in South Africa accept closely related native plant species. The host-range results of two natural enemies, Falconia intermedia (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Coelocephalapion sp. (Coleoptera: Brentidae) are analyzed to determine a feasible method

J. R. BAARS

21

Vignettes of Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

Gotz, Ignacio L.

2010-01-01

22

Processing Coordination Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2010-01-01

23

Transcriptional errors and ambiguity resulting from the presence of 1,N6-ethenoadenosine or 3,N4-ethenocytidine in polyribonucleotides.  

PubMed Central

1,N6-Ethenoadenosine (epsilon A) and 3,N4-Ethenocytidine (epsilon C) in copolymers with unmodified nucleosides were transcribed using DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the presence of Mn2+. Nearest neighbor analysis of the products showed that epsilon A directed incorporation of A much greater than U greater than C while epsilon C directed the incorporation of U greater than or equal to A much greater than C Neither directed G into the complementary polymer. Such misincorporations resulting from epsilon A and epsilon C, compounds that are formed in vivo by the carcinogen vinyl chloride, may have a biological role as promutagens.

Spengler, S; Singer, B

1981-01-01

24

Selfless giving.  

PubMed

In four studies, we show that people who anticipate more personal change over time give more to others. We measure and manipulate participants' beliefs in the persistence of the defining psychological features of a person (e.g., his or her beliefs, values, and life goals) and measure generosity, finding support for the hypothesis in three studies using incentive-compatible charitable donation decisions and one involving hypothetical choices about sharing with loved ones. PMID:23973466

Bartels, Daniel M; Kvaran, Trevor; Nichols, Shaun

2013-08-24

25

VALUING AMBIGUITY: THE CASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED GROWTH ENHANCERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A split-valuation method is developed and implemented to elicit the willingness to pay to consume- or avoid consuming- a product of ambiguous quality. The split-valuation method uses experimental auction markets to separate and value the positive and negative attributes of the ambiguous good. The results show that the method can be used to successfully value a good ambiguous quality. Our

Brian L. Buhr; Dermot J. Hayes; Jason F. Shogren; James B. Kliebenstein

1993-01-01

26

Role Ambiguity in Sport Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of role ambiguity in sport teams and to explore the construct validity of the operational definition of role ambiguity developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002). Role ambiguity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (Scope of Responsibilities, Behavioral Responsibilities, Evaluation of Performance, and Consequences of Not Fulfilling

Mark A. Eys; Albert V. Carron; Mark R. Beauchamp; Steven R. Bray

2003-01-01

27

Current case mix and results of catheter ablation of regular supraventricular tachycardia: are we giving unrealistic expectations to patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Catheter ablation (CA) has become the treatment of choice for regular supraventricular tachycar- dia (SVT). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the current clinical results in a large single centre are as good as success rates quoted to patients from published trials and national cardiol- ogy society websites. Methods and Results We recorded and analysed prospectively

Refai Showkathali; Mark J. Earley; Dhiraj Gupta; Maysaa Alzetani; Stuart Harris; Peter M. Kistler; Simon C. Sporton; Richard J. Schilling

28

Giving office-based physicians electronic access to patients' prior imaging and lab results did not deter ordering of tests.  

PubMed

Policy-based incentives for health care providers to adopt health information technology are predicated on the assumption that, among other things, electronic access to patient test results and medical records will reduce diagnostic testing and save money. To test the generalizability of findings that support this assumption, we analyzed the records of 28,741 patient visits to a nationally representative sample of 1,187 office-based physicians in 2008. Physicians' access to computerized imaging results (sometimes, but not necessarily, through an electronic health record) was associated with a 40-70 percent greater likelihood of an imaging test being ordered. The electronic availability of lab test results was also associated with ordering of additional blood tests. The availability of an electronic health record in itself had no apparent impact on ordering; the electronic access to test results appears to have been the key. These findings raise the possibility that, as currently implemented, electronic access does not decrease test ordering in the office setting and may even increase it, possibly because of system features that are enticements to ordering. We conclude that use of these health information technologies, whatever their other benefits, remains unproven as an effective cost-control strategy with respect to reducing the ordering of unnecessary tests. PMID:22392659

McCormick, Danny; Bor, David H; Woolhandler, Stephanie; Himmelstein, David U

2012-03-01

29

Which aluminium fractionation method will give true inorganic monomeric Al results in fresh waters (not including colloidal Al)?  

PubMed

Aluminium solubility and toxicity increase with acidification. There is no standardized analytical method for the determination of inorganic monomeric Al (Al(im)), which is the form that causes toxicity to fish. Separation by cation exchange is commonly combined with other analytical methods, such as complexation with pyrochatechol violet (PCV) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and total quantification using graphite furnace or inductively-coupled plasma emission. Data from 14 laboratories were obtained for a dilution series of Al(im) samples; the results of the Al(im) analysis were statistically evaluated. The Al(im) levels were altered through pH, which was controlled by the addition of calcium hydroxide. Confounding parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC) or fluoride (F) were controlled. The total determination and HQ methods yielded significantly higher Al(im) concentrations than the PCV method. Pretreatment by passage through a 0.45 microm filter and pH-adjustment of the ion exchange column had no apparent effect on the Al(im) yield. However, ultra filtration (<10 kDa) caused a significant reduction in the Al(im) concentration using the HQ method. The ultra filtrated Al(im) fraction was similar to the PCV results in the interlaboratory comparison. Retention of colloidal bound Al in the cation exchange column may result in overestimation of Al(im) when the total and HQ methods are used. Estimated Al(im) concentrations derived from two equilibrium models were similar to PCV-derived Al(im) concentrations, as well as the HQ method using ultra filtrated water. The fact that the PCV method does not detect colloidal Al, neither before nor after ion exchange, makes this a preferred technique for Al(im) analysis. Because of the variability in the reported Al(im) concentrations that can arise when different analytical procedures are used, the adoption of a single, reliable technique will facilitate inter-study comparisons and provide consistency in the detection of trends in environmental monitoring programs. PMID:19724834

Andrén, Cecilia M; Rydin, Emil

2009-07-14

30

Disambiguation in the biomedical domain: the role of ambiguity type.  

PubMed

Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), the automatic identification of the meanings of ambiguous terms in a document, is an important stage in text processing. We describe a WSD system that has been developed specifically for the types of ambiguities found in biomedical documents. This system uses a range of knowledge sources. It employs both linguistic features, such as local collocations, and features derived from domain-specific knowledge sources, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This system is applied to three types of ambiguities found in Medline abstracts: ambiguous terms, abbreviations with multiple expansions and names that are ambiguous between genes. The WSD system is applied to the standard NLM-WSD data set, which consists of ambiguous terms from Medline abstracts, and was found to perform well in comparison with previously reported results. The system's performance and the contribution of each knowledge source depends upon the type of lexical ambiguity. 87.9% of the ambiguous terms are correctly disambiguated using a combination of linguistic features and MeSH terms, 99% of abbreviations are disambiguated by combining all knowledge sources, while 97.2% of ambiguous gene names are disambiguated using the MeSH terms alone. Analysis reveals that these differences are caused by the nature of each ambiguity type. These results should be taken into account when deciding which information to use for WSD and the level of performance that can be expected. PMID:20816855

Stevenson, Mark; Guo, Yikun

2010-09-09

31

Strategies for Removing Ambiguity in Technical Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintaining that two kinds of ambiguity--ambiguous prepositional phrases and ambiguous modification of conjoined elements--account for a large number of ambiguous sentences in technical writing, this paper presents an algebraic analysis of each kind of ambiguity. It then suggests a number of ways in which each ambiguity may be unclear. By using…

Rodman, Lilita

32

Quantum entropic ambiguities: Ethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a quantum system, there may be many density matrices associated with a state on an algebra of observables. For each density matrix, one can compute its entropy. These are, in general, different. Therefore, one reaches the remarkable possibility that there may be many entropies for a given state [R. Sorkin (private communication)]. This ambiguity in entropy can often be traced to a gauge symmetry emergent from the nontrivial topological character of the configuration space of the underlying system. It can also happen in finite-dimensional matrix models. In the present work, we discuss this entropy ambiguity and its consequences for an ethylene molecule. This is a very simple and well-known system, where these notions can be put to tests. Of particular interest in this discussion is the fact that the change of the density matrix with the corresponding entropy increase drives the system towards the maximally disordered state with maximum entropy, where Boltzman’s formula applies. Besides its intrinsic conceptual interest, the simplicity of this model can serve as an introduction to a similar discussion of systems such as colored monopoles and the breaking of color symmetry.

Balachandran, A. P.; Queiroz, Amilcar; Vaidya, S.

2013-07-01

33

A Gaussian mixture filter for target tracking with Doppler ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target tracking with ambiguous Doppler measurements as well as position measurements is investigated. This paper presents a method using Gaussian Mixture representation of the Doppler measurement uncertainty. The conditional probability of target Doppler given an ambiguous Doppler measurement is approximated by a Gaussian sum of several possible unambiguous Doppler. Then the Gaussian Mixture filter based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is presented to solve the problem of state estimation from measurements with Doppler ambiguity. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Zhou, Gongjian; Pelletier, Michel; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam; Quan, Taifan

2012-05-01

34

Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

35

Role ambiguity and athlete satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and satisfaction. The relationship between these multidimensional constructs was investigated at the beginning and at the end of the season, as well as from early season to end of season. Consistent with the a priori hypothesis, concurrent analyses revealed lower perceived role ambiguity was

MARK EYS; ALBERT CARRON; STEVEN BRAY; MARK BEAUCHAMP

2003-01-01

36

Situs ambiguous in a schoolchild  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 9-year-old child with asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to house dust mites, in whom a routine chest x-ray identified by chance abnormal organ position, such as the stomach located on the right side. Abdominal ultrasonography indicated a centralised liver, with polysplenia on the right side and an inferior cava vein located to the left of the aorta with no interruption. Ultrasonography did not show heart defects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen was performed that showed a short pancreas, with no neck, body and tail in it, and a left inferior vena cava with normal outlet of the renal veins, and absence of the intrahepatic part of the inferior vena cava, that was replaced by the left hemiazygos vein. Spinal cord MRI revealed dorsal syringomelia. In view of the results obtained, the diagnosis of situs ambiguous was established.

Tortajada, Miguel; Moreno, Miriam; Gracia, Miguel; Sanchis, Amparo

2010-01-01

37

A Statistical Approach for Ambiguous Sequence Mappings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When attempting to map RNA sequences to a reference genome, high percentages of short sequence reads are often assigned to multiple genomic locations. One approach to handling these “ambiguous mappings” has been to discard them. This results in a loss of data, which can sometimes be as much as 45% o...

38

Misinterpretation of ambiguous stimuli in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether cognitive misinterpretation of ambiguous interoceptive stimuli is a process specific to panic disorder or whether it is found in other anxiety disorders. It also investigated the relationship of this cognitive bias to anxiety sensitivity. Results showed it to be stronger in panic disorder than in social phobia but only when the relevant cognitive schema were specifically

Jennifer M. Harvey; Jeffrey C. Richards; Tania Dziadosz; Alison Swindell

1993-01-01

39

Evidence of the properties of an ambiguity tolerance measure: the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II).  

PubMed

Despite widespread interest in ambiguity tolerance and other information-related individual differences, existing measures of ambiguity tolerance are conceptually disparate and are often psychometrically weak. This paper presents evidence of reliability and validity for a 13-item measure of ambiguity tolerance (MSTAT-II) based on a definition of ambiguity tolerance as an orientation, ranging from aversion to attraction, toward stimuli that are complex, unfamiliar, and insoluble. The MSTAT-II addresses each basic type of ambiguous stimulus, contains fewer items than many other scales, and reduces references to specific contexts and objects not directly related to ambiguity. Data from three studies using diverse samples and measures, including other popular ambiguity tolerance scales, were examined, and the results suggest the MSTAT-II may improve upon other paper-and-pencil measures of ambiguity tolerance. PMID:20099561

McLain, David L

2009-12-01

40

Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution While Reading in Second and Native Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilinguals' reading strategies were examined in their native and second language via the recording of eye movements. Experiment 1 examined the processing of sentences that con- tained local syntactic ambiguities. Results showed that bilinguals reading in their second language tended to resolve these ambiguities in a different way from native readers. Bilin- guals tended to prefer to attach incoming information

C. Frenck-Mestre; J. Pynte

1997-01-01

41

A median-filter-based ambiguity removal algorithm for NSCAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the baseline NSCAT (the NASA scatterometer) ambiguity removal algorithm and the method used to select the set of optimum parameter values. An extensive simulation of the NSCAT instrument and ground data processor provides a means of testing the resulting tuned algorithm. This simulation generates the ambiguous wind-field vectors expected from the instrument as it orbits

Scott J. Shaffer; R. Scott Dunbar; S. Vincent Hsiao; David G. Long

1991-01-01

42

The Bas-Relief Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an unknown object with Lambertian reflectance is viewed orthographically, there is an implicit ambiguity in determining its 3-d structure: we show that the object's visible surface is indistinguishable from a \\

Peter N. Belhumeur; David J. Kriegman; Alan L. Yuille

1997-01-01

43

To mind the mind: An event-related potential study of word class and semantic ambiguity  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to jointly examine the effects of word class, word class ambiguity, and semantic ambiguity on the brain response to words in syntactically specified contexts. Four types of words were used: (1) word class ambiguous words with a high degree of semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘duck’); (2) word class ambiguous words with little or no semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘vote’); (3) word class unambiguous nouns (e.g., ‘sofa’); and (4) word class unambiguous verbs (e.g., ‘eat’). These words were embedded in minimal phrases that explicitly specified their word class: “the” for nouns (and ambiguous words used as nouns) and “to” for verbs (and ambiguous words used as verbs). Our results replicate the basic word class effects found in prior work (Federmeier, K.D., Segal, J.B., Lombrozo, T., Kutas, M., 2000. Brain responses to nouns, verbs and class ambiguous words in context. Brain, 123 (12), 2552–2566), including an enhanced N400 (250–450ms) to nouns compared with verbs and an enhanced frontal positivity (300–700 ms) to unambiguous verbs in relation to unambiguous nouns. A sustained frontal negativity (250–900 ms) that was previously linked to word class ambiguity also appeared in this study but was specific to word class ambiguous items that also had a high level of semantic ambiguity; word class ambiguous items without semantic ambiguity, in contrast, were more positive than class unambiguous words in the early part of this time window (250–500 ms). Thus, this frontal negative effect seems to be driven by the need to resolve the semantic ambiguity that is sometimes associated with different grammatical uses of a word class ambiguous homograph rather than by the class ambiguity per se.

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2009-01-01

44

An integer ambiguity resolution procedure for GPS/pseudolite/INS integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a precise positioning solution from GPS, the carrier-phase measurements with correctly resolved integer ambiguities must be used. Based on the integration of GPS with pseudolites and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), this paper proposes an effective procedure for single-frequency carrier-phase integer ambiguity resolution. With the inclusion of pseudolites and INS measurements, the proposed procedure can speed up the ambiguity resolution process and increase the reliability of the resolved ambiguities. In addition, a recently developed ambiguity validation test, and a stochastic modelling scheme (based on-line covariance matrix estimation) are adapted to enhance the quality of ambiguity resolution. The results of simulation studies and field experiments indicate that the proposed procedure indeed improves the performance of single-frequency ambiguity resolution in terms of both reliability and time-to-fix-ambiguity.

Lee, H. K.; Wang, J.; Rizos, C.

2005-07-01

45

Socially Efficient Discounting under Ambiguity Aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We consider an economy,with an ambiguity-averse,representative,agent who faces an uncertain consumption,growth. We examine,the condition under which ambiguity,aversion reduces the socially efficient discount rate. We show,that ambiguity,aversion affects the interest rate in two ways. The first effect is an ambiguity,prudence,effect similar to the prudence,effect that prevails in the expected utility model, but which requires decreasing ambiguity aversion to be signed.

Johannes Gierlinger; Christian Gollier

2008-01-01

46

Learning from Ambiguously Labeled Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducing a classification function from a set of examples in the form of labeled instances is a standard problem in supervised machine learning. In this paper, we are concerned with ambiguous label classifica- tion (ALC), an extension of this setting in which several candidate labels may be assigned to a single example. By extending three concrete clas- sification methods to

Eyke Hüllermeier; Jürgen Beringer

2005-01-01

47

Learning from ambiguously labeled examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Inducing a classification function from a set of examples in the form of labeled instances is a standard problem in supervised machine learning. In this paper, we are concerned with ambiguous label classification (ALC), an extension of this setting in which several candidate labels may,be assigned to a single example. By extending three concrete classification methods to the ALC

Eyke Hüllermeier; Jürgen Beringer

2006-01-01

48

Lexical Access for Phonetic Ambiguities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research that (1) suggests that phonetically ambiguous pairs (ice cream/I scream) have been used inaccurately to illustrate contextual effects in word segmentation, (2) supports unitary rather than exhaustive processing, and (3) supports the use of the concepts of word frequency and listener expectations instead of top-down, multiple…

Spencer, N. J.; Wollman, Neil

1980-01-01

49

Give Me Tenure or Give Me...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author explains why giving early tenure to assistant professors is not really a great idea. Usually, tenure is granted only after a faculty member has reached his fifth year of service to an institution. However, if he or she is doing fine work and presents no indication of any problems for the future, an institution may…

Drew, Philip

2008-01-01

50

Selection of wrist posture in conditions of motor ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our everyday motor interactions with objects, we often encounter situations where the features of an object are determinate\\u000a (i.e., not perceptually ambiguous), but the mapping between those features and appropriate movement patterns is indeterminate,\\u000a resulting in a lack of any clear preference for one posture over another. We call this indeterminacy in stimulus-response\\u000a mapping ‘motor ambiguity’. Here, we use

Daniel K. Wood; Melvyn A. Goodale

2011-01-01

51

A Gauss-Markov-like theorem for integer GNSS ambiguities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. In Teunissen (1999) we introduced the class of admissible integer estimators and showed that the integer lest-squares estimator is the optimal estimator within this class. In Teunissen (2002) we introduced an alternative class of ambiguity estimators. This class of integer equivariant (IE) estimators still obeys the integer remove-restore principle. In the present contribution we will determine the "best" estimator within the IE-class. The minimum mean squared error is taken as the criterion for "best". As our main result we have a Gauss-Markow-like theorem which introduces a new minimum variance unbiased ambiguity estimator which is always superior to the well-known best linear unbiased ambiguity estimator (BLU) of the Gauss-Markov theorem.

Teunissen, P. J. G.

52

Children's use of phonological information in ambiguity resolution: a view from Mandarin Chinese.  

PubMed

How do children develop the mapping between prosody and other levels of linguistic knowledge? This question has received considerable attention in child language research. In the present study two experiments were conducted to investigate four- to five-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's sensitivity to prosody in ambiguity resolution. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to assess children's use of stress in resolving structural ambiguities. Experiment 2 took advantage of special properties of Mandarin to investigate whether children can use intonational cues to resolve ambiguities involving speech acts. The results of our experiments show that children's use of prosodic information in ambiguity resolution varies depending on the type of ambiguity involved. Children can use prosodic information more effectively to resolve speech act ambiguities than to resolve structural ambiguities. This finding suggests that the mapping between prosody and semantics/pragmatics in young children is better established than the mapping between prosody and syntax. PMID:21914244

Zhou, Peng; Su, Yi Esther; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Zhan, Likan

2011-09-14

53

Giving an Academic Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jonathan Shewchuk gives his opinions on how to give an academic talk using presentation software. While the original article is for computer science or mathematics students, they are equally applicable to physics students.

Shewchuk, Jonathan

2010-03-03

54

Where Does Sociopragmatic Ambiguity Come From?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sociopragmatic ambiguity (SPA) is claimed here to differ from other, better-known types of ambiguity, in terms of its locus, cause, and effect. SPA is characteristic of whole-discourse features rather than of lexical items or phrases. The ambiguity is one of social rather than ideational or semantic meaning. It is claimed that SPA arises through…

Burt, Susan Meredith

55

How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and…

Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

2005-01-01

56

How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

2005-01-01

57

Christmas gift giving involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The act of giving a gift at Christmas is a form of consumption that invokes different levels of involvement. The purpose of this paper is to explore and measure involvement in parental Christmas gift giving and giving branded items as gifts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The required information was gathered via a self-administered survey method distributed to parents with at

Peter Clarke

2006-01-01

58

Globalization: A Triumph of Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a critical analysis of the definition of globalization in sociological studies. It argues that sociologists, unlike economists, have not achieved a commonly accepted definition of globalization. This seriously hinders the development of empirical studies. The ambiguity of the concept of globalization is rooted in three dialectics: globalization-as-a-process vs globalization-as-a-condition; globalizationas-reality vs globalization-as-futurology and one-dimensional globalization vs multi-dimensional

Martha C. E. Van Der Bly

2005-01-01

59

The Bas-Relief Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an unknown object with Lambertian reflectance is viewed orthographically, there is an implicit ambiguity in determining its 3-d structure: we show that the object's visible surface f(x, y) is indistinguishable from a “generalized bas-relief” transformation of the object's geometry, \\u000a$$ {\\\\bar f} $$\\u000a (x, y) = ?f(x, y) + µx + ?y, and a corresponding transformation on the object's

Peter N. Belhumeur; David J. Kriegman; Alan L. Yuille

1999-01-01

60

Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads) are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

2011-01-01

61

Resolution to Combinational Ambiguity of Chinese Word Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese word segmentation ambiguity can be divided into two categories: overlapped ambiguity and combinational ambiguity. This paper only focuses on the resolution to combinational ambiguity of Chinese word segmentation. We select 36 typical combinational ambiguity strings, and make use of transformation-based learning methods to learn the rules of combinational ambiguity. Using these rules to test \\

JiangYang Liu; Ying Liu

2009-01-01

62

Trends in charitable giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charitable giving of UK households has changed considerably over the past 20 years. In particular, the proportion of households giving to charity fell by 5 percentage points between 1974 and 1993-94. An increase in the average size of donations meant that total voluntary income increased in real terms over the period, but, since 1988, voluntary income has stagnated. The

Cathy Pharoah; Sarah Tanner

1997-01-01

63

An Improved Approach to Network Ambiguity Validation by Applying Outlier Detection to the Baseline Measurement Errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prerequisite of network differential global positioning system applications, the network ambiguity must be determined. Ambiguity resolution and validation are important aspects of this process. However, validation theory is still under investigation. This paper presents an improved network ambiguity validation method that incorporates additional knowledge measured from the network. This process involves the detection of outliers of the baseline measurement errors. By breaking the spatial correlation, incorrectly fixed ambiguities cause the corresponding baseline measurement errors to appear as outliers, which may be discovered and identified with the proposed outlier detection algorithm and outlier identification algorithm, respectively. These detection and identification procedures are iteratively performed until all of the wrong baseline ambiguities are corrected. Because the validation procedure is unconnected to the initial integer ambiguity estimation process, any available ambiguity resolution method may be used to obtain the initial integers, without algorithm correction. When the network ambiguity combinations do not pass the validation algorithm, the method uses a direct estimation algorithm to obtain the correct ambiguity. By using a direct estimation algorithm rather than a search process, this new method consumes less computational time than conventional methods. This study compares the performance of this new method with those of the conventional F-ratio and W-ratio test validation algorithms by using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results from a field experiment conducted on data from the United States continuously operating reference stations (US-CORS) reveal that this validation algorithm accelerates the convergence process of ambiguity determination.

Li, Xian; Wu, Meiping; Zhang, Kaidong; He, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yangming

2013-03-01

64

An Improved Approach to Network Ambiguity Validation by Applying Outlier Detection to the Baseline Measurement Errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prerequisite of network differential global positioning system applications, the network ambiguity must be determined. Ambiguity resolution and validation are important aspects of this process. However, validation theory is still under investigation. This paper presents an improved network ambiguity validation method that incorporates additional knowledge measured from the network. This process involves the detection of outliers of the baseline measurement errors. By breaking the spatial correlation, incorrectly fixed ambiguities cause the corresponding baseline measurement errors to appear as outliers, which may be discovered and identified with the proposed outlier detection algorithm and outlier identification algorithm, respectively. These detection and identification procedures are iteratively performed until all of the wrong baseline ambiguities are corrected. Because the validation procedure is unconnected to the initial integer ambiguity estimation process, any available ambiguity resolution method may be used to obtain the initial integers, without algorithm correction. When the network ambiguity combinations do not pass the validation algorithm, the method uses a direct estimation algorithm to obtain the correct ambiguity. By using a direct estimation algorithm rather than a search process, this new method consumes less computational time than conventional methods. This study compares the performance of this new method with those of the conventional F-ratio and W-ratio test validation algorithms by using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results from a field experiment conducted on data from the United States continuously operating reference stations (US-CORS) reveal that this validation algorithm accelerates the convergence process of ambiguity determination.

Li, Xian; Wu, Meiping; Zhang, Kaidong; He, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yangming

2012-11-01

65

Removal of azimuth ambiguities and detection of a ship: using polarimetric airborne C-band SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from the sea can contain ships and their ambiguities. The ambiguities are visually identifiable due to their high intensities in the low radar backscatter background of sea environments and can be mistaken as ships, resulting in false alarms in ship detection. Analysing polarimetric characteristics of ships and ambiguities, we found that (a) backscattering from a

Changcheng Wang; Yong Wang; Mingsheng Liao

2012-01-01

66

Preliminary study of tolerance of ambiguity of individuals reporting paranormal experiences.  

PubMed

This research tested the notion that poltergeist-like experiences reflect the need to explain anomalous personal experiences. Thus, it was hypothesized that percipients of poltergeists would score lower on tolerance of ambiguity than controls. Further, it was hypothesized that tolerance of ambiguity would negatively correlate with the number of different categories of poltergeist experience. 30 self-identified percipients of poltergeist-like phenomena and 30 self-identified nonpercipients of the paranormal were administered the Rydell-Rosen Ambiguity Tolerance Scale and Houran and Lange's Poltergeist Experiences Checklist. Results partially supported predictions. Percipients of the paranormal scored significantly lower on tolerance of ambiguity than nonpercipients, but scores on the experiences checklist did not significantly correlate with scores on tolerance of ambiguity. The results supported the main hypothesis but more detailed research is needed to clarify the roles of age and tolerance of ambiguity in the perception of anomalous phenomena. PMID:9520551

Houran, J

1998-02-01

67

Evolution of phage with chemically ambiguous proteomes  

PubMed Central

Background The widespread introduction of amino acid substitutions into organismal proteomes has occurred during natural evolution, but has been difficult to achieve by directed evolution. The adaptation of the translation apparatus represents one barrier, but the multiple mutations that may be required throughout a proteome in order to accommodate an alternative amino acid or analogue is an even more daunting problem. The evolution of a small bacteriophage proteome to accommodate an unnatural amino acid analogue can provide insights into the number and type of substitutions that individual proteins will require to retain functionality. Results The bacteriophage Q? initially grows poorly in the presence of the amino acid analogue 6-fluorotryptophan. After 25 serial passages, the fitness of the phage on the analogue was substantially increased; there was no loss of fitness when the evolved phage were passaged in the presence of tryptophan. Seven mutations were fixed throughout the phage in two independent lines of descent. None of the mutations changed a tryptophan residue. Conclusions A relatively small number of mutations allowed an unnatural amino acid to be functionally incorporated into a highly interdependent set of proteins. These results support the 'ambiguous intermediate' hypothesis for the emergence of divergent genetic codes, in which the adoption of a new genetic code is preceded by the evolution of proteins that can simultaneously accommodate more than one amino acid at a given codon. It may now be possible to direct the evolution of organisms with novel genetic codes using methods that promote ambiguous intermediates.

Bacher, Jamie M; Bull, James J; Ellington, Andrew D

2003-01-01

68

Socially ecient discounting under ambiguity aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We consider an economy,with an ambiguity-averse representative agent who faces uncertain consumption growth. We examine conditions under which am- biguity aversion reduces the socially ecient,discount rate. It is shown that ambiguity aversion aects,the interest rate in two ways. The,rst eect,is an ambiguity prudence eect, similar to the prudence eect that prevails in the expected utility model. In contrast, it

Johannes Gierlinger

69

Role ambiguity and self-efficacy: The moderating effects of goal orientation and procedural justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found that procedural justice moderated the role ambiguity—self-efficacy relationship, such that

Andrew Li; Jessica Bagger

2008-01-01

70

Give me a break!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectiveBecause informal health care is now recognized to be indispensable to health care systems, different forms of respite care have been developed and publicly funded that supposedly alleviate caregivers’ perceived burdens and help prolong the care giving task. Nonetheless, the use of respite care services is low even among substantially strained caregivers. To throw light on this low usage, this

Job van Exel; Gjalt de Graaf; Werner Brouwer

2008-01-01

71

Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous

Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

2010-01-01

72

Integral GPS-Galileo ambiguity resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modernization of the US GPS and the advent of the European Galileo will enhance the capability of quickly and correctly resolving the integer cycle carrier phase ambiguities in precise differential positioning. The LAMBDA method for ambiguity resolution implies a strict and rigorous implementation of the integer least- squares estimation principle. It is outlined that the LAMBDA method can be

Christian Tiberius; Thomas Pany; Kees de Jong; Peter Joosten; Sandra Verhagen

73

Autologous transplantation gives encouraging results for young adults with favorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia, but is not improved with gemtuzumab ozogamicin.  

PubMed

We report the results of a prospective, randomized phase 3 trial evaluating the use of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in an intensive consolidation approach in 657 patients 17-60 years of age. Patients in first complete remission (CR1) after cytarabine and standard- or high-dose daunorubicin induction received 2 cycles of consolidation with high-dose cytarabine followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell collection. The 352 patients who entered consolidation were randomized to receive GO (n = 132) or not (n = 138) and then proceeded to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). GO was given to 67 patients. Median follow-up was 50.9 months. Results of the intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated a 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 33.6% versus 35.9% (P = .54) and an overall survival (OS) of 41.3% versus 41.9% (P = .52) for those randomized to receive GO versus no GO, respectively. Patients with favorable- and intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with high-dose daunorubicin and autologous HCT had 4-year DFS rates of 60% and 40% and OS rates of 80% and 49.3%, respectively. For younger AML patients in CR1, autologous HCT should be considered in favorable- and intermediate-cytogenetic risk patients who do not have an allogeneic donor. The addition of a single dose of GO in this setting did not improve outcomes. PMID:21415269

Fernandez, Hugo F; Sun, Zhuoxin; Litzow, Mark R; Luger, Selina M; Paietta, Elisabeth M; Racevskis, Janis; Dewald, Gordon; Ketterling, Rhett P; Rowe, Jacob M; Lazarus, Hillard M; Tallman, Martin S

2011-03-17

74

Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relation- ship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to

Pascal Mamassian

2008-01-01

75

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor drug-resistant mutants give discordant results when compared in single-cycle and multiple-cycle fitness assays.  

PubMed

The replication fitness of HIV-1 drug-resistant mutants has been measured using either multiple-cycle or single-cycle assays (MCAs or SCAs); these assays have not been systematically compared. We developed an MCA and an SCA that utilized either intact or env-deleted recombinant viral vectors, respectively, in which virus-infected cells were detected by flow cytometry of a reporter gene product. Fitness was measured using each assay for 11 protease mutants, 9 reverse transcriptase mutants, and two mutants with mutations in gag p6, which is important for the release of virus particles from the cell membrane. In the SCA, fitness (replication capacity [RC]) was defined as the proportion of cells infected by the mutant compared to the wild type 40 h after infection. MCA fitness (1+s) was determined by comparing the changes in the relative proportions of cells infected by the mutant and the wild type between 3 and 5 days after infection. Five protease mutants showed statistically different fitness values by the MCA versus the SCA: the D30N, G48V, I50V, I54L, and I54M mutants. When all the mutants were ranked in order from most to least fit for both assays, 4 protease mutants moved more than 5 positions in rank: the D30N, I54L, I54M, and V82A mutants. There were no significant differences in fitness for the gag p6 or reverse transcriptase mutants. We propose that discordant results in the MCA and SCA are due to alterations in late events in the virus life cycle that are not captured in an SCA, such as burst size, cell-to-cell transmission, or infected-cell life span. PMID:20826651

Dykes, Carrie; Wu, Hulin; Sims, Matthew; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Demeter, Lisa M

2010-09-08

76

The presenilin 1 deltaE9 mutation gives enhanced basal phospholipase C activity and a resultant increase in intracellular calcium concentrations.  

PubMed

We studied effects of the familial Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 (PS1) exon 9 deletion (PS1-DeltaE9) mutation on basal and carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PS1-DeltaE9 cells have an enhanced basal PI hydrolysis and [Ca(2+)](i) as compared with both wild type PS1 (PS1-WT) and nontransfected (NT) cells. Both were reversed by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin. The PS1-DeltaE9-related high basal [Ca(2+)](i) was also reversed by xestospongin C confirming that this effect was inositol trisphosphate receptor-mediated. Carbachol gave a greater stimulation of [Ca(2+)](i) in PS1-DeltaE9 cells that took longer to return to basal as compared with responses seen in NT and PS1-WT cells. This long tail-off effect seen in PS1-DeltaE9 cells after carbachol stimulation was reversed by xestospongin C and dantrolene, suggesting that it was mediated by inositol trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor amplification of Ca(2+). Ruthenium red only reduced carbachol peak elevations of [Ca(2+)](i) in NT and PS1-WT cells and not in PS1-DeltaE9 cells. No significant between cell type differences were seen for basal and carbachol-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) with either ryanodine or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid. Immunostaining experiments revealed that for all the cell types PS1 is present at the plasma membrane and co-localizes with N-cadherin, a component of the cell-cell adhesion complex. Immunoblotting of cell extracts for PLC-beta1 showed that, compared with NT and PS1-WT cells, the PS1-DeltaE9 transfectants gave a relative increase in levels of the calpain generated N-terminal fragment (100 kDa) over full-length (150 kDa) PLC-beta1. Our results suggest that the PS1-DeltaE9 mutation causes upstream changes in PI signaling with enhanced basal PLC activity as a primary effect that leads to a higher [Ca(2+)](i). This may provide a novel mechanism by which the PS1-DeltaE9 mutation sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli and enhanced amyloid beta generation. PMID:12121968

Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Popescu, Bogdan O; Ankarcrona, Maria; Nishimura, Takeshi; Cowburn, Richard F

2002-07-16

77

Processing Deliberate Ambiguity in Newspaper Headlines: Double Grounding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated the processing and appreciation of double grounding, a form of intentional ambiguity often used in the construction of headlines. For example, in "Russia takes the froth off Carlsberg results," the key element, "takes the froth off," is significant both metaphorically, where it refers to the detrimental impact of…

Brone, Geert; Coulson, Seana

2010-01-01

78

Pricing Insurance and Warranties: Ambiguity and Correlated Risks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports the results of a study of pricing decisions made by professional actuaries. The study formed part of a mail survey of members of the Casualty Actuarial Society conducted to investigate the effects of ambiguity -- in the form of uncertai...

H. Kunreuther R. M. Hogarth

1988-01-01

79

Give unto others: genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarin monkeys preferentially give food to those who altruistically give food back.  

PubMed Central

Altruistic food giving among genetically unrelated individuals is rare in nature. The few examples that exist suggest that when animals give food to unrelated others, they may do so on the basis of mutualistic or reciprocally altruistic relationships. We present the results of four experiments designed to tease apart the factors mediating food giving among genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), a cooperatively breeding New World primate. In experiment 1 we show that individuals give significantly more food to a trained conspecific who unilaterally gives food than to a conspecific who unilaterally never gives food. The apparent contingency of the tamarins' food-giving behaviour motivated the design of experiments 2-4. Results from all three experiments show that altruistic food giving is mediated by prior acts of altruistic food giving by a conspecific. Specifically, tamarins do not give food to unrelated others when the food received in the past represents the by-product of another's selfish actions (experiments 2 and 3) or when a human experimenter gives them food (experiment 4) as did the unilateral altruist in experiment 1. By contrast, if one tamarin gives another food without obtaining any immediate benefit, then the recipient is more likely to give food in return. Overall, results show that tamarins altruistically give food to genetically unrelated conspecifics, discriminate between altruistic and selfish actions, and give more food to those who give food back. Tamarins therefore have the psychological capacity for reciprocally mediated altruism.

Hauser, Marc D; Chen, M Keith; Chen, Frances; Chuang, Emmeline

2003-01-01

80

Give unto others: genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarin monkeys preferentially give food to those who altruistically give food back.  

PubMed

Altruistic food giving among genetically unrelated individuals is rare in nature. The few examples that exist suggest that when animals give food to unrelated others, they may do so on the basis of mutualistic or reciprocally altruistic relationships. We present the results of four experiments designed to tease apart the factors mediating food giving among genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), a cooperatively breeding New World primate. In experiment 1 we show that individuals give significantly more food to a trained conspecific who unilaterally gives food than to a conspecific who unilaterally never gives food. The apparent contingency of the tamarins' food-giving behaviour motivated the design of experiments 2-4. Results from all three experiments show that altruistic food giving is mediated by prior acts of altruistic food giving by a conspecific. Specifically, tamarins do not give food to unrelated others when the food received in the past represents the by-product of another's selfish actions (experiments 2 and 3) or when a human experimenter gives them food (experiment 4) as did the unilateral altruist in experiment 1. By contrast, if one tamarin gives another food without obtaining any immediate benefit, then the recipient is more likely to give food in return. Overall, results show that tamarins altruistically give food to genetically unrelated conspecifics, discriminate between altruistic and selfish actions, and give more food to those who give food back. Tamarins therefore have the psychological capacity for reciprocally mediated altruism. PMID:14667352

Hauser, Marc D; Chen, M Keith; Chen, Frances; Chuang, Emmeline

2003-11-22

81

Give or Take?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners work in pairs using their sensesâespecially touchâto learn more about individual trees. After reading and discussing Shel Silverstein's storybook "The Giving Tree," learners conduct a field study of different trees. Each learner explores and answers questions about a particular tree's bark, age, smell, roots, leaves, and fruit, and what wildlife is found in or near the tree. In a latter part of the activity, learners wear blindfolds and try to identify their tree without using their sense of sight.

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

82

Ambiguous animals: mutable mammal biases bird.  

PubMed

Ambiguous figures were primed with picture context, movement, and by presentation of a prior ambiguous figure. We tested two mammal/bird figures to determine if the multiple primes would add or interfere. Picture priming was effective for both figures but diminished with the presentation of a prior ambiguous figure. For the 'swan/squirrel' there was little movement priming. However, 'rabbit/duck' showed strong movement priming which cancelled the reducing effect of prior presentation and added to the picture effect. PMID:22896924

Wotton, Janine M; Ferragamo, Alys C

2012-01-01

83

Disclosing ambiguous gene aliases by automatic literature profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Retrieving pertinent information from biological scientific literature requires cutting-edge text mining methods which may be able to recognize the meaning of the very ambiguous names of biological entities. Aliases of a gene share a common vocabulary in their respective collections of PubMed abstracts. This may be true even when these aliases are not associated with the same subset of documents. This gene-specific vocabulary defines a unique fingerprint that can be used to disclose ambiguous aliases. The present work describes an original method for automatically assessing the ambiguity levels of gene aliases in large gene terminologies based exclusively in the content of their associated literature. The method can deal with the two major problems restricting the usage of current text mining tools: 1) different names associated with the same gene; and 2) one name associated with multiple genes, or even with non-gene entities. Important, this method does not require training examples. Results Aliases were considered “ambiguous” when their Jaccard distance to the respective official gene symbol was equal or greater than the smallest distance between the official gene symbol and one of the three internal controls (randomly picked unrelated official gene symbols). Otherwise, they were assigned the status of “synonyms”. We evaluated the coherence of the results by comparing the frequencies of the official gene symbols in the text corpora retrieved with their respective “synonyms” or “ambiguous” aliases. Official gene symbols were mentioned in the abstract collections of 42 % (70/165) of their respective synonyms. No official gene symbol occurred in the abstract collections of any of their respective ambiguous aliases. In overall, querying PubMed with official gene symbols and “synonym” aliases allowed a 3.6-fold increase in the number of unique documents retrieved. Conclusions These results confirm that this method is able to distinguish between synonyms and ambiguous gene aliases based exclusively on their vocabulary fingerprint. The approach we describe could be used to enhance the retrieval of relevant literature related to a gene.

2010-01-01

84

Processing temporary syntactic ambiguity: The effect of contextual bias  

PubMed Central

This paper reports two experiments using sentences with a temporary ambiguity between a direct object and a sentence complement analysis that is resolved toward the normally-preferred direct object analysis. Post-verbal noun phrases in these sentences could be ambiguously attached as either a direct object or the subject of a sentence complement whereas in unambiguous versions of the sentences the subcategorization of the verb forced the direct object interpretation. Participants read these sentences in relatively long paragraph contexts, where the context supported the direct object analysis (“preferred”), supported the sentence complement analysis (“unpreferred”), or provided conflicting evidence about both analyses (“conflicting”). Self-paced reading times for ambiguous post-verbal noun phrases were almost equivalent to the reading times of their unambiguous counterparts, even in unpreferred and conflicted context conditions. However, time to read a following region, which forced the direct object interpretation, was affected by the interaction of verb subcategorization ambiguity and contextual support. The full pattern of results do not fit well with either an unelaborated single-analysis (“garden path”) model or a competitive constraint-satisfaction model, but are consistent with a race model in which multiple factors affect the speed of constructing a single initial analysis.

Mohamed, Mohamed Taha; Clifton, Charles

2012-01-01

85

Processing temporary syntactic ambiguity: the effect of contextual bias.  

PubMed

This paper reports two experiments using sentences with a temporary ambiguity between a direct object and a sentence complement analysis that is resolved toward the normally preferred direct object analysis. Postverbal noun phrases in these sentences could be ambiguously attached as either a direct object or the subject of a sentence complement, whereas in unambiguous versions of the sentences the subcategorization of the verb forced the direct object interpretation. Participants read these sentences in relatively long paragraph contexts, where the context supported the direct object analysis ("preferred"), supported the sentence complement analysis ("unpreferred"), or provided conflicting evidence about both analyses ("conflicting"). Self-paced reading times for ambiguous postverbal noun phrases were almost equivalent to the reading times of their unambiguous counterparts, even in unpreferred and conflicted context conditions. However, time to read a following region, which forced the direct object interpretation, was affected by the interaction of verb subcategorization ambiguity and contextual support. The full pattern of results do not fit well with either an unelaborated single-analysis ("garden path") model or a competitive constraint-satisfaction model, but are consistent with a race model in which multiple factors affect the speed of constructing a single initial analysis. PMID:21722057

Mohamed, Mohamed Taha; Clifton, Charles

2011-07-04

86

The development of ambiguous figure perception.  

PubMed

Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The specific processes that allow the phenomenal experience of reversal remain mysterious. This monograph has two aims: first, to identify specific processes of the reversal phenomenon by using a developmental approach. Second, to use ambiguous figures as a research tool to shed more light onto children's developing understanding of pictorial representation. Four studies (7 experiments), each involving around sixty 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children, using multiple tasks, yielded the following conclusions. The concept of ambiguity develops between the ages of 3 and 4 (Study 1). Understanding ambiguity requires pictorial metarepresentation and is associated with understanding mental (false beliefs) and linguistic representation (synonymy, homonymy). This suggests a broader conceptual development of representation around the age of 4. The perception of ambiguity develops between 4 and 5 years (Study 2). Within this age range children also develop inhibitory (Study 3) and image generation abilities (Study 4). These are key processes allowing reversal. Further, when task demands are changed (prompted reversal task; feature identification), children's reversal reaches ceiling by the age of 5 (Studies 2, 3, and 4). The conclusion is a two-stage empirical model of reversal: During Stage 1 (between 3 and 4 years), children develop the conception of pictorial ambiguity (top-down knowledge). During Stage 2 (between 4 and 5 years) children develop the necessary additional processes for reversal to occur (inhibition and image generation). These are the key specific top-down and bottom-up developments underlying the phenomenon of ambiguous figure reversal. They correspond to the distinction of ambiguity and reversibility highlighted in adult research. PMID:21413993

2011-04-01

87

Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

88

Give unto others: genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarin monkeys preferentially give food to those who altruistically give food back  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altruistic food giving among genetically unrelated individuals is rare in nature. The few examples that exist suggest that when animals give food to unrelated others, they may do so on the basis of mutualistic or reciprocally altruistic relationships. We present the results of four experiments designed to tease apart the factors mediating food giving among genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarins (

Marc D. Hauser; M. Keith Chen; Frances Chen; Emmeline Chuang

2003-01-01

89

Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are around 1 mm. In either case, we conclude that the efficiency of ambiguity resolution in triple-frequency PPP is much higher than that in dual-frequency PPP.

Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

2013-05-01

90

Balancing the Rhetorical Tension Between Right to Know and Security in Risk Communication: Ambiguity and Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines tensions between participants’ roles as emergency planners and as points of contact for public access to chemical reports. The two organizations in this study, both Texas Local Emergency Planning Committees, maintained web sites and were concerned about the misuse of chemical reports. Each organization used ambiguity to give members a sense of control over right-to-know access to

Susan A. Youngblood

2012-01-01

91

Film as a Lens for Teaching Culture: Balancing Concepts, Ambiguity, and Paradox.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to apply dimensions of an integrated cultural framework (ability to influence, comfort with ambiguity, achievement orientation, individualism/collectivism, time orientation, space orientation) to analysis of films as part of the study of culture. Gives an application example and selection guidelines and discusses limitations. (SK)

Mallinger, Mark; Rossy, Gerard

2003-01-01

92

Errors Analysis in GPS Precise Point Positioning: Impact of Ambiguity Fixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

GNSS geodetic positioning using the classical double-difference approach may have some limitations. For example, fixing ambiguities can be challenging for long baselines, while processing short baseline only give the relative displacement between the two stations. In this context and thanks to the continuous improvement of IGS GNSS orbit and clock products, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique appears in the

F. Perosanz; F. Fund; F. Mercier; S. Loyer; H. Capdeville

2010-01-01

93

A new method for three-carrier GNSS ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for resolving the carrier-phase integer ambiguity in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is presented: the MOdified Cholesky factorization for Ambiguity (MOCA) resolution. The characteristics and features of this method are described and results obtained using a software simulator and an emulator are presented to validate its efficiency. The results are then compared to those obtained using another existing method and good performance of the MOCA method in new GNSS systems is shown. Furthermore, the proposed method yields accurate results even when short time spans are used or when there are poor estimations of measurement error, making it immune to non-ideal conditions and ultimately a practical solution for real applications.

Fernández-Plazaola, U.; Martín-Guerrero, T. M.; Entrambasaguas, J. T.

2008-04-01

94

The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GPS double difference carrier phase measurements are ambiguous by an unknown integer number of cycles. High precision relative GPS positioning based on short observational timespan data, is possible, when reliable estimates of the integer double difference ambiguities can be determined in an efficient manner. In this contribution a new method is introduced that enables very fast integer least-squares estimation

P. J. G. Teunissen

1995-01-01

95

Investigation of Instantaneous Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution with the GPS\\/Galileo Combination using the General Ambiguity Search Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of high-precision Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) kinematic positioning depends partly on the ability to resolve the integer phase ambiguities. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for instantaneous kinematic ambiguity resolution, for present and modernised GPS and for GALILEO. This approach - the GEneral Criterion Cascading Ambiguity Resolution (GECCAR) - selects the integer set of ambiguities

D. B. Morujão; V. B. Mendes

2008-01-01

96

Clarity and ambiguity in psychoanalytic practice.  

PubMed

The author explores the presence and the essential tension between clarity and ambiguity as processes within our minds that become prominent in psychoanalysis. We learn from aesthetics and literary criticism that ambiguity can shade from taut disorganization to tolerating life's richness; clarity can range from a concrete fixity to a lucid grasp of one's state of mind. This article responds to Wallerstein's (1991) challenge to find common ground in psychoanalytic practice: We attempt this by avoiding metapsychological jargon and relying on more experience-near terms, such as clarity and ambiguity. The article also refers to Sandler's (1983) concept of implicit theory-that psychoanalysts use "preconscious, overlapping but not fully integrated models" (Sandler, 1988, p. 388)-in this case explicating how clarity and ambiguity are frequent but implicit phenomena in clinical work. Identifying these and the essential tension between them permits us to both improve training and identify our clinical efforts. The analyst's and analysand's tolerance of the tension between clarity and ambiguity facilitates increased structuralization and emotional robustness. PMID:21500957

Szajnberg, Nathan

2011-03-01

97

How the owl resolves auditory coding ambiguity.  

PubMed

The barn owl (Tyto alba) uses interaural time difference (ITD) cues to localize sounds in the horizontal plane. Low-order binaural auditory neurons with sharp frequency tuning act as narrow-band coincidence detectors; such neurons respond equally well to sounds with a particular ITD and its phase equivalents and are said to be phase ambiguous. Higher-order neurons with broad frequency tuning are unambiguously selective for single ITDs in response to broad-band sounds and show little or no response to phase equivalents. Selectivity for single ITDs is thought to arise from the convergence of parallel, narrow-band frequency channels that originate in the cochlea. ITD tuning to variable bandwidth stimuli was measured in higher-order neurons of the owl's inferior colliculus to examine the rules that govern the relationship between frequency channel convergence and the resolution of phase ambiguity. Ambiguity decreased as stimulus bandwidth increased, reaching a minimum at 2-3 kHz. Two independent mechanisms appear to contribute to the elimination of ambiguity: one suppressive and one facilitative. The integration of information carried by parallel, distributed processing channels is a common theme of sensory processing that spans both modality and species boundaries. The principles underlying the resolution of phase ambiguity and frequency channel convergence in the owl may have implications for other sensory systems, such as electrolocation in electric fish and the computation of binocular disparity in the avian and mammalian visual systems. PMID:9724807

Mazer, J A

1998-09-01

98

Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.  

PubMed

This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience. PMID:24075268

Specht, Jennifer A

99

Utilization of Prosodic Information in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

PubMed Central

Two self paced listening experiments examined the role of prosodic phrasing in syntactic ambiguity resolution. In Experiment 1, the stimuli consisted of early closure sentences (e.g., “While the parents watched, the child sang a song.”) containing transitive-biased subordinate verbs paired with plausible direct objects or intransitive-biased subordinate verbs paired with implausible direct objects. Experiment 2 also contained early closure sentences with transitively and intransitive-biased subordinate verbs, but the subordinate verbs were always followed by plausible direct objects. In both experiments, there were two prosodic conditions. In the subject-biased prosodic condition, an intonational phrase boundary marked the clausal boundary following the subordinate verb. In the object-biased prosodic condition, the clause boundary was unmarked. The results indicate that lexical and prosodic cues interact at the subordinate verb and plausibility further affects processing at the ambiguous noun. Results are discussed with respect to models of the role of prosody in sentence comprehension.

2010-01-01

100

Incidentally Detected Situs Ambiguous in Adults  

PubMed Central

Situs ambiguous is rare congenital anomaly in adults. In 2 adult patients who admitted for different cardiac problems, situs ambiguous with polysplenia was detected. A 42-year-old male admitted for radio frequent catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, and he had left-sided inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic segment of IVC interruption with hemiazygos continuation, multiple spleens and intestinal malrotation. And in a 52-year-old female case who was hospitalized due to infective endocarditis after implanting pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome, multiple spleens, left-sided stomach, bilateral liver with midline gallbladder, and left-sided IVC were found. Those findings were consistent with situs ambiguous with polysplenia, but their features were distinctive.

Kim, Jae-Gyung; Kim, Gee-Hee; Park, Mi-Hee; Hur, Joon; Yu, Jin-Sok; Jung, Soo-Yeon; An, Soe-Hee

2011-01-01

101

Incidentally detected situs ambiguous in adults.  

PubMed

Situs ambiguous is rare congenital anomaly in adults. In 2 adult patients who admitted for different cardiac problems, situs ambiguous with polysplenia was detected. A 42-year-old male admitted for radio frequent catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, and he had left-sided inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic segment of IVC interruption with hemiazygos continuation, multiple spleens and intestinal malrotation. And in a 52-year-old female case who was hospitalized due to infective endocarditis after implanting pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome, multiple spleens, left-sided stomach, bilateral liver with midline gallbladder, and left-sided IVC were found. Those findings were consistent with situs ambiguous with polysplenia, but their features were distinctive. PMID:22259667

Kim, Jae-Gyung; Youn, Ho-Joong; Kim, Gee-Hee; Park, Mi-Hee; Hur, Joon; Yu, Jin-Sok; Jung, Soo-Yeon; An, Soe-Hee

2011-12-27

102

Lexical Semantic Ambiguity Resolution with Bigram-Based Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents corpus-based approach to word sense disambiguation where decision tree ssigns sense to an ambiguous word\\u000a based on the bigrams that occur nearby. This approach is evaluated using the sense-tagged corpora from the 1998 SENSEVAL word\\u000a sense disambiguation exercise. It is more ccurate than the verage results reported for 30 of 36 words, and is more accurate\\u000a than

Ted Pedersen

2001-01-01

103

INSTANTANEOUS AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION FOR GPS\\/GALILEO RTK POSITIONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Key words: Ambiguities, GPS, Galileo, RTK receiver We review the planned modernization of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the development of the European Galileo system, thereby concentrating on the ,high-precision carrier phase and code signals eventually available to the GNSS user community,for fast an d precise Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. High-precision GNSS positioning results are obtained with carrier

Bernd Eissfeller; Christian Tiberius; Thomas Pany; Robert Biberger; Torben Schueler; Günter Heinrichs

104

Ambivalent Sexism and Applicant Evaluations: Effects on Ambiguous Applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current research was to evaluate how gender stereotypes and sexist attitudes affect responses to hypothetical\\u000a job applicants. In Study 1 (N?=?93) undergraduate and graduate students in the Southwestern USA evaluated a male, female, or gender-ambiguous resume. They\\u000a also completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick and Fiske 1996). Hypotheses were tested using ANOVA. Results suggested that

Amy Nicole Salvaggio; Michelle Streich; Jennifer E. Hopper

2009-01-01

105

Computational Nonlinear Dynamics Model of Percept Switching with Ambiguous Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation results of bistable perception due to ambiguous visual stimuli are presented which are obtained with a nonlinear\\u000a dynamics model using delayed perception–attention–memory coupling. Percept reversals are induced by attention fatigue with\\u000a an attention bias which balances the relative percept duration. Periodic stimulus simulations as a function of stimulus off-time\\u000a yields the reversal rate variation in surprisingly good quantitative agreement

Norbert Fürstenau

2009-01-01

106

Children's understanding of ambiguous idioms and conversational perspective-taking.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that conversational perspective-taking is a determinant of unfamiliar ambiguous idiom comprehension. We investigated two types of ambiguous idiom, decomposable and nondecomposable expressions, which differ in the degree to which the literal meanings of the individual words contribute to the overall idiomatic meaning. We designed an experiment to assess the relationship between the acquisition of figurative comprehension and conversational perspective-taking. Our sample of children aged 5-7 years performed three conversational perspective-taking tasks (language acts, shared/unshared information, and conversational maxims). They then listened to decomposable and nondecomposable idiomatic expressions presented in context before performing a multiple-choice task (figurative, literal, and contextual responses). Results indicated that decomposable idiom comprehension was predicted by conversational perspective-taking scores and language skills, whereas nondecomposable idiom comprehension was predicted solely by language skills. We discuss our findings with respect to verbal and pragmatic skills. PMID:22542058

Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stéphanie; Bernard, Stéphane; Deleau, Michel; Brulé, Lauriane

2012-04-26

107

Unified robust-Bayes multisource ambiguous data rule fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambiguousness of human information sources and of a PRIORI human context would seem to automatically preclude the feasibility of a Bayesian approach to information fusion. We show that this is not necessarily the case, and that one can model the ambiguities associated with defining a "state" or "states of interest" of an entity. We show likewise that we can model information such as natural-language statements, and hedge against the uncertainties associated with the modeling process. Likewise a likelihood can be created that hedges against the inherent uncertainties in information generation and collection including the uncertainties created by the passage of time between information collections. As with the processing of conventional sensor information, we use the Bayes filter to produce posterior distributions from which we could extract estimates not only of the states, but also estimates of the reliability of those state-estimates. Results of testing this novel Bayes-filter information-fusion approach against simulated data are presented.

El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.

2005-05-01

108

Charitable giving expenditures and the faith factor.  

PubMed

Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity good at all levels of income, while other categories of giving are generally found to be luxury goods. Further, those who gave to religion were found to give more to education and charity then those not giving to religion, and higher education households were more likely to give to religion than households with less education. This analysis suggests that there may be more to religious giving behavior than has been assumed in prior studies and underscores the need for further research into the motivation for religious giving. Specifically, these findings point to an enduring, internal motivation for giving rather than an external, “What do I get for what I give,” motive. PMID:21322897

Showers, Vince E; Showers, Linda S; Beggs, Jeri M; Cox, James E

2011-01-01

109

Infants Interpret Ambiguous Requests for Absent Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20-month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with…

Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia

2007-01-01

110

Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

2004-01-01

111

Ambiguity measure feature-selection algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of digital documents, the ability to automatically classify those documents both efficiently and accurately is becoming more critical and difficult. One of the major problems in text classification is the high dimensionality of feature space. We present the ambiguity measure (AM) feature-selection algorithm, which selects the most unambiguous features from the feature set. Unambiguous features are

Saket S. R. Mengle; Nazli Goharian

2009-01-01

112

Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country).…

Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

2009-01-01

113

The Trouble with Meat: an Ambiguous Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human society, meat is highly prized nutritionally, but possesses a high symbolic value, involving cost and sacrifice. Humans' attitude towards meat eating is ambiguous, as witnessed by cultures that do not condone killing, cannibalism, the sacrificial rituals of slaughter and patterns of abstention, including modern vegetarianism. The \\

Igor de Garine

114

Ambiguity Intolerance: An Impediment to Inferential Reasoning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an introductory statistics course, undergraduate students often struggle with the concepts and techniques of statistical inference. At the heart of inference is the inconvenient fact that we often need to make decisions or draw conclusions without benefit of all the relevant facts in ambiguous situations. There is reason to think that students vary in their attitudes and openness to

Robert H. Carver

115

Language Sense and Ambiguity in Thai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Thai writing system has no explicit word and sentence boundaries, language sense in Thai depends on how we segment them. Disambiguation by grammars cannot handle all problems because many exceptions occur in the language. Machine learning technique is then introduced to cope with the ambiguity problems. This technique, however, needs good corpora to learn. In this paper, the fundamental

Thepchai Supnithi; Krit Kosawat; Monthika Boriboon; Virach Sornlertlamvanich

116

Racial Classification of Racially Ambiguous Faces 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-race effect occurs when it is difficult for a person to correctly identify people of another race. For this experiment we examined this phenomenon by using a racial classification task with ambiguous race faces, (faces that share facial features across racial and ethnic lines), and measured the participants' perception of the faces. Twenty (20) Hispanic UTEP participants were asked

Serena Holguin; Dawn E. McQuiston; Otto H. MacLin; Roy S. Malpass

117

Specularities Reduce Ambiguity of Uncalibrated Photometric Stereo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lambertian photometric stereo with uncalibrated light directionsand intensities determines the surface normals only up to aninvertible linear transformation. We show that if object reflectance isa sum of Lambertian and specular terms, the ambiguity reduces into a2dof group of transformations (compositions of isotropic scaling, rotationaround the viewing vector, and change in coordinate frame handedness).

Ondrej Drbohlav; Radim Sára

2002-01-01

118

Intertemporal substitution, risk aversion and ambiguity aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This paper axiomatizes a form of recursive utility on consumption processes that permits a role for ambiguity as well as risk. The model has two prominent special cases: (i) the recursive model of risk preference due to Kreps and Porteus [18]; and (ii) an intertemporal version of multiple-priors utility due to Epstein and Schneider [8]. The generalization presented here

Takashi Hayashi

2005-01-01

119

Achieving non-ambiguity of quantization-based watermarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambiguity attack is to derive a valid watermark from a medium to defeat the ownership claim of the real owner. Most of the research suggests that it is difficult to design a provably secure non-ambiguity watermarking without a trusted third party. Recently, Li and Chang have provided a specific blind additive spread spectrum watermarking scheme as an example that is provably non-ambiguous. However, the proposed watermarking needs the length of watermark n > 3.07 × 109 according to our analysis. In this paper, a framework for quantization based watermarking schemes and non-blind spread spectrum watermarking scheme to achieve non-ambiguity is proposed. As a result, many of the existent watermarking schemes can achieve provable non-invertibility via using this framework, and an nonambiguity ownership verification protocol without a trusted third party may be constructed. We have obtained the close form solution of false positive rate for the underlying quantization based schemes and spread spectrum watermarking schemes (both blind and non-blind). The length of key of pseudo-random sequence generator (PRSG) is extended to m = c × n, the cardinality of the valid watermark set is extended to verline W verline = 2m = 2c,n, thus leading to more security to exhaustive searching attack than the Li and Chang's scheme, which has m = ?n. In addition, the required length of watermark becomes much shorter than that required in the Li and Chang's scheme. At last, we propose a noninvertible and robust quantization-based watermarking scheme with the length of watermark being n=1024.

Kang, Xiangui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

2006-02-01

120

Neural correlates of semantic ambiguity processing during context verification.  

PubMed

Understanding the relevant meaning of a word with different meanings (homonym) in a given context requires activation of the neural representations of the relevant meaning and inhibition of the irrelevant meaning. The cognitive demand of such disambiguation is highest when the dominant, yet contextually irrelevant meaning of a polar homonym must be suppressed. This central process (semantic inhibition) for lexico-semantic ambiguity resolution was monitored with fMRI during semantic context verifications. Twenty-two healthy volunteers decided whether congruent or incongruent target words fitted into the contexts established by preceding sentences. Half of the sentences ended with a homonym, thereby allowing to cross the factors ambiguity and semantic congruency. BOLD increases related to the inhibitory attentional control over non-selected meanings during ambiguity processing occurred in a brain network including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral angular gyrus (AG), bilateral anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) as well as right ventromedial temporal lobe. In left DLPFC (BA 46/9) and left AG (BA 39) BOLD activity to target words of the incongruent-ambiguous condition correlated with the individual amount of semantic interference experienced by the subjects. BOLD increases of incongruent versus congruent semantic verifications occurred in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest a specific role of left DLPFC and AG in the resolution of semantic interference from contextually inappropriate homonym meanings. These fronto-parietal areas might exert inhibitory control over temporal regions in service of attentional selection between relevant and irrelevant homonym meanings, by creating a sufficient activation difference between their respective representations. PMID:19167505

Hoenig, Klaus; Scheef, Lukas

2009-01-06

121

Visual Working Memory Contents Bias Ambiguous Structure from Motion Perception  

PubMed Central

The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM) can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM.

Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Triesch, Jochen

2013-01-01

122

Diagnostic Ambiguity and Parameter Optimization in Classifier Fusion: Application to Gas Turbine Engine Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic ambiguity caused by limited observability of sensors is a significant challenge in real-world diagnostic applications, such as gas turbine engines. Traditional data-driven clustering, classification and fusion techniques based on single fault (class) assumption result in large diagnostic errors. Thus, we solve this problem by diagnosing the inherent ambiguity as multiple faults. The proposed primal-dual optimization framework for classifier fusion

Anuradha Kodali; Sahithya Vemana; Kihoon Choi; Krishna Pattipati; Setu Madhavi Namburu; Danil V. Prokhorov; Liu Qiao

2008-01-01

123

Ambiguity in the Brain: What Brain Imaging Reveals About the Processing of Syntactically Ambiguous Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fMRI studies investigated the time course and amplitude of brain activity in language-related areas during the processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences. In Experiment 1, higher levels of activation were found during the reading of unpreferred syntactic structures as well as more complex structures. In Experiments 2A and 2B higher levels of brain activation were found for ambiguous sentences compared

Robert A. Mason; Marcel Adam Just; Timothy A. Keller; Patricia A. Carpenter

2003-01-01

124

Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations. PMID:9923156

Houran, J; Williams, C

1998-12-01

125

Enhancing lexical ambiguity resolution by brain polarization of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported a hemispheric asymmetry in processing dominant (e.g., paper) and subordinate (e.g., farmer) associations of ambiguous words (pen). Here we applied sham and anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over Wernicke's area and its right homologue to test whether we can modulate the selective hemispheric expertise in processing lexical ambiguity. Ambiguous prime words were presented followed by target words that could be associated to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the prime in a semantic relatedness task. Anodal stimulation of the right Wernicke's area significantly decreased response time (RTs) to subordinate but not dominant associations compared to sham stimulation. There was also a complementary trend of faster responses to dominant associations following anodal stimulation of Wernicke's area. The results support brain asymmetry in processing lexical ambiguity and show that tDCS can enhance complex language processing even in a sample of highly literate individuals. PMID:22513342

Peretz, Yael; Lavidor, Michal

2012-03-27

126

Why do people give? The role of identity in giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do people give to others? One principal driver involves one's identity: who one is and how they view themselves. The degree to which identities are malleable, involve a readiness to act, and help make sense of the world have significant implications determining whether and how much people give. Drawing on the Identity-Based Motivation model (IBM; Oyserman, D. (2009). Identity-based

Jennifer L. Aaker; Satoshi Akutsu

2009-01-01

127

Making Sense of Semantic Ambiguity: Semantic Competition in Lexical Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several reports in the literature of faster visual lexical decisions to words that are semantically ambiguous. All current models of this ambiguity advantage assume that it is the presence of multiple unrelated meanings that produce this benefit. A set of three lexical decision experiments reported here challenge this assumption. We contrast the ambiguity seen in words like

Jennifer Rodd; Gareth Gaskell; William Marslen-Wilson

2002-01-01

128

Selection in Markets for Risky and Ambiguous Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study selection into first-price sealed-bid auctions for a risky prospect (known probabilities) or an ambiguous prospect (unknown probabilities). Most subjects chose to submit a bid for the risky prospect, leading to thinner markets for the ambiguous prospect. Transaction prices for both prospects were equal although subjects expected the markets for the ambiguous prospects to be smaller. Evidence of a

Martin G. Kocher; Stefan T. Trautmann

129

Auditory Motion Capturing Ambiguous Visual Motion  

PubMed Central

In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left or rightward auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left or rightward) more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

Alink, Arjen; Euler, Felix; Galeano, Elena; Krugliak, Alexandra; Singer, Wolf; Kohler, Axel

2012-01-01

130

Ambiguous idiom comprehension in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambiguous idiom comprehension was examined in 15 patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) by means of two tasks: a string-to-picture matching task and a string-to-word matching task. In the first, patients had to choose among four pictures, while in the second they chose among four words. For both tasks the alternatives were the picture\\/word corresponding to the figurative meaning,

Cecilia Rassiga; Federica Lucchelli; Franca Crippa; Costanza Papagno

2009-01-01

131

Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain.  

PubMed

Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as a "human body" can change the observer's perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the "high body" condition than in the "low body" condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the "high body" condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual's perceptions. PMID:24009570

Ishizu, Tomohiro

2013-08-30

132

A mixture approach to vagueness and ambiguity.  

PubMed

When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity) with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness). The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions. PMID:23667627

Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gert

2013-05-07

133

Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain  

PubMed Central

Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as a “human body” can change the observer's perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the “high body” condition than in the “low body” condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the “high body” condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual's perceptions.

Ishizu, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

134

A Mixture Approach to Vagueness and Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity) with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness). The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions.

Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gert

2013-01-01

135

No reduction in instrumental vaginal births and no increased risk for adverse perineal outcome in nulliparous women giving birth on a birth seat: results of a Swedish randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO advises against recumbent or supine position for longer periods during labour and birth and states that caregivers should encourage and support the woman to take the position in which she feels most comfortable. It has been suggested that upright positions may improve childbirth outcomes and reduce the risk for instrumental delivery; however RCTs of interventions to encourage upright positions are scarce. The aim of this study was to test, by means of a randomized controlled trial, the hypothesis that the use of a birthing seat during the second stage of labor, for healthy nulliparous women, decreases the number of instrumentally assisted births and may thus counterbalance any increase in perineal trauma and blood loss. Methods A randomized controlled trial in Sweden where 1002 women were randomized to birth on a birth seat (experimental group) or birth in any other position (control group). Data were collected between November 2006 and July 2009. The primary outcome measurement was the number of instrumental deliveries. Secondary outcome measurements included perineal lacerations, perineal edema, maternal blood loss and hemoglobin. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results The main findings of this study were that birth on the birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births, there was an increase in blood loss between 500 ml and 1000 ml in women who gave birth on the seat but no increase in bleeding over 1000 ml and no increase in perineal lacerations or perineal edema. Conclusions The birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births. The study confirmed an increased blood loss 500 ml - 1000 ml but not over 1000 ml for women giving birth on the seat. Giving birth on a birth seat caused no adverse consequences for perineal outcomes and may even be protective against episiotomies. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov.ID: NCT01182038

2011-01-01

136

A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01

137

Alumni Willingness to Give and Contribution Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the effect of alumni ownership of university insignia goods and related alumni contribution behavior. Two distinct measures of alumni contribution behavior-willingness to give and actual contribution behavior-were used in this study. Willingness to give is a measure of the desire or sentiment to contribute. Contributions are behavioral manifestations of that sentiment. The results of the study indicate the importance

Gail Tom; Laura Elmer

1994-01-01

138

Does Competition Affect Giving? An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore whether natural human competitiveness can be exploited to stimulate charitable giving in a controlled laboratory experiment involving three different treatments of a sequential ``dictator game.'' Without disclosing the actual amounts given and kept, in each period players are publicly ranked -- by the amount they give away, by the amount they keep for themselves, or spuriously. Our results

John Duffy; Tatiana Kornienko

2005-01-01

139

Charitable Giving by Married Couples Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the effect of gender differences and household bargaining on charitable giving. I replicate the study of Andreoni, Brown, and Rischall (2003) using a different data set--the recently available Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) supplement on charitable giving--and test the sensitivity of their results to inclusion of…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2010-01-01

140

Ambiguity diagram for gradational density model to reduce uncertainty in the interpretation of gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infinite models of geology at depth can be proposed in order to match their theoretical gravity anomaly. The problem so far does not offer a unique solution except in idealized cases. The uniqueness of solution or interpretation is not possible due to imperfection in the data and the basic ambiguity in case of potential fields which obey Laplace's equation. The first problem of imperfection in the data is the perennial one. The second difficulty, which is an inherent property, may also be reduced by placing restrictive but reasonable assumption on the admissible physical property, i.e. rigorous bounds on the density distribution. Similarly range of estimation of source parameters can be provided by construction of ambiguity diagram for gravity measurements, which provides an interval within which the unknown parameters are located with a given probability. Estimation of ambiguity of quantitative interpretation of gravity anomaly in the case of fault needs linearization but the gravity anomaly over a fault and gradational model contains logarithms, which can't be linearized. However it was shown that the anomaly curves are very similar to the curve of normal distribution function and therefore it was possible to replace the anomaly by the normal distribution function, which can be linearized to obtain the confidence limits of the parameters and to obtain range of ambiguity for a given fault or gradational model. In this paper ambiguity diagram for fault versus gradational model has been described in order to give a range of source parameters of a gradational density model. Synthetic examples for a fault and gradational density illustrate the use of ambiguity diagram and application is demonstrated through field gravity data.

Dimri, V.; Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R.

2008-12-01

141

Resolving the sign ambiguity in the singular value decomposition.  

SciTech Connect

Many modern data analysis methods involve computing a matrix singular value decomposition (SVD) or eigenvalue decomposition (EVD). Principal components analysis is the time-honored example, but more recent applications include latent semantic indexing, hypertext induced topic selection (HITS), clustering, classification, etc. Though the SVD and EVD are well-established and can be computed via state-of-the-art algorithms, it is not commonly mentioned that there is an intrinsic sign indeterminacy that can significantly impact the conclusions and interpretations drawn from their results. Here we provide a solution to the sign ambiguity problem and show how it leads to more sensible solutions.

Bro, Rasmus (University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark); Acar, Evrim (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

2007-10-01

142

The price for information about probabilities and its relation with risk and ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, ambiguity attitude is measured through the maximum price a decision maker is willing to pay to know the probability\\u000a of an event. Two problems are examined in which the decision maker faces an act: in one case, buying information implies playing\\u000a a lottery, while, in the other case, buying information gives also the option to avoid playing

Giuseppe Attanasi; Aldo Montesano

2012-01-01

143

Single receiver phase ambiguity resolution with GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global positioning system (GPS) data processing algorithms typically improve positioning solution accuracy by fixing double-differenced phase bias ambiguities to integer values. These “double-difference ambiguity resolution” methods usually invoke linear combinations of GPS carrier phase bias estimates from pairs of transmitters and pairs of receivers, and traditionally require simultaneous measurements from at least two receivers. However, many GPS users point position a single local receiver, based on publicly available solutions for GPS orbits and clocks. These users cannot form double differences. We present an ambiguity resolution algorithm that improves solution accuracy for single receiver point-positioning users. The algorithm processes dual- frequency GPS data from a single receiver together with wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the global network of GPS receivers that were used to generate the orbit and clock solutions for the GPS satellites. We constrain (rather than fix) linear combinations of local phase biases to improve compatibility with global phase bias estimates. For this precise point positioning, no other receiver data are required. When tested, our algorithm significantly improved repeatability of daily estimates of ground receiver positions, most notably in the east component by approximately 30% with respect to the nominal case wherein the carrier biases are estimated as real values. In this “static” test for terrestrial receiver positions, we achieved daily repeatability of 1.9, 2.1 and 6.0 mm in the east, north and vertical (ENV) components, respectively. For kinematic solutions, ENV repeatability is 7.7, 8.4, and 11.7 mm, respectively, representing improvements of 22, 8, and 14% with respect to the nominal. Results from precise orbit determination of the twin GRACE satellites demonstrated that the inter-satellite baseline accuracy improved by a factor of three, from 6 to 2 mm up to a long-term bias. Jason-2/Ocean Surface Topography Mission precise orbit determination tests results implied radial orbit accuracy significantly below the 10 mm level. Stability of time transfer, in low-Earth orbit, improved from 40 to 7 ps. We produced these results by applying this algorithm within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) GIPSY/OASIS software package and using JPL’s orbit and clock products for the GPS constellation. These products now include a record of the wide-lane and phase bias estimates from the underlying global network of GPS stations. This implies that all GIPSY-OASIS positioning users can now benefit from this capability to perform single-receiver ambiguity resolution.

Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce; Harvey, Nate; Moore, Angelyn W.; Owen, Susan; Weiss, Jan P.

2010-05-01

144

Giving Reasons for Terminating Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal review presented in this article, the writer says, should help administrators feel more comfortable with the task of formally evaluating teachers. He believes the practice of giving reasons for terminating employees will enhance the credibility of administrators.

J. P. Mahon

1979-01-01

145

A United Methodist approach to end-of-life decisions: intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions.  

PubMed

The position of the United Methodist Church on end-of-life decisions is best described as intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions or both. The paper analyzes the official position of the denomination and then considers the actions of a U.M.C. bishop who served as a foreman for a trial of Dr. Jack Kevorkian. In an effort to find some common ground within an increasingly divided denomination, the work concludes with a consideration of the work of John Wesley and his approach to human death. PMID:11655315

Thobaben, James R

1997-12-01

146

Processing syntactically ambiguous sentences: evidence from semantic priming.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the results of a study which investigates the processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences. We examined the processing of sentences in which an embedded clause is interpretable as either a complement clause or as a relative clause, as in, for example, "The receptionist informed the doctor that the journalist had phoned about the events." The embedded clause in such sentences is typically analyzed as a complement to the verb informed, rather than as a relative clause modifying the doctor. A number of models parsing predict this is the only analysis ever considered, while others predict that both interpretations are computed in parallel. Using a cross-model semantic priming technique, we probed for activation of doctor just after the embedded verb. Since only the relative clause analysis contains a connection between the doctor and the embedded verb, we expected reactivation of doctor at that point only if the relative clause analysis were a viable option. Our results suggest that this is the case: Compared to priming in an ambiguous control sentence, a significant reactivation effect was obtained. These results are argued to support a model of parsing in which attachment of a clause may be delayed. PMID:8366476

Nicol, J L; Pickering, M J

1993-03-01

147

Hemispheric asymmetries in semantic processing: evidence from false memories for ambiguous words.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L. III., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.] to examine whether these differences between the two cerebral hemispheres in semantic processing also affect memory representations for different meanings of ambiguous words. Specifically, we tested the differences between the LH and RH in recollecting unpresented, semantically related, ambiguous words following the presentation of lists of words all related to either the dominant or the subordinate meanings of these ambiguous words. Findings showed that for the unpresented ambiguous words, the LH made more false alarms than the RH for the dominant lists, whereas the opposite pattern emerged for subordinate lists. Moreover, d' analyses showed that, whereas the LH was more sensitive to subordinate than dominant meanings, the RH showed no differences in sensitivity for the two types of word-lists. Taken as a whole, these results support the RH coarse semantic coding theory [Beeman, M. (1998). Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. In Beeman & M., Chiarello, C. (Eds.), Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (pp. 255-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Jung-Beeman, M. (2005). Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 512-518.] indicating that during word recognition, the RH activates and maintains a broader and less differentiated range of related meanings than the LH, including both dominant and subordinate meanings of ambiguous words. Furthermore, the findings suggest that hemispheric differences in ambiguity resolution during language processing extend also to verbal memory. PMID:18178246

Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

2008-02-21

148

Ambiguous grammars and the chemical transactions of life : Part I: environmental constraints of grammar ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Since proposed by Darwin, evolution is considered to be dependent on a source of genetic variability that must be constrained by environmental conditions in order to generate stable (adapted) phenotypes. Several sources and causes of this variability have been proposed so far. This paper aims to posit that ambiguity of fuzzy grammars is the main source of genetic

A. F. Rocha; E. Massad

2006-01-01

149

Forward solution ambiguity for fMEG model.  

PubMed

Accurate knowledge of the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain is required for quantitative fetal MEG (fMEG) signal analysis. The model is defined by the fetal head position, assuming that volume currents are confined to it. Head position can be located by 3D ultrasound. Since the ultrasound is presently not integrated with fMEG, there is a potential for fetal head motion when the mother moves between the two instruments. To interpret the fMEG data without accurate information about the fetal head position, a model search must be undertaken to localize not only the fMEG source within the fetal head, but also the fetal head within the maternal abdomen. Such model search results in multiple solutions with different source amplitudes, but with roughly the same fit errors [Vrba, 2004]. We show that this behaviour is caused by the forward solution ambiguity. For a given measurement, there is a large region within the maternal abdomen within which all fetal head centers produce reasonably good explanation of the observed signal. The source positions within these different fetal heads are different, but the resulting signals are indistinguishable in the presence of even a small noise. Similar ambiguity also exists in adult MEG, where it usually does not pose a problem because the head position is well known. PMID:16012660

Vrba, J; Robinson, S E; McCubbin, J

2004-11-30

150

Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between problem gambling severity and decision-making situations that vary in two degrees of uncertainty (probability of outcome is known: decision-making under risk; probability of outcome is unknown: decision-making under ambiguity). For this purpose, we recruited 65 gamblers differing in problem gambling severity and 35 normal controls. Decision-making under ambiguity was assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Card Playing Task (CPT). Decision-making under risk was assessed with the Coin Flipping Task (CFT) and the Cups Task. In addition, we included an examination of two working memory components (verbal storage and dual tasking). Results show that problem gamblers performed worse than normal controls on both ambiguous and risky decision-making. Higher problem gambling severity scores were associated with poorer performance on ambiguous decision-making tasks (IGT and CPT) but not decision-making under risk. Additionally, we found that dual task performance correlated positively with decision-making under risk (CFT and Cups tasks) but not with decision-making under ambiguity (IGT and CPT). These results suggest that impairments in decision-making under uncertain conditions of problem gamblers may represent an important neurocognitive mechanism in the maintenance of their problem gambling. PMID:22521232

Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Goudriaan, Anna E; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

2012-04-20

151

How Do Information Ambiguity and Timing of Contextual Information Affect Managers’ Goal Congruence in Making Investment Decisions in Good Times vs. Bad Times?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information ambiguity is prevalent in organizations and may influence management decisions. This study draws upon research on information bias and ambiguity research to empirically test how information ambiguity and non-financial factors (e.g., interpersonal information) affect managers’ capital budgeting decisions when in good vs. bad times. Ninety-two managers completed two experiments. In Experiment One, the information was presented sequentially. Our results

Joanna L. Y. Ho; L. Robin Keller; Pamela Keltyka

2005-01-01

152

The New Planned Giving Officer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

1994-01-01

153

Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

2005-01-01

154

Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could…

Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

2005-01-01

155

The New Planned Giving Officer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)|

Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

1994-01-01

156

The Social Marketing of Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant government efforts to bolster individual philanthropy, giving by individuals (as a percentage of household income) has remained remarkably static and participation in many western countries is declining. This article explores the role that governments might play in facilitating growth, from a social marketing perspective. Drawing on research from multiple domains this article proposes an easily accessible and actionable

Adrian Sargeant; Jen Shang; Haseeb Shabbir

2010-01-01

157

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group.

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

158

Ambiguous and forbidden parameter combinations for aqueous plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of forbidden and ambiguous oxidation-state distributions for plutonium are easier to understand when presented graphically. This note describes two diagrams that illustrate the phenomena.

Silver, Gary L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

159

Regional reference network augmented precise point positioning for instantaneous ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer ambiguity fixing can significantly shorten the initialization time and improve the accuracy of precise point positioning (PPP), but it still takes approximate 15 min of time to achieve reliable integer ambiguity solutions. In this contribution, we present a new strategy to augment PPP estimation with a regional reference network, so that instantaneous ambiguity fixing is achievable for users within the network coverage. In the proposed method, precise zero-differenced atmospheric delays are derived from the PPP fixed solution of the reference stations, which are disseminated to, and interpolated at user stations to correct for L1, L2 phase observations or their combinations. With the corrected observations, instantaneous ambiguity resolution can be carried out within the user PPP software, thus achieving the position solutions equivalent to the network real-time kinematic positioning (NRTK). The strategy is validated experimentally. The derived atmospheric delays and the interpolated corrections are investigated. The ambiguity fixing performance and the resulted position accuracy are assessed. The validation confirms that the new strategy can provide comparable service with NRTK. Therefore, with this new processing strategy, it is possible to integrate PPP and NRTK into a seamless positioning service, which can provide an accuracy of about 10 cm anywhere, and upgrade to a few centimeters within a regional network.

Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong

2011-03-01

160

Assessment of correct fixing rate for precise point positioning ambiguity resolution on a global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguity resolution (AR) for a single receiver has been a popular topic in Global Positioning System (GPS) recently. Ambiguity-resolution methods for precise point positioning (PPP) have been well documented in recent years, demonstrating that it can improve the accuracy of PPP. However, users are often concerned about the reliability of ambiguity-fixed PPP solution in practical applications. If ambiguities are fixed to wrong integers, large errors would be introduced into position estimates. In this paper, we aim to assess the correct fixing rate (CFR), i.e., number of ambiguities correctly fixing to the total number of ambiguities correctly and incorrectly fixing, for PPP user ambiguity resolution on a global scale. A practical procedure is presented to evaluate the CFR of PPP user ambiguity resolution. GPS data of the first 3 days in each month of 2010 from about 390 IGS stations are used for experiments. Firstly, we use GPS data collected from about 320 IGS stations to estimate global single-differenced (SD) wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs). The quality of UPDs is evaluated. We found that wide-lane UPD estimates have a rather small standard deviation (Std) between 0.003 and 0.004 cycles while most of Std of narrow-lane estimates are from 0.01 to 0.02 cycles. Secondly, many experiments have been conducted to investigate the CFR of integer ambiguity resolution we can achieve under different conditions, including reference station density, observation session length and the ionospheric activity. The results show that the CFR of PPP can exceed 98.0 % with only 1 h of observations for most user stations. No obvious correlation between the CFR and the reference station density is found. Therefore, nearly homogeneous CFR can be achieved in PPP AR for global users. At user end, higher CFR could be achieved with longer observations. The average CFR for 30-min, 1-h, 2-h and 4-h observation is 92.3, 98.2, 99.5 and 99.7 %, respectively. In order to get acceptable CFR, 1 h is a recommended minimum observation time. Furthermore, the CFR of PPP can be affected by diurnal variation and geomagnetic latitude variation in the ionosphere. During one day at the hours when rapid ionospheric variations occur or in low geomagnetic latitude regions where equatorial electron density irregularities are produced relatively frequently, a significant degradation of the CFR is demonstrated.

Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan

2013-06-01

161

Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept  

SciTech Connect

The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants.

Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

2001-06-17

162

Altruism towards panhandlers: Who gives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates an example of human altruism which is neither kin-directed nor reciprocal: giving to a panhandler.\\u000a Data were collected on the proportions of passers-by who gave to panhandlers in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts. Three\\u000a hypotheses were tested, each predicting that passers-by should behave “selfishly,” capitalizing on opportunities that, in\\u000a an evolutionarily appropriate context, could increase mating success. Male

Tony L. Goldberg

1995-01-01

163

Giving Birth Like A Girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relational, selfless, caring, polite, nice, and kind are not how we imagine a woman giving birth in U.S. culture. Rather, we picture her as screaming, yelling, self-centered, and demanding drugs or occasionally as numbed and passive from pain-killing medication. Using in-depth interviews with women about their labor and childbirth, the author presents data to suggest that white, middle-class, heterosexual women

Karin A. Martin

2003-01-01

164

The ambiguity function associated with the linear canonical transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new kind of ambiguity function (AF) associated with the linearcanonical transform (LCT) is proposed in this article, this new AF is defined based on the LCT and the classical AF. Firstly, the main properties and physical meanings of the newly defined AF are investigated, the results show that this kind of AF can be seen as one generalization of the classical AF. Then, the newly defined AF is applied to detect the parameters of the linear frequency modulated signals by combining with the classical Radon transform. The simulations are performed to verify the correctness of the derived results, and the comparison of the derived results with the common time-frequency analysis tools are also discussed.

Tian-Wen, Che; Bing-Zhao, Li; Tian-Zhou, Xu

2012-12-01

165

Is "?" purple or green? Bistable grapheme-color synesthesia induced by ambiguous characters.  

PubMed

People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered ambiguous upon rotation of the characters. Specifically, achromatic alphabetic letters (W/M) and digits (6/9) were presented at varying angles to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes. Results showed that grapheme identification and synesthetically perceived grapheme color covary with the orientation of the test stimulus and that synesthetes were slower naming the experienced color than identifying the character, particularly at intermediate angles where ambiguity was greatest. PMID:23871860

Kim, Suhkyung; Blake, Randolph; Kim, Chai-Youn

2013-07-17

166

Cascading Effects: The Influence of Attention Bias to Threat on the Interpretation of Ambiguous Information  

PubMed Central

Both attention bias to threat and negative interpretive bias have been implicated in the emergence and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, relations between attention and interpretive biases remain poorly understood. The current study experimentally manipulated attention bias to threat and examined the effects of attention training on the way ambiguous information was interpreted. Results suggest that the preferential allocation of attention towards threat affects the manner in which ambiguous information is interpreted. Individuals trained to attend to threat were more likely than individuals in a placebo training group to interpret ambiguous information in a threat-related manner. These data suggest that perturbations in the initial stages of information processing associated with anxiety may lead to a cascade of subsequent processing biases.

White, Lauren K.; Suway, Jenna G.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

167

Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.  

PubMed

Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed. PMID:23356360

Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

2013-01-01

168

Macrosomia and ambiguous genitalia: a long overdue answer to the citizens of Frusino.  

PubMed

In the literature of the Roman Era, a case of macrosomia and genital ambiguity in a newborn is described. Textual evidence concerning this case of androgynism and its symbolism is provided in the present study. Medical interpretation of such cases covers the entire spectrum of differential diagnosis of macrosomia concurrent with genital ambiguity. Female pseudohermaphroditism may be excluded from the differential diagnosis, as the adrenal cortex physiology of the female fetus renders the concurrence of overgrowth and androgen excess unlikely. It will therefore have been a case of 46XY disorder of sexual differentiation due to either fetal overgrowth syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndromes) or to mutations of the WT1 gene. Mutations of the WT1 gene are considered as the most probable diagnosis, resulting in genital ambiguity and macrosomia due to additional altered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II action. PMID:22801570

Vasileiou, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Pierris, Apostolos L; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

169

IS THERE A CONTINUUM AMBIGUITY FOR ELASTIC {pi}N AMPLITUDES?  

SciTech Connect

The continuum ambiguity is defined as a phase factor not determined by those amplitude zeros near the physical region that can be directly deduced from the data; such a factor may be approximated by a polynomial whose zeros are far from the physical region. A study of recent TIN partial wave analysis (CUTKOSKY76 and HOHLER78) reveals that such a phase is either null or negligeable; CUTKOSKY76' s amplitude is found similar to that of a partial wave analysis based on Barrelet zeros. We give general arguments based on the notion of "peripheral resonances" to explain this situation. Our arguments imply that Atkinson"s {pi}{sup +}p "continuous ambiguity" is not relevant to the reliability of Barrelet-zero amplitude analysis.

Chew, D. M.; Ely, R. P.

1981-12-01

170

Fluorescence in situ hybridization, a diagnostic aid in ambiguous melanocytic tumors: European study of 113 cases.  

PubMed

Some melanocytic tumors are ambiguous, so the reproducible histopathological diagnosis of benign or malignant lesion is difficult. This study evaluated the contribution of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) first in 43 non-equivocal melanomas and nevi, and then in 113 ambiguous melanocytic tumors selected by expert pathologists from six different European institutions. We included two groups of ambiguous tumors: patients without recurrence (5-year minimal follow-up) and with metastases. An independent triple-blind histopathological review was performed to classify tumors as 'favor benign' (A-) or 'favor malignant' (A+). A four-color probe set targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13 and CEP6 was used for FISH. In the 43 non-equivocal melanomas and nevi, sensitivity was 85% and specificity 90%. Ninety out of 95 ambiguous melanocytic tumors included were FISH interpretable (67 FISH negative and 23 FISH positive). Of the 90 patients, 69 presented no recurrence and 21/90 exhibited metastases. These ambiguous tumors were mostly spitzoid tumors (45/90). Histopathological reviewers classified these tumors as favor malignant (49/90) and favor benign (32/90), whereas nine cases had a discordant diagnosis. By comparison with outcome, the sensitivity and specificity of histopathological review were 95 and 52%, and the sensitivity and specificity of FISH were 43 and 80%. Compared with histopathological review, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH were 34.5 and 91%. Interestingly, by combining the histopathological diagnosis with FISH results, the diagnosis was optimized, especially by increasing specificity (76% instead of 52% for expert diagnosis alone) and by improving sensitivity compared with FISH alone (90 vs 43% for FISH result alone). The value of this FISH test is to add a reproducible demonstration of malignancy to the histopathological diagnosis, especially in doubtful/ambiguous melanocytic tumors. A positive FISH test reinforces the diagnosis of melanoma, allowing such tumors (particularly thick tumors) to be managed as melanomas. PMID:21151100

Vergier, Beatrice; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; de la Fouchardière, Arnaud; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Massi, Daniela; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Bailly, Christiane; Wesselmann, Ulrich; Karlseladze, Apollon; Avril, Marie-Francoise; Jouary, Thomas; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

2010-12-10

171

Detecting Ambiguous Author Names in Crowdsourced Scholarly Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The name ambiguity problem is a challenge in many areas, especially in the field of bibliographic digital libraries. For example, in services that use citation data to compute the impact of authors, ambiguous names lead to biased measures. The problem is amplified where names are collected from heterogeneous sources, including crowd sourced annotations. This is the case in the Scholaro

Xiaoling Sun; Jasleen Kaur; Lino Possamai; Filippo Menczer

2011-01-01

172

Perceived Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Teacher Burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 469 classroom teachers examined the relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity to teacher burnout. Three aspects of burnout were examined: feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or negative attitudes toward students, and feelings of a lack of personal accomplishment. Two of the more important findings were: (1) role conflict and role ambiguity explained a statistically significant amount

Richard L. Schwab; Edward F. Iwanicki

1982-01-01

173

Action detection in complex scenes with spatial and temporal ambiguities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the detection of seman- tic human actions in complex scenes. Unlike conven- tional action recognition in well-controlled environments, action detection in complex scenes suffers from cluttered backgrounds, heavy crowds, occluded bodies, and spatial- temporal boundary ambiguities caused by imperfect hu- man detection and tracking. Conventional algorithms are likely to fail with such spatial-temporal ambiguities. In

Yuxiao Hu; Liangliang Cao; Fengjun Lv; Shuicheng Yan; Yihong Gong; Thomas S. Huang

2009-01-01

174

Transparency and Ambiguity in Central Bank Safety Net Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate the risks of contagion from problems arising in the banking sector, many countries operate some form of banking sector safety net. Such safety nets generally involve a judicious mixture of transparency and ambiguity. This ambiguity may be important to counter moral hazard effects but may lead to excessive forbearance in the face of banking problems. While the scope

Charles Enoch; Peter Stella; May Khamis

1997-01-01

175

Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

2013-01-01

176

Ambiguity surface manifestation of downslope converted noise sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deals with the manifestation of downslope converted continental shelf noise sources (primarily ships) in the matched-field processor (MFP) ambiguity surface. Of interest is how noise sources outside the range of interest leak into the ambiguity surface through the sidelobe structure of the effective MFP beam (or cell) pattern. This study is carried out with simulations using the parabolic equation model.

Jean-Marie Q. D. Tran; W. S. Hodgkiss

1993-01-01

177

Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous

Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2009-01-01

178

U.S./Arab Reflections on Our Tolerance for Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the authors, a Midwestern American educational administration professor and a Middle Eastern Iraqi doctoral candidate, have continued to interact over the past 3 years, both have come to appreciate the importance of increasing their tolerance for ambiguity--ambiguities in examining cultural, linguistic, and religious customs and complexities…

Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

2012-01-01

179

Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

2013-01-01

180

An Ambiguous-Race Illusion in Children's Face Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults show better memory for ambiguous faces of their own race than for ambiguous faces of another race, even when the faces are identical and differentiated only by extraneous cues to racial category. We investigated whether similar context effects operate early in develop- ment. Young children raised in predominantly White envi- ronments were presented with computer-generated White- Black morphed faces,

Kristin Shutts; Katherine D. Kinzler

2007-01-01

181

Not so black and white: memory for ambiguous group members.  

PubMed

Exponential increases in multiracial identities, expected over the next century, create a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as their own- or other-race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the own-race bias. The authors hypothesized that perceivers are not motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and therefore have some difficulty remembering these individuals. Both racially ambiguous and other-race faces were misremembered more often than own-race faces (Study 1), though memory for ambiguous faces was improved among perceivers motivated to include biracial individuals in the in-group (Study 2). Racial labels assigned to racially ambiguous faces determined memory for these faces, suggesting that uncertainty provides the motivational context for discounting ambiguous faces in memory (Study 3). Finally, an inclusion motivation fostered cognitive associations between racially ambiguous faces and the in-group. Moreover, the extent to which perceivers associated racially ambiguous faces with the in-group predicted memory for ambiguous faces and accounted for the impact of motivation on memory (Study 4). Thus, memory for biracial individuals seems to involve a flexible person construal process shaped by motivational factors. PMID:19309203

Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R; Adams, Reginald B; Ivcevic, Zorana

2009-04-01

182

Ambiguous stimuli: Sex is in the eye of the beholder  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is usually assumed that sexual material is easily identifiable by its content. The present study investigated whether subjects could be led to interpret ambiguous material as sexual or not via simple instructions. Thematically ambiguous written text was presented to 269 subjects. The principal independent variable was the content of advance information. Advance information was designed to suggest that the

Cathy Orman Castille; James H. Geer

1993-01-01

183

Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

2004-01-01

184

Ambiguous intentions: a paper-like interface for creative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfaces for conceptual and creative design should recognize and interpret drawings. They should also capture users' intended ambiguity, vagueness, and imprecision and convey these qualities visually and through interactive behavior. Freehand drawing can provide this information and it is a natural input mode for design. We describe a pen-based interface that acquires information about ambiguity and precision from freehand input,

Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do

1996-01-01

185

Role Ambiguity, Job-Related Tension and Job Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort examines the degree of and relationship among role ambiguity, job-related tension, and job satisfaction in a hospital environment. The specific research subjects chosen were hospital unit managers. Adaptation of the Kahn et al. national study was used to establish Role Ambiguity and Job Tension Indexes. The Brayfield-Rothe Job Satisfaction Index provided data concerning this latter variable. Findings

Richard O. Blalack; Herbert J. Davis

1975-01-01

186

Adjunct Attachment Is Not a Form of Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three eye-tracking experiments investigated ambiguity resolution in sentences containing adjunct modifiers. The experiments tested readers' response to sentences that began with a noun phrase complex containing two nouns and a preposition (oforwith). A prepositional phrase or relative clause modified one of the noun phrases. The sentences were either temporarily or fully ambiguous as to which noun phrase was modified. The

Matthew J. Traxler; Martin J. Pickering; Charles Clifton

1998-01-01

187

Ambiguity and Optimal Technological Choice: Does the Liability Regime Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a firm, from a high-risk industry, facing two available technologies. One of the two technologies is ambiguous in the sense that its probability of accident lies in a interval of objective probabilities. The firm has the possibility to invest in seeking information in order to reduce the uncertainty inherent to the ambiguous technology. We apply a model inspired

Julien Jacob

2011-01-01

188

Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities: ambiguity detection, conservation, lexical processing, and reading comprehension.

Lorain Szabo Wankoff; Helen Smith Cairns

2009-01-01

189

Not So Black and White: Memory for Ambiguous Group Members  

PubMed Central

Exponential increases in multi-racial identities expected over the next century, creates a conundrum for perceivers accustomed to classifying people as “own” or “other” race. The current research examines how perceivers resolve this dilemma with regard to the “own-race bias.” We hypothesized that perceivers would not be motivated to include ambiguous-race individuals in the in-group and would therefore have some difficulty remembering them. Both racially-ambiguous and other-race faces were misremembered more often than own-race faces (Study 1), though memory for ambiguous faces was improved among perceivers motivated to include biracial individuals in the in-group (Study 2). Racial labels assigned to racially ambiguous faces determined memory for these faces, suggesting that uncertainty provides the motivational context for discounting ambiguous faces in memory (Study 3). Finally, an inclusion motivation fostered cognitive associations between racially-ambiguous faces and the in-group. Moreover, the extent to which perceivers associated racially-ambiguous faces with the in-group predicted memory for ambiguous faces and accounted for the impact of motivation on memory (Study 4). Thus, memory for biracial individuals seems to involve a flexible person construal process shaped by motivational factors.

Pauker, Kristin; Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R; Ivcevic, Zorana; Adams, Reginald B

2013-01-01

190

Factors Associated With Children's Anticipated Responses to Ambiguous Teases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used two studies involving 5th- and 6th-grade children to examine factors potentially associated with individual differences in children's perceptions of and anticipated responses to ambiguous teases. Study 1 assessed the extent to which the children would expect recipients to feel hurt in response to a series of ambiguous teases and whether the children would perceive those teases as

Mark A. Barnett; Natalie D. Barlett; Jennifer L. Livengood; Deborah L. Murphy; Katherine E. Brewton

2010-01-01

191

Sodium thiosulfate not always resolves calciphylaxis: an ambiguous response.  

PubMed

Calciphylaxis is a severe "vascular ossification-calcification," associated with a very high mortality rate that involves arterial wall, venular wall, and nerves resulting in ischemia and necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, visceral organs, and skeletal muscles. Sodium thiosulfate has recently been used as a novel treatment option for calciphylaxis because of its dual role as an antioxidant and a chelator. Multiple case reports demonstrated that such therapy has resulted in pain relief and healing of skin ulceration. We report a case of calciphylaxis of large severity that had an ambiguous response to sodium thiosulfate treatment (improvement of symptomatology and skin lesions, improvement of blood parameters, worsening of general conditions, and consciousness until death). PMID:21219211

Miceli, Salvatore; Milio, Glauco; La Placa, Sergio; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Li Vecchi, Maurizio; Licata, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio

2011-01-01

192

DIFFICULTY PROCESSING TEMPORARY SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITIES IN LEWY BODY SPECTRUM DISORDER  

PubMed Central

While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson’s dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an on-line word detection procedure, patients heard sentences with a syntactic structure that has high-compatibility or low-compatibility with the main verb’s statistically preferred syntactic structure, and half of the sentences were lengthened strategically between the onset of the ambiguity and its resolution. We found selectively slowed processing of lengthened ambiguous sentences in the PDD/DLB subgroup. This correlated with impairments on measures of executive control. Regression analyses related the working memory deficit during ambiguous sentence processing to significant cortical thinning in frontal and parietal regions. These findings emphasize the role of prefrontal disease in the executive limitations that interfere with processing ambiguous sentences in LBSD.

Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey; Cook, Philip; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

2011-01-01

193

The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity: Contrasting Teleologically and Deontologically Based Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes ethical considerations in the use of strategic ambiguity in organizational communication. Ambiguity is defined as "experienced ambiguity" and is distinct from uncertainty and equivocality which are properties of a stimulus. Strategic ambiguity is the use of "calculated ambiguity" in organizations to achieve objectives.…

Paul, Jim; And Others

194

Resolving depth-measurement ambiguity with commercially available range imaging cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight range imaging is typically performed with the amplitude modulated continuous wave method. This involves illuminating a scene with amplitude modulated light. Reflected light from the scene is received by the sensor with the range to the scene encoded as a phase delay of the modulation envelope. Due to the cyclic nature of phase, an ambiguity in the measured range occurs every half wavelength in distance, thereby limiting the maximum useable range of the camera. This paper proposes a procedure to resolve depth ambiguity using software post processing. First, the range data is processed to segment the scene into separate objects. The average intensity of each object can then be used to determine which pixels are beyond the non-ambiguous range. The results demonstrate that depth ambiguity can be resolved for various scenes using only the available depth and intensity information. This proposed method reduces the sensitivity to objects with very high and very low reflectance, normally a key problem with basic threshold approaches. This approach is very flexible as it can be used with any range imaging camera. Furthermore, capture time is not extended, keeping the artifacts caused by moving objects at a minimum. This makes it suitable for applications such as robot vision where the camera may be moving during captures. The key limitation of the method is its inability to distinguish between two overlapping objects that are separated by a distance of exactly one non-ambiguous range. Overall the reliability of this method is higher than the basic threshold approach, but not as high as the multiple frequency method of resolving ambiguity.

McClure, Shane H.; Cree, Michael J.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Payne, Andrew D.

2010-02-01

195

Antarctica Gives Mixed Signals on Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News investigates trends in the Antarctic Ice Cap that seem to give contradictory information about global warming. The results of various studies do not seem useful in predicting future climate development for the rest of the planet.

Trivedi, Bijal P.; News, National G.

196

Ambiguity Function and Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds for Passive Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolving power of passive SAS is addressed by computing and plotting its ambiguity function in the frequency\\/bearing plane. It is proven that, even in ideal conditions, the apparently better spatial resolution of passive SAS is due only to the better frequency resolution which results from the longer processing time. In other respects the computation of Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB)

Jean-Michel PASSERIEUX

2006-01-01

197

[The application of artificial neural network based on ambiguous function to heart sound classification].  

PubMed

In this study the artificial neural network was applied to heart sound classification. The network input data are ambiguous function, hence the crossterm problem of Wigner distribution is avoided. The simulation result shows that this is an effective technique. A suboptimal network model was proposed by many times of training and checking. The main factors related to network property were also discussed. PMID:11540389

Gao, X; Chen, K; Jiang, T

1997-10-01

198

A meta-analysis of the correlates of role conflict and ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that the correlational literature concerning the relationships of role conflict and ambiguity to numerous hypothesized antecedents and consequences is still somewhat unclear after a decade of research. In the present study, meta-analysis procedures developed by F. L. Schmidt and J. E. Hunter and J. E. Hunter et al (1982) were applied to the results of 43 previous studies in

Cynthia D. Fisher; Richard Gitelson

1983-01-01

199

Identification of ambiguity in the case study research typology: what is a unit of analysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – At the moment central concepts relating to the case study strategy are insufficiently understood. This is unfortunate in that the truth value of results inferred from case studies may be questioned. Given the fact that case studies are widely employed in many fields the identified ambiguities represent an imperative dilemma of great consequences to the research community in

Niels N. Grünbaum

2007-01-01

200

Effect of Prefrontal Cortex Damage on Resolving Lexical Ambiguity in Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The function of suppression of context-inappropriate meanings during lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in 25 adults with prefrontal cortex damage (PFCD) localized to the left (N = 8), right (N = 6), or bilaterally (N = 11); and 21 matched Controls. Results revealed unexpected inverse patterns of suppression between PFCD and Control…

Frattali, Carol; Hanna, Rebecca; McGinty, Anita Shukla; Gerber, Lynn; Wesley, Robert; Grafman, Jordan; Coelho, Carl

2007-01-01

201

A Meta-Analysis of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on IS Professional Job Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous IS studies on the topic of role ambiguity (RA) and role conflict (RC). The need for resolving the disagreement in understanding the impact of RA and RC on job satisfaction within an IS context motivated the current research. Employing Hunter and Schmidt's (1990) meta-analysis method, this study synthesizes empirical IS study results from twelve independent samples.

Yide Shen

2005-01-01

202

Boundary ambiguity, coping patterns and depression in mothers caring for children with epilepsy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive correlational study was designed to examine the relationships between boundary ambiguity, coping strategies and depression in mothers caring for children with epilepsy. A total of 316 mothers were recruited from three medical centers in Taiwan. A pilot study established the reliability and validity of the Chinese language version of the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). Results showed

Pei-Fan Mu; Hsun-Chih Kuo; Kai-Ping Chang

2005-01-01

203

Ambiguity and Gender Differences in Financial Decision Making: An Experimental Examination of Competence and Confidence Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an experiment that brings together psychological measures of competence and overconfidence with laboratory economic measures of individual valuations of uncertainty. We examine the valuations of risky and ambiguous lotteries in a financial decision context. The experiment can be viewed in two parts. The first part replicates an experimental design reported by Heath and Tversky

Matthias Gysler; Jamie Brown Kruse; Renate Schubert

2002-01-01

204

Local hardness equalization: Exploiting the ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the density-functional theory of chemical reactivity, the local hardness is known to be an ambiguous concept. The mathematical structure associated with this problematic situation is elaborated and three common definitions for the local hardness are critically examined: the frontier local hardness [S. K. Ghosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 77 (1990)], the total local hardness [S. K. Ghosh and M. Berkowitz, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 2976 (1985)], and the unconstrained local hardness [P. W. Ayers and R. G. Parr, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2010 (2000)]. The frontier local hardness has particularly nice properties: (a) it has smaller norm than most, if not all, other choices of the local hardness and (b) it is ``unbiased'' in an information-theoretic sense. For the ground electronic state of a molecular system, the frontier local hardness is equal to the global hardness. For an electronic system in its ground state, both the chemical potential and the frontier local hardness are equalized. The frontier local hardness equalization principle provides a computational approach for designing reagents with desirable chemical reactivity profiles.

Ayers, Paul W.; Parr, Robert G.

2008-05-01

205

Chimpanzees and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Although recent research has investigated animal decision-making under risk, little is known about how animals choose under conditions of ambiguity when they lack information about the available alternatives. Many models of choice behaviour assume that ambiguity does not impact decision-makers, but studies of humans suggest that people tend to be more averse to choosing ambiguous options than risky options with known probabilities. To illuminate the evolutionary roots of human economic behaviour, we examined whether our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), share this bias against ambiguity. Apes chose between a certain option that reliably provided an intermediately preferred food type, and a variable option that could vary in the probability that it provided a highly preferred food type. To examine the impact of ambiguity on ape decision-making, we interspersed trials in which chimpanzees and bonobos had no knowledge about the probabilities. Both species avoided the ambiguous option compared with their choices for a risky option, indicating that ambiguity aversion is shared by humans, bonobos and chimpanzees.

Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

2011-01-01

206

Shale oil and the politics of ambiguity and complexity  

SciTech Connect

The problem of shale oil is of specific concern to the residents of Colorado and a few policymakers in Washington, but in a larger sense it is important and instructive to every citizen. Shale has unique potential and problems, but it is far from unique in that there are many potential sources of energy, each facing an array of serious difficulties. The specific problem of underground water in the Piceance Basin belongs only to shale, but the resultant problem of ambiguity is universal. Whether they deal with shale, coal, solar, or nuclear energy, or any other possible energy source, policymakers are faced with the demand for action, yet apparently eternally lack critical information. Viewed not as individuals, but as a nation, the United States in the fall of 1983 was coping with ambiguity in shale as it was in most other energy problems-it was advancing incrementally. The Union Oil project was creeping toward operability. Occidental, manager of the Cathedral Bluffs Project, was gearing up to de-mothball its production facilities. Exxon had not abandoned the hope of someday making money at Colony, and was maintaining a skeleton crew at the site, and acquiring local water rights, pending a rise in crude oil prices (73). The US Air Force had announced that it planned to convert two bases to shale-derived fuel in 1984 (68). The Synthetic Fuels Corporation was attempting to organize itself. About all that can be predicted, given the domination of the shale scene by unknowns, is that the progress of the nation in developing the resource will be slow.

Prindle, D.F.

1984-01-01

207

The truth about chickens and bats: ambiguity avoidance distinguishes types of polysemy.  

PubMed

Words mean different things in different contexts, a phenomenon called polysemy. People talk about lines of both people and poetry, and about both long distances and long times. Polysemy lets a limited vocabulary capture a great variety of experiences, while highlighting commonalities. But how is this achieved? Are polysemous senses contextually driven modifications of core meanings, or must each sense be memorized separately? We show that participants' ability to avoid referentially ambiguous descriptions of pictures named by polysemous words provides evidence for both possibilities. When senses followed a regular pattern (e.g., animals and the foodstuffs derived from them; noisy chicken, tasty chicken), participants avoided using ambiguous labels in referentially ambiguous situations (e.g., both types of chicken were present), a result indicating that they noticed a common meaning. But when senses were idiosyncratically related (e.g., sheet of glass, drinking glass), participants frequently produced ambiguous labels, a result indicating that the meanings were separately stored. We discuss implications for the relationship between word meanings and concepts. PMID:23722978

Rabagliati, Hugh; Snedeker, Jesse

2013-05-30

208

Ambiguity and the image of the king.  

PubMed

The following essay explores problems posed by a recently-published fresco (dated to the first century AD) that depicts Alexander the Great standing opposite an unknown female figure. The fresco is unusual in its use of conventional or codified figure types, in particular a widely-found statue type known as the "Alexander with the Lance," and for its placement of Alexander in anecdotal relation with a woman. While discussions of the picture thus far have tried to identify the scene depicted (by reference to histories of Alexander's life), the following analysis takes the difficulty of doing so itself as a motivated aspect of the image. I argue that the fresco's mode of representation is to bring together figure types whose conventional fields of meaning are in conflict with one another, and then to highlight this conflict in order to comment upon the fields (or figure types) themselves. In this case, the fresco's ambiguity in signification (the undecidability of its reference) enables a highly strategic critique of the "Alexander with the Lance" because the latter, as a prototypical "image of the king," depends upon the necessary and transparent extension of its signs. By virtue of the anecdotal relation between "Alexander" and the depicted female figure (an Aphrodite type) the fresco's critique reveals the close association between the claims for representation made by the image of the king and the patriarchal structures of power they seek to instantiate. The fresco thus offers remarkably direct data for understanding the intersection of representation and gender in the early Roman empire. I suggest in conclusion that because the image seems also to posit a specifically gendered (male) gaze, its critique is extended to the spectator and thereby provides data for understanding the intersection of the practice of representation (here, viewing) and gender. PMID:7798598

Mack, R T

1994-01-01

209

Ambiguity's aftermath: How age differences in resolving lexical ambiguity affect subsequent comprehension  

PubMed Central

When ambiguity resolution is difficult, younger adults recruit selection-related neural resources that older adults do not. To elucidate the nature of those resources and the consequences of their recruitment for subsequent comprehension, we embedded noun/verb homographs and matched unambiguous words in syntactically well-specified but semantically neutral sentences. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase whose head noun was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating past findings, younger but not older adults elicited sustained frontal negativity to homographs compared to unambiguous words. On the subsequent head nouns, younger adults showed plausibility effects in all conditions, attesting to successful meaning selection through suppression. In contrast, older adults showed smaller plausibility effects following ambiguous words and failed to show plausibility effects when the context picked out the homograph’s non-dominant meaning (i.e., they did not suppress the contextually-irrelevant dominant meaning). Meaning suppression processes, reflected in the frontal negativity, thus become less available with age, with consequences for subsequent comprehension.

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2012-01-01

210

Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test.  

PubMed

The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D). In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53), the AST-D was presented via a web-based survey (N = 208). Participants imagined and rated each AST-D ambiguous scenario. As predicted, higher dysphoric mood was associated with lower pleasantness ratings (more negative bias), independent of mental imagery measures. In Study 2, self-report ratings were compared with objective ratings of participants' imagined outcomes of the ambiguous scenarios (N = 41). Data were collected in the experimental context of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. Consistent with subjective bias scores, independent judges rated more sentences as negatively valenced for the high versus low dysphoric group. Overall, results suggest the potential utility of the AST-D in assessing interpretation bias associated with depressed mood. PMID:21822348

Berna, Chantal; Lang, Tamara J; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

2011-08-01

211

Ambiguous Preference Statements in the Analytic Hierarchy Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper develops the interval AHP which integrates ambiguous preference statements into the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) by allowing the decision maker (DM) to enter ranges of values to indicate the relative importance of the factors in the pairwise...

A. Salo R. P. Haemaelaeinen

1991-01-01

212

AMBIGUITY AND POSITION SEARCH ALGORITHMS OF GPS CARRIER PHASE PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

For high-precision GPS satellite positioning, two search algorithms are compared in this paper. One algorithm, which is based on an approach for resolving phase ambiguities, uses a least-squares search technique. The other algorithm is related to an ambiguity function method but differs from it in that the final positional convergence is achieved by employing the same least-squares technique. The search

Joz Wu; Shiou-Gwo Lin; Fong-Gee Yiu

1997-01-01

213

0.99999999 confidence ambiguity resolution with GPS and Galileo  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this short contribution it is demonstrated how integer carrier phase cycle ambiguity resolution will perform in near future,\\u000a when the US GPS gets modernized and the European Galileo becomes operational. The capability of ambiguity resolution is analyzed\\u000a in the context of precise differential positioning over short, medium and long distances. Starting from dual-frequency operation\\u000a with GPS at present,

Christian Tiberius; Thomas Pany; Bernd Eissfeller; Peter Joosten; Sandra Verhagen

2002-01-01

214

Automatic Resolution of Ambiguous Terms Based on Machine Learning and Conceptual Relations in the UMLS  

PubMed Central

Motivation. The UMLS has been used in natural language processing applications such as information retrieval and information extraction systems. The mapping of free-text to UMLS concepts is important for these applications. To improve the mapping, we need a method to disambiguate terms that possess multiple UMLS concepts. In the general English domain, machine-learning techniques have been applied to sense-tagged corpora, in which senses (or concepts) of ambiguous terms have been annotated (mostly manually). Sense disambiguation classifiers are then derived to determine senses (or concepts) of those ambiguous terms automatically. However, manual annotation of a corpus is an expensive task. We propose an automatic method that constructs sense-tagged corpora for ambiguous terms in the UMLS using MEDLINE abstracts. Methods. For a term W that represents multiple UMLS concepts, a collection of MEDLINE abstracts that contain W is extracted. For each abstract in the collection, occurrences of concepts that have relations with W as defined in the UMLS are automatically identified. A sense-tagged corpus, in which senses of W are annotated, is then derived based on those identified concepts. The method was evaluated on a set of 35 frequently occurring ambiguous biomedical abbreviations using a gold standard set that was automatically derived. The quality of the derived sense-tagged corpus was measured using precision and recall. Results. The derived sense-tagged corpus had an overall precision of 92.9% and an overall recall of 47.4%. After removing rare senses and ignoring abbreviations with closely related senses, the overall precision was 96.8% and the overall recall was 50.6%. Conclusions. UMLS conceptual relations and MEDLINE abstracts can be used to automatically acquire knowledge needed for resolving ambiguity when mapping free-text to UMLS concepts.

Liu, Hongfang; Johnson, Stephen B.; Friedman, Carol

2002-01-01

215

Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Which Cognitive Developments Are Necessary to Experience Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments involving one hundred and thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds we examined the claim that a complex understanding of ambiguity is required to experience reversal of ambiguous stimuli [Gopnik, A., & Rosati, A. (2001). Duck or rabbit? Reversing ambiguous figures and understanding ambiguous representations. Developmental Science, 4,…

Doherty, M.J.; Wimmer, M.C.

2005-01-01

216

Ambiguities in Fits to the Complex X-Ray Spectra of Starburst Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral fits to X-ray data from both NGC 253 and M82 provide ambiguous results. The so-called best-fit results depend on the instrument with which the data were obtained and, obviously, on the choice of spectral model composition. We show that different spectral models can be fit equally well to BeppoSAX data of both galaxies. Metallicities are unreliable in general, with

Michael Dahlem; Arvind Parmar; Tim Oosterbroek; Astrid Orr; Kimberly A. Weaver; Timothy M. Heckman

2000-01-01

217

GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?  

PubMed

The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy that is greater than the sum of their parts. The nature of leadership required to produce such high performance outcomes is likely to supersede leadership that is the result of structural relationships or of individual action. In particular, distributed leadership is likely to be relevant. PMID:21692401

Holbeche, Linda

2011-05-01

218

Study of ambiguities in ?-p ? ?K0 scattering amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplitudes for the reaction ? - p ? ?K 0 are reconstructed from data on the differential cross section d ?/d ?, the recoil polarization P, and on the spin rotation parameter ?. At low energies, no data on ? exist, resulting in ambiguities. An approximation using S and P waves leads only to a fair description of the data on d ?/d ? and P; in this case, there are two sets of amplitudes. Including D waves, the data on d ?/d ? and P are well reproduced by the fit but, now, there is a multitude of distinct solutions which describe the data with identical precision. In the range where the spin rotation parameter ? was measured, a full and unambiguous reconstruction of the partial wave amplitudes is possible. The energy-independent (single-energy) amplitudes are compared to the energy-dependent amplitudes which resulted from a coupled-channel fit (BnGa2011-02) to a large data set including both pion- and photo-induced reactions. Significant deviations are observed. Consistency between energy-dependent and energy-independent solutions is obtained by choosing the energy-independent solution which is the closest to the energy-dependent solution. In a second step, the known energy-dependent solution for low (or high) partial waves is imposed and only the high (or low) partial waves are fitted leading to smaller uncertainties.

Anisovich, A. V.; Beck, R.; Klempt, E.; Nikonov, V. A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Thoma, U.; Wunderlich, Y.

2013-10-01

219

Children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity.  

PubMed

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, bat (flying mammal) and bat (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means that children used during attempts at disambiguation: speech, gesture, or a combination of the two. The results indicated that the 3-year-old children rarely disambiguated the two senses, mainly using deictic pointing gestures during attempts at disambiguation. In contrast, the 4-year-old children attempted to disambiguate the two senses more often, using a larger proportion of iconic gestures than the other children. The 5-year-old children used less iconic gestures than the 4-year-olds, but unlike the 3-year-olds, were able to disambiguate the senses through the verbal channel. The results highlight the value of gesture to the development of children's language and communication skills. PMID:19840045

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-11-01

220

Annual Giving Strategies: A Comprehensive Guide to Better Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 32 papers focuses on the annual fund as a basic and central part of development programs at schools, colleges, and universities. It describes the fundamental elements of the annual fund from planning to evaluation and sets forth methods of solicitation that reach all the institution's constituencies. Section 1, titled "Overview…

Gee, Ann D., Ed.

221

Diagnosing children's writing disabilities: different tests give different results.  

PubMed

Writing problems are common in children with clinical disorders. However, there are significant intra-individual differences between the ability to spell words, construct sentences, and compose text. Therefore, achievement tests measuring different writing skills may not be consistent in identifying children who have these various writing disabilities. Our study compared scores on the Woodcock-Johnson Written Language subtests (which measure the ability to produce single words and single sentences) with scores on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Written Expression subtest (which assesses compositional writing skills) in 54 children referred by their teachers to a school psychologist for writing problems. The Woodcock-Johnson only identified 35% of children as having significant writing problems, whereas the Wechsler test identified 78%. Our study suggests that the latter is more likely than the Woodcock-Johnson to identify students who have problems in compositional writing. PMID:16350611

Mayes, Susan D; Calhoun, Susan L; Lane, Susan E

2005-08-01

222

Rhinomanometry: do the anterior and posterior methods give equivalent results?  

PubMed

Nasal resistance to airflow was measured by both anterior and posterior rhinomanometry in 15 healthy volunteers. It was found that the posterior method gave values on average 16% higher than the anterior method. This difference was statistically significant. We propose that this is due to posterior rhinomanometry measuring the resistance of the nasopharynx as well as the resistance of the nose. In the past a discrepancy between the 2 methods has been claimed to be due to an error in the standard form of the parallel resistance equation. This hypothesis was tested by measuring total nasal resistance by posterior rhinomanometry and comparing this with a total nasal resistance value derived from posterior rhinomanometric measurements of the resistance of the individual nasal cavities. The standard form of the parallel resistance formula was used to derive the total nasal resistance. There was no significant difference between the 2 values for total nasal resistance. We conclude that if measurements are made at the same pressure gradient then the use of this equation is valid. PMID:3581488

Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Stevens, J C; Beckingham, E

1987-04-01

223

Auditory Scene Analysis: The Sweet Music of Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis (ASA), or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, ASA uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener). After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit) knowledge of the rules of ASA and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music.

Pressnitzer, Daniel; Suied, Clara; Shamma, Shihab A.

2011-01-01

224

Sexual Picture Processing Interferes with Decision-Making Under Ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

2013-06-01

225

A contrast function for independent component analysis without permutation ambiguity.  

PubMed

This brief deals with the problem of blind source separation (BSS) via independent component analysis (ICA). We prove that a linear combination of the separator output fourth-order marginal cumulants (kurtoses) is a valid contrast function for ICA under prewhitening if the weights have the same sign as the source kurtoses. If, in addition, the source kurtoses are different and so are the linear combination weights, the contrast eliminates the permutation ambiguity typical to ICA, as the estimated sources are sorted at the separator output according to their kurtosis values in the same order as the weights. If the weights equal the source kurtoses, the contrast is a cumulant matching criterion based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The contrast can be maximized by means of a cost-efficient Jacobi-type pairwise iteration. In the real-valued two-signal case, the asymptotic variance of the resulting Givens angle estimator is determined in closed form, leading to the contrast weights with optimal finite-sample performance. A fully blind solution can be implemented by computing the optimum weights from the initial source estimates obtained by a classical ICA stage. An experimental study validates the features of the proposed technique and shows its superior performance compared to related previous methods. PMID:20350848

Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Phlypo, Ronald

2010-03-29

226

A negativity bias for ambiguous facial-expression valence during childhood: converging evidence from behavior and facial corrugator muscle responses.  

PubMed

Interpretations of facial expressions with ambiguous valence, such as surprised (which can be perceived as having positive or negative valence), reveal individual differences in positivity-negativity biases. Negative interpretations are first and fast, but this initial negativity default can be overridden by regulatory control processes that result in positive interpretations. We tested the initial negativity hypothesis by examining positivity-negativity biases during development. We hypothesized that during childhood, the default negativity mode would be more evident than in adulthood and, as a group, children would show a negativity bias when processing ambiguous facial expressions. We examined ratings of two ambiguous expressions, surprised and neutral expressions, from childhood through adolescence and recorded facial corrugator muscle activity, a physiological index of negative appraisals. Surprised faces were rated as conveying clear negative affect by younger participants as indexed by fast RTs and negative ratings, and corrugator data showed a corresponding increase in activity to surprised faces. By adolescence, positive ratings of surprised faces became more frequent and RTs slowed, suggesting that surprised faces were perceived as having more ambiguous meaning. Accordingly, corrugator activity also decreased during adolescence. Neutral faces also produced negative ratings by children, but were also rated as conveying negative affect by older participants. Accordingly, neutral faces also elicited high corrugator activity that was similar to that elicited by negative expressions. These data show that early in life, ambiguous facial expressions are perceived as conveying negative meaning, adding support for an initial-negativity hypothesis. PMID:22906084

Tottenham, Nim; Phuong, Jessica; Flannery, Jessica; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie

2012-08-20

227

Giving to Higher Education Breaks Another Record.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports that American colleges and universities raised an estimated $20.4 billion in private gifts in the 1998-99 academic year, an increase of 10.9 percent over the previous year. Provides data on total gifts by type of institution and lists the top 20 institutions in total giving, in alumni giving, in giving from non-alumni individuals, and in…

Lively, Kit

2000-01-01

228

Income tax policy and charitable giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives-the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity across six nonprofit subsectors, finding

Arthur C. Brooks

2007-01-01

229

INCOME TAX POLICY AND CHARITABLE GIVING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives—the tax-price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. This paper introduces several theories that call this assumption into question. Then, using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, it

Arthur C. Brooks

2005-01-01

230

Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price…

Brooks, Arthur C.

2007-01-01

231

Timing, memory for intervals, and memory for untimed stimuli: the role of instructional ambiguity.  

PubMed

Theories of animal timing have had to account for findings that the memory for the duration of a timed interval appears to be dramatically shorted within a short time of its termination. This finding has led to the subjective shortening hypothesis and it has been proposed to account for the poor memory that animals appear to have for the initial portion of a timed interval when a gap is inserted in the to-be-timed signal. It has also been proposed to account for the poor memory for a relatively long interval that has been discriminated from a shorter interval. I suggest here a simpler account in which ambiguity between the gap or retention interval and the intertrial interval results in resetting the clock, rather than forgetting the interval. The ambiguity hypothesis, together with a signal salience mechanism that determines how quickly the clock is reset at the start of the intertrial interval can account for the results of the reported timing experiments that have used the peak procedure. Furthermore, instructional ambiguity rather than memory loss may account for the results of many animal memory experiments that do not involve memory for time. PMID:16095851

Zentall, Thomas R

2005-11-01

232

On the elimination of infinitesimal Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in gauge theories is presented. It is shown that, to eliminate Gribov ambiguities, at infinitesimal level, it is required to break the BRST symmetry in a soft manner. This can be done by introducing a suitable extra constraint that eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies. It is shown that the present approach is consistent with the well established known cases in the literature, i.e., the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The method is valid for gauges depending exclusively on the gauge field and is restricted to classical level. However, occasionally, we deal with quantum aspects of the technique, which are used to improve the results.

Pereira, Antônio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.

2013-10-01

233

High Order Linguistic Features Such as Ambiguity Processing as Relevant Diagnostic Markers for Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Due to the deficits of schizophrenic patients regarding the understanding of vague meanings (D. Ketteler and S. Ketteler (2010)) we develop a special test battery called HOLF (high order linguistic function test), which should be able to detect subtle linguistic performance deficits in schizophrenic patients. HOLF was presented to 40 schizophrenic patients and controls, focussing on linguistic features such as ambiguity, synonymy, hypero-/hyponymy, antinomy, and adages. Using the HOLF test battery we found that schizophrenic patients showed significant difficulties in discriminating ambiguities, hypero- and hyponymy, or synonymy compared to healthy controls. Antonyms and adages showed less significant results in comparing both groups. The more difficult a linguistic task was, the more confusion was measured in the schizophrenic group while healthy controls did not show significant problems in processing high order language tasks.

Ketteler, Daniel; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Ketteler, Simon; Jager, Matthias

2012-01-01

234

High order linguistic features such as ambiguity processing as relevant diagnostic markers for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Due to the deficits of schizophrenic patients regarding the understanding of vague meanings (D. Ketteler and S. Ketteler (2010)) we develop a special test battery called HOLF (high order linguistic function test), which should be able to detect subtle linguistic performance deficits in schizophrenic patients. HOLF was presented to 40 schizophrenic patients and controls, focussing on linguistic features such as ambiguity, synonymy, hypero-/hyponymy, antinomy, and adages. Using the HOLF test battery we found that schizophrenic patients showed significant difficulties in discriminating ambiguities, hypero- and hyponymy, or synonymy compared to healthy controls. Antonyms and adages showed less significant results in comparing both groups. The more difficult a linguistic task was, the more confusion was measured in the schizophrenic group while healthy controls did not show significant problems in processing high order language tasks. PMID:23304500

Ketteler, Daniel; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Ketteler, Simon; Jäger, Matthias

2012-12-11

235

Substrate ambiguity among the nudix hydrolases: biologically significant, evolutionary remnant, or both?  

PubMed

Many members of the nudix hydrolase family exhibit considerable substrate multispecificity and ambiguity, which raises significant issues when assessing their functions in vivo and gives rise to errors in database annotation. Several display low antimutator activity when expressed in bacterial tester strains as well as some degree of activity in vitro towards mutagenic, oxidized nucleotides such as 8-oxo-dGTP. However, many of these show greater activity towards other nucleotides such as ADP-ribose or diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A). The antimutator activities have tended to gain prominence in the literature, whereas they may in fact represent the residual activity of an ancestral antimutator enzyme that has become secondary to the more recently evolved major activity after gene duplication. Whether any meaningful antimutagenic function has also been retained in vivo requires very careful assessment. Then again, other examples of substrate ambiguity may indicate as yet unexplored regulatory systems. For example, bacterial Ap(4)A hydrolases also efficiently remove pyrophosphate from the 5' termini of mRNAs, suggesting a potential role for Ap(4)A in the control of bacterial mRNA turnover, while the ability of some eukaryotic mRNA decapping enzymes to degrade IDP and dIDP or diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (DIPs) may also be indicative of new regulatory networks in RNA metabolism. DIP phosphohydrolases also degrade diadenosine polyphosphates and inorganic polyphosphates, suggesting further avenues for investigation. This article uses these and other examples to highlight the need for a greater awareness of the possible significance of substrate ambiguity among the nudix hydrolases as well as the need to exert caution when interpreting incomplete analyses. PMID:23184251

McLennan, Alexander G

2012-11-27

236

Knowing what a novel word is not: Two-year-olds 'listen through' ambiguous adjectives in fluent speech  

PubMed Central

Three studies investigated how 24-month-olds and adults resolve temporary ambiguity in fluent speech when encountering prenominal adjectives potentially interpretable as nouns. Children were tested in a looking-while-listening procedure to monitor the time course of speech processing. In Experiment 1, the familiar and unfamiliar adjectives preceding familiar target nouns were accented or deaccented. Target word recognition was disrupted only when lexically ambiguous adjectives were accented like nouns. Experiment 2 measured the extent of interference experienced by children when interpreting prenominal words as nouns. In Experiment 3, adults used prosodic cues to identify the form class of adjective/noun homophones in string-identical sentences before the ambiguous words were fully spoken. Results show that children and adults use prosody in conjunction with lexical and distributional cues to ‘listen through’ prenominal adjectives, avoiding costly misinterpretation.

Thorpe, Kirsten; Fernald, Anne

2011-01-01

237

Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

2009-01-01

238

Infants' Use of Shared Linguistic Information to Clarify Ambiguous Requests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Do infants use past linguistic information to interpret an ambiguous request for an object? When infants in this research were shown 2 objects, and asked for 1 with an indefinite request (e.g., "Can you get it for me?"), both 15- and 18-month-olds used the speaker's previous reference to an absent object to interpret the request. The…

Ganea, Patricia A.; Saylor, Megan M.

2007-01-01

239

Ambiguous Argument as Advocacy in Organizational Crisis Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Posits that organizations in crisis situations must address multiple audiences with distinct needs. Analyzes the public communication offered by Jack in the Box restaurants during a food poisoning outbreak. Finds that ambiguity may provide organizations with a means for satisfying the divergent needs of their audiences--even where these distinct…

Sellnow, Timothy L.; Ulmer, Robert R.

1995-01-01

240

Ambiguous sexuality: Imagery and interpretation in tantric Buddhism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critic of the thesis that asceticism and celibacy are central to mysticism might well turn for support to the Buddhist and Hindu tantras, whose practices often are assumed to involve ‘sex in the service of enlightenment’. I will attempt to show that the issue is not nearly so simple, by demonstrating the ambiguity of sexual imagery in Buddhist tantric

Roger R Jackson

1992-01-01

241

Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

2012-01-01

242

Ambiguity, Accessibility, and a Division of Labor for Communicative Success  

PubMed Central

People talk to be understood, and so they should produce utterances that are easy for their listeners to understand. I begin this chapter by describing evidence showing that speakers rarely avoid sentences that are ambiguous, even though ambiguity is a factor that is well known to cause difficulty for listeners. Instead, speakers seem to choose utterances that are especially easy for them to say, specifically by producing more accessible, easy-to-think-of material sooner, and less accessible, harder-to-think-of material later. If speakers produce utterances that are easy to say but not utterances that are easy to understand, how is it that we understand each other? A third line of evidence shows that even when sentences are structurally ambiguous, they’re likely to include enough information for comprehenders to figure out what they mean. This suggests that speakers produce ambiguous utterances simply because they can -- because the grammar of their language will only let them produce utterances that are unambiguous enough to be understood most of the time anyway. And so, we understand each other because speakers produce utterances efficiently even if they’re not optimally understandable; addressees do what they need to to understand their speakers; and the grammar makes sure everything works out properly.

Ferreira, Victor S.

2009-01-01

243

Medication error due to ambiguous labelling of a commercial product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication errors may involve prescribing, dispensing, preparation and administration of drugs. We report a case in which an administration error occurred due to ambiguous labelling of a commercial drug. Tablets were packed in sets of two tablets per blister with the print on the blister 'Zelitrex 500', making the amount of drug per tablet unclear. A short survey among nurses

Henk-Jan Guchelaar; Mathijs D. Kalmeijer; Minke E. P. Jansen

2004-01-01

244

Expecting and Accepting: The Temporal Ambiguity of Recovery Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper has two complementary agendas. One is to develop a formal analysis of temporal ambiguity in self-identification. This refers specifically to having two conflicting orientations toward the future with regard to one's identity (e.g., a temporary expecting orientation and a permanent accepting orientation). I use the recovery identity…

Howard, Jenna

2006-01-01

245

Reflections on Religion, Intelligent Design, and Ambiguity in the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses an historical perspective to illustrate the ambiguous way scientific data, that has implications for understanding our place in the universe, has been interpreted. It is shown that the data can be interpreted from a theistic or atheistic perspective. Scholars of the history and philosophy of science have concluded that theism can never be derived from the argument

Kevin C de Berg

2007-01-01

246

Violent Comic Books and Perceptions of Ambiguous Provocation Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of reading very violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situations, independent of trait hostility. 119 introductory psychology students read either a violent comic book, Curse of the Spawn, or a mildly violent comic book, Archie & Friends. After reading the comic books, participants read six shor t stories in

Steven J. Kirsh; Paul V. Olczak

2000-01-01

247

Measurement and analysis of ambiguity functions of passive radar transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive coherent location (PCL) radar systems make use of broadcast or communications 'illuminators of opportunity' in a bistatic configuration. In order to understand the performance limitations of this type of radar it is necessary to know the ambiguity properties of these waveforms, and how they vary with the form of modulation and with the bistatic geometry. This paper presents and

Hugh D. Griffiths; Chris J. Baker

2005-01-01

248

Ambiguity Function Analysis of Wireless LAN Transmissions for Passive Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless transmission is becoming an increasingly widely available source of transmissions for passive radar detection. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the ambiguity function (AF) of a range of typical IEEE 802.11 signals obtained during a series of experimental trials. Theoretical analysis has been used to identify the average properties of basic signal types in terms of

Fabiola Colone; Karl Woodbridge; Hui Guo; David Mason; Chris J. Baker

2011-01-01

249

Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

Degani, Tamar

2011-01-01

250

Bordering Community: Reclaiming Ambiguity as a Transgressive Landscape of Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically investigating the concept of community, this article explores some of the ideological and epistemological frameworks that have defined both the potentialities and the limitations of community as a liberatory and\\/or liberated space. This article sheds light on how ambiguously identified, bodied, and placed people are affected by cultures and systems of oppression in ways that create unique tensions with

Kimberly D. Hudson

2012-01-01

251

Ambiguous Loss in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning that a child has a lifelong developmental disorder is stressful and challenging to any family, yet it is clear that some families adapt and adjust more readily than others. In this article, it is proposed that a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is especially likely to be experienced as ambiguous loss. Interviews with mothers…

O'Brien, Marion

2007-01-01

252

"What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of attribution, "the act of explaining why something happens or why a person acts a particular way," is typically an abstract concept. This 35-50-minute activity invites students to make a series of attributions by asking them "What happened?" in ambiguous scenes presented in class. Then, students retrospectively identify what…

McArthur, John

2011-01-01

253

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

254

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

255

Reading-Time Studies of Second Language Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a review of studies that have examined the ambiguity resolution strategies employed when processing a second language (L2). The way second language learners parse the L2 input has not yet been thoroughly investigated, although recently there has been an increasing interest in this area. The exploration of the mechanisms L2…

Papadopoulou, Despina

2005-01-01

256

The Development of Preschoolers' Appreciation of Communicative Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a longitudinal design, preschoolers' appreciation of a listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided with an ambiguous or unambiguous description was assessed. Preschoolers (N = 34) were tested at 3 time points, each 6 months apart (4, 4 1/2, and 5 years). Eye gaze measures demonstrated that…

Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.

2012-01-01

257

Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

Degani, Tamar

2011-01-01

258

Intolerance of Ambiguity and Political Orientation among Israeli University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores relations between political orientation and cognitive style among Israeli university students. Finds that intolerance of ambiguity contributed significantly to political orientation and that the political Left showed more complex cognitive styles than the Right. Notes implications for testing competing hypotheses about cognitive style…

Fibert, Zigi; Ressler, William Harris

1998-01-01

259

The self-protective and undermining effects of attributional ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments assessed the self-protective and undermining effects of attributional ambiguity. Both studies utilized immersive virtual environment technology to achieve otherwise difficult manipulations of stigma. In Experiment 1, White and Latino participants were either stigmatized (represented as Latino) or not (represented as White) and given negative leadership performance feedback. Afterwards, stigmatized participants reported higher well-being and attributed negative feedback more

Crystal L. Hoyt; Lauren Aguilar; Cheryl R. Kaiser; Jim Blascovich; Kevin Lee

2007-01-01

260

Hemispheric Differences in Context Sensitivity During Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of contextual constraint on lexical ambiguity resolution in the cerebral hemispheres. A cross-modal priming variant of the divided visual field task was utilized in which subjects heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions to targets semantically related to dominant and subordinate meanings. Experiment 1 showed priming in both hemispheres of dominant

Debra Titone

1998-01-01

261

A Limit Theorem for Equilibria under Ambiguous Beliefs Correspondences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature shows that, in many different models, limits of equilibria of perturbed games are equilibria of the unperturbed game when the sequence of perturbed games converges to the unperturbed one in an appropriate sense. The question whether such limit property extends to the equilibrium notions in ambiguous games is not yet clear as it seems; in fact, previous literature

Giuseppe De Marco; Maria Romaniello

2011-01-01

262

Managing ambiguity in reference generation: the role of surface structure.  

PubMed

This article explores the role of surface ambiguities in referring expressions, and how the risk of such ambiguities should be taken into account by an algorithm that generates referring expressions, if these expressions are to be optimally effective for a hearer. We focus on the ambiguities that arise when adjectives occur in coordinated structures. The central idea is to use statistical information about lexical co-occurrence to estimate which interpretation of a phrase is most likely for human readers, and to avoid generating phrases where misunderstandings are likely. Various aspects of the problem were explored in three experiments in which responses by human participants provided evidence about which reading was most likely for certain phrases, which phrases were deemed most suitable for particular referents, and the speed at which various phrases were read. We found a preference for ''clear'' expressions to ''unclear'' ones, but if several of the expressions are ''clear,'' then brief expressions are preferred over non-brief ones even though the brief ones are syntactically ambiguous and the non-brief ones are not; the notion of clarity was made precise using Kilgarriff's Word Sketches. We outline an implemented algorithm that generates noun phrases conforming to our hypotheses. PMID:22496107

Khan, Imtiaz H; van Deemter, Kees; Ritchie, Graeme

2011-11-10

263

Lexical Processing of Ambiguous Words: Dominance or Associative Strength?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments examined the role of meaning frequency (dominance) and associative strength (measured by associative norms) in the processing of ambiguous words in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to targets words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph prime. The first two experiments investigated the role of associative strength at long

Francisco Nievas; Fernando Justicia; José J. Cañas; M. Teresa Bajo

2005-01-01

264

Liquid racism and the ambiguity of Ali G  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses Ali G through the concept of ‘liquid racism’. As a polysemic and elusive form, liquid racism requires reflexivity in order to critique it fully, and is a racism that, in media representation, often polarizes debate of its meaning. The article explains how academics have struggled to explain Ali G’s relationship to racism, how his ambiguity is complicated

Simon Weaver

2011-01-01

265

Semantic ambiguity within and across languages: An integrative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic ambiguity often occurs within a language (e.g., the word “organ” in English means both a body part and a musical instrument), but it can also cross a language boundary, such that a given word form is shared in two languages, but its meanings are different (e.g., the word “angel” means “sting” in Dutch). Bilingual individuals are therefore faced not

Tamar Degani; Natasha Tokowicz

2010-01-01

266

Some Ambiguities Concerning the Development of Electronic Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic efficiency of electronic money and to identify different factors hindering its growth. It is argued that electronic money might eventually make paper money obsolete. Nevertheless, prospects for the development of this monetary innovation remain uncertain due to the complexity and ambiguity of electronic money products. In particular, the paper identifies

Helmi Hamdi

2007-01-01

267

Interpreting Ambiguous Advertisements: The Effect of Frontal Lobe Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intact primary language processes patients with frontal lobe deficits often have impaired communication skills including impaired capacity to understand conversational inference. This study examined the ability of three patients with demonstrated frontal lobe pathology to interpret lexically ambiguous advertisements. When compared to a nonbrain-damaged control group it was found that the frontal lobe patients were poorer at comprehending the

Samantha Pearce; Skye McDonald; Max Coltheart

1998-01-01

268

Stimulating the brain's language network: syntactic ambiguity resolution after TMS to the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus.  

PubMed

The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic information and the IFG in unification operations that maintain, select, and integrate multiple sources of information over time. In the present investigation, we tested for causal evidence of this dissociation by modulating activity in IFG and MTG using an offline TMS procedure: continuous theta-burst stimulation. Lexical-syntactic retrieval was manipulated by using sentences with and without a temporarily word-class (noun/verb) ambiguity (e.g., run). In one group of participants, TMS was applied to the IFG and MTG, and in a control group, no TMS was applied. Eye movements were recorded and quantified at two critical sentence regions: a temporarily ambiguous region and a disambiguating region. Results show that stimulation of the IFG led to a modulation of the ambiguity effect (ambiguous-unambiguous) at the disambiguating sentence region in three measures: first fixation durations, total reading times, and regressive eye movements into the region. Both IFG and MTG stimulation modulated the ambiguity effect for total reading times in the temporarily ambiguous sentence region relative to the control group. The current results demonstrate that an offline repetitive TMS protocol can have influences at a different point in time during online processing and provide causal evidence for IFG involvement in unification operations during sentence comprehension. PMID:23767923

Acheson, Daniel J; Hagoort, Peter

2013-06-14

269

Examining lateralized lexical ambiguity processing using dichotic and cross-modal tasks.  

PubMed

The individual roles played by the cerebral hemispheres during the process of language comprehension have been extensively studied in tasks that require individuals to read text (for review see Jung-Beeman, 2005). However, it is not clear whether or not some aspects of the theorized laterality models of semantic comprehension are a result of the modality of presentation. Extending earlier work examining lateralized semantic processing using lexically ambiguous words, the current experiments utilized two modified lexical-decision tasks (one fully auditory and one cross-modal) with dichotically presented target stimuli. When targets were presented to the right ear/left hemisphere there was a distinct advantage for detecting words that are associated with the dominant meaning of the ambiguous word over the subordinate meaning. In contrast, for left ear/right hemisphere trials, there was either no difference between the pattern of semantic access for dominant and subordinate meaning (dichotic only) or a processing advantage for the subordinate meaning of the ambiguous word (with cross-modal presentation). These data suggest that the complimentary hemispheric strategies that allow for semantic access are not modality specific and instead characterize how the hemispheres each contribute to comprehension for both speech and text. Thus, dichotic presentation does seem to allow for the study of subtle hemispheric difference in meaning comprehension. PMID:21236275

Atchley, Ruth Ann; Grimshaw, Gina; Schuster, Jonathan; Gibson, Linzi

2011-01-12

270

Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.  

PubMed

In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism. PMID:23350876

Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

2013-01-25

271

Carrier phase ambiguity resolution for the Global Positioning System applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for resolving the ambiguities in the GPS carrier phase data (which are biased by an integer number of cycles) is described which can be applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km in length and can be used with dual-frequency P code receivers. The results of such application demonstrated that a factor of 3 improvement in baseline accuracy

Geoffrey Blewitt

1989-01-01

272

Giving Overseas and Public Policy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been spectacular large gifts by private individuals for overseas development in recent years, and remarkable numbers of people have responded to appeals by development charities. The aim of this paper is to consider how such overseas giving is best modelled and the implications for public policy. Existing theories of charitable giving provide insight but are not fully satisfactory

A B Atkinson

273

Tithing and religious charitable giving in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of religious tithing - giving 10% or more of one's income to religious organizations - permeates ancient and contemporary religious literature. Yet, the degree to which households apply this construct in their charitable giving practices remains unclear. This study examines the practice of tithing using data from a national expenditures survey including 56 663 households. Despite the pervasiveness

Russell James; Keely Jones

2011-01-01

274

Gift Giving: An Exploratory Behavioural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to contribute to the marketing literature through an exploratory review of gift giving behaviour as it pertains to cultural and other demographical variables. Following Mathur's (1996, Psychology & Marketing, 13(1), 107–123) recommendation that future research into gift giving might examine differences among different subgroups in the population, this study closely examined gender differences to

Tekle Shanka; Brian Handley

2011-01-01

275

Changes in Religious Giving Reflect Changes in Involvement: Age and Cohort Effects in Religious Giving, Secular Giving, and Attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two patterns over time in religious giving, secular giving, and religious service attendance. The first pattern describes the prewar cohort (born 1924-1938) as they aged between middle adulthood (ages 35-49) and their senior years (ages 62-76). The second pattern compares the baby boom cohort (born 1951-1965) in middle adulthood to the middle adulthood of the prewar cohort. We

MARK O. WILHELM; PATRICK M. ROONEY; EUGENE R. TEMPEL

2007-01-01

276

Disjunctive ambiguity and the performance of Flannery O'connor's “the displaced person”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative ambiguity, a concept which has only recently achieved prominence in literary criticism, has important implications for the performance of literature. This essay explores disjunctive narrative ambiguity and how it differs from other, similar literary devices. Specifically, this essay suggests group and solo performance techniques that can preserve and, in many cases, feature the disjunctive ambiguity in Flanner O'Connor's “The

Carole Ellsworth Tallant

1986-01-01

277

Another Kind of Ambiguous Loss: Seventh-Day Adventist Women in Mixed-Orientation Marriages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Narratives of five Seventh-day Adventist heterosexual women whose mixed-orientation marriages ended were analyzed through the lens of ambiguous loss. Thematic coding identified a wave-like process of changing emotional foci that emerged from their experience during marital dissolution. Elements of ambiguous loss included boundary ambiguity,…

Hernandez, Barbara C.; Wilson, Colwick M.

2007-01-01

278

Using deliberate ambiguity of the information economy in the design of a mobile location based games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a research project to extend the concept of 'Seamful Design' within mobile location based games, which currently seeks to reveal the ambiguity of the system or infrastructure to a player, by introducing additional and deliberate ambiguity in how information is presented and revealed to players. This deliberate ambiguity radically changes the information economy of the games by

Zhang Lei; Paul Coulton

2011-01-01

279

Polyaromatic hydrocarbon exposure: an ecological impact ambiguity.  

PubMed

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons and are currently one of the foremost sources of generating energy in today's contemporary society. However, evidence highlighted in this review show that PAH pollution, as a result of oil spills, hazardous PAH-contaminated working environments and technologies which do not efficiently utilise fuels, as well as natural sources of emissions (e.g. forest fires) may have significant health implications for all taxa. The extent of damage to organisms from PAH exposure is dependent on numerous factors including degree and type of PAH exposure, nature of the environment contaminated (i.e. terrestrial or aquatic), the ability of an organism to relocate to pristine environments, type and sensitivity of organism to specific hydrocarbon fractions and ability of the organism to metabolise different PAH fractions. The review highlights the fact that studies on the potential damage of PAHs should be carried out using mixtures of hydrocarbons as opposed to individual hydrocarbon fractions due to the scarcity of individual fractions being a sole contaminant. Furthermore, potential damage of PAH-contaminated sites should be assessed using an entire ecological impact outlook of the affected area. PMID:23529398

Ball, Andrew; Truskewycz, Adam

2013-03-26

280

Cesare Lombroso: Methodological ambiguities and brilliant intuitions.  

PubMed

This paper on Cesare Lombroso aims to assess his contribution to the criminological sciences. Although much praised worldwide, Lombroso was also the target of scathing criticism and unmitigated condemnation. Examination of Lombroso's method of data collection and analysis reveals his weakness. Indeed, his approach was extremely naive, simplistic and uncritical, aimed at irrefutably demonstrating the hypotheses that he championed, without exercising the methodological caution that was already beginning to characterize scientific research in his day. However, we must acknowledge that his biological theories of crime are undergoing new developments as a result of the recent success of biological psychiatry. On the other hand we should recognize that his work was not limited to his biological central theory; rather, it covered a range of cues and concepts, for the most part ignored, that demonstrate his interest in the economic, cultural and social factors that impact on crime. For these reasons, Lombroso appears to have anticipated many modern conceptions regarding delinquent behavior and criminal justice, such as those of restorative justice, the so-called "situational" theories of criminal behavior and white collar crime. PMID:22154472

Gatti, Uberto; Verde, Alfredo

2011-12-07

281

Ambiguity functions and noise floor suppression in random noise radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise radar can be used in a great number of applications including SAR. The non-periodic waveform suppresses the range ambiguity and reduces the probability of intercept and interference. Due to the randomness of the waveform, a noise floor limiting the possible side lobe suppression accompanies the correlation integral involved. In strong clutter scenes with dominant reflectors, the induced noise floor can be too high and further suppression is needed. In this paper, the ambiguity function of random noise waveforms is first analyzed, and an improved formulation is introduced to include the noise floor effect. The use of mismatched filtering for improved sidelobe suppression is then discussed. Finally, an iterative subtraction algorithm is analyzed for noise floor cancellation in the presence of dominating reflectors. This method is successfully tested on random step frequency radar data and noise sodar data.

Axelsson, Sune R. J.

2006-10-01

282

Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design  

SciTech Connect

Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

1997-10-01

283

Learning and Generalization under Ambiguity: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Adaptive behavior often exploits generalizations from past experience by applying them judiciously in new situations. This requires a means of quantifying the relative importance of prior experience and current information, so they can be balanced optimally. In this study, we ask whether the brain generalizes in an optimal way. Specifically, we used Bayesian learning theory and fMRI to test whether neuronal responses reflect context-sensitive changes in ambiguity or uncertainty about experience-dependent beliefs. We found that the hippocampus expresses clear ambiguity-dependent responses that are associated with an augmented rate of learning. These findings suggest candidate neuronal systems that may be involved in aberrations of generalization, such as over-confidence.

Chumbley, J. R.; Flandin, G.; Bach, D. R.; Daunizeau, J.; Fehr, E.; Dolan, R. J.; Friston, K. J.

2012-01-01

284

Interpreting ambiguous visual information in motor learning.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that learning to reach accurately with an imposed visuomotor rotation requires a remapping of the relationship between vision and motor output. In this preliminary study, we examine how the brain works out the appropriate motor adjustments, in this case for both arms, based on visual images. Specifically, we investigate how visual errors seen while adapting reaches to visual targets affect the movements of both the trained and untrained hand. In our task subjects learned to make accurate reaches to targets in four visual feedback conditions: rotated 45 degrees, rotated 105 degrees, reversed left to right and rotated 45 degrees plus reversed. In all conditions the rotation was applied to the subject's feedback of their hand and not the targets. In the reversed and rotated-reversed condition, when the subject used their right hand, the feedback looked like their left hand (and vice versa). After a training period with one hand (e.g., right) subjects were tested with the opposite hand (e.g., left) on the same task. We predicted that after reaching with the right hand with reversed visual feedback the control of the left arm would also be altered-more so than after learning an equal-sized adjustment to right-arm reaching with a rotated, but non-reversed, view of their hand movements. Our results showed that people were able to learn the visuomotor adaptation with reversed visual feedback, but more interestingly, that learning occurred for the untrained hand as well for the reversed conditions alone. Here, vision alone--when it resembles the image of the opposite hand--led to improved initial performance for this opposite, untrained arm when reaching in a similar task. The brain seems to take advantage of reversed visual feedback of the arm to adjust the motor commands to the untrained arm in a way that facilitates transfer of the adaptation from one arm to the other. PMID:19146286

Dionne, Jennifer K; Henriques, Denise Y P

2008-11-10

285

Maximum Entropy Models For Natural Language Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis demonstrates that several important kinds of natural language ambiguities can be resolved to state-of-the-art accuracies using a single statistical modeling technique based on the principle of maximum entropy. We discuss the problems of sentence boundary detection, part-of-speech tagging, prepositional phrase attachment, natural language parsing, and text categorization under the maximum entropy framework. In practice, we have found that

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

1998-01-01

286

Clitoral cyst as a cause of ambiguous genitalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Ambiguous genitalia need appropriate evaluation, because a serious disease can manifest as this condition.CASE:A 28-year-old woman was referred with a “penis” present from age 12 years that enlarged throughout puberty but recently was unchanged. Differential diagnosis included true hermaphroditism; adrenal hyperplasia; clitoral, ovarian, and adrenal neoplasms; stromal hyperthecosis; polycystic ovarian syndrome; and exogenous androgen exposure. Free testosterone was not elevated.

Danielle Linck; Maria F Hayes

2002-01-01

287

Direction of arrival tracking below the ambiguity threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for direction-of-arrival (DOA) tracking that allows operation below the ambiguity threshold of the direction-finding (DF) system. Using multiple target tracking techniques, the algorithm turns the most likely DOAs of each measurement into multiple potential tracks and then selects the true track as that with the maximum cumulative likelihood. The improvement offered by the algorithm, namely the

MATI WAX; RUBY TWEG

2000-01-01

288

WiMAX ambiguity function for PCL systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive coherent location (PCL) radar systems use signals of opportunity as the off-board source of electromagnetic illumination. The analysis of the structure, spectral, and spatial properties of emerging commercial waveforms becomes a critical component of future PCL radar systems design. This paper presents an ambiguity function analysis of the emerging IEEE 802.16 OFDM signal known as “WiMAX” for passive radar

J. R. G. del Arroyo; J. Jackson; M. Temple

2010-01-01

289

Infants' Use of Shared Linguistic Information to Clarify Ambiguous Requests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do infants use past linguistic information to interpret an ambiguous request for an object? When infants in this research were shown 2 objects, and asked for 1 with an indefinite request (e.g., ''Can you get it for me?''), both 15- and 18-month-olds used the speaker's previous reference to an absent object to interpret the request. The 18- month-olds did so

Patricia A. Ganea; Megan M. Saylor

2007-01-01

290

Grey Matter: Ambiguities and Complexities of Ethics in Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical dilemmas are often not discussed in the dissemination of educational research. While the ethical guidelines for research\\u000a seem clear at first glance, a closer look at the intimate nature of qualitative research reveals that there are many ambiguities\\u000a or ‘grey’ areas where researchers must rely on their personal value systems. This article discusses the challenges faced by\\u000a an experienced

Joyce Ellen Kennedy

2005-01-01

291

Interpretation of Ambiguous Information in Girls at Risk for Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has consistently documented that depressed individuals process information in a negatively biased manner. There is\\u000a little evidence, however, concerning whether these biases represent risk factors for depression, as is hypothesized by cognitive\\u000a models. In the present study we investigated whether a particular cognitive bias observed in currently depressed individuals,\\u000a the tendency to interpret ambiguous information negatively, characterizes daughters of

Karen F. Dearing; Ian H. Gotlib

2009-01-01

292

Probabilistic tracking using optical flow to resolve color ambiguities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color-based tracking is prone to failure in situations where visually similar targets are moving in close proximit y to each other. To deal with the ambiguities in color infor- mation we propose an additional color-independent feature based on the target's local motion, which is calculated from the optical flow induced by the target in consecutive images. By modifying a color-based

Matej Kristan; Janez Per; Ales Leonardis; Stanislav Kova

293

Context modulates hemispheric asymmetries in the resolution of lexical ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have reported a hemispheric asymmetry in processing dominant (e.g., paper) and subordinate (e.g., farmer) associations of ambiguous words (e.g., pen). The majority of these studies, however, applied randomly ordered presentation and collected right-hand responses only. Generating responses solely with the right hand and the randomly ordered presentation of association type might have affected natural hemispheric expertise. We explored

Yuval Harpaz; Michal Lavidor

2012-01-01

294

How Vestibular Neurons Solve the Tilt/Translation Ambiguity  

PubMed Central

The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory ambiguity, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory ambiguity can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinations of tilt and translation. We focus primarily on cerebellar cortex responses, as nodulus/uvula Purkinje cells reliably encode translation rather than net gravito-inertial acceleration. In contrast, neurons in the vestibular and rostral fastigial nuclei, as well as the ventral lateral and ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus represent a continuum, with some encoding translation and some net gravito-inertial acceleration. This review also outlines how Purkinje cells use semicircular canal signals to solve the ambiguity problem and how this solution fails at low frequencies. We conclude by attempting to bridge the gap between the proposed roles of nodulus/uvula in tilt/translation discrimination and velocity storage.

Angelaki, Dora E.; Yakusheva, Tatyana A.

2010-01-01

295

Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

2005-09-01

296

Data compression for complex ambiguity function for emitter location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Complex Ambiguity Function (CAF) used in emitter location measurement is a 2-dimensional complex-valued function of time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) and frequency-difference-of-arrival (FDOA). In classical TDOA/FDOA systems, pairs of sensors share data (using compression) to compute the CAF, which is then used to estimate the TDOA/FDOA for each pair; the sets of TDOA/FDOA measurements are then transmitted to a common site where they are fused into an emitter location. However, in some recently published methods for improved emitter location methods, it has been proposed that after each pair of sensors computes the CAF it is the entire CAFs that should be shared rather than the extracted TDOA/FDOA estimates. This leads to a need for methods to compress the CAFs. Because a CAF is a 2-D functions it can be thought of as a form of image - albeit, a complex-valued image. We apply and appropriately modify the Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) to compress the Ambiguity Function. Several techniques are analyzed to exploit the correlation between the imaginary part and real part of Ambiguity Function and comparisons are made between the approaches. The impact of such compression on the overall location accuracy is assessed via simulations.

Pourhomayoun, Mohammed; Fowler, Mark L.

2010-08-01

297

How do owls localize interaurally phase-ambiguous signals?  

PubMed

Owls and other animals, including humans, use the difference in arrival time of sounds between the ears to determine the direction of a sound source in the horizontal plane. When an interaural time difference (ITD) is conveyed by a narrowband signal such as a tone, human beings may fail to derive the direction represented by that ITD. This is because they cannot distinguish the true ITD contained in the signal from its phase equivalents that are ITD +/- nT, where T is the period of the stimulus tone and n is an integer. This uncertainty is called phase-ambiguity. All ITD-sensitive neurons in birds and mammals respond to an ITD and its phase equivalents when the ITD is contained in narrowband signals. It is not known, however, if these animals show phase-ambiguity in the localization of narrowband signals. The present work shows that barn owls (Tyto alba) experience phase-ambiguity in the localization of tones delivered by earphones. We used sound-induced head-turning responses to measure the sound-source directions perceived by two owls. In both owls, head-turning angles varied as a sinusoidal function of ITD. One owl always pointed to the direction represented by the smaller of the two ITDs, whereas a second owl always chose the direction represented by the larger ITD (i.e., ITD - T). PMID:9600989

Saberi, K; Farahbod, H; Konishi, M

1998-05-26

298

Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... urging consumers to carefully read the labels of liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants to avoid giving the ... less concentrated version for all children. Until now, liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants has only been available ...

299

Understanding and Predicting Alumni Giving Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Graphics, survey research, and multivariate statistical techniques were applied at a private liberal arts college to help development professionals better understand and predict alumni giving behavior, on both an aggregate and an individual basis. (Author)|

Connolly, Michael S.; Blanchette, Rene

1986-01-01

300

Social Capital, Volunteering, and Charitable Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of social capital—measured by social trust and social networks—on individual charitable giving\\u000a to religious and secular organizations. Using United States data from the national sample of the 2000 Social Capital Community\\u000a Benchmark Survey, we find that social trust, bridging social network, and civic engagement increase the amount of giving to\\u000a both religious and secular causes.

Lili Wang; Elizabeth Graddy

2008-01-01

301

January 3: Can you give me some information about drug ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Drugs; News & Events. ... January 3: Can you give me some information about drug products currently in review at FDA? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/newsevents

302

Analysis of the ambiguity function for an FM signal derived from the Lorenz chaotic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In prior work, we showed that any one of the state variables of the Lorenz chaotic flow can be used effectively as the instantaneous frequency of an FM signal. We further investigated a method to improve chaotic-wideband FM signals for high resolution radar applications by introducing a compression factor to the Lorenz flow equations and by varying two control parameters, namely ? and ?, to substantially increase the bandwidth of the signal. In this paper, we obtain an empirical quadratic relationship between these two control parameters that yields a high Lyapunov exponent which allows the Lorenz flow to quickly diverge from its initial state. This, in turn, results in an FM signal with an agile center frequency that is also chaotic. A time-frequency analysis of the FM signal shows that variable time-bandwidth products of the order of 105 and wide bandwidths of approximately 10 GHz are achievable over short segments of the signal. Next, we compute the average ambiguity function for a large number of short segments of the signal with positive range-Doppler coupling. The resulting ambiguity surface is shaped as a set of mountain ridges that align with multiple range-Doppler coupling lines with low self-noise surrounding the peak response. Similar results are achieved for segments of the signal with negative range-Doppler coupling. The characteristics of the ambiguity surface are directly attributed to the frequency agility of the FM signal which could be potentially used to counteract electronic counter measures aimed at traditional chirp radars.

Pappu, Chandra S.; Flores, Benjamin C.; deBroux, Patrick

2012-05-01

303

[Confidentiality and the refusal to give evidence].  

PubMed

The physician's obligation to give evidence as a witness in a preliminary investigation is in an area of conflict between the duty to tell the truth and preservation of professional discretion. These have to be weighed in the individual case. In opposition to the Anglo-American law, where a possible right of the witness to refuse to give evidence is limited by the principle of "finding the truth", the German law of criminal procedure contains far-reaching rights of a physician and so-called professional assistants witness to refuse to give evidence in sections 53, 53a Code of Criminal Procedure in order to protect the professional secrecy. This privilege refers to all facts, that have become known to the doctor or his staff and therefore it goes beyond the area of the medical discretion in section 203 GCC, that only contains secrets, which were confined to the doctor or which have become known to him. The witness can decide whether he either uses his right to refuse to give evidence or gives evidence without being released from medical confidentiality. In the second case, he risks being punished under section 203 GCC. If a physician is considered as witness in a procedure, the medical files are protected from attachment in section 97 subsection 1 numbers 2 and 3 Code of Criminal Procedure. In cases, where the physician is defendant himself, he cannot refer to this protection. PMID:10683895

Lilie, H

1999-12-01

304

A study of a class of detection waveforms having nearly ideal range-Doppler ambiguity properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special class of permutation matrices is considered. It is shown that these matrices may be beneficially used to determine the frequency-time pattern of a uniform pulse train. Proper choice of burst waveform parameters is shown to result in a detection waveform having range and Doppler resolution properties consistent with the overall signal duration and bandwidth. The range-Doppler sidelobe peaks are well-controlled so that the ideal "thumbtack' ambiguity function behavior is closely approximated by the synthesis procedure presented.

Costas, J. P.

1983-07-01

305

The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2012-01-01

306

Concealment of Give-Away Parts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The outline of an animal is not the only feature that might give it away. Often some part of it, perhaps its eyes or its legs or its tail, might also be a clue. In this activity, these parts are called giveaway parts . The function of the first activity is to consider the problem of eye concealment more carefully as students investigate the usefulness of an eye stripe. In the second activity, the frog's give-away parts will be inspected through a series of exercises.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

307

Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem  

SciTech Connect

Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

Lu, Hung Jung

1992-09-01

308

Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?  

PubMed

Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. PMID:22581420

Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

2012-05-11

309

Score Tests for Association between Traits and Haplotypes when Linkage Phase Is Ambiguous  

PubMed Central

A key step toward the discovery of a gene related to a trait is the finding of an association between the trait and one or more haplotypes. Haplotype analyses can also provide critical information regarding the function of a gene; however, when unrelated subjects are sampled, haplotypes are often ambiguous because of unknown linkage phase of the measured sites along a chromosome. A popular method of accounting for this ambiguity in case-control studies uses a likelihood that depends on haplotype frequencies, so that the haplotype frequencies can be compared between the cases and controls; however, this traditional method is limited to a binary trait (case vs. control), and it does not provide a method of testing the statistical significance of specific haplotypes. To address these limitations, we developed new methods of testing the statistical association between haplotypes and a wide variety of traits, including binary, ordinal, and quantitative traits. Our methods allow adjustment for nongenetic covariates, which may be critical when analyzing genetically complex traits. Furthermore, our methods provide several different global tests for association, as well as haplotype-specific tests, which give a meaningful advantage in attempts to understand the roles of many different haplotypes. The statistics can be computed rapidly, making it feasible to evaluate the associations between many haplotypes and a trait. To illustrate the use of our new methods, they are applied to a study of the association of haplotypes (composed of genes from the human-leukocyte-antigen complex) with humoral immune response to measles vaccination. Limited simulations are also presented to demonstrate the validity of our methods, as well as to provide guidelines on how our methods could be used.

Schaid, Daniel J.; Rowland, Charles M.; Tines, David E.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

2002-01-01

310

Giving BirthVoices of Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of the childbirth experience for Chinese women living in the People's Republic of China is described in this phenomenological study. Ten primiparous women participated in audiotaped interviews within 5 months of giving birth, 9 from Beijing and 1 from Chongqing. The interviews were translated by a bilingual native Chinese speaker and transcribed by the researcher. Themes were identified

Robin Kartchner; Lynn Clark Callister

2003-01-01

311

Panama Canal: Will we Give it up.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines whether or not, in the foreseeable future, the United States will bow to pressure, both internal and external, to give up it's exclusive jurisdiction and sovereignty rights over the Panama Canal and the Zone and allow it to be controlle...

J. A. Loupe

1974-01-01

312

Asian American Giving to US Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

Tsunoda, Kozue

2010-01-01

313

Undergraduate Financial Aid and Subsequent Giving Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on 2,822 Vanderbilt University graduates are used to investigate alumni giving behavior during the eight years after graduation. A two stage model accounting for incidental truncation is used to first estimate the likelihood of making a contribution and second estimate the average gift size conditional on contributing. The type of financial aid received as an undergraduate appears to have

K. Dugan; C. H. Mullin; J. J. Siegfried

2000-01-01

314

Giving Leads to Happiness in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary models of cooperation require proximate mechanisms that sustain prosociality despite inherent costs to individuals. The “warm glow” that often follows prosocial acts could provide one such mechanism; if so, these emotional benefits may be observable very early in development. Consistent with this hypothesis, the present study finds that before the age of two, toddlers exhibit greater happiness when giving

Lara B. Aknin; J. Kiley Hamlin; Elizabeth W. Dunn

2012-01-01

315

Giving High School Students More Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent Web search returned more than 1.1 billion hits for the phrase "time management," a concept that school leaders hear in seminars, read about in books, and are trained in during professional development. But, like principals, students too need the advantage of a little more time. One high school in Indiana is giving students the advantage…

Nagel, David

2008-01-01

316

Positive affect and feedback-giving behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – New models of career management require individuals to harvest as much learning as possible from situations wherever and whenever feedback is possible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of positive affect (liking) on feedback giving behavior since authors have suggested a potential bias but little empirical evidence exists on the topic. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data

Susan M. Adams

2005-01-01

317

Face to Face: Cultivating Planned Giving Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The most effective way to secure and promote gifts is seen as face-to-face contact. Some effective planned giving programs including visitation programs, book plate program, reunions, and use of donors as effective door-openers are described. Suggestions for how to encourage people to discuss their estates are provided. (MLW)|

Collier, Charles W.

1979-01-01

318

Group-complement code signal and its radar ambiguity function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group-complement code (GCC) is a type of artificial noise, generally a code group consisting of a multigroup equal length subcode with each of its elements being coded in accordance with frequency, phase, and amplitude. After the screened group-complement codes are received by using auto-correlation method, the sum of all subcode auto-correlation function is characterized by total complementarity. If used in radar, the group-complement code forms an artificial noise radar. If used in communication, it forms an artificial noise communication. This paper will mainly focus on explaining the domains, mathematical model, and radar ambiguity function of the group-complement code.

Zhong, Chi-Rui

319

Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.  

PubMed

Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth. PMID:19507448

Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

2009-04-01

320

A rare case of congenital heart disease with ambiguous genitalia  

PubMed Central

Birth defects have become the important cause of mortality and morbidity in the perinatal period. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect which includes the varying forms of cardiac abnormalities and occurs with an incidence of 1 per 100 live births. In most of the cases, CHD is an isolated malformation, but about 33% have associated anomalies. Ambiguous genitalia are one such rare anomaly that is associated with CHD among other genital abnormalities. The possible causes for this association could be pseudohermaphroditism, which in turn, may be due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The government of any country should consider providing for its people a free prenatal diagnosis for susceptible disorders.

Lingaiah, Kusuma; Parshwanath, Bharath A.; Mysore, Savitha R.; Krishnamurthy, Balasundaram; Ramachandra, Nallur B.

2010-01-01

321

Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.  

PubMed

The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts. PMID:20234007

Jaffee Nagel, Julie

2010-02-01

322

Phase-wrapping ambiguity in along-track interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous SPIE paper we described several variations of along-track interferometry (ATI), which can be used for moving target detection and geo-location in clutter. ATI produces a phase map in range/Doppler coordinates by combining radar data from several receive channels separated fore-and-aft (along-track) on the sensor platform. In principle, the radial velocity of a moving target can be estimated from the ATI phase of the pixels in the target signature footprint. Once the radial velocity is known, the target azimuth follows directly. Unfortunately, the ATI phase is wrapped, i.e., it repeats in the interval [-?, ?], and therefore the mapping from ATI phase to target azimuth is non-unique. In fact, depending on the radar system parameters, each detected target can map to several equally-likely azimuth values. In the present paper we discuss a signal processing method for resolving the phase wrapping ambiguity, in which the radar bandwidth is split into a high and low sub-band in software, and an ATI phase map is generated for each. By subtracting these two phase maps we can generate a coarse, but unambiguous, radial velocity estimate. This coarse estimate is then combined with the fine, but ambiguous estimate to pinpoint the target radial velocity, and therefore its azimuth. Since the coarse estimate is quite sensitive to noise, a rudimentary tracker is used to help smooth out the phase errors. The method is demonstrated on Gotcha 2006 Challenge data.

Deming, Ross; Ilin, Roman; Best, Matthew

2013-05-01

323

Speech Rhythm Facilitates Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution: ERP Evidence  

PubMed Central

In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

324

Resolving ambiguities in orientation, motion, and depth domains.  

PubMed

Three different perceptual systems--orientation, motion, and depth--can recover a global perceptual organization from spatially correlated random multielement patterns. In all three cases the global structure composed of random elements is evaluated by mechanisms performing measurements in the energy domain within appropriately defined local space-time areas. The selective increase in energy of one fraction of the elements may dramatically change the whole perceptual organization of the stimulus. In specially devised patterns one and the same element can belong to two or more separate perceptual organizations, the perceptual salience of one of which can be reinforced by a luminance increment of the elements comprising it. If a stimulus provides two different perceptual organizations to which each element could potentially belong, one of four possible solutions of the existing ambiguity will occur: suppression, rivalry, mixture, or parity. Two superimposed global orientation patterns either suppress or dominate over each other but cannot be seen simultaneously or in a mixed form. Characteristic of the depth system is that it allows multiple binocular matchings and parity of possible perceptual solutions. Finally, if a stimulus provides two or more paths along which each element may appear to move, the perceived global motion direction is determined by a mixture of directions of these competing motion paths. Dissimilarities in these ways of resolving ambiguities may be based on different principles defining regularity and coherence of an object in the orientation, motion, and depth domains. PMID:1297977

Allik, J

1992-01-01

325

Ambiguity of Data Quality in Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data "quality" is used in several different contexts in remote sensing data, with quite different meanings. At the pixel level, quality typically refers to a quality control process exercised by the processing algorithm, not an explicit declaration of accuracy or precision. File level quality is usually a statistical summary of the pixel-level quality but is of doubtful use for scenes covering large areal extents. Quality at the dataset or product level, on the other hand, usually refers to how accurately the dataset is believed to represent the physical quantities it purports to measure. This assessment often bears but an indirect relationship at best to pixel level quality. In addition to ambiguity at different levels of granularity, ambiguity is endemic within levels. Pixel-level quality terms vary widely, as do recommendations for use of these flags. At the dataset/product level, quality for low-resolution gridded products is often extrapolated from validation campaigns using high spatial resolution swath data, a suspect practice at best. Making use of quality at all levels is complicated by the dependence on application needs. We will present examples of the various meanings of quality in remote sensing data and possible ways forward toward a more unified and usable quality framework.

Lynnes, C.; Leptoukh, G. G.

2010-12-01

326

Clients' experiences giving gifts to therapists.  

PubMed

Nine therapy clients were interviewed regarding their experiences of giving gifts to therapists. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. In describing a specific event when they gave a gift that was accepted, participants described having a good relationship with the therapist and usually identified their therapy concerns as relationship or family struggles or both. Most bought a relatively inexpensive gift they thought their therapist would like and gave it during a nontermination session to express appreciation or mark an important life event. Most participants acknowledged mixed emotions when giving the gift and noted that any discussion of the gift was brief and did not explore its deeper meaning. Nevertheless, most participants perceived that gift events positively affected them and their therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122726

Knox, Sarah; Dubois, Robert; Smith, Jacquelyn; Hess, Shirley A; Hill, Clara E

2009-09-01

327

Culturally Diverse Women Giving Birth: Their Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sixteen-year-old Anna gave birth to her second child in the Salvation Army Clinic in the Ashanti Province of Ghana, having\\u000a lost her first. She thanked God for safe passage for herself and for the child. “Whether I cried or shouted I was going to\\u000a give birth to the baby, so there’s no need for us to cry or shout. All

Lynn Clark Callister; Inaam Khalaf

328

Insect behaviour: migratory bands give crickets protection.  

PubMed

Mormon crickets and juvenile locusts form huge migratory bands--millions of individuals march in unison across the landscape and devastate vast agricultural areas, but little is known about why these bands form. Here we use radiotelemetry to show that band membership benefits these insects by greatly reducing the probability that they will become victims of predators. It is likely that migratory banding has evolved because it gives substantial protection to individuals within the group. PMID:15716941

Sword, Gregory A; Lorch, Patrick D; Gwynne, Darryl T

2005-02-17

329

On Analysing Query Ambiguity for Query Refinement: The Librarian Agent Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present an approach for the disambiguation of ontology-based queries. The approach is based on measuring\\u000a the ambiguity of a query with respect to the user’s initial information need. We define several types of ambiguities concerning\\u000a the structure of the underlying ontology and the content of the information repository. For each of these ambiguities we define\\u000a a

Nenad Stojanovic

2003-01-01

330

Ambiguities in the optical-model analysis of alpha-particle scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase-equivalent discrete ambiguities in the complex potential parameters which are obtained from optical-model analysis of alpha-particle elastic scattering differential cross sections are examined. A detailed analysis of the scattering of 10.8 MeV alpha particles by 24Mg is used to illustrate the discussion of these ambiguities. In principle, one technique for the reduction of the ambiguities is the coupled-equations analysis

W. J. Thompson; G. E. Crawford; R. H. Davis

1967-01-01

331

Virtual baseline method for Beidou attitude determination - An improved long-short baseline ambiguity resolution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambiguity resolution (AR) is a critical step for successful attitude determination using carrier phase measurements of a satellite navigation system such as Beidou. This paper proposes an improved method for AR in support of Beidou attitude determination based on the concept of a "virtual baseline". In the traditional long-short baseline method, the short baseline is limited to a length less than half of the carrier wave length of the Beidou signals. In the proposed method, a virtual short baseline is formed by differencing two collinear baselines. The AR equations for virtual short and long baselines are derived and the factors impacting the AR accuracy are analysed. Numerical simulation studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed AR method. The simulation results confirmed that the proposed method is an improvement over the traditional approach -- not only is it easier to deploy collinear antennas but also it keeps the capability of epoch-by-epoch AR, which makes it immune to cycle slips and there is no need for initialisation of ambiguity searching.

Lu, Liangqing; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris

2013-03-01

332

Measuring physicians' tolerance for ambiguity and its relationship to their reported practices regarding genetic testing.  

PubMed

Despite uncertainties in medicine, attempts to study physicians' tolerance for uncertainty have been few, and limited by the measurement instruments available. This paper describes development of a modified tolerance for ambiguity (TFA) scale, and correlates it with several physician characteristics and reported behaviors. Eighteen TFA items were included in a national survey of physicians' knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing. Sixty-five percent (n = 1,140) of 1,759 obstetricians, pediatricians, internists, family practitioners, and psychiatrists responded. After psychometric analyses, the scale was reduced to 7 items, demonstrating an acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .75). TFA was higher among psychiatrists than other specialties, among those who were older when they graduated from medical school, and among those willing to offer a new low-cost, accurate predictive test when none of their colleagues do. TFA was lower among those who indicated that attendance at religious services was important, among those who would make a recommendation to their patients regarding pregnancy termination after prenatal diagnosis, and among those who would withhold negative genetic test results. Future research is needed on the scale itself, and to assess factors affecting TFA, such as its susceptibility to modification, and its potential association with clinical practice in other areas of medicine that are characterized by ambiguity. PMID:8231339

Geller, G; Tambor, E S; Chase, G A; Holtzman, N A

1993-11-01

333

Fuzzy acceptance sampling plans for inspection of geospatial data with ambiguity in quality characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for designing a fuzzy acceptance sampling plan (FASP) for the case where sampling parameters are defined as fuzzy numbers, in particular for quality inspection of geospatial data with ambiguous quality characteristics. In contrast to existing fuzzy sampling plans that concentrate solely on ambiguity in the fraction of nonconforming items, the proposed method includes three cases with different fuzzy sampling parameters. These are the fuzzy fraction of nonconforming items, fuzzy sample rate, and fuzzy fraction of nonconforming items and fuzzy sample rate together. The design of the fuzzy sampling plan is modeled as a fuzzy optimization problem dealing with two cases in terms of lot size based on the fuzzy Hypergeometric and Poisson distributions.The proposed method is implemented to design fuzzy sampling plans for quality inspection of geospatial mineral products in Qinghai Province, China. The results show that (1) the proposed method has the advantage of performing quality inspection for geospatial data products with uncertain parameters; (2) in contrast to a traditional sampling plan having a single OC-curve, the OC-band of a fuzzy sampling plan has the lower and upper bounds; and (3) in contrast to existing fuzzy sampling plans which account primarily for uncertainty in the fraction of nonconforming items, the proposed method completely covers fuzzy sampling parameters.

Tong, Xiaohua; Wang, Zhenhua

2012-11-01

334

Unveiling the structural basis for translational ambiguity tolerance in a human fungal pathogen  

PubMed Central

In a restricted group of opportunistic fungal pathogens the universal leucine CUG codon is translated both as serine (97%) and leucine (3%), challenging the concept that translational ambiguity has a negative impact in living organisms. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the in vivo tolerance to a nonconserved genetic code alteration, we have undertaken an extensive structural analysis of proteins containing CUG-encoded residues and solved the crystal structures of the two natural isoforms of Candida albicans seryl-tRNA synthetase. We show that codon reassignment resulted in a nonrandom genome-wide CUG redistribution tailored to minimize protein misfolding events induced by the large-scale leucine-to-serine replacement within the CTG clade. Leucine or serine incorporation at the CUG position in C. albicans seryl-tRNA synthetase induces only local structural changes and, although both isoforms display tRNA serylation activity, the leucine-containing isoform is more active. Similarly, codon ambiguity is predicted to shape the function of C. albicans proteins containing CUG-encoded residues in functionally relevant positions, some of which have a key role in signaling cascades associated with morphological changes and pathogenesis. This study provides a first detailed analysis on natural reassignment of codon identity, unveiling a highly dynamic evolutionary pattern of thousands of fungal CUG codons to confer an optimized balance between protein structural robustness and functional plasticity.

Rocha, Rita; Pereira, Pedro Jose Barbosa; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

2011-01-01

335

Hey Look at Me: The Eect of Giving Circles on Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how charitable contributions respond to public recognition. With a service club at Yale University that raises funds from alumni, we con- ducted a natural eld experiment to test the theory that public recognition leads to higher giving. We nd that individuals are more likely to contribute when oered public recognition in a newsletter for giving. Furthermore, when informed

Dean Karlan; Margaret A. McConnelly

336

Modulation of neural responses in inferotemporal cortex during the interpretation of ambiguous photographs  

PubMed Central

Ambiguous images are interpreted in the context of biases about what they might be; these biases and the behavioral consequences induced by them may influence the processing of images. In this report, we examine neural responses in inferotemporal cortex (IT) during the interpretation of ambiguous photographs created by morphing between two photographs. Monkeys classified different images as being one of two choices and learned to classify most of the samples correctly. For one image (the ambiguous sample) reward was administered randomly for either possible choice, and the monkeys were free to classify that image based on their own interpretation, with no learning possible. The ambiguous samples were not classified randomly: the monkey interpreted the samples differently during different sessions. The interpretation of the ambiguous sample was, in turn, highly correlated with the normalized response of individual neurons in IT to the ambiguous sample. If an ambiguous sample was interpreted as a particular choice during a session, the response to that ambiguous sample more closely resembled the response to that choice. Identical ambiguous images were interpreted differently during different sessions, and neural responses reflected the differing interpretations of the image during that session. The relationship between the interpretation of the image and neural responses strengthened over the course of a session because neural responses shifted to more closely resemble the response to the initial interpretation of the image. The data support a flexible representation of visual stimuli in higher visual areas.

Liu, Yan; Jagadeesh, Bharathi

2008-01-01

337

Asset stocks and flows in macroeconomic theory: Resolving the ambiguities in the general IS-LM model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this paper we have critically examined the macroeconomic model developed by Benavie as a generalization of the beginning-of-period model of Tobin and of Patinkin's end-of-period approach. We have focused our attention on the ambiguous effects on income of government spending changes and tax changes that result from this model. Our conclusions are twofold. First, with respect to the effects

Thomas S. McCaleb; Gordon H. Sellon

1979-01-01

338

Ambiguous Nucleotide Calls From Population-based Sequencing of HIV-1 are a Marker for Viral Diversity and the Age of Infection  

PubMed Central

Background. The time passed since the infection of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individual (the age of infection) is an important but often only poorly known quantity. We assessed whether the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides obtained from bulk sequencing as done for genotypic resistance testing can serve as a proxy of this parameter. Methods. We correlated the age of infection and the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides in partial pol sequences of HIV-1 sampled before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Three groups of Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants were analyzed, for whom the age of infection was estimated on the basis of Bayesian back calculation (n?=?3,307), seroconversion (n?=?366), or diagnoses of primary HIV infection (n?=?130). In addition, we studied 124 patients for whom longitudinal genotypic resistance testing was performed while they were still ART-naïve. Results. We found that the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides increased with the age of infection with a rate of .2% per year within the first 8 years but thereafter with a decreasing rate. We show that this pattern is consistent with population-genetic models for realistic parameters. Finally, we show that, in this highly representative population, a fraction of ambiguous nucleotides of >.5% provides strong evidence against a recent infection event <1 year prior to sampling (negative predictive value, 98.7%). Conclusions. These findings show that the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides is a useful marker for the age of infection.

von Wyl, Viktor; Yerly, Sabine; Boni, Jurg; Rieder, Philip; Joos, Beda; Taffe, Patrick; Shah, Cyril; Burgisser, Philippe; Klimkait, Thomas; Weber, Rainer; Hirschel, Bernard; Cavassini, Matthias; Rauch, Andri; Battegay, Manuel; Vernazza, Pietro L.; Bernasconi, Enos; Ledergerber, Bruno; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Gunthard, Huldrych F.

2011-01-01

339

On the Norms of Charitable Giving in Islam: A Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charitable giving is one of the major obligations Islam and a strong Muslim norm endorses giving to the needy, but discourages public displays of giving. This norm is puzzling in light of previous evidence, suggesting that making donations public often increases giving. We report the results two field experiments with 534 and 186 participants at Moroccan educational institutions (among them

Fatima Lambarraa; Gerhard Riener

2012-01-01

340

On the norms of charitable giving in Islam: A field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charitable giving is one of the major obligations Islam and a strong Muslim norm endorses giving to the needy, but discourages public displays of giving. This norm is puzzling in light of previous evidence, suggesting that making donations public often increases giving. We report the results two field experiments with 534 and 186 participants at Moroccan educational institutions (among them

Fatima Lambarraa; Gerhard Riener

2012-01-01

341

Freud in Trieste: journey to an ambiguous city.  

PubMed

This article provides an insightful exploration of the relationship between Sigmund Freud and the city of Trieste. Through an analysis of the correspondence between Freud and his friend Eduard Silberstein, Gandolfi follows those places visited by the future father of psychoanalysis and analyses their link to Freud's life. The journey to Trieste is considered as an experience that played a fundamental role in his future decisions as well as in the development of some of his psychoanalytic theories. The article eventually relates the ambiguous nature of the city - a peculiar space in with North and South, East and West converge - to Freud's own Triestine experience, that not only remits to his initial scientific researches, but also symbolizes a first significant contact with the world of sexuality. PMID:20842812

Gandolfi, Laura

2010-01-01

342

Cytogenetic abnormalities in acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage: an overview.  

PubMed

Acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) is a rare complex entity with heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic features and adverse outcome. According to World Health Organization 2008 classification, ALAL encompasses those leukaemias that show no clear evidence of differentiation along a single lineage. The rarity of ALAL and the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria have made it difficult to establish its cytogenetic features, although cytogenetic analysis reveals clonal chromosomal abnormalities in 59-91% of patients. This article focuses on the significance of cytogenetic analysis in ALAL supporting the importance of cytogenetic analysis in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, follow up and treatment selection of ALAL. It reviews in detail the types of chromosomal aberrations, their molecular background, their correlation with immunophenotype and age distribution and their prognostic relevance. It also summarizes some novel chromosome aberrations that have been observed only once. Furthermore, it highlights the ongoing and future research on ALAL in the field of cytogenetics. PMID:23888868

Manola, Kalliopi N

2013-07-25

343

Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern.

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2010-01-01

344

Climate Forecasts in Flood Planning: Promise and Ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technical and scientific advances have increased the potential use of long term, seasonal climate forecasts for improving water resource management. This paper examines the role that forecasts, in particular those based on the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, can play in flood planning in the Pacific Northwest. While strong evidence exists of an association between ENSO signals and flooding in the region, this association is open to more than one interpretation depending on: (a) the metric used to test the strength of the association; (b) the definition of critical flood events; (c) site specific features of watersheds; and (d) the decision environment of flood management institutions. A better understanding and appreciation of such ambiguities, both social and statistical, will help facilitate the use of climate forecast information for flood planning and response.

Wernstedt, Kris; Hersh, Robert

2002-12-01

345

To watch, to see, and to differ: An event-related potential study of concreteness effects as a function of word class and lexical ambiguity  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological techniques were used to assess the generalizability of concreteness effects on word processing across word class (nouns and verbs) and different types of lexical ambiguity (syntactic only and combined syntactic/semantic). The results replicated prior work in showing an enhanced N400 response and a sustained frontal negativity to concrete as compared with abstract nouns. The effect of concreteness on the N400 generalized to all word class and ambiguity conditions, whereas the frontal effect was present for all word types except for the syntactically and semantically ambiguous items when these were used as verbs. The seemingly dissociable ERP effects of concreteness at frontal and central/posterior electrode sites revealed by these data suggest that concreteness may impact multiple aspects of neurocognitive processing.

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2009-01-01

346

A physical-model-based, field-wise and self-contained algorithm for removing directional ambiguities of ocean surface winds retrieved from scatterometer measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm is introduced to remove the directional ambiguities in ocean surface winds measured by scatterometers, which requires scatterometer data only. It is based on two versions of PBL (planetary boundary layer) models and a low-pass filter. A pressure field is first derived from the median-filtered scatterometer winds, is then noise-filtered, and is finally converted back to the winds, respectively, by an inverted PBL model, a smoothing algorithm, and a PBL model. The derived wind field is used to remove the directional ambiguities in the scatterometer data. This new algorithm is applied to Hurricane Eugene and produces results comparable to those from the current standard ambiguity removal algorithm for NASA/JPL SeaWinds project, which requires external numerical weather forecast/analyses data.

Kim, Young-Joon

347

NFS gives Career Awards to Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five geophysicists are among 38 women who received a total of $1.64 million in Career Advancement Awards in November from the National Science Foundation through its Research Opportunities for Women (ROW) initiative. Individual awards are as large as $60,000 and give recipients opportunities to work with other investigators and develop new lines of research.Patricia M. Costanzo of the State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo, is studying dehydrated kaolinites. At the University of Alaska's Institute of Geophysics, Joan P. Gosink is applying remote sensing to snow, ice and permafrost research. Mary Kraus of the University of Colorado, Boulder, is combining field studies and remote sensing to work out the depositional history of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. The research of Cecile Penland of the University of California, Los Angeles, is on variability in northern hemisphere geopotential heights. Judith B. Weinstein-Lloyd of SUNY College at Old Westbury is studying the chemistry of hydrogen peroxide in cloudwater.

348

Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

2009-03-09

349

The Impact of Contextual Ambiguity on the Interpretation and Recall of Child Sexual Abuse Media Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that approximately 40% of child sexual abuse media reports are ambiguous in the sense that information relating to the nature of abuse, the identity of the perpetrator, and\\/or the location of abuse is not specified. This research examined the impact of such contextual ambiguity on the recall and interpretation of child sexual abuse media reports. The 189

Steven J. Collings

2002-01-01

350

Computer-Aided Design of Radar Signals using the Ambiguity Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the development of a computer-aided design program for determining the resolving power of radar signals from their ambiguity functions. The program computes the ambiguity function for any finite signal envelope and displays it on a gr...

J. V. Medea

1973-01-01

351

Voices of Curing and Caring: The Role of Vagueness and Ambiguity in Informed Consent Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of vagueness and ambiguities in doctor-patient communications about the issue of informed consent is critically examined. A fine-grained anlysis of two discourse segments between two physicians and an incapacitated patient in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting reveals that vagueness and ambiguity index the conflict of two communicative orientations (\\

Michael Bamberg

1991-01-01

352

Strategic ambiguity and the ethic of significant choice in the tobacco industry's crisis communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of organizational crises allows for multiple interpretations of evidence, intentions, and responsibility surrounding the crises. Through the use of strategic ambiguity, organizations typically emphasize an interpretation where the organization is viewed most favorably. We offer the criteria of significant choice as a means for evaluating the ethical implications of strategic ambiguity in organizational crisis communication. These criteria are

Robert R. Ulmer; Timothy L. Sellnow

1997-01-01

353

Asymptotic efficiency of manifold ambiguity resolution for DOA estimation in nonuniform linear antenna arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear dependence amongst the nonuniform linear array antenna manifold (“steering vectors”) leads to a failure of the MUSIC algorithm to identify the correct signal sources (a “manifold ambiguity”). However, this failure does not necessarily imply that unambiguous DOA estimates are unobtainable. For fully-augmentable array geometries, an algorithm involving the standard augmentation approach successfully resolves the manifold ambiguity. For partially-augmentable and

Yuri I. Abramovich; Alexei X Gorokhov; Nicholas K. Spencer

1997-01-01

354

In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of Ambiguous Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of ambiguity. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed ambiguous word and scenario interpretations,…

Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; McGuffin, Peter; Napolitano, Maria; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Clark, David M.

2008-01-01

355

Making Cartel Conduct Criminal: A Case Study of Ambiguity in Controlling Business Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the regulation of cartel conduct in Australia focusing, in particular, on the recent decision to criminalise so-called ‘hard-core’ cartels. It illuminates three interdependent ambiguities in regulating such conduct: economic, moral and legal. The case study is drawn on to highlight the challenges for the criminal law in attempting to resolve such ambiguities or tensions as they arise

Caron Beaton-Wells; Fiona Haines

2009-01-01

356

Ambiguity Advantage Revisited: Two Meanings Are Better than One when Accessing Chinese Nouns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper revisits the effect of lexical ambiguity in word recognition, which has been controversial as previous research reported advantage, disadvantage, and null effects. We discuss factors that were not consistently treated in previous research (e.g., the level of lexical ambiguity investigated, parts of speech of the experimental stimuli,…

Lin, Chien-Jer Charles; Ahrens, Kathleen

2010-01-01

357

A Simple Sequential Method for Integer Ambiguity Resolution in Real-Time GNSS Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful resolution of integer ambiguities in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier-phase measurements is an essential but challenging task, especially where real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is concerned. In this paper, a simple sequential least squares method for integer ambiguity resolution is presented in order to demonstrate how an open source toolkit - known as GPSTk - can be used

Shaocheng Zhang; Samsung Lim; Chris Rizos

358

Perceived Ambiguity About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Relationship to Perceptions of Cancer Preventability, Risk, and Worry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we apply the concept of “ambiguity,” as developed in the decision theory literature, to an analysis of potential psychological consequences of uncertainty about cancer prevention recommendations. We used Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003 data to examine how perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations relates to three other cognitive variables known to influence cancer-protective behavior: perceived

Paul K. J. Han; Richard P. Moser; William M. P. Klein

2006-01-01

359

Threat Vigilance in Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence: A Pilot Study Utilizing the Ambiguous Situations Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has found that children exposed to family violence exhibit higher rates of maladjustment. We review relevant literature on family violence, marital conflict, and cognitive factors implicated in child behaviour problems. A bias toward perceiving threat in ambiguous contexts has been identified as one factor mediating both aggressive and anxious behaviour disorders. We conducted a study utilizing the ambiguous situations

Joseph J. Coyne; Paula M. Barrett; Amanda L. Duffy

2000-01-01

360

Ambiguities of justice in a global marketplace : How are ethical and theological considerations relevant to policymakers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address questions policymakers, working in a global marketplace, might ask about ethical and theological considerations of ambiguities or uncertainties of justice issues in the global markets in which they operate. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on earlier research and published works in examining four specific questions about ambiguities of justice, from

Donald Gates; Peter Steane

2008-01-01

361

Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for ambiguous relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment ambiguity is interesting to study possible transfer…

Rah, Anne

2010-01-01

362

Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.

David Yarowsky

1994-01-01

363

‘Of course I remember seeing that film’—how ambiguous questions generate crashing memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although previous research has shown that people are willing to report having seen non-existent footages of high publicity events, no study has looked at the potential boundaries of what has been dubbed the crashing memory paradigm. We examined whether the ambiguity of interview questions may lead some people to affirm without much conviction having seen non-existent footages. Using ambiguous,

Tom Smeets; Marko Jelicic; Maarten J. V. Peters; Ingrid Candel; Robert Horselenberg; Harald Merckelbach

2006-01-01

364

Ambiguous Loss and the Media Practices of Transnational Latina Teens: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on ethnographic data from a study with 17 working-class, transnational Latina teens, I examine the media practices they perform to cope with ambiguous loss. According to Pauline Boss (1993, 1999, 2006), ambiguous loss refers to a distinct type of loss that defies closure, such as the feelings of the family of a missing person. My findings suggest that Latina

Lucila Vargas

2008-01-01

365

Approximations of fuzzy numbers by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers preserving the ambiguity and value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value and ambiguity are two parameters which were introduced to represent fuzzy numbers. In this paper, we find the nearest trapezoidal approximation and the nearest symmetric trapezoidal approximation to a given fuzzy number, with respect to the average Euclidean distance, preserving the value and ambiguity. To avoid the laborious calculus associated with the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker theorem, the working tool in some

Adrian I. Ban; A. Brândas; Lucian C. Coroianu; C. Negrutiu; O. Nica

2011-01-01

366

The On-Line Resolution of the Sentence Complement\\/Relative Clause Ambiguity: Evidence from Spanish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two self-paced reading experiments investigated syntactic ambiguity resolution in Spanish. The experiments examined the way in which Spanish subjects initially interpret sentences that are temporarily ambiguous between a sentence complement and a relative clause interpretation. Experiment 1 examined whether the sentence complement preference found in English is observed in Spanish speaking subjects. In Experiment 2, verbal mood was manipulated in

Josep Demestre; José E. García-Albea

2004-01-01

367

Items as Context: Effects of Item Order and Ambiguity on Factor Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous work (Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 1998), we evaluated the effects of item order and ambiguity on factor structure using items from the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scales Form V (Zuckerman, 1979). Participants completed the items with order of item-group (alcohol, sex, ambiguous) presentation manipulated between respondents. The factor structure varied as a function of item-group

Andrea Weinberger; Jack Darkes; Frances K. Del Boca; Paul Greenbaum; Mark Goldman

2006-01-01

368

Does the Need for Role Clarity Moderate the Relationship between Role Ambiguity and Athlete Satisfaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the need for role clarity as a potential moderator of the role ambiguity–satisfaction relationship among interdependent sport athletes. Competitive “Junior B” ice hockey players (N = 112) representing eight teams completed the Role Ambiguity Scale, five subscales of the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire, and a measure of need for role clarity at

Steven R. Bray; Mark R. Beauchamp; Mark A. Eys; Albert V. Carron

2005-01-01

369

Ambiguous Loss Research, Theory, and Practice: Reflections after 9-11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains an overview of three decades of research, theory development, and clinical application about ambiguous loss. Although the work includes both physical and psychological types of ambiguous loss, the focus is the aftermath of 9-11 (September 11, 2001) when the World Trade Center collapsed following terrorist attacks. On the…

Boss, Pauline

2004-01-01

370

Implicit and Explicit Understanding of Ambiguous Figures by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can process both interpretations of an ambiguous figure (e.g. rabbit/duck) when told about the ambiguity, however they tend not to do so spontaneously. Here we show that although adolescents with ASD can explicitly experience such "reversals", implicit measures suggest they are conceptually processing…

Allen, Melissa L.; Chambers, Alison

2011-01-01

371

Ambiguous Loss Research, Theory, and Practice: Reflections after 9-11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article contains an overview of three decades of research, theory development, and clinical application about ambiguous loss. Although the work includes both physical and psychological types of ambiguous loss, the focus is the aftermath of 9-11 (September 11, 2001) when the World Trade Center collapsed following terrorist attacks. On the…

Boss, Pauline

2004-01-01

372

Statistical Analysis of Inherent Ambiguities in Recovering 3-D Motion from a Noisy Flow Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent ambiguities in recovering 3-D motion information from a single optical flow field are studied using a statistical model. The ambiguities are quantified using the Cramer-Rao lower bound. As a special case, the performance bound for the motion of 3-D rigid planar surfaces is studied in detail. The dependence of the bound on factors such as the underlying motion,

Gem-sun Jason Young; Rama Chellappa

1992-01-01

373

A Method to Resolve Ambiguity of Interpretation of English Sentences for Intelligent English Learning Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of ambiguity resolution for natural language processing in intelligent English learning support systems. Ambiguity of interpretation of sentences is one of the most important problems for intelligent language learning support systems which allow learners input composed sentences freely. Our system has a question and answer function which asks learners the contents of a story. Our

Hidenobu KUNICHIKA; Minoru HONDA; Tsukasa HIRASHIMA; Akira TAKEUCHI

374

Self-serving interpretations of ambiguity in other-regarding behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that people can adopt a favorable view of ambiguous risks relative to ones with known probabilities, contrary to the usual attitude of ambiguity aversion, when doing so permits justification for unfair behavior. We use binary dictator games involving a choice between a relatively equitable allocation and an “unfair” allocation that is both less generous and makes the recipient's

Emily C. Haisley; Roberto A. Weber

2010-01-01

375

The ambiguous role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment.  

PubMed

The use of paraeducators has increased as a main mechanism to include more students with disabilities in the public schools in the U.S. Although the utilization of paraeducators is intended to be a supportive service delivery option, many concerns and challenges have resulted. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment from the perspectives of special education, physical education, and adapted physical education teachers and paraeducators. Data were collected from a phenomenological approach using questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Results indicate concerns about the clarity of the role of the paraeducator in physical education. Emerging themes include elastic definitions of student protection and teacher backup, contradictory expectations and mixed acceptance, and paraeducators' role ambiguity. Findings regarding the role of the paraeducator are essential in determining both best practice and legal policy for the appropriate utilization of paraeducators in physical education. PMID:23520245

Bryan, Rebecca R; McCubbin, Jeffrey A; van der Mars, Hans

2013-04-01

376

A Columbine study: giving voice, hearing meaning.  

PubMed

On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by giving voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience. PMID:19256102

Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

2008-01-01

377

To Give or Not to Give: Factors Determining Alumni Intent to Make Donations as a PR Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study identifies several variables associated with the intent of journalism and mass communication alumni to financially support their department or program. The results are consistent with previous studies that show communication and involvement with alumni, satisfaction with the quality of their journalism education, and personal income contribute to the intent of alumni giving. The study suggests that successful fund

James C. Tsao; Gary Coll

2004-01-01

378

Velocity matched spectrum analysis: a new method for suppressing velocity ambiguity in pulsed-wave Doppler.  

PubMed

A new approach to spectrum analysis, which is capable of suppressing velocity ambiguity in pulsed-wave ultrasonic Doppler, is presented. By simultaneous processing of several data samples from a range in depth, the movement of the scatterers along the ultrasonic beam can be tracked from pulse to pulse for each velocity component in the spectrum. In this way the correlation length of the signal component arising from a specific velocity increases when that velocity matches the expected velocity. The resulting velocity/time spectral display shows a more clearly defined spectral envelope of the maximum velocity than with conventional methods based on the discrete Fourier transform of the Doppler signal. This makes it possible to delineate velocity waveforms with peak velocity up to several times the Nyquist limit. Experimental data from human subclavian and aortic arteries are presented, where the new method is compared to conventional spectrum analysis. PMID:7491748

Torp, H; Kristoffersen, K

1995-01-01

379

Interval timing with gaps: gap ambiguity as an alternative to temporal decay.  

PubMed

C. V. Buhusi, D. Perera, and W. H. Meck (2005) proposed a hypothesis of timing in rats to account for the results of experiments that have used the peak procedure with gaps. According to this hypothesis, the introduction of a gap causes the animal's memory for the pregap interval to passively decay (subjectively shorten) in direct proportion to the duration and salience of the gap. Thus, animals should pause with short, nonsalient gaps but should reset their clock with longer, salient gaps. The present authors suggest that the ambiguity of the gap (i.e., the similarity between the gap and the intertrial interval in both appearance and relative duration) causes the animal to actively reset the clock and prevents adequate assessments of the fate of timed intervals prior to the gap. Furthermore, when the intertrial interval is discriminable from the gap, the evidence suggests that timed intervals prior to the gap are not lost but are retained in memory. PMID:16248734

Zentall, Thomas R; Kaiser, Daren H

2005-10-01

380

A girl with tomboy behavior: lesson from misdiagnosis in a baby with ambiguous genitalia.  

PubMed

5alpha-Reductase-2 deficiency is a rare 46,XY disorder of sex differentiation caused by mutations in the 5alpha-reductase type 2 gene. It presents at birth with variable degree of undervirilization. Here, a baby with 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency and misdiagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, female sex assignment and early gonadectomy is described. During primary school, the girl developed tomboy behavior. Molecular analysis demonstrated compound heterozygosity for 5alpha-reductase type 2 gene mutations (exon 2: Q126R; exon 4: H230P). This child underlines the need for adequate endocrine and genetic testing for a definite diagnosis before gender is assigned in children with ambiguous genitalia and surgical interventions are carried out. Inadequate work-up may result in inappropriate gender assignment in infancy with possible inferences on outcome. PMID:20051677

Dati, E; Baldinotti, F; Conidi, M E; Simi, P; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, Silvano

2009-12-30

381

Processing Subject-Object Ambiguities in the L2: A Self-Paced Reading Study with German L2 Learners of Dutch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The results of two self-paced reading experiments are reported, which investigated the online processing of subject-object ambiguities in Dutch relative clause constructions like "Dat is de vrouw die de meisjes heeft/hebben gezien" by German advanced second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Native speakers of both Dutch and German have been shown…

Havik, Else; Roberts, Leah; van Hout, Roeland; Schreuder, Robert; Haverkort, Marco

2009-01-01

382

To Watch, to See, and to Differ: An Event-Related Potential Study of Concreteness Effects as a Function of Word Class and Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Electrophysiological techniques were used to assess the generalizability of concreteness effects on word processing across word class (nouns and verbs) and different types of lexical ambiguity (syntactic only and combined syntactic/semantic). The results replicated prior work in showing an enhanced N400 response and a sustained frontal negativity…

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2008-01-01

383

The Interactive Effects of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity on Job Satisfaction and Attitudes Toward Organizational Change: A Moderated Multiple Regression Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the joint effects of both role conflict and role ambiguity on job satisfaction and three dimensions of attitudes toward organizational change, namely affective, cognitive, and behavioral tendency in a multicultural work setting. The study used a sample of 397 employees from several manufacturing and service organizations in the United Arab Emirates. Results of the moderated regression analysis

Darwish A. Yousef

2000-01-01

384

Truth in giving: Experimental evidence on the welfare effects of informed giving to the poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often difficult for donors to predict the value of charitable giving because they know little about their recipients. This concern is particularly acute when making contributions to organizations that serve heterogeneous populations. Prior research shows that donors are more generous if they know their assistance benefits a group they like. But we know little about the demand for

Christina M. Fong; Felix Oberholzer-Gee

2011-01-01

385

When in doubt, seize the day? Security values, prosocial values, and proactivity under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Researchers have suggested that both ambiguity and values play important roles in shaping employees' proactive behaviors, but have not theoretically or empirically integrated these factors. Drawing on theories of situational strength and values, we propose that ambiguity constitutes a weak situation that strengthens the relationship between the content of employees' values and their proactivity. A field study of 204 employees and their direct supervisors in a water treatment plant provided support for this contingency perspective. Ambiguity moderated the relationship between employees' security and prosocial values and supervisor ratings of proactivity. Under high ambiguity, security values predicted lower proactivity, whereas prosocial values predicted higher proactivity. Under low ambiguity, values were not associated with proactivity. We replicated these findings in a laboratory experiment with 232 participants in which we measured proactivity objectively as initiative taken to correct errors: Participants with strong security values were less proactive, and participants with strong prosocial values were more proactive, but only when performance expectations were ambiguous. We discuss theoretical implications for research on proactivity, values, and ambiguity and uncertainty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23627604

Grant, Adam M; Rothbard, Nancy P

2013-04-29

386

Zero-correlation transformation and threshold for efficient GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key point of accurate and precise applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems lies in knowing how to efficiently obtain correct integer ambiguity. One of the methods in solving the ambiguity resolution problem is applying the ambiguity searching technique coupled with an ambiguity decorrelation technique. Traditionally, an integer-valued limitation of the transformation matrix ensures that the integer characteristic of candidates exists after the inverse transformation, but this also makes the decorrelation imperfect. In this research, the float transformation matrix will be considered. To ensure both the integer characteristic and perfect decorrelation can be reached, the float transformation is used indirectly. To solve the ambiguity resolution problem, the problem is transformed by integer and float transformation matrices. The objective of integer transformation is reducing the number of candidates. The target of float transformation is validating these reduced candidates. A zero correlation domain or a near complete diagonalization covariance matrix can be obtained via the float transformation. A space in this domain will be used as the threshold; hence the zero correlation domain is called the threshold domain. The number of ambiguity candidates based on integer transformation can be reduced once again through the proposed method. The experiments in this paper prove that the method can make the ambiguity resolution become more efficient without any drop in the accuracy.

Chen, Yang-Zen; Wu, Joz

2013-09-01

387

Abnormal N400 Responses But Intact Differential Hemispheric Processing of Ambiguity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Disordered thinking in schizophrenia may be a consequence of the selection of conceptual associates of dominant meanings of ambiguous words despite contextual information suggesting subordinate meanings are more appropriate. Previous work using short sentences showed a large N400 event-related potential to subordinate meaning associates and a behavioral semantic bias, but results were variable. The current experiment used word pairs to simplify the procedure and to less tax memory maintenance. Furthermore, hemispheric responses were compared, as evidence suggests the left hemisphere may select dominant meanings, while the right hemisphere may keep all possible meanings active. Subjects indicated whether two words (CUE, TARGET) were related. The CUE, presented for 1 second, could be an ambiguous or an unambiguous noun, and the TARGET, presented 1.25 seconds after the onset of the CUE, was a dominant or subordinate associate, or a related or an unrelated word, respectively. The N400-effect was calculated from difference waveforms over 400-600 msec. Groups (23 schizophrenia, 25 matched controls) showed significantly different N400-effects to the words (group x word, p =.04). Controls showed a graded response, with dominant < subordinate < unrelated. Schizophrenia patients showed the largest N400-effect to subordinate associates, with less activity to dominant meaning associates and unrelated words. Both groups showed a right hemisphere distribution to unrelated words and substantial left hemisphere activation to subordinate associates (word x hemisphere, p <.001). These data support a semantic bias in schizophrenia. They also demonstrate a special role of the right hemisphere in maintaining broad homograph meaning hierarchies. This hemispheric specialization appears to be intact in schizophrenia.

Salisbury, Dean F

2009-01-01

388

Identification and elimination of the residual ambiguity in the sign of observed photospheric magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing methods for the removal of the 180 degree ambiguity in the sign of the observed transverse photospheric magnetic field present some inherent-computational and/or intrinsic limitations. In this work we propose and demonstrate suitable procedures for the identification and elimination of the residual 180 degree ambiguity in the sign of Bperpendicular observed fields, that is of the ambiguity which is not removed by the various methods in use. These procedures are tested on the case of force-free magnetic field configurations for which exact analytical solutions to compare with exist.

Cuperman, S.; Li, J.; Semel, M.

1993-10-01

389

Resolution of a phase ambiguity in a calibration procedure for polarimetric radar systems  

SciTech Connect

In response to the remote sensing communities' interest in radar polarimetry, considerable effort has recently been devoted to the development of calibration techniques for polarimetric radar systems. A cross-pol/co-pol phase ambiguity in a previously published calibration procedure for polarimetric radar systems is discussed. The original procedure is modified to resolve the ambiguity while still retaining insensitivity to calibration target orientation. The modified form is then generalized and applied to an ultrawideband radar system for which the ambiguity in the original procedure is particularly evident.

Sletten, M.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Radar Div.)

1994-01-01

390

Give Better Feedback on Engineering Drawings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most, if not all, systems have a mechanism that collects information to facilitate monitoring performance. This information is primarily used to modify the system to make it more efficient in performing desired tasks and, thus, attaining desired results. Similar to electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic systems, the feedback mechanism in an…

Cobb, Robert, Jr.; Graham, Tony; Kapur, Arjun; Rhodes, Craig; Blackwell, Ellinor

2005-01-01

391

Doctoral Alumni Giving: Motivations for Donating to the University of Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sought to ascertain the specific motivations behind doctoral alumni giving. Most U.S. colleges and universities depend on alumni giving to supplement revenues from tuition and governmental support; however, relatively little alumni giving is generated from PhD graduates. The result is untapped revenue for doctoral-granting…

Mastroieni, Anita

2010-01-01

392

Is it time to give up?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The world's coral reefs show rapid decline as a result of environmental change. Coral reef communities and organisms are stressed, potentially mortally, by (1) rising temperature, (2) rising atmospheric/surface ocean CO2 levels, (3) rising human populations, and (4) local aspects of climate change other than temperature. Further increase in all of these stressors is certain; the future rates and magnitudes of items 1-3 can be estimated with confidence to be substantially greater than changes in the recent past.

Buddemeier, R. W.

2001-01-01

393

Does equal care give equal outcomes?  

PubMed

Kidney transplant recipients of lower socioeconomic status (SES) or from lower-SES areas have comparatively poor graft survival. Whether this results in poorer patient survival after kidney transplantation was largely unknown. Begaj et al. demonstrate that kidney transplant recipients from deprived areas have higher mortality than patients from more advantaged areas in England. We found similar patterns in Australia. If such disparities are to be addressed, a better understanding of the mediating factors is required. PMID:24080875

Grace, Blair S; McDonald, Stephen P

2013-10-01

394

Saharan dust gives clues to weather patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on convection over the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa was investigated using satellite measurements of atmospheric temperature and moisture and of dust concentrations in the SAL. Results suggest that dust is not an effective proxy to track the SAL as it moves west and that other tracking techniques are required to track the air mass as it moves far from the continent.

Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.; Agu

395

Investigation of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity for Junior Civil Engineering Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A random sample of 400 civil engineering officers with five or less years of commissioned service were surveyed to: measure levels of role conflict and role ambiguity stresses, identify personal and organizational factors associated with such stresses, an...

C. R. Howell J. C. Konyha

1984-01-01

396

Work Group Interdependence and Role Conflict and Ambiguity: Identifying Sources of Job-Related Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the impact of job stressors such as role conflict and role ambiguity becomes more apparent, social scientists have attempted to delineate potential moderating influences that might protect the worker from the stresses of the job. Considerable evidence ...

M. C. Butler J. M. LaRocco A. P. Jones

1979-01-01

397

A Meta-Analysis of the Correlates of Role Conflict and Ambiguity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The correlational literature concerning the relationships of role conflict and ambiguity to numerous hypothesized antecedents and consequences is still somewhat nuclear after a decade of research. Schmidt-Hunter meta-analysis procedures were applied to th...

C. D. Fisher R. J. Gitelson

1982-01-01

398

Coding of range-gates with ambiguous sequences for extended three-dimensional imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present publication we introduce coding sequences with quasi-ambiguous combinations for 3D imaging. With this extended imaging method it is possible to apply 15 combinations of gray level for the coding of range- gates in 3 images. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that a maximum number of only 13 combinations can be connected to sequences. In this publication, the impact of quasi-ambiguous sequences on the 3D depth mapping capabilities is studied and discussed. An analysis of simulated image sequences was performed with different portion of noise. At low noise levels it is shown that the quasi-ambiguous coding sequences can enlarge the depth mapping range. But misinterpretation of data reduces dramatically the range accuracy at high noise levels. Therefore, 3D imaging profits from the application of quasi-ambiguous sequences only at low noise level.

Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Metzger, Nicolas; Schertzer, Stéphane; Christnacher, Frank

2012-09-01

399

Resolving Lexical Ambiguity using a Formal Theory of Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show how the formal theory of context, as developedin declarative AI, can be used to represent lexical ambiguityand reason about disambiguation. We first give an introductionto the formal theory of context by briefly sketching its logic, andwe identify a new class of contexts, discourse contexts. Unlike thepreviously studied knowledge base contexts, which are characterizedonly by the

Sasa Buvac

1996-01-01

400

Giving preschoolers choice increases sharing behavior.  

PubMed

Young children are remarkably prosocial, but the mechanisms driving their prosociality are not well understood. Here, we propose that the experience of choice is critically tied to the expression of young children's altruistic behavior. Three- and 4-year-olds were asked to allocate resources to an individual in need by making a costly choice (allocating a resource they could have kept for themselves), a noncostly choice (allocating a resource that would otherwise be thrown away), or no choice (following instructions to allocate the resource). We measured subsequent prosociality by allowing children to then allocate new resources to a new individual. Although the majority of children shared with the first individual, children who were given costly alternatives shared more with the new individual. Results are discussed in terms of a prosocial-construal hypothesis, which suggests that children rationally infer their prosociality through the process of making difficult, autonomous choices. PMID:23955355

Chernyak, Nadia; Kushnir, Tamar

2013-08-16

401

Intrinsic Ambiguity in Second-Order Viscosity Parameters in Relativistic Hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that relativistic hydrodynamics in Minkowski space-time has intrinsic ambiguity in second-order viscosity parameters in the Landau-Lifshitz frame. This stems from the possibility of improvements of energy-momentum tensor. There exist at least two viscosity parameters which can be removed by using this ambiguity in scale invariant hydrodynamics in (1+3) dimension, and seemingly nonconformal hydrodynamic theories can be hiddenly conformal invariant.

Nakayama, Yu

2012-09-01

402

The Effect of Visual Target Presentation Times on Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lexical ambiguity resolution has been examined extensively in the sentence processing literature, questions still remain as to why some cross-modal studies found that context influenced lexical access (i.e., Onifer & Swinney 1981), while others did not (i.e., Tabossi & Zardon 1993). In this study, the length of presentation time of the visual target at the ambiguity is manipulated (300ms,

Kathleen Ahrens

2006-01-01

403

Interval Timing With Gaps and Distracters: Evaluation of the Ambiguity, Switch, and TimeSharing Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaps and distracters were presented during the timed signal to examine whether the stop\\/reset mechanism is activated by (a) changes in the timed signal (switch hypothesis), (b) ITI-like events (ambiguity hypothesis), or (c) processes concurrent with the timing process (time-sharing hypothesis). While the switch and ambiguity hypotheses predict that rats should time through (ignore) distracters, the time-sharing hypothesis predicts that

Catalin V. Buhusi; Warren H. Meck

2006-01-01

404

Rethinking boundary ambiguity from an ecological perspective: stress in Protestant clergy families.  

PubMed

Family researchers have virtually ignored the families of clergy as a population of interest. Their unique social ecology, however, can offer a profitable case study in family stress. The genesis of Boss's (1977, 1987) boundary ambiguity construct will be reviewed and critiqued. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) approach will then be applied to the boundary problems of clergy families. It is argued that an ecological analysis of boundary ambiguity in clergy families will lead to a higher-order understanding of the construct itself. PMID:7628602

Lee, C

1995-03-01

405

Family boundary ambiguity and the measurement of family structure: the significance of cohabitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine family boundary ambiguity\\u000a in adolescent and mother reports of family structure and found that the greater the family complexity, the more likely adolescent\\u000a and mother reports of family structure were discrepant. This boundary ambiguity in reporting was most pronounced for cohabiting\\u000a stepfamilies. Among

Susan L. Brown; Wendy D. Manning

2009-01-01

406

Conscious and Intentional Access to Unconscious Decision-Making Module in Ambiguous Visual Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly higher levels of information processing contribute to the highest level of visual perception, that of object\\u000a recognition. An unconscious decision-making event arising at the end of an unconscious inference process acts upon the already\\u000a processed visual information resolving the ambiguity inherent to such information. In the case of multistable reversible patterns,\\u000a the ambiguity is never resolved and the perception

Cloe Taddei-ferretti; Carlo Musio; Silvia Santillo; Antonio Cotugno

1999-01-01

407

Predictors of Perceived Ambiguity About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Sociodemographic Factors and Mass Media Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention recommendations reaching the public today are often ambiguous—that is, of uncertain reliability, credibility, or adequacy—yet little is known about the factors that influence public perceptions of this ambiguity. We used data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to explore how sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported mass media exposures relate to

Paul K. J. Han; Richard P. Moser; William M. P. Klein; Ellen Burke Beckjord; Andrea C. Dunlavy; Bradford W. Hesse

2009-01-01

408

Converging Evidence for the Processing Costs Associated with Ambiguous Quantifier Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Traditional neuroanatomic models of language comprehension have emphasized a core language network situated in peri-Sylvian cortex. More recent evidence appears to extend the neuroanatomic network beyond peri-Sylvian cortex to encompass other aspects of sentence processing. In this study, we evaluate the neuroanatomic basis for processing the ambiguity in doubly-quantified sentences. For example, a sentence like “All the dogs jumped in a lake” can be interpreted with a collective interpretation (e.g., several dogs jumping into a single lake) or a distributive interpretation (e.g., several dogs each jumping into a different lake). In Experiment 1, we used BOLD fMRI to investigate neuroanatomic recruitment by young adults during the interpretation of ambiguous doubly-quantified sentences in a sentence-picture verification task. We observed that young adults exhibited a processing cost associated with interpreting ambiguous sentences and this was related to frontal and parietal cortex recruitment. In Experiment 2, we investigate ambiguous sentence processing with the identical materials in non-aphasic patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) who have frontal cortex disease and executive and decision-making limitations. bvFTD patients are insensitive to ambiguity associated with doubly-quantified sentences, and this is related to the magnitude of their frontal cortex disease. These studies provide converging evidence that cortical regions that extend beyond peri-Sylvian cortex help support the processing costs associated with the interpretation of ambiguous doubly-quantified sentences.

McMillan, Corey T.; Coleman, Danielle; Clark, Robin; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Gross, Rachel G.; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

409

Neural Representation of Ambiguous Visual Objects in the Inferior Temporal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Inferior temporal (IT) cortex as the final stage of the ventral visual pathway is involved in visual object recognition. In our everyday life we need to recognize visual objects that are degraded by noise. Psychophysical studies have shown that the accuracy and speed of the object recognition decreases as the amount of visual noise increases. However, the neural representation of ambiguous visual objects and the underlying neural mechanisms of such changes in the behavior are not known. Here, by recording the neuronal spiking activity of macaque monkeys’ IT we explored the relationship between stimulus ambiguity and the IT neural activity. We found smaller amplitude, later onset, earlier offset and shorter duration of the response as visual ambiguity increased. All of these modulations were gradual and correlated with the level of stimulus ambiguity. We found that while category selectivity of IT neurons decreased with noise, it was preserved for a large extent of visual ambiguity. This noise tolerance for category selectivity in IT was lost at 60% noise level. Interestingly, while the response of the IT neurons to visual stimuli at 60% noise level was significantly larger than their baseline activity and full (100%) noise, it was not category selective anymore. The latter finding shows a neural representation that signals the presence of visual stimulus without signaling what it is. In general these findings, in the context of a drift diffusion model, explain the neural mechanisms of perceptual accuracy and speed changes in the process of recognizing ambiguous objects.

Emadi, Nazli; Esteky, Hossein

2013-01-01

410

Neural representation of ambiguous visual objects in the inferior temporal cortex.  

PubMed

Inferior temporal (IT) cortex as the final stage of the ventral visual pathway is involved in visual object recognition. In our everyday life we need to recognize visual objects that are degraded by noise. Psychophysical studies have shown that the accuracy and speed of the object recognition decreases as the amount of visual noise increases. However, the neural representation of ambiguous visual objects and the underlying neural mechanisms of such changes in the behavior are not known. Here, by recording the neuronal spiking activity of macaque monkeys' IT we explored the relationship between stimulus ambiguity and the IT neural activity. We found smaller amplitude, later onset, earlier offset and shorter duration of the response as visual ambiguity increased. All of these modulations were gradual and correlated with the level of stimulus ambiguity. We found that while category selectivity of IT neurons decreased with noise, it was preserved for a large extent of visual ambiguity. This noise tolerance for category selectivity in IT was lost at 60% noise level. Interestingly, while the response of the IT neurons to visual stimuli at 60% noise level was significantly larger than their baseline activity and full (100%) noise, it was not category selective anymore. The latter finding shows a neural representation that signals the presence of visual stimulus without signaling what it is. In general these findings, in the context of a drift diffusion model, explain the neural mechanisms of perceptual accuracy and speed changes in the process of recognizing ambiguous objects. PMID:24098569

Emadi, Nazli; Esteky, Hossein

2013-10-03

411

GPS (Global Positioning System) orbit determination: Bootstrapping to resolve carrier phase ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbit determination, the most accurate observable available is carrier phase, differenced between observing stations and between satellites to cancel both transmitter and receiver related errors. For maximum accuracy, the integer cycle ambiguities of such observations must be resolved. To perform this ambiguity resolution, a bootstrapping strategy is effective. This strategy requires the tracking stations to have a wide ranging progression of spacings. Then, by conventional integrated Doppler processing of the observations from the most widely spaced stations, the orbits can be determined well enough to permit resolution can reduce the uncertainty of the orbit determination enough to enable ambiguity resolution for more widely spaced stations, which will reduce the orbital uncertainty further, and enable ambiguity resolution for still more widely spaced stations, and so on. This strategy is tested with two different tracking networks. This limited ambiguity resolution reduced both the formal and the actual errors of GPS orbit determinations by a factor of two. In the second twelve stations were arranged in a spiral with geometrically increasing spacings from 10 to 330 km. By bootstrapping, all ambiguities for baselines up to about 100 km long were resolved. The distance was limited by strong ionospheric variability. Still, orbit-determination uncertainty (3 sigma) was reduced to about 1:1,000,000.

Abbot, R. E.; Counselman, C. C., III; Gourevitch, S. A.; Ladd, J. W.

1989-02-01

412

Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the outburst of Sakurai's Object is the first such blast seen in modern times. Stellar outbursts observed in 1670 and 1918 may have been caused by the same phenomenon. Astronomers expect the Sun to become a white dwarf in about five billion years. A white dwarf is a dense core left after a star's normal, fusion-powered life has ended. A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 10 tons. White dwarfs can have masses up to 1.4 times that of the Sun; larger stars collapse at the end of their lives into even-denser neutron stars or black holes. Computer simulations indicated that heat-spurred convection (or "boiling") would bring hydrogen from the star's outer envelope down into the helium shell, driving a brief flash of new nuclear fusion. This would cause a sudden increase in brightness. The original computer models suggested a sequence of observable events that would occur over a few hundred years. "Sakurai's object went through the first phases of this sequence in just a few years -- 100 times faster than we expected -- so we had to revise our models," Zijlstra said. The revised models predicted that the star should rapidly reheat and begin to ionize gases in its surrounding region. "This is what we now see in our latest VLA observations," Zijlstra said. "It's important to understand this process. Sakurai's Object has ejected a large amount of the carbon from its inner core into space, both in the form of gas and dust grains. These will find their way into regions of space where new stars form, and the dust grains may become incorporated in new planets. Some carbon grains found in a meteorite show isotope ratios identical to those found in Sakurai's Object, and we think they may have come from such an event. Our results suggest this source for cosmic carbon may be far more important than we suspected before," Zijlstra added. The scientists continue to observe Sakurai's Object to take advantage of the rare opportunity to learn about the process of re-ignition. They are making new VLA observations just

2005-04-01

413

Support for a theory of memory for event duration must distinguish between test-trial ambiguity and actual memory loss.  

PubMed Central

Staddon and Higa's (1999) trace-strength theory of timing and memory for event duration can account for pigeons' bias to "choose short" when retention intervals are introduced and to "choose long" when, following training with a fixed retention interval, retention intervals are shortened. However, it does not account for the failure of pigeons to choose short when the intertrial interval is distinct from the retention interval. That finding suggests that stimulus generalization (or ambiguity) between the intertrial interval and the retention interval may result in an effect that has been attributed to memory loss. Such artifacts must be eliminated before a theory of memory for event duration can be adequately tested.

Zentall, T R

1999-01-01

414

The Advantage of Ambiguity? Enhanced Neural Responses to Multi-Stable Percepts Correlate with the Degree of Perceived Instability  

PubMed Central

Artwork can often pique the interest of the viewer or listener as a result of the ambiguity or instability contained within it. Our engagement with uncertain sensory experiences might have its origins in early cortical responses, in that perceptually unstable stimuli might preclude neural habituation and maintain activity in early sensory areas. To assess this idea, participants engaged with an ambiguous visual stimulus wherein two squares alternated with one another, in terms of simultaneously opposing vertical and horizontal locations relative to fixation (i.e., stroboscopic alternating motion; von Schiller, 1933). At each trial, participants were invited to interpret the movement of the squares in one of five ways: traditional vertical or horizontal motion, novel clockwise or counter-clockwise motion, and, a free-view condition in which participants were encouraged to switch the direction of motion as often as possible. Behavioral reports of perceptual stability showed clockwise and counter-clockwise motion to possess an intermediate level of stability compared to relatively stable vertical and horizontal motion, and, relatively unstable motion perceived during free-view conditions. Early visual evoked components recorded at parietal–occipital sites such as C1, P1, and N1 modulated as a function of visual intention. Both at a group and individual level, increased perceptual instability was related to increased negativity in all three of these early visual neural responses. Engagement with increasingly ambiguous input may partly result from the underlying exaggerated neural response to it. The study underscores the utility of combining neuroelectric recording with the presentation of perceptually multi-stable yet physically identical stimuli, in revealing brain activity associated with the purely internal process of interpreting and appreciating the sensory world that surrounds us.

Dyson, Benjamin J.

2011-01-01

415

A hierarchical linear modeling analysis of working memory and implicit prosody in the resolution of adjunct attachment ambiguity.  

PubMed

An eye-movement monitoring experiment investigated readers' response to temporarily ambiguous sentences. The sentences were ambiguous because a relative clause could attach to one of two preceding nouns. Semantic information disambiguated the sentences. Working memory considerations predict an overall preference for the second of the two nouns, as does the late closure principle (Frazier, On comprehending sentences: Syntactic parsing strategies. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut. West Bend, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club, 1979). Previous studies assessing preferences for such items have obtained mixed results. On-line assessments show that working memory affects the degree of preference for the first noun, with lower capacity readers having a greater preference for the second noun (Felser et al., Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics, 11, 127-163, 2003; Traxler, Memory & Cognition, 35, 1107-1121, 2007). Off-line assessments indicate the opposite pattern of preferences when the test sentences are displayed on a single line (Swets et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 64-81, 2007). However, when implicit prosody is manipulated by displaying the sentences with a break between the second noun and the relative clause, the off-line assessments indicate that readers prefer to attach the relative clause to the first noun. In this experiment, readers' undertook a working memory assessment and then read test sentences that were displayed across two lines, with a break appearing after the second noun and before the relative clause. The eye-tracking data indicated an overall preference to attach the relative clause to the first noun, and there was little indication that working memory moderated the degree of preference for this configuration. Hence, it appears that readers' implicit prosodic contours rapidly affect resolution of adjunct attachment ambiguities. PMID:19377881

Traxler, Matthew J

2009-04-18

416

Improvement of PPP-inferred tropospheric estimates by integer ambiguity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer ambiguity resolution in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can improve positioning accuracy and reduce convergence time. The decoupled clock model proposed by Collins (2008) has been used to facilitate integer ambiguity resolution in PPP, and research has been conducted to assess the model's potential to improve positioning accuracy and reduce positioning convergence time. In particular, the biggest benefits have been identified for the positioning solutions within short observation periods such as one hour. However, there is little work reported about the model's potential to improve the estimation of the tropospheric parameter within short observation periods. This paper investigates the effect of PPP ambiguity resolution on the accuracy of the tropospheric estimates within one hour.The tropospheric estimates with float and fixed ambiguities within one hour are compared to two external references. The first reference is the International GNSS Service (IGS) final troposphere product based on the PPP technique. The second reference is the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) radio occultation (RO) event based on the atmospheric profiles along the signal travel path. A comparison among ten co-located ground-based GPS and space-based RO troposphere zenith path delays shows that the mean bias of the troposphere estimates with float ambiguities can be significantly reduced from 30.1 to 17.0 mm when compared to the IGS troposphere product and from 36.3 to 19.7 mm when compared to the COSMIC RO. The root mean square (RMS) accuracy improvement of the tropospheric parameters by the ambiguity resolution is 33.3% when compared to the IGS products and 44.3% when compared to the COSMIC RO. All these improvements are achieved within one hour, which indicates the promising prospect of adopting PPP integer ambiguity resolution for time-critical applications such as typhoon prediction.

Shi, J.; Gao, Y.

2012-11-01

417

Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined.

Vrba, J.; Robinson, S. E.; McCubbin, J.; Lowery, C. L.; Eswaran, H.; Murphy, P.; Preissl, H.

2007-02-01

418

Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography.  

PubMed

Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined. PMID:17228119

Vrba, J; Robinson, S E; McCubbin, J; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H; Murphy, P; Preissl, H

2007-01-16

419

How Much Will Alumni Give in the Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors in alumni giving to colleges are discussed, some aspects of alumni giving to all higher education are forecast, and for illustration, probable giving to one college (Amherst College, Massachusetts) is predicted. Factors considered include alumni numbers, dollar amounts given, and the link between stock market activities and donations.…

Bristol, Ralph, Jr.

1992-01-01

420

Understanding Alumni Giving: Theory and Predictors of Donor Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study tests a theoretical model of alumni giving developed inductively from prior research. Donor status is directly predicted by willingness to give, alumni involvement, perceptions of the economic environment, perceived need, charitable preferences, receipt of a scholarship and capacity to give along with several indirect…

Hoyt, Jeff E.

2004-01-01

421

When decisions on homologous structures cause ambiguous taxa relationships: the Neomorphinae (Aves, Cuculidae) example.  

PubMed

The anatomy of Neomorphinae is poorly understood and the systematics of this sub-family is also the most controversial of the cuckoo taxa, mainly with regard to the systematic position of Tapera and Dromococcyx. In this study, morphological similarities of the Neomorphinae are discussed after a comprehensive description of the cranial osteology was conducted in seven species, embracing all the Neomorphinae genera. This description is followed by comparisons with other cuckoos in order to contribute to the anatomy and systematics of this sub-family. In this way, we provide illustrations that enable the osteological descriptions and the proposed primary homologies to be visualised and compared. Even though Neomorphinae species share many cranial osteological characteristics, there are some anatomical divergences that allowed us to divide them into two distinct groups: (Dromococcyx/Tapera) and (Morococcyx(Neomorphus/Geococcyx)). After comparisons among all cuckoos this study suggests that Neomorphinae are more similar to Crotophaginae and Couinae than to other sub-families of cuckoos. Our results contrast with a recent phylogenetic study based on morphological features, mainly because alternative interpretations to the primary osteological homologies in this study grouped Tapera and Dromococcyx with Cuculinae. Although morphological studies can be used in phylogenetic analysis, we demonstrated here that decisions in the interpretation of the homologies can provide ambiguous results. PMID:20231978

Posso, S R; Donatelli, R J

2010-02-01

422

Measuring the subjective value of risky and ambiguous options using experimental economics and functional MRI methods.  

PubMed

Most of the choices we make have uncertain consequences. In some cases the probabilities for different possible outcomes are precisely known, a condition termed "risky". In other cases when probabilities cannot be estimated, this is a condition described as "ambiguous". While most people are averse to both risk and ambiguity(1,2), the degree of those aversions vary substantially across individuals, such that the subjective value of the same risky or ambiguous option can be very different for different individuals. We combine functional MRI (fMRI) with an experimental economics-based method(3 )to assess the neural representation of the subjective values of risky and ambiguous options(4). This technique can be now used to study these neural representations in different populations, such as different age groups and different patient populations. In our experiment, subjects make consequential choices between two alternatives while their neural activation is tracked using fMRI. On each trial subjects choose between lotteries that vary in their monetary amount and in either the probability of winning that amount or the ambiguity level associated with winning. Our parametric design allows us to use each individual's choice behavior to estimate their attitudes towards risk and ambiguity, and thus to estimate the subjective values that each option held for them. Another important feature of the design is that the outcome of the chosen lottery is not revealed during the experiment, so that no learning can take place, and thus the ambiguous options remain ambiguous and risk attitudes are stable. Instead, at the end of the scanning session one or few trials are randomly selected and played for real money. Since subjects do not know beforehand which trials will be selected, they must treat each and every trial as if it and it alone was the one trial on which they will be paid. This design ensures that we can estimate the true subjective value of each option to each subject. We then look for areas in the brain whose activation is correlated with the subjective value of risky options and for areas whose activation is correlated with the subjective value of ambiguous options. PMID:23022992

Levy, Ifat; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior; Manson, Kirk; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul W

2012-09-19

423

Why cast shadows are expendable: insensitivity of human observers and the inherent ambiguity of cast shadows in pictorial art.  

PubMed

The kinds of visual cues artists choose to use or not use in their work can offer insight into perceptual processes. On the basis of the observed paucity of the use of cast shadow in pictorial art, we hypothesized that cast shadows might be relatively expendable as pictorial cues. In this study, we investigated two potential reasons for this expendability: first, viewers might be insensitive to much of the information that cast shadows provide; and, second, ambiguities about what is shadow and what is pigment can often be resolved only through motion-something that static media are ill-equipped to deal with. In experiment 1, we used a visual-search paradigm in which viewers had to determine if there were odd cast shadows in sets of 4, 8, 16, and 32 objects. In experiment 2, viewers had to discriminate between shadow/pigment ambiguities in both still and moving images. Our results demonstrate that viewers are neither particularly sensitive to static cast-shadow incongruities, nor are they able to disambiguate cast shadow from pigment without continuous motion information. Taken together, these results may help explain why cast shadows are relatively rare in static pictorial work. PMID:15693677

Jacobson, Jayme; Werner, Steffen

2004-01-01

424

Microfluidic processor allows rapid HER2 immunohistochemistry of breast carcinomas and significantly reduces ambiguous (2+) read-outs  

PubMed Central

Biomarker analysis is playing an essential role in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction. Quantitative assessment of immunohistochemical biomarker expression on tumor tissues is of clinical relevance when deciding targeted treatments for cancer patients. Here, we report a microfluidic tissue processor that permits accurate quantification of the expression of biomarkers on tissue sections, enabled by the ultra-rapid and uniform fluidic exchange of the device. An important clinical biomarker for invasive breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [(HER2), also known as neu], a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that connotes adverse prognostic information for the patients concerned and serves as a target for personalized treatment using the humanized antibody trastuzumab. Unfortunately, when using state-of-the-art methods, the intensity of an immunohistochemical signal is not proportional to the extent of biomarker expression, causing ambiguous outcomes. Using our device, we performed tests on 76 invasive breast carcinoma cases expressing various levels of HER2. We eliminated more than 90% of the ambiguous results (n = 27), correctly assigning cases to the amplification status as assessed by in situ hybridization controls, whereas the concordance for HER2-negative (n = 31) and -positive (n = 18) cases was 100%. Our results demonstrate the clinical potential of microfluidics for accurate biomarker expression analysis. We anticipate our technique will be a diagnostic tool that will provide better and more reliable data, onto which future treatment regimes can be based.

Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Gijs, Martin A. M.

2013-01-01

425

Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM) was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

Tantbirojn, Patou; Taweevisit, Mana; Sritippayawan, Suchila; Uerpairojkit, Boonchai

2008-01-01

426

Cross ambiguity function analysis of the '8k-mode' DVB-T for passive radar application  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of non-cooperative illuminators recently considered for passive radar applications is the DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) station. The thumbtack ambiguity function of the DVB-T signal in addition to being stationary makes such signal a good candidate for such applications. However, certain ambiguities in its ambiguity function necessitates certain issues to be carefully considered when DVB-T signals are to

M. Radmard; M. Bastani; F. Behnia; M. M. Nayebi

2010-01-01

427

Ambiguous effects of anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab) for POEMS syndrome.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome. Anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) appears to be an attractive therapeutic option. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of bevacizumab for patients with POEMS syndrome. METHODS: We reported six POEMS patients treated with bevacizumab and reviewed the literature. RESULTS: The serum VEGF levels decreased immediately after bevacizumab administration in all six patients. However, four patients had entirely no clinical response, and two of them died. The remaining two showed improvement that could be explained by combined treatments. We also reviewed the literature and found 11 patients treated with bevacizumab; of these, only one was treated with bevacizumab alone. 10 had combined treatments, and four died without any response. CONCLUSIONS: Both our experience and the literature suggest ambiguous effects of bevacizumab; inhibition of VEGF alone may be insufficient because multiple cytokines are upregulated, or aberrant neo-vascularization may have already fully developed in the advanced stage of POEMS syndrome. PMID:23463868

Sekiguchi, Yukari; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Nasu, Saiko; Mitsuma, Satsuki; Iwai, Yuta; Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Ito, Shoichi; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Kuwabara, Satoshi

2013-03-01

428

Integrated management of natural resources: dealing with ambiguous issues, multiple actors and diverging frames.  

PubMed

Uncertainty is an increasingly important concern when trying to manage complex systems of interrelated natural resources. Scientific knowledge or necessary information may be lacking or incomplete. Additionally, the multiple and interdependent users of those resources may diverge in defining what really is at stake. When they frame issues in very different ways, ambiguity results, i.e., the existence of two or more equally plausible interpretation possibilities. Environmental management in these conditions implies a shift in attention from solving clearly delineated problems to continuous negotiating and tuning between different actors and expertise domains. This requires dealing with the frame differences in a reciprocal way by mutually acknowledging frames and connecting them. Some or all parties will have to revise, enlarge or reframe the way they relate to the issues and to each other, in order to support mutual understanding and common action. The contribution of experts does not consist then in providing total predictability nor in predefining issues and solutions, but in supporting a joint learning and negotiation process among different actors and in feeding this process with relevant information. Behavioural simulations may play an important function to stimulate multi-actor learning and negotiation processes. PMID:16304943

Dewulf, A; Craps, M; Bouwen, R; Taillieu, T; Pahl-Wostl, C

2005-01-01

429

Cellular mechanisms for resolving phase ambiguity in the owl's inferior colliculus.  

PubMed

Both mammals and birds use the interaural time difference (ITD) for localization of sound in the horizontal plane. They may localize either real or phantom sound sources, when the signal consists of a narrow frequency band. This ambiguity does not occur with broadband signals. A plot of impulse rates or amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials against ITDs (ITD curve) consists of peaks and troughs. In the external nucleus (ICX) of the owl's inferior colliculus, ITD curves show multiple peaks when the signal is narrow-band, such as tones. Of these peaks, one occurs at ITDi, which is independent of frequency, and others at ITDi +/- T, where T is the tonal period. The ITD curve of the same neuron shows a large peak (main peak) at ITDi and no or small peaks (side peaks) at ITDi +/- T, when the signal is broadband. ITD curves for postsynaptic potentials indicate that ICX neurons integrate the results of binaural cross-correlation in different frequency bands. However, the difference between the main and side peaks is small. ICX neurons further enhance this difference in the process of converting membrane potentials to impulse rates. Inhibition also appears to augment the difference between the main and side peaks. PMID:11050210

Peña, J L; Konishi, M

2000-10-24

430

How Can Group Experience Influence the Cue Priority? A Re-Examination of the Ambiguity-Ambivalence Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of the “framing effect” by Kahneman and Tversky, the sensitivity of the “framing effect” – its appearance and in some cases its disappearance – has long been an object of study. However there is little agreement as to the reasons for this sensitivity. The “ambiguity-ambivalence hypothesis” (Wang, 2008) aims to systematically explain the sensitivity of this effect by paying particular attention to people’s cue priority: it states that the framing effect occurs when verbal framing is used to compensate for the absence of higher prioritized decision cues. The main purpose of our study is to examine and develop this hypothesis by examining cue priority given differences in people’s “group experience.” The main result is that the framing effect is absent when the choice problem is presented in a group context that reflects the actual size of the group that the participant has had experience with. Thus, in order to understand the choices that people make in life and death decisions, it is important to incorporate the decision maker’s group experience explicitly into the ambiguity-ambivalence hypothesis.

Shimizu, Kazumi; Udagawa, Daisuke

2011-01-01

431

Reference strand mediated conformation analysis resolves HLA-DRB1 typing ambiguities when matching for unrelated bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

We show here the use of reference strand mediated conformation analysis (RSCA) to unambiguously resolve the HLA-DRB1 typing of two individuals which were selected as potential unrelated donors for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In the first case, both sequence-specific primer (SSP) amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing (SSO), routinely used in different tissue typing laboratories gave, for the two unrelated donors, the same ambiguous typing of HLA-DRB1*04011+*0403 or DRB1*0407+*0413. In this case sequence-based typing (SBT) was not the method of choice to resolve the situation, due to the sequence ambiguities of these two given combinations. RSCA of both samples, using homozygous typing cells (HTCs) for DRB1*04011, *0403 and *0407 as internal controls, gave the unambiguous result that both donors were HLA-DRB1*04011+*0403. In the second case, a donor was typed as DRB1*1102+1103 by SSP, while SSO excluded the DRB1*1102 allele. The patient was unambiguously typed as DRB1*1101+1103 by both techniques. RSCA, using DNA from reference cell lines as internal controls, gave the unambiguous typing that the donor was DRB1*1103 homozygous. PMID:10958360

Corell, A; Pay, A L; Little, A M; Hoddinott, M A; Argüello, J R; Borton, M; Dunne, C; Ogilvie, H; O'Shea, J; Madrigal, J A; Marsh, S G

2000-07-01

432

Ambiguous Figures - What Happens in the Brain When Perception Changes But Not the Stimulus  

PubMed Central

During observation of ambiguous figures our perception reverses spontaneously although the visual information stays unchanged. Research on this phenomenon so far suffered from the difficulty to determine the instant of the endogenous reversals with sufficient temporal precision. A novel experimental paradigm with discontinuous stimulus presentation improved on previous temporal estimates of the reversal event by a factor of three. It revealed that disambiguation of ambiguous visual information takes roughly 50?ms or two loops of recurrent neural activity. Further, the decision about the perceptual outcome has taken place at least 340?ms before the observer is able to indicate the consciously perceived reversal manually. We provide a short review about physiological studies on multistable perception with a focus on electrophysiological data. We further present a new perspective on multistable perception that can easily integrate previous apparently contradicting explanatory approaches. Finally we propose possible extensions toward other research fields where ambiguous figure perception may be useful as an investigative tool.

Kornmeier, Jurgen; Bach, Michael

2011-01-01

433

Ethics, ambiguity aversion, and the review of complex translational clinical trials.  

PubMed

Clinical trials of novel agents often present several layers of ethical challenge. Because time and resources for ethical and safety review are limited, how investigators, IRBs, and regulators allocate attention to a trial's various safety dimensions itself represents a critical ethical question. In what follows, I use the example of a Parkinson's disease gene transfer trial to show how risks involving unknown probabilities or outcomes (ambiguity), might sometimes draw attention away from risks that involve known probabilities or outcomes. This potentially undermines the goal of 'systematic and nonarbitrary analysis of risk' during ethical review. To counteract the possible effects of such attention biases, I propose that reviewers develop 'cognitive aids' like lists and, where appropriate, set aside time to discuss non-ambiguous risks. I also propose further research for addressing and understanding how attention allocation, emotion, and ambiguity influence ethical decision-making. PMID:21241343

Kimmelman, Jonathan

2011-01-17

434

Miniature interferometer terminals for earth surveying - Ambiguity and multipath with global positioning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that if the integer-cycle ambiguities of the interferometric phase observations can be correctly resolved, the baseline vector extending from the antenna of one terminal to that of another should be determinable with uncertainty much smaller than the 19-cm wavelength of the global positioning system (GPS) transmissions. A method of ambiguity resolution is proposed that is suitable for observations made with antennas of low directive gain. Although such antennas are compact, the feasibility of their use has been questioned because observations with them are susceptible to multipath interference. For short-baseline interferometric observations of GPS the method proposed is shown to yield correct ambiguity resolution despite severe multipath interference and significant sky blockage, even when instability of the frequency standards governing the separate receiving terminals limits the time span of coherent integration to five minutes.

Counselman, C. C.; Gourevitch, S. A.

1981-10-01

435

Intact performance on feature ambiguous discriminations in rats with lesions of the perirhinal cortex  

PubMed Central

A novel behavioral paradigm for the rat made it possible to separate the evaluation of memory functions from the evaluation of perceptual functions. Animals were given extensive training on an automated two-choice discrimination task and then maintained their memory performance at a high level while interpolated probe trials tested visual perceptual ability. The probe trials systematically varied the degree of feature ambiguity between the stimuli, such that perceptual functions could be tested across fourteen different levels of difficulty. As feature ambiguity increased, performance declined in an orderly, monotonic manner (from 87% correct to chance, 50% correct). Bilateral lesions of the perirhinal cortex fully spared the capacity to make feature ambiguous discriminations, and the performance of lesioned and intact animals was indistinguishable at every difficulty level. In contrast, the perirhinal lesions did impair recognition memory. The findings suggest that the perirhinal cortex is important for memory and not for perceptual functions.

Clark, Robert E.; Reinagel, Pamela; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Flister, Erik D.; Squire, Larry R.

2011-01-01

436

A Case of Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium Combined with Situs Ambiguous with Polysplenia  

PubMed Central

A 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and exertional dyspnea. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses, findings consistent with noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium. Thoracoabdominal CT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) revealed situs ambiguous with polysplenia and noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium. CMR also demonstrated delayed enhancement of the trabeculations located at the apical portion of the left ventricle. The coronary angiogram was normal. This is the first case of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium associated with situs ambiguous with polysplenia.

Cho, Yun-Heyong; Jin, Sung Joon; Je, Hyun Chul; Yoon, Young-Won; Hong, Bum-Kee; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Kim, Tae Hoon

2007-01-01

437

Tolerance for ambiguity could influence awareness of breast cancer genetic testing and inform health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This exploratory study assessed relationships among education, tolerance for ambiguity, and genetic testing awareness in light\\u000a of implications for cancer genetics education.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional analyses were conducted from self-administered written survey data of a breast cancer risk communication trial,\\u000a including 899 Women’s Health patients recruited from 2003 to 2005. The modifying effect of tolerance for ambiguity on the\\u000a relationship between educational

John M. Quillin; Judy Silberg; Resa M. Jones; Diane Baer Wilson; Hermine Maes; Deborah Bowen; Joann Bodurtha

2008-01-01

438

On the reconstruction of a unitary matrix from its moduli. Existence of continuous ambiguities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, for an n×n unitary matrix with n>=4, the knowledge of the moduli of its elements is not always sufficient to determine this matrix up to ``trivial'' or ``discrete'' ambiguities. Using a parametrization a la Kobayashi-Maskawa in the case n=4, we exhibit various configurations of the moduli for which a continuous ambiguity appears (i.e., some non-trivial phase remains free). Permanent address: Laboratoire de Physique Mathématique, USTL, Place E. Bataillon, F-34060 Montpellier Cedex, France.

Auberson, G.

1989-01-01

439

Removal of complex-conjugate ambiguity in SDOCT by using phase shiftings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-step or many steps phase shifting method is usually employed to resolve the complex-conjugate ambiguity in Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). However it reduces the image quality and also the imaging speed is slow. In this paper two steps phase-shifting is used in digital image processing to resolve the complex-conjugate ambiguity and improves the quality of reconstructed image in SD-OCT. In the two-step phase shifting method the phase shifting operation is used only once which simplified the experiment and also the effect of relative error in SD-OCT on image quality is eliminated.

Cai, Wenyuan; Jiang, Zhuqing; Huang, Haochong

2012-12-01

440

Microcomputer programs for back translation of protein to DNA sequences and analysis of ambiguous DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Three computer programs are described which may be used to translate a DNA sequence into a protein sequence, back translate the protein sequence into an ambiguous DNA sequence, and then do pattern searching in the ambiguous sequence. The programs are written in the C programming language, have been compiled to run on a microcomputer under the CP/M 80 operating system, and may be copied in binary format through a modem. They are also to become available for the IBM/PC. PMID:6546440

Mount, D W; Conrad, B

1984-01-11

441

Tax policies to promote private charitable giving in DAC countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have written hundreds of papers on the causes and consequences of official foreign aid, while paying almost no attention to private overseas giving, by individuals, universities, foundations, and corporations. Yet private giving is significant—some $15.5 billion\\/year, compared to more than $60 billion\\/year in public giving—and is in no small part an outcome of public policy. In most rich countries,

David Roodman; Scott Standley

2006-01-01

442

Intermittent ambiguous stimuli: Implicit memory causes periodic perceptual alternations  

PubMed Central

When viewing a stimulus that has multiple plausible real-world interpretations, perception alternates between these interpretations every few seconds. Alternations can be halted by intermittently removing the stimulus from view. The same interpretation dominates over many successive presentations, and perception stabilizes. Here we study perception during long sessions of such intermittent presentation. We demonstrate that, rather than causing truly stable perception, intermittent presentation gives rise to a perceptual alternation cycle with its own characteristics and dependencies, different from those during continuous presentation. Alternations during intermittent viewing typically occur once every few minutes—much less frequently than the seconds-scale alternations during continuous viewing. Strikingly, alternations during intermittent viewing occur at fairly regular intervals, making for a surprisingly periodic alternation cycle. The duration of this cycle becomes longer as the blank duration between presentations is increased, reaching dozens of minutes in some cases. We interpret our findings in terms of a mathematical model that describes a neural network with competition between alternative interpretations. Network sensitivities depend on prior dominance, thus providing a memory for past perception. Slow changes in sensitivity produce both perceptual stabilization and the regular but infrequent alternations, meaning that the same memory traces are responsible for both. This model provides a good description of psychophysical findings, and offers several indications regarding their neural basis.

Brascamp, J. W.; Pearson, J.; Blake, R.; van den Berg, A. V.

2009-01-01

443

Genome annotation errors in pathway databases due to semantic ambiguity in partial EC numbers  

PubMed Central

We report on a new type of systematic annotation error in genome and pathway databases that results from the misinterpretation of partial Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers such as ‘1.1.1.-’. This error results in the assignment of genes annotated with a partial EC number to many or all biochemical reactions that are annotated with the same partial EC number. That inference is faulty because of the ambiguous nature of partial EC numbers. We have observed this type of error in multiple databases, including KEGG, VIMSS and IMG, all of which assign genes to KEGG pathways. The Escherichia coli subset of the KEGG database exhibits this error for 6.8% of its gene-reaction assignments. For example, KEGG contains 17 reactions that are annotated with EC 1.1.1.-. A group of three E.coli genes, b1580 [putative dehydrogenase, NAD(P)-binding, starvation-sensing protein], b3787 (UDP-N-acetyl-d-mannosaminuronic acid dehydrogenase) and b0207 (2,5-diketo-d-gluconate reductase B), is assigned to 15 of those reactions, despite experimental evidence indicating different single functions for two of the three genes. Furthermore, the databases (DBs) are internally inconsistent in that the description of gene functions for genes with partial EC numbers is inconsistent with the activities implied by reactions to which the genes were assigned. We infer that these inconsistencies result from the processing used to match gene products to reactions within KEGG's metabolic pathways. These errors affect scientists who use these DBs as online encyclopedias and they affect bioinformaticists who use these DBs to train and validate newly developed algorithms.

Green, M. L.; Karp, P. D.

2005-01-01

444

Gender differences in giving blood: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background An overview of European blood donors shows that the distribution of men and women donors is similar in many countries, with Italy being an exception in that women account for only 30% of donors. Gender medicine is a key issue in this context, even though gender studies are very limited in the transfusion field, whether considered broadly or with specific regards to the selection, management and retention of donors. It, therefore, seemed important to compare the presence of women among blood donors in different European countries and examine the roles that gender is reported to play in the donation of blood in order to identify possible implications for communication with and management of the donor. Methods To determine the proportion of women among donors in European countries, data were collected from annual reports or documents available on the websites of national associations; furthermore, all papers related to giving blood published in the five main journals in the sector (Transfusion, Vox Sanguinis, Transfusion and Apheresis Science, Transfusion Medicine, Blood Transfusion) were considered; about 80 publications were selected and the gender variable was examined. Results The published studies showed that gender plays key roles in the motivation to give blood (women being more altruistic, men being more individualistic) and in adverse reactions, which was a particularly critical problem leading to fewer women become regular donors. A few aspects specific to the management of donors in Italy also emerged. Discussion Gender seems to play an important role in the aspects studied and does, therefore, merit further consideration in relation to strategies to recruit donors and the management of critical events during donation.

Bani, Marco; Giussani, Barbara

2010-01-01

445

Gender-role views and gift-giving behaviors in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper intends to enrich the set of national contexts used so far in studies about gift-giving. It also intends to test the unique explanatory power of the dimensions of egalitarianism. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study uses a survey methodology with an Israeli sample. Findings – The results suggest that egalitarianism affects gift-giving behaviors only for females and anniversary

Vassilis Dalakas; Aviv Shoham

2010-01-01

446

Implications of differential impacts of care-giving for future research on Alzheimer care  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the primary caregivers for the millions afflicted with Alzheimer's disease, family members have been the focus of research for the past two decades. Differences in care patterns and deleterious effects of care provision have been clearly established. However, similar demands and hardships associated with care-giving result in different consequences for different families. A greater understanding of the care-giving context

R. J. V. Montgomery; K. N. Williams

2001-01-01

447

Divided We Stand, United We Fall: Religious Pluralism, Giving, and Volunteering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines to what extent religious context influences giving to, and volunteering for, religious causes—both directly and through increased attendance at religious services—and whether it has unintended spillover effects on giving and volunteering for secular purposes. Results from individuals living in a sample of counties in the United States indicate that a high level of religious pluralism is not

Francesca Borgonovi

2008-01-01

448

Giving or giving back: new psychosocial insights from sperm donors in France.  

PubMed

Despite the growing importance of the international scientific literature concerning donor insemination, studies of French samples are rare. We recently had the opportunity to conduct a nationwide study on psychosocial issues related to semen donation in France. In this article, we present the main results of an analysis of the narratives of 33 sperm donors. We examine the meaning they attribute to this experience, their motivations, the social ramifications of their action, and their perspective on the principles of sperm donation in France. We highlight our results by comparing them to those derived from other recent international studies in different legislative contexts. Finally, we suggest a hypothesis regarding donor motivations based on recent literature in social sciences regarding the fundamental role of gift and reciprocity. These issues, particularly the anonymity of gamete donation, are currently at the heart of a national debate related to the expected revision of the French bioethics law. PMID:22512643

Kalampalikis, Nikos; Haas, Valérie; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Doumergue, Marjolaine; Deschamps, Gaëlle

2012-04-18

449

Factors Associated With Acceptance and Decline of Client Gift Giving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Client gift giving is an interesting interpersonal event, and scholars have considered the ethical and clinical complexities involved in receiving gifts from clients. Attention to the cultural relations of client gift giving invites a more nuanced discussion of psychologists’ decisions to accept or decline client gifts. In recognition of how cultural issues affect the therapeutic relationship, the American Psychological Association

Chris Brown; Heather B. Trangsrud

2008-01-01

450

The spirit of giving: Mennonite narratives about charitable contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many charitable contributions in the USA are religiously motivated. Based on an analysis of the discussions about charitable contributions among three Mennonite groups in south-central Pennsylvania, this article examines members' complex decision-making processes about giving. Most recent studies of such donations among Christians emphasise the importance of a sense of sacrifice and the demonstration of one's religious commitment through giving.

Tomomi Naka

2011-01-01

451

It is Possible to Just Give Money to the Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics recently suggested that, rather than 'giving fifty billion dollars of overseas aid', we should simply 'find the poor and give them one dollar a week . . . That would probably do more to relieve poverty than anything else'. Two experiences in Mozambique of simply handing out money show this is possible.

Joseph Hanlon

2004-01-01

452

Giving Tree Teachers: Women and the National Board Certification Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shel Silverstein's children's book "The Giving Tree" imparts a useful metaphor for thinking about the role of teachers--women teachers in particular. The book's namesake is the epitome of altruism, providing branches, fruit, and even her trunk so that her beloved boy might have what he desires. And so it goes for women; endless giving, nurturing,…

Johnson, Tara Star; Bruce, Mary; Graham, Peg; Oliver, Steve; Oppong, Nicholas; Park, Soonhye; Mansberger, Dorann

2005-01-01

453

Giving with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of giving have often been based on altruism. Examples include charity and intergenerational transfers. The literatures on both subjects have centered around neutrality hypotheses: charity is subject to complete crowding out, while intergenerational transfers are subject to Ricardian equivalence. This paper formally develops a model of giving in which altruism is not \\

James Andreoni

1989-01-01

454

An econometric analysis of household political giving in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of political contribution limitations contend that such contributions can transform economic and social inequalities into political inequalities. This article examines the extent to which traditional markers of social and economic power are associated with political giving. A Tobit analysis of 56 663 households participating in the Consumer Expenditure Survey from 1995 to 2005 indicates that political giving is positively

Russell N. James III

2009-01-01

455

GIVING ADDICTS THEIR DRUG OF CHOICE: THE PROBLEM OF CONSENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTResearchers working on drug addiction may, for a variety of reasons, want to carry out research which involves giving addicts their drug of choice. In carrying out this research consent needs to be obtained from those addicts recruited to participate in it. Concerns have been raised about whether or not such addicts are able to give this consent. Despite their

TOM WALKER

2008-01-01

456

CASE Planned Giving Ideas. The Best of CASE CURRENTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collected are articles by planned giving (deferred giving) experts on institutional commitment, policies, and programs to encourage various types of gifts to higher education institutions: bequests, unitrusts, annuity trusts, charitable income trusts (lead trusts), pooled income funds, gifts of land and so on. A major article covers how to hire…

Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Garigan, Catherine S., Ed.

457

A LIFE-TIME'S JOURNEY FROM DEFINITION AND DEDUCTION TO AMBIGUITY AND INSIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I speak of a personal journey in mathematics and mathematical thinking that began in a mathematical world of precision and certainty and found a world of mathematical thinking full of ambiguity and insight. It is a journey on which I have had many fellow travellers from whom I have learnt most of what I know, particularly my

David Tall

2006-01-01

458

Medical social workers in Hong Kong hospitalsExpectation, authority structure and role ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians and nurses were included in the study in order to see whether role ambiguity for medical social workers is related to the differences in role expectations. It was found that medical social workers had different expectations of their roles from those of physicians and nurses. A clear difference was also identified between the lines of authority in terms of

Chack-kie Wong; Becky Chan; Victor Tam

2000-01-01

459

India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a

1996-01-01

460

Disambiguating Ambiguous Biomedical Terms in Biomedical Narrative Text: An Unsupervised Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for information extraction and concept indexing in the biomedical domain, a method that quickly and efficiently assigns the correct sense of an ambiguous biomedical term in a given context is needed concurrently. The current status of word sense disambiguation (WSD) in the biomedical domain is that handcrafted rules are used

Hongfang Liu; Yves A. Lussier; Carol Friedman

2001-01-01

461

Policy-Based Ambiguity Reduction in Pervasive Context-Aware Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There has been an ever-increasing interest in context- aware computing expressed by the pervasive computing community. As researchers attempt to create pervasive systems that are unobtrusively embedded in the environment, completely connected, intuitive, effortlessly portable, and constantly available, often do they run into the problem of ambiguity in the determination of the surrounding context. With the presence of context

Sherif G. Aly

2007-01-01

462

Using Ambiguity and Entertainment to Win Compliance in a Lower-Level US History Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the dynamics of authority relationships and curriculum enactment in a lower-level, college-preparatory US History class. It explains how a teacher and his students construct a relaxed order shaped by uncertain educational goals, the use of entertainment, and students' wants. Ambiguity and entertainment in the teacher's…

Pace, Judith L.

2003-01-01

463

LIFG-Based Attentional Control and the Resolution of Lexical Ambiguities in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively…

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2011-01-01

464

Normal Aging Affects Decisions Under Ambiguity, but Not Decisions Under Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old adults have to face many situations that require important decisions. In the present investigation, the authors examined the effects of aging on both decisions under ambiguity and decisions under risk. To this purpose, healthy young and old adults completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Probability-Associated Gambling task (PAG task). Old adults performed the PAG task as well

Laura Zamarian; Hermann Sinz; Elisabeth Bonatti; Nadia Gamboz; Margarete Delazer

2008-01-01

465

Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

2010-01-01

466

Ambiguity as Opportunity and Constraint: Evolution of a Federal Sex Equity Education Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1960s to the early 1980s educational equity was an important focus for schools, supported by initiatives undertaken by the federal government. This paper takes the position that equity programs developed during that period were suffused with ambiguities, which both aided and hindered the evolution of viable definitions and demonstrations of educational equity. The paper focuses on the National

Rita Bornstein

1985-01-01

467

Resolving ambiguity: A psycholinguistic approach to understanding prosody processing in high-functioning autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with autism exhibit significant impairments in prosody production, yet there is a paucity of research on prosody comprehension in this population. The current study adapted a psycholinguistic paradigm to examine whether individuals with autism are able to use prosody to resolve syntactically ambiguous sentences. Participants were 21 adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA), and 22 typically developing controls matched on

Joshua J. Diehl; Loisa Bennetto; Duane Watson; Christine Gunlogson; Joyce McDonough

2008-01-01

468

LIFG-Based Attentional Control and the Resolution of Lexical Ambiguities in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively…

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2011-01-01

469

Ambiguous Loss, Family Stress, and Infant Attachment during Times of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the interdependent nature of infants and their parents who are experiencing wartime deployment and reunion. Research supports the contention that the cumulative effects of stress place families at risk; the experience of ambiguous loss changes as family roles change throughout the cycle of deployment; and parental absence has…

Gorman, Lisa A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

2007-01-01

470

Making space for stories: ambiguity in the design of personal communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive personal communication technologies offer the potential for important social benefits for individual users, but also the potential for significant social difficulties and costs. In research on face-to-face social interaction, ambiguity is often identified as an important resource for resolving social difficulties. In this paper, we discuss two design cases of personal communication systems, one based on fieldwork of a

Paul M. Aoki; Allison Woodruff

2005-01-01

471

United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of ambiguous visual stimuli  

PubMed Central

Ambiguous visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing ambiguous visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception whenever one perceptual interpretation is dominant, and the instability of perception that causes perceptual dominance to alternate between perceptual interpretations upon extended viewing. This review summarizes several ways in which contextual information can help the brain resolve visual ambiguities and construct temporarily stable perceptual experiences. Temporal context through prior stimulation or internal brain states brought about by feedback from higher cortical processing levels may alter the response characteristics of specific neurons involved in rivalry resolution. Furthermore, spatial or crossmodal context may strengthen the neuronal representation of one of the possible perceptual interpretations and consequently bias the rivalry process towards it. We suggest that contextual influences on perceptual choices with ambiguous visual stimuli can be highly informative about the neuronal mechanisms of context-driven inference in the general processes of perceptual decision-making.

Klink, P. C.; van Wezel, R. J. A.; van Ee, R.

2012-01-01

472

Building corporate reputation with stakeholders : Exploring the role of message ambiguity for social marketers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Managing the corporate reputation of hybrid firms (organizations that act commercially to pursue social agendas) involves particular challenges because of competing stakeholder interests. With reference to the Trappist beer market, the paper seeks to identify the value of message ambiguity in reducing stakeholder tension, while simultaneously achieving a clear market positioning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 25 in-depth interviews

Sonia Dickinson-Delaporte; Michael Beverland; Adam Lindgreen

2010-01-01

473

Collapsing Gender in Competitive BodybuildingResearching Contradictions and Ambiguity in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses conceptualisations of gender, sexuality and the body in the sport of bodybuilding. The paper debates the way the pursuit of bodybuilding produces complex social practices of body discipline. Identity work in the sport of bodybuilding is presented as complex and ambiguous because it rejects traditional categorisations of gender. One reading of gender representations in competitive bodybuilding which

Camilla Obel

1996-01-01

474