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Sample records for glabrata haemocytes effects

  1. Differential gene expression in haemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Miller, A N; Raghavan, N; FitzGerald, P C; Lewis, F A; Knight, M

    2001-05-15

    Parasite encapsulation and destruction in Biomphalaria glabrata has been shown to involve the cellular component of the snail's internal defence system, the haemocytes. To identify genes involved in the immunobiology of these cells, we used the method of differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) to investigate differential gene regulation in haemocytes isolated from Schistosoma mansoni exposed and unexposed snails. RNA isolated from circulating haemocytes from resistant snails (BS-90 stock), previously exposed to S. mansoni, was analysed using 12 different arbitrary primers in conjunction with an anchored Oligo d(T(11)CG) primer. Transcription profiles between haemocytes of parasite exposed and unexposed snails were compared and a total of 87 differentially regulated bands were identified and isolated. Of these, 65 bands were cloned and used as probes in Southern blots to show the presence of corresponding sequences in the snail genome. RT-PCR was performed to verify the regulation of these transcripts. DNA sequence analysis showed that the majority of the cloned sequences were novel, although a few showed a high degree of sequence similarity to other sequences in the DNA and protein databases. One of these included a differentially expressed transcript that showed a significant degree of sequence identity to E. coli transposase Tn5, an enzyme whose activity is normally associated with generating mobility and instability in the genome. PMID:11336750

  2. Early Differential Gene Expression in Haemocytes from Resistant and Susceptible Biomphalaria glabrata Strains in Response to Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Emery, Aidan M.; Kane, Richard A.; Walker, Anthony J.; Mayer, Claus D.; Mitta, Guillaume; Coustau, Christine; Adema, Coen M.; Hanelt, Ben; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R.; Jones, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. The mechanisms by which schistosomes evade snail immune recognition to ensure survival are not fully understood, but one possibility is that the snail internal defence system is manipulated by the schistosome enabling the parasite to establish infection. This study provides novel insights into the nature of schistosome resistance and susceptibility in B. glabrata at the transcriptomic level by simultaneously comparing gene expression in haemocytes from parasite-exposed and control groups of both schistosome-resistant and schistosome-susceptible strains, 2 h post exposure to S. mansoni miracidia, using an novel 5K cDNA microarray. Differences in gene expression, including those for immune/stress response, signal transduction and matrix/adhesion genes were identified between the two snail strains and tests for asymmetric distributions of gene function also identified immune-related gene expression in resistant snails, but not in susceptible. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinone biosynthesis and electron carrier activity were consistently up-regulated in resistant snails but down-regulated in susceptible. This supports the hypothesis that schistosome-resistant snails recognize schistosomes and mount an appropriate defence response, while in schistosome-susceptible snails the parasite suppresses this defence response, early in infection. PMID:23300533

  3. Differences in the Gene Expression Profiles of Haemocytes from Schistosome-Susceptible and -Resistant Biomphalaria glabrata Exposed to Schistosoma mansoni Excretory-Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Emery, Aidan M.; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs) that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml) for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host. PMID:24663063

  4. Effects of temperature on baseline and genotoxicant-induced DNA damage in haemocytes of Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Buschini, Annamaria; Carboni, Pamela; Martino, Anna; Poli, Paola; Rossi, Carlo

    2003-05-01

    The potential application of the Comet assay for monitoring genotoxicity in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha was explored and a preliminary investigation was undertaken of the baseline levels of DNA damage in mussel haemocytes of animals kept at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro cell sensitivity against genotoxicants was assessed in relation to increasing temperatures. The mussels were kept at four different constant temperatures (4, 18, 28 and 37 degrees C) for 15 h. The haemocytes withdrawn were treated in vitro with melphalan, as a model genotoxic compound, or sodium hypochlorite, a common water disinfectant capable of producing mutagenic/carcinogenic by-products, at the established temperatures for 1h. The data obtained in vivo, in cells directly withdrawn from the mussels showed a significant (P<0.001, Student's t test) inter-individual variability, probably due to genetic and epigenetic factors and an increasing amount of DNA damage at increasing temperature. Mussel haemocytes showed a clear dose-response effect after in vitro melphalan treatment. Hypochlorite treatment also significantly increased DNA migration: the damage was temperature dependent, with a similar increase at 4 and 28 degrees C and a minimum level at 18 degrees C. This study demonstrates the potential application of the Comet assay to haemocytes of D. polymorpha. However, these findings suggest that temperature could alter both DNA damage baseline levels in untreated animals and cell sensitivity towards environmental pollutants in in vitro conditions. Therefore, more information is needed about seasonal variations and the natural background levels of DNA damage in mussels living in the wild, before they are used for the monitoring of genotoxic effects in aquatic environments. PMID:12742509

  5. Air exposure and functionality of Chamelea gallina haemocytes: effects on haematocrit, adhesion, phagocytosis and enzyme contents.

    PubMed

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Ballarin, Loriano; Carotenuto, Lucia; Marin, Maria G

    2002-03-01

    The Venus clam Chamelea gallina is fairly common along the western coasts of the Adriatic and is subjected to intense fishing. Since over the last 20 years extensive hypoxic and anoxic conditions have repeatedly damaged this natural resource, we decided to study the effects of anoxic stress on the functionality of clam haemocytes and the consequences on immune responses. Clams, exposed to air, close their valves and tissues become anoxic and metabolism processes switch to anaerobiosis. In these conditions, a significant decrease in the haematocrit value and in the percentage of acid phosphatase-positive haemocytes was observed, while the number of cells with beta-glucuronidase significantly increased after day 1. The above indices generally returned to control values when clams were re-immersed in seawater after 1 day of treatment. Clams exposed to air for 2 days and then re-immersed, attempted to recover in the subsequent 3 days. Animals had fully recovered on day 4. Three-day-exposed clams did not recover. Phagocytic and adhesion indices decreased significantly after the first day of air exposure. The change in frequency of three types of circulating cells (spreading, round, apoptotic) was also monitored. PMID:11867286

  6. Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Zahida; Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP family, the ∼70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells) from its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. S. mansoni larval stage ESPs are known to interfere with haemocyte physiology and behaviour. Haemocytes from two different B. glabrata strains, one which is susceptible to S. mansoni infection and one which is resistant, both showed reduced HSP70 protein levels following 1 h challenge with S. mansoni ESPs when compared to unchallenged controls; however, the reduction observed in the resistant strain was less marked. The decline in intracellular HSP70 protein persisted for at least 5 h in resistant snail haemocytes only. Furthermore, in schistosome-susceptible snails infected by S. mansoni for 35 days, haemocytes possessed approximately 70% less HSP70. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially restored HSP70 protein levels in ESP-challenged haemocytes, demonstrating that the decrease in HSP70 was in part due to intracellular degradation. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway appears to regulate HSP70 protein expression in these cells, as the mitogen-activated protein-ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, significantly reduced HSP70 protein levels. Disruption of intracellular HSP70 protein expression in B. glabrata haemocytes by S. mansoni ESPs may be a strategy employed by the parasite to manipulate the immune response of the intermediate snail host. PMID:20182834

  7. [Effects of eugenol and derivatives on Biomphalaria glabrata].

    PubMed

    De Souza, C P; De Oliveira, A B; Araújo, N; Katz, N

    1991-05-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails and egg-masses were exposed, for six to twenty-four hours to concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm of Eugenol, O-methyleugenol, O-benzyleugenol and dehydrodieugenol. Only at 10 ppm O-benzyleugenol enhanced mortality of snails and egg-masses. The other substances showed ovicidal and molluscicidal activity only at 100 and 1000 ppm concentrations, causing a significant cardiac frequency reduction in snails after 6 to 24 hours of exposure as well as perduring low cardiac rates until 24 hours afterwards. Two specimen exposed to 100 ppm O-methyleugenol presented anesthetic effect and extrusion of copulator and urethral organs. No schistosomicide or anesthetic effects were observed in mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated during 5 days with oral doses of 150 mg/kg of Eugenol, O-methyleugenol and O-benzyleugenol. PMID:1844101

  8. Genotoxic effects of starvation and dimethoate in haemocytes and midgut gland cells of wolf spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Grażyna; Mędrzak, Monika; Augustyniak, Maria; Wilczek, Piotr; Stalmach, Monika

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of starvation and dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide) in female and male wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to the stressors under laboratory conditions. DNA damage was measured in haemocytes and midgut gland cells using the comet assay. In response to the two stressing factors, both cell types showed %TDNA, tail length (TL) and OTM values higher in males than in females. Level of DNA damage in haemocytes was greater than in midgut gland cells. In both sexes, the strongest genotoxicity was recorded at single application of dimethoate. After five-time exposure to the pesticide, genotoxic effects of a single dose were sustained in males and reduced to the control level in females. Starvation stress was well tolerated by the females, in which neither cell type was affected by DNA damage. However, in male haemocytes food deprivation induced severe DNA damage, what suggests suppression of the defence potential at prolonged starvation periods. PMID:26942684

  9. The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34μM for PCB28 to more than 100μM for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67μM for PCB153 to 89μM for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

  10. Himasthla elongata: effect of infection on expression of the LUSTR-like receptor mRNA in common periwinkle haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Gorbushin, A M; Klimovich, A V; Iakovleva, N V

    2009-09-01

    The first mollusc mRNA coding G-protein-coupled transmembrane receptor (GPcapital ES, CyrillicR), homologous to human receptors LUSTR 1 (GPR107) and LUSTR 2 (GPR108), was isolated from haemocytes of common periwinkle Littorina littorea. The analyses showed that the full-length cDNA is 1935 bp long and is predicted to encode a 614 amino acid protein (named Lit-LUSTR) with a calculated molecular mass of 69.6 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point 7.59. Pair-wise comparisons between Lit-LUSTR and LUSTR proteins from human or mouse have approximately 38% identity and 56% similarity. Lit-LUSTR clusters with LUSTR-A sub-family proteins and is a first characterization of proteins containing Lung7TM-R domain in Mollusca. Significant differences were found between the Lit-LUSTR mRNA levels in haemocytes of healthy periwinkles and those naturally infected with the echinostome trematode Himasthla elongata. Down regulated expression of the LUSTR-like receptor caused by infection illustrates modification of the haemocyte receptor system and may be attributed to the previously demonstrated greater numbers of "immature" haemocytes in the circulation of infected snails. PMID:19460375

  11. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  12. Early genotoxic effects in gill cells and haemocytes of Dreissena polymorpha exposed to cadmium, B[a]P and a combination of B[a]P and Cd.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Arini, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2011-07-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd on the zebra mussel, an important freshwater sentinel organism, and to determine the stability of DNA damage in gill cells and haemocytes. The oxidative DNA damage and the co-genotoxicity of Cd in combination with B[a]P were investigated. We measured DNA damage in haemocytes and gill cells of zebra mussels exposed for 11 days to a constant concentration of Cd (10μg/L), B[a]P (10μg/L) or the two combined chemicals (10μg/L+1μg/L). Enzymatic dissociation of gills with dispase gave the lower percentage DNA in tail, compared with collagenase/dispase or collagenase. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of mussels exposed to CdCl(2) or CdCl(2)+B[a]P increased in a time-dependent manner indicating that both exposures were effective. Cd (10μg/L) is genotoxic only during the first 3 days of exposure in gill cells, while in haemocytes the genotoxicity of Cd was observed later. B[a]P (10μg/L) induced an early increase of DNA damage in gill cells (after 10h and 1 day), while in both gill cells and haemocytes, B[a]P caused a marked increase of DNA damage after 3 days of exposure. The Cd+B[a]P mixture decreased the DNA-damaging effect of Cd and B[a]P in both cell types. Cd induced an increase of DNA damage in Fpg-treated slides, indicating that Cd contributed to oxidative DNA damage. Cadmium induced a cytogenetic effect in gill cells, assessed by the number of micronuclei, throughout the duration of the exposure, while B[a]P did not induce any cytogenetic effect. B[a]P, Cd and Cd+B[a]P induced a transient increase in the number of bi-nucleated cells. Our data clearly show that gills are more sensitive to Cd and B[a]P, which makes them more suitable for future bio-monitoring studies. PMID:21453782

  13. Effects of 17α-methyltestosterone on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Wendt, C L G; Borges, A C; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Ferreira, M F N; Grisolia, C K

    2014-01-01

    17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) is a synthetic hormone used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Snails hold promise as possible test models to assess chemicals acting on the endocrine system. Biomphalaria glabrata is an aquatic gastropod mollusk (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) that can be easily maintained in aquaria, predisposing the species for use in ecotoxicological testing. This study evaluated the reproductive effects of MT on B. glabrata by examining histological changes and its reproductive performance. Ten snails per group were exposed for 4 weeks to different concentrations of MT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L). The total number of laid eggs, egg mass per group, size of type V oocytes, and production of spermatozoids were determined. Reproduction of B. glabrata was affected by MT. At the lowest concentration (0.01 mg/L), MT caused a statistically significant increase in the number of egg mass per snail compared with controls unexposed to MT. Histopathology analyses showed an increase in the sperm production at the higher MT concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. Chromatographic analyses of water samples showed that MT concentrations rapidly declined within a 96-h period. These results highlight the importance of giving more support to regulatory authorities, since MT is not registered for use on fish hatcheries in many countries around the world. Wastewater from fish farms discharged into aquatic ecosystems should be monitored for MT residues, since its presence could compromise the reproduction of other native snail species. PMID:24615026

  14. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardenas, W.; Dankert, J.R.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are strong stimulators of white river crayfish, Procambarus zonangulus, haemocytes in vitro. Following haemocyte treatment with LPS and with LPS from rough mutant R5 (LPS Rc) from Salmonella minnesota, flow cytometric analysis revealed a conspicuous and reproducible decrease in cell size as compared to control haemocytes. These LPS molecules also caused a reduction in haemocyte viability as assessed by flow cytometry with the fluorescent dyes calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. The onset of cell size reduction was gradual and occurred prior to cell death. Haemocytes treated with LPS from S. minnesota without the Lipid A moiety (detoxified LPS) decreased in size without a reduction of viability. The action of LPS on crayfish haemocytes appeared to be related to the activation of the prophenoloxidase system because phenoloxidase (PO)-specific activity in the supernatants from control and detoxified LPS-treated cells was significantly lower than that from LPS and LPS-Rc treated cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of trypsin inhibitor to the LPS treatments caused noticeable delays in cell size and viability changes. These patterns of cellular activation by LPS formulations indicated that crayfish haemocytes react differently to the polysaccharide and lipid A moieties of LPS, where lipid A is cytotoxic and the polysaccharide portion is stimulatory. These effects concur with the general pattern of mammalian cell activation by LPS, thereby indicting commone innate immune recognition mechanisms to bacterial antigens between cells from mammals and invertebrates. These definitive molecular approaches used to verify and identify mechanisms of invertbrate haemocyte responses to LPS could be applied with other glycoconjugates, soluble mediators, or xenobiotic compounds.

  16. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  17. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Routledge, Edwin J.; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment. PMID:27448327

  18. Toxic effects of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on Artemia salina, human cells, and the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Silva, Luanna Ribeiro Santos; Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the toxicity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) to Artemia salina, human tumour cell lines (larynx epidermoid carcinoma Hep-2, NCI-H292 lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic myelocytic leukaemia K562), and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults. MvRL was toxic to A. salina (LC50=159.9 μg/mL), and exerted cytotoxic effects on NCI-H292 cells (IC50=25.23 μg/mL). The lectin (1-100 μg/mL) did not affect the viability of K562 and Hep-2 tumour cells, as well as of PBMCs. MvRL concentration of 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL promoted malformations (mainly exogastrulation) in 7.8%, 22.5%, and 27.7% of embryos, respectively, as well as delayed embryo development in 42.0%, 69.5%, and 54.7% of embryos, respectively. MvRL at a concentration of 100 μg/mL killed B. glabrata embryos (17.7%) and adults (25%). Further, MvRL damaged B. glabrata reproductive processes, which was evidenced by observations that snails exposed to the lectin (100 μg/mL) deposited fewer eggs than those in the control group, and approximately 40% of the deposited eggs exhibited malformations. Comparison of these results with that from A. salina assay indicates that MvRL is adulticidal at the concentration range which is toxic to environment. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of MvRL on tumour cell and absence of toxicity to normal cell indicate its potential as chemotherapeutic drug. Also, the study revealed that the lectin is able to promote deleterious effects on B. glabrata embryos at environmentally safe concentrations. PMID:24954527

  19. Effects of Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection on the reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1998-10-01

    Infection with the digenean parasite Plagiorchis elegans dramatically reduced the reproductive output of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to the parasite as juveniles or adults. The total number of eggs produced by infected snails was reduced to approximately 7 and 13% of control values, respectively. Parasitic castration was attributed to the presence of mother sporocysts that readily established in the tissues of this incompatible host. Infection did not result in the production of cercariae but significantly shortened the life span of juvenile and adult B. glabrata by approximately 23 and 10%, respectively. Plagiorchis elegans also castrated its compatible host, Stagnicola elodes. PMID:9794632

  20. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of adhered cells to the acrylic surface for single and mixed cultures of both species, with reductions ranging from 1.74 to 3.64-log10. In conclusion, tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections. PMID:26162470

  1. Combined effects of carbonate alkalinity and pH on survival, growth and haemocyte parameters of the Venus clam Cyclina sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tingting; Lai, Qifang; Yao, Zongli; Lu, Jianxue; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Carbonate alkalinity (CA) and pH are considered to be two important stress factors that determine the response of aquatic animals to sudden transfers into saline-alkaline water. To evaluate the potential for aquaculture production of Venus clams (Cyclina sinensis) farmed in saline-alkaline water, the combined effects of CA (2.5 (control), 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 meq/l) and pH (8.0 (control), 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5) on survival rate was monitored every day for 10 days. Length gain rate (LGR) and weight gain rate (WGR) were also monitored for two months, and total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic rate (PR) and haemocyte mortality (HM) were measured for 3, 6, 12 and 24 days under the same water temperature (20 °C) and salinity (15‰) conditions. The results showed that survival rates in treatments of CA ≤ 20.0, combined with pH ≤ 9.0, were 100%. LGR and WGR in treatments of CA 2.5 & pH 8.0 (control), CA 2.5 & pH 8.5 and CA 10.0 & pH 8.0 exhibited the largest values (P > 0.05), while in other treatments, they showed a decreasing trend with an increase in either CA or pH or both (P < 0.05). Similarly, for THC, PR and HM, no significant differences were observed among the fast growth treatments during the entire experimental period (P > 0.05), however, in other treatments, they presented significant differences, especially on day 3 and 6 (P < 0.05), most notably with increases in CA or pH, but returned to control levels on day 12. In conclusion, in this study, a strong interaction between CA and pH was observed. Additionally, it was ascertained that the Venus clam C. sinensis can withstand the stress of CA 20.0 combined pH 9.0, although individuals grows slowly and may take approximately 12 days to recover to the unstressed condition. PMID:23711470

  2. Mutual modulation between norepinephrine and nitric oxide in haemocytes during the mollusc immune response

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiufen; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Tiantian; Song, Linsheng

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important immune molecules in innate immunity of invertebrates, and it can be regulated by norepinephrine in ascidian haemocytes. In the present study, the mutual modulation and underlying mechanism between norepinephrine and NO were explored in haemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation, NO production increased to a significant level at 24 h, and norepinephrine concentration rose to remarkable levels at 3 h and 12~48 h. A significant decrease of NO production was observed in the haemocytes concomitantly stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and α-adrenoceptor agonist, while a dramatic increase of NO production was observed in the haemocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide and β-adrenoceptor agonist. Meanwhile, the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) decreased significantly in the haemocytes treated by lipopolysaccharide and α/β-adrenoceptor agonist, while the content of Ca2+ was elevated in those triggered by lipopolysaccharide and β-adrenoceptor agonist. When the haemocytes was incubated with NO donor, norepinephrine concentration was significantly enhanced during 1~24 h. Collectively, these results suggested that norepinephrine exerted varied effects on NO production at different immune stages via a novel α/β-adrenoceptor-cAMP/Ca2+ regulatory pattern, and NO might have a feedback effect on the synthesis of norepinephrine in the scallop haemocytes. PMID:25376551

  3. Cellular responses of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon haemocytes after lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Zhang, Xiu-Xia; Guo, Hui; Wang, Dong-Mei; Wang, An-Li

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on Penaeus monodon haemocytes at a cellular level. Cellular responses of LPS-injected shrimp were analysed using flow cytometry. Results showed that LPS injection caused total haemocyte count (THC) and count of large cells (semigranular and granular cells) decline. In LPS-injected shrimp, percentage of large cells decreased at the initial stage, and returned to the original level later. After LPS infection, non-specific esterase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nitric oxide (NO) production in haemocytes were significantly induced, while apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes increased. PO activity in plasma increased in shrimp received LPS at 2 μg g(-1) after 3-12 h and at 8 μg g(-1) after 3-6 h, and then returned to the initial levels. These results demonstrated that LPS induced immune responses on haemocytes, including production of ROS and NO, and release of esterase and PO. On the other hand, THC reduction might be due to the ROS/NO-induced apoptosis. Haemocyte apoptosis which would eliminate damaged or weak cells and contribute to haemocyte renewal, may be a defending strategie against pathogens. PMID:27134076

  4. Effects of aestivation and starvation on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    White, Meredith M; Fried, Bernard; Sherma, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    The effects of aestivation or starvation on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria glabrata patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni were determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry. Infected-aestivated snails were maintained in a moist chamber at 24 +/- 1 C and a relative humidity of 98 +/- 1%. Infected-starved snails were maintained in artificial spring water (ASW) at 23 +/- 1 C without exogenous food. Infected snails (the controls) were maintained in ASW at 23 +/- 1 C and fed lettuce ad libitum. The 3 groups were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days, and then the lipids from the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) were extracted and analyzed by class. Infected-aestivated snails exhibited greater mortality rate and weight loss after 7 days than did the infected-starved snails. The steryl ester concentration in the infected-starved snails was significantly increased (P = 0.010) compared with the controls but not compared with infected-aestivated snails; the concentration of phosphatidylcholine in infected-aestivated snails was significantly decreased (P = 0.007) compared with the controls but not when compared with the infected-starved snails. Aestivation or starvation had a significant effect on the concentration of certain lipid classes in the DGG of B. glabrata infected with S. mansoni. PMID:17436935

  5. OVICIDAL EFFECT OF PIPERACEAE SPECIES ON Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni HOST

    PubMed Central

    Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Nakano, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease with public health importance in tropical and subtropical regions. An alternative to the disease control is the use of molluscicides to eliminate or reduce the intermediate host snail population causing a reduction of transmission in endemic regions. In this study nine extracts from eight Piperaceae species were evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata embryos at blastula stage. The extracts were evaluated in concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 mg/L. Piper crassinervium and Piper tuberculatum extracts were the most active (100% of mortality at 20 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively). PMID:24213196

  6. Effects of abnormal temperature and starvation on the internal defense system of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Molly K; Cruz, Brandon C; Buena, Kevin L; Nguyen, Hai; Sullivan, John T

    2016-07-01

    Climate change may affect the internal defense system (IDS) of freshwater snails, and as a result their capacity to transmit disease. We examined effects of short-term exposure to supra- and sub-optimal temperatures or starvation on 3 parameters of the IDS of the schistosome-resistant Salvador strain of Biomphalaria glabrata - hemocyte concentrations, cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO), and resistance to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Adult snails were exposed to 1 of 3 temperatures, 20°C, 27°C (controls), or 33°C, for 1 or 2weeks, with food. A fourth group was maintained at 27°C, but without food. Compared to the controls, starved snails had significantly higher hemocyte counts at both 1 and 2weeks, although mitotic activity in the APO was significantly lower at both time periods. Exposure to 20°C or 33°C for 1 or 2weeks did not affect hemocyte numbers. However, APO mitotic activity in snails exposed to 20°C was significantly higher at both 1 and 2weeks, whereas mitotic activity in snails exposed to 33°C was significantly lower at 1week but normal at 2weeks. None of the treatments altered the resistance phenotype of Salvador snails. In a follow-up experiment, exposure to 33°C for 4-5h, a treatment previously reported to both induce expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and abrogate resistance to infection, caused immediate upregulation of Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 expression, but did not alter resistance, and Hsp expression levels returned to baseline after 2weeks at 33°C. Results of this study indicate that abnormal environmental conditions can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the IDS in adult B. glabrata, and that some degree of acclimation to abnormal temperatures may occur. PMID:27261059

  7. Effects of Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) on a challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni (Digenea: Schistosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Zakikhani, M; Smith, J M; Rau, M E

    2003-02-01

    Prior exposure of Biomphalaria glabrata to the eggs of an incompatible digenean, Plagiorchis elegans, rendered this snail host less suitable to a compatible species, Schistosoma mansoni. Although P. elegans failed to develop patent infections in B. glabrata, it reduced the production of S. mansoni cercariae by 88%. Concomitantly, host attributes such as reproduction, growth, and survival were compromised. The effect of P. elegans infection was most severe among snails that, in addition, had developed patent schistosome infections. Although few S. mansoni cercariae were produced, egg production by B. glabrata was only 4% of control values. Furthermore, no doubly infected snails survived for more than 3 wk after patency, whereas controls experienced no mortality during the same time period. The above effects were attributable to the establishment and persistence of P. elegans sporocysts in the tissues of the incompatible snail host. Their indirect antagonistic interaction with thelarval stages of S. mansoni may be mediated, in part, through their long-term stimulation of the host's internal defense mechanisms. These findings are discussed with a view to use P. elegans and other plagiorchiid digeneans as agents in the biological control of snails and snail-borne diseases. PMID:12659305

  8. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter. PMID:17574865

  9. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  10. Ecocytological and toxicological responses to copper in Perna viridis (L.) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) haemocyte lysosomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S

    2001-11-01

    Bivalve lysosomes are sites of intense intracellular digestion. Lysosomes accumulate many pollutants to high concentrations resulting in membrane destabilisation. Consequently, the elucidation of lysosomal membrane integrity utilising the neutral red assay has been used to good effect in pollution monitoring. Naturally occurring environmental stressors also have the potential to destabilise the membrane. Exposure to elevated copper concentrations and extremes of temperature, salinity, hypoxia, emersion and inadequate ration were investigated in haemocyte lysosomes from the tropical bivalve, Perna viridis. Elevated copper concentrations destabilised the membrane although responses were not entirely related to the exposure-concentration. Environmental stressors induced through higher thermal regimes (29 degrees C and 35 degrees C), hyposalinity (10-25/1000) and prolonged emersion elicited significant lysosomal membrane destabilisation. Hypoxia and inadequate ration did not significantly effect membrane stability. The haemocyte lysosomal membranes were generally resistant to exogenous alterations within normal ranges and only showed significant labilisation at environmental extremes. P. viridis haemocyte lysosomal membrane biomarkers should, therefore, prove robust to natural stressors when deployed in marine monitoring programmes and thus prove a valuable, rapid, cost-effective cytological marker of pollution. PMID:11680735

  11. Activation of prophenoloxidase in the plasma and haemocytes of the marine mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Asokan, R; Arumugam, M; Mullainadhan, P

    1997-01-01

    Phenoloxidase activity was detected in plasma and haemocytes of the marine mussel Perna viridis. This enzyme exists as a proenzyme, prophenoloxidase (proPO), in both these haemolymph fractions and could be activated in vitro by exogenous proteases (trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin) and a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate). In addition, laminarin (a polymer of beta-1,3 glucan) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSa) effectively triggered proPO activation in these haemolymph fractions. The activation of proPO by non-self molecules was dependent upon calcium ions at a low concentration. This activation process appeared to involve a limited proteolysis, since serine protease inhibitors (soybean trypsin inhibitor, benzamidine or p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate) suppressed conversion of proPO to the active enzyme. This study demonstrates the selective response of plasma and haemocytic proPO to activation by different types of bacterial LPS tested and suggests that proPO system in both plasma and haemocytes of P. viridis serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:9241484

  12. Effects of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (sod1) Genotype and Genetic Background on Growth, Reproduction and Defense in Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kaitlin M.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Larson, Maureen K.; Blouin, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni is correlated with allelic variation at copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1). We tested whether there is a fitness cost associated with carrying the most resistant allele in three outbred laboratory populations of snails. These three populations were derived from the same base population, but differed in average resistance. Under controlled laboratory conditions we found no cost of carrying the most resistant allele in terms of fecundity, and a possible advantage in terms of growth and mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to drive resistant alleles of sod1 into natural populations of the snail vector for the purpose of controlling transmission of S. mansoni. However, we did observe a strong effect of genetic background on the association between sod1 genotype and resistance. sod1 genotype explained substantial variance in resistance among individuals in the most resistant genetic background, but had little effect in the least resistant genetic background. Thus, epistatic interactions with other loci may be as important a consideration as costs of resistance in the use of sod1 for vector manipulation. PMID:22724037

  13. Pinna nobilis: A big bivalve with big haemocytes?

    PubMed

    Matozzo, V; Pagano, M; Spinelli, A; Caicci, F; Faggio, C

    2016-08-01

    The fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the biggest bivalves worldwide. Currently, no updated information is available in the literature concerning the morpho-functional aspects of haemocytes from this bivalve species. Consequently, in this study, we characterised P. nobilis haemocytes from both a morphological and functional point of view. The mean number of haemocytes was about 5 (×10(5)) cells mL haemolymph(-1), and the cell viability was about 92-100%. Two haemocyte types were distinguished under the light microscope: granulocytes (51.6%), with evident cytoplasmic granules, and hyalinocytes (48.4%), with a few granules. The granules of the granulocytes were mainly lysosomes, as indicated by the in vivo staining with Neutral Red. Haemocytes were further distinguished in basophils (83.75%), acidophils (14.75%) and neutrophils (1.5%). After adhesion to slides and fixation, the cell diameter was approximately 10 μm for granulocytes and 7 μm for hyalinocytes. The granulocytes and hyalinocytes were both positive to the Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction for carbohydrates. Only granulocytes were able to phagocytise yeast cells. The phagocytic index (6%) increased significantly up to twofold after preincubation of yeast in cell-free haemolymph, suggesting that haemolymph has opsonising properties. In addition, haemocytes produce superoxide anion and acid and alkaline phosphatases. Summarising, this preliminary study indicates that both the granulocytes and hyalinocytes circulate in the haemolymph of P. nobilis and that they are active immunocytes. PMID:27346153

  14. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  15. Active JNK-dependent secretion of Drosophila Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase by loser cells recruits haemocytes during cell competition.

    PubMed

    Casas-Tintó, Sergio; Lolo, Fidel-Nicolás; Moreno, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Cell competition is a process by which the slow dividing cells (losers) are recognized and eliminated from growing tissues. Loser cells are extruded from the epithelium and engulfed by the haemocytes, the Drosophila macrophages. However, how macrophages identify the dying loser cells is unclear. Here we show that apoptotic loser cells secrete Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), which is best known as a core component of the translational machinery. Secreted TyrRS is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases generating MiniTyr and EMAP fragments. EMAP acts as a guiding cue for macrophage migration in the Drosophila larvae, as it attracts the haemocytes to the apoptotic loser cells. JNK signalling and Kish, a component of the secretory pathway, are autonomously required for the active secretion of TyrRS by the loser cells. Altogether, this mechanism guarantees effective removal of unfit cells from the growing tissue. PMID:26658841

  16. Haemocytes control stem cell activity in the Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Ayyaz, Arshad; Li, Hongjie; Jasper, Heinrich

    2015-06-01

    Coordination of stem cell activity with inflammatory responses is critical for regeneration and homeostasis of barrier epithelia. The temporal sequence of cell interactions during injury-induced regeneration is only beginning to be understood. Here we show that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are regulated by macrophage-like haemocytes during the early phase of regenerative responses of the Drosophila intestinal epithelium. On tissue damage, haemocytes are recruited to the intestine and secrete the BMP homologue DPP, inducing ISC proliferation by activating the type I receptor Saxophone and the Smad homologue SMOX. Activated ISCs then switch their response to DPP by inducing expression of Thickveins, a second type I receptor that has previously been shown to re-establish ISC quiescence by activating MAD. The interaction between haemocytes and ISCs promotes infection resistance, but also contributes to the development of intestinal dysplasia in ageing flies. We propose that similar interactions influence pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer in humans. PMID:26005834

  17. Fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, C A; Pye, G W; Troke, P F; Johnson, E M; Warnock, D W

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of infection with Candida glabrata in which the organism became resistant to fluconazole and in which pre- and posttreatment isolates were available for comparison. The organism was cross-resistant to ketoconazole and itraconazole, in common with other azole-resistant yeasts. Fluconazole was a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (P-450DM) in lysates of cells from both susceptible and resistant cultures (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.2 microM), indicating that resistance was unrelated to changes in P-450DM. Instead, it appeared to arise from a permeability barrier to fluconazole, since resistant cells were unable to take up radiolabelled drug. PMID:8239613

  18. Mercury induced haemocyte alterations in the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus as novel biomarker.

    PubMed

    Leomanni, Alessandro; Schettino, Trifone; Calisi, Antonio; Lionetto, Maria Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of a suite of cellular and biochemical markers in the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus exposed to mercury in view of future use as sensitive tool suitable for mercury polluted soil monitoring and assessment. Besides standardized biomarkers (metallothionein, acetylcholinesterase, and lysosomal membrane stability) novel cellular biomarkers on haemolymph cells were analyzed, including changes in the spread cells/round cells ratio and haemocyte morphometric alterations. The animals were exposed for 14 days to Lactuca sativa soaked for 1h in HgCl2 solutions (0.5 e 1 μM). The temporal dynamics of the responses were assessed by measurements at 3, 7 and 14 days. Following exposure to HgCl2 a significant alteration in the relative frequencies of round cells and spread cells was evident, with a time and dose-dependent increase of the frequencies of round cells with respect to spread cells. These changes were accompanied by cellular morphometric alterations. Concomitantly, a high correspondence between these cellular responses and metallothionein tissutal concentration, lysosomal membrane stability and inhibition of AChE was evident. The study highlights the usefulness of the terrestrial snail C. apertus as bioindicator organism for mercury pollution biomonitoring and, in particular, the use of haemocyte alterations as a suitable biomarker of pollutant effect to be included in a multibiomarker strategy. PMID:26811906

  19. The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

  20. A first insight into haemocytes of the smooth venus clam Callista chione.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bailo, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    The smooth venus clam Callista chione is a commercially exploited bivalve species that lives on the sandy bottom of the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Currently, no information is available in the literature about the haemocytes of this bivalve species. In this study, we performed a morpho-functional characterisation of the haemocytes of C. chione. In freshly collected haemocytes, the total haemocyte count (THC) (measured by a Coulter Counter) varied markedly among individuals, and the mean number of haemocytes was 1.2 (×10(6)) cells mL haemolymph(-1). The mean values for the haemocyte diameter and volume were 4.2 μm and 77.8 fL, respectively. In some cases, higher THC values were related to a smaller haemocyte size, but no correlation was detected between the THC and haemocyte diameter or between THC and cell volume. Conversely, a positive correlation was observed between cell diameter and volume. Two haemocyte types were distinguished by light microscopy: granulocytes (76%), with evident cytoplasmic granules, and hyalinocytes (24%), with a few or no granules. After adhesion to slides and fixation, the cell diameter was approximately 10 μm for granulocytes and 7 μm for hyalinocytes. The granules of the granulocytes were stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. The granulocytes and hyalinocytes were further distinguished as basophils and acidophils. Both the granulocytes and the hyalinocytes were able to phagocytise yeast cells. Of 2643 cells that were counted, 2007 (76%) showed phagocytic activity. The granulocytes and hyalinocytes were both positive for some hydrolytic enzymes, whereas they were not positive for peroxidase or phenoloxidase. The two types of haemocytes also produced superoxide anion. Overall, this preliminary study indicates that both the granulocytes and hyalinocytes of C. chione are immune effector cells. PMID:25481693

  1. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection. PMID:17725566

  2. Screening protocol for Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Land, G; Burke, J; Shelby, C; Rhodes, J; Collett, J; Bennett, I; Johnson, J

    1996-01-01

    A screening test has been developed for the presumptive identification of Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata from other common clinical isolates of yeast-like fungi. An interlaboratory comparison of a protocol consisting of morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and trehalose fermentation at 42 degrees C was successful in differentiating T. glabrata from other taxa that are frequent or possible clinical isolates. The screening results for 517 clinical yeast isolates, 241 of which were T. glabrata, were compared with their final identification via commercial systems (API20C Yeast Identification System [bioMERIEUX, Hazelwood, Mo.] and Rapid Yeast Identification Panel [Dade Microscan, Sacramento, Calif.]). The trehalose screening test has a sensitivity and a specificity of 97.8 and 95.8%, respectively, and a positive predictive value of 97.4% and a negative predictive value of 96.5%. Overall, the trehalose screen had an efficiency rating of 93.9% for ruling in or out T. glabrata. Since T. glabrata represents a substantial part of the workload in a clinical laboratory, a significant reduction in direct and indirect costs should be realized. PMID:8862605

  3. Expression Plasmids for Use in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, Rebecca E.; Ren, Yuxia; Pan, Shih-Jung; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Peñas, Alejandro De Las; Iluore, Joseph; Cormack, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a series of CEN/ARS episomal plasmids containing different Candida glabrata promoters, allowing for a range of constitutive or regulated expression of proteins in C. glabrata. The set of promoters includes three constitutive promoters (EGD2pr, HHT2pr, PDC1pr), two macrophage/phagocytosis-induced promoters (ACO2pr, LYS21pr), and one nutritionally regulated promoter (MET3pr). Each promoter was cloned into two plasmid backbones that differ in their selectable marker, URA3, or the dominant-selectable NAT1 gene, which confers resistance to the drug nourseothricin. Expression from the 12 resulting plasmids was assessed using GFP as a reporter and flow cytometry or quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess expression levels. Together this set of plasmids expands the toolkit of expression vectors available for use with C. glabrata. PMID:23934995

  4. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  5. Deletion of the DNA Ligase IV Gene in Candida glabrata Significantly Increases Gene-Targeting Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yuke; Fiori, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in the United States. Over the last decades, its incidence increased, whereas that of Candida albicans decreased slightly. One of the main reasons for this shift is attributed to the inherent tolerance of C. glabrata toward the commonly used azole antifungal drugs. Despite a close phylogenetic distance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous recombination works with poor efficiency in C. glabrata compared to baker's yeast, in fact limiting targeted genetic alterations of the pathogen's genome. It has been shown that nonhomologous DNA end joining is dominant over specific gene targeting in C. glabrata. To improve the homologous recombination efficiency, we have generated a strain in which the LIG4 gene has been deleted, which resulted in a significant increase in correct gene targeting. The very specific function of Lig4 in mediating nonhomologous end joining is the reason for the absence of clear side effects, some of which affect the ku80 mutant, another mutant with reduced nonhomologous end joining. We also generated a LIG4 reintegration cassette. Our results show that the lig4 mutant strain may be a valuable tool for the C. glabrata research community. PMID:26048009

  6. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    PubMed

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  7. In vitro modulation of probiotic bacteria on the biofilm of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Chew, Shu Yih; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Seow, Heng Fong; Sandai, Doblin; Than, Leslie Thian Lung

    2015-08-01

    A conspicuous new concept of pathogens living as the microbial societies in the human host rather than free planktonic cells has raised considerable concerns among scientists and clinicians. Fungal biofilms are communities of cells that possess distinct characteristic such as increased resistance to the immune defence and antimycotic agents in comparison to their planktonic cells counterpart. Therefore, inhibition of the biofilm may represent a new paradigm for antifungal development. In this study, we aim to evaluate the in vitro modulation of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata biofilms using probiotic lactobacilli strains. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 were shown to have completely inhibited C. glabrata biofilms and the results were corroborated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed scanty structures of the mixed biofilms of C. glabrata and probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, biofilm-related C. glabrata genes EPA6 and YAK1 were downregulated in response to the probiotic lactobacilli challenges. The present study suggested that probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 strains inhibited C. glabrata biofilm by partially impeding the adherence of yeast cells and the effect might be contributed by the secretory compounds produced by these probiotic lactobacilli strains. Further investigations are required to examine and identify the biofilm inhibitory compounds and the mechanism of probiotic actions of these lactobacilli strains. PMID:26028405

  8. Potassium Uptake Mediated by Trk1 Is Crucial for Candida glabrata Growth and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Llopis-Torregrosa, Vicent; Hušeková, Barbora; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of potassium homeostasis is crucial for all types of cells, including Candida glabrata. Three types of plasma-membrane systems mediating potassium influx with different transport mechanisms have been described in yeasts: the Trk1 uniporter, the Hak cation-proton symporter and the Acu ATPase. The C. glabrata genome contains only one gene encoding putative system for potassium uptake, the Trk1 uniporter. Therefore, its importance in maintaining adequate levels of intracellular potassium appears to be critical for C. glabrata cells. In this study, we first confirmed the potassium-uptake activity of the identified gene’s product by heterologous expression in a suitable S. cerevisiae mutant, further we generated a corresponding deletion mutant in C. glabrata and analysed its phenotype in detail. The obtained results show a pleiotropic effect on the cell physiology when CgTRK1 is deleted, affecting not only the ability of trk1Δ to grow at low potassium concentrations, but also the tolerance to toxic alkali-metal cations and cationic drugs, as well as the membrane potential and intracellular pH. Taken together, our results find the sole potassium uptake system in C. glabrata cells to be a promising target in the search for its specific inhibitors and in developing new antifungal drugs. PMID:27058598

  9. Histochemical observations of the haemocytes of Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Costin, N M

    1975-01-01

    Five of the six categories of haemocytes of Locusta migratoria, that is, the plasmatocytes, spherule cells, granulocytes, coagulocytes and oenocytoids, contain conspicuous granules of mucosubstance in their cytoplasm. The mucosubstance has been characterized by using a series of histochemical tests, including Alcian Blue staining at different pH levels and salt concentrations, the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) test, the high iron diamine test, enzymatic digestions and sequential staining methods. The results indicate that four different mucosubstances occur in a granular form, although not all four are found in every blood cell type. The mucosubstances are a neutral glycoprotein and neuraminidase-resistant, sulphated and non-sulphated sialomucins. The non-sulphated sialomucin occurs in both periodate-reactive and -unreactive forms. PMID:47851

  10. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) on the Defence Activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae) Haemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Skála, Vladimír; Černíková, Alena; Jindrová, Zuzana; Kašný, Martin; Vostrý, Martin; Walker, Anthony J.; Horák, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2–36 h post exposure (p.e.) to the parasite. At later time points, 44–92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae. PMID:25372492

  11. Functional studies on Calliphora vomitoria haemocyte subpopulations defined by lectin staining and density centrifugation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A N; Preston, T M

    1992-01-01

    Haemocyte subpopulations of Calliphora vomitoria have been categorized by their surface staining properties using fluorescently labelled lectins, and their mobilities in Percoll density gradients. These methods of identification were exploited to determine the roles of these cell types in cellular defence reactions. Soybean agglutinin clearly defined the cell subpopulation involved in phagocytosis, while purified thrombocytoid fragments proved to be the main haemocyte population involved in encapsulation and nodule formation. PMID:1377650

  12. Growth, biofilm formation, antifungal susceptibility and oxidative stress resistance of Candida glabrata are affected by different glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzu Shan; Desa, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Sandai, Doblin; Chong, Pei Pei; Than, Leslie Thian Lung

    2016-06-01

    Glucose is an important fuel source to support many living organisms. Its importance in the physiological fitness and pathogenicity of Candida glabrata, an emerging human fungal pathogen has not been extensively studied. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glucose on the growth, biofilm formation, antifungal susceptibility and oxidative stress resistance of C. glabrata. In addition, its effect on the expression of a putative high affinity glucose sensor gene, SNF3 was also investigated. Glucose concentrations were found to exert effects on the physiological responses of C. glabrata. The growth rate of the species correlated positively to the amount of glucose. In addition, low glucose environments were found to induce C. glabrata to form biofilm and resist amphotericin B. Conversely, high glucose environments promoted oxidative stress resistance of C. glabrata. The expression of CgSNF3 was found to be significantly up-regulated in low glucose environments. The expression of SNF3 gene in clinical isolates was found to be higher compared to ATCC laboratory strains in low glucose concentrations, which may explain the better survivability of clinical isolates in the low glucose environment. These observations demonstrated the impact of glucose in directing the physiology and virulence fitness of C. glabrata through the possible modulation by SNF3 as a glucose sensor, which in turn aids the species to adapt, survive and thrive in hostile host environment. PMID:26358577

  13. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity in response to different immune stimuli in haemocytes of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Gorbushin, Alexander M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-09-01

    The modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in haemocytes of the common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in response to immune challenges by lipopolysaccharide from Echerichia coli (LPS), mannan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secretory-excretory products (SEP) of trematodes Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) or after the treatment with phorbol ester (PMA) has been studied by Western blotting using affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Exposure of the cells in suspension to PMA, LPS and mannan triggered an activation of p38 and ERK2. The JNK-mediated cascade was modulated differently by the elicitors examined. PMA treatment caused a transient activation of the JNK54 isoform, LPS exposure resulted in a decrease in activity of JNK46, and mannan had no effect on JNK phosphorylation status. Incubation of periwinkle haemocytes in culture medium containing trematode SEP did not affect the activity of any MAPK. PMID:16533608

  14. Histidine Degradation via an Aminotransferase Increases the Nutritional Flexibility of Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Katja; Richter, Martin Ernst; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Ramachandra, Shruthi; Kiehntopf, Michael; Brock, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The ability to acquire nutrients during infections is an important attribute in microbial pathogenesis. Amino acids are a valuable source of nitrogen if they can be degraded by the infecting organism. In this work, we analyzed histidine utilization in the fungal pathogen of humans Candida glabrata. Hemiascomycete fungi, like C. glabrata or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, possess no gene coding for a histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first step of a major histidine degradation pathway in most other organisms. We show that C. glabrata instead initializes histidine degradation via the aromatic amino acid aminotransferase Aro8. Although ARO8 is also present in S. cerevisiae and is induced by extracellular histidine, the yeast cannot use histidine as its sole nitrogen source, possibly due to growth inhibition by a downstream degradation product. Furthermore, C. glabrata relies only on Aro8 for phenylalanine and tryptophan utilization, since ARO8, but not its homologue ARO9, was transcriptionally activated in the presence of these amino acids. Accordingly, an ARO9 deletion had no effect on growth with aromatic amino acids. In contrast, in S. cerevisiae, ARO9 is strongly induced by tryptophan and is known to support growth on aromatic amino acids. Differences in the genomic structure of the ARO9 gene between C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae indicate a possible disruption in the regulatory upstream region. Thus, we show that, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata has adapted to use histidine as a sole source of nitrogen and that the aromatic amino acid aminotransferase Aro8, but not Aro9, is the enzyme required for this process. PMID:24728193

  15. Application of the comet and micronucleus assays to the detection of B[a]P genotoxicity in haemocytes of the green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Siu, W H L; Cao, J; Jack, R W; Wu, R S S; Richardson, B J; Xu, L; Lam, P K S

    2004-03-10

    Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were exposed to water-borne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.3, 3 and 30 microg l(-1) for up to 12 days, and both the relative levels of DNA strand breaks (assessed using an alkaline comet assay) and the proportion of micronucleus (MN) formation were monitored in mussel haemocytes at days 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12. The results of the comet assay indicated that an increase in the proportion of strand breaks occurred generally with increasing B[a]P concentration, but a significant decrease in the levels of DNA damage was observed after exposure for 12 days at all concentrations tested, suggesting that the patterns of changes in the levels of DNA strand breakage can be explained by the threshold dependent DNA repair theory. Moreover, the relatively slow development and recovery of the DNA damage response in mussel haemocytes in comparison with previous findings utilizing P. viridis hepatopancreas suggests that the response of DNA alteration upon exposure to B[a]P may be tissue-specific in this species. Monitoring the frequency of micronucleus development in mussel haemocytes indicated both dose- and time-response relationships within the exposure period. Furthermore, the levels of DNA strand breakage correlated well with the levels of micronucleus induction, suggesting a possible cause and effect relationship between the two damage types. We suggest that DNA strand breakage and micronucleus formation in mussel haemocytes can potentially be used as convenient biomarkers of exposure to genotoxicants in the marine environment. PMID:15168946

  16. Genome-wide survey of transcriptional initiation in the pathogenic fungus, Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Ueno, Keigo; Inukai, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Koichi; Nagi, Minoru; Bard, Martin; Chibana, Hiroji

    2014-06-01

    DNA sequencing of the 5'-flanking region of the transcriptome effectively identifies transcription initiation sites and also aids in identifying unknown genes. This study describes a comprehensive polling of transcription start sites and an analysis of full-length complementary DNAs derived from the genome of the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the sequence reads derived from a cDNA library prepared from cells grown under different culture conditions against the reference genomic sequence of the Candida Genome Database (CGD: http://www.candidagenome.org/) revealed the expression of 4316 genes and their acknowledged transcription start sites (TSSs). In addition this analysis also predicted 59 new genes including 22 that showed no homology to the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a genetically close relative of C. glabrata. Furthermore, comparison of the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) and core promoters of C. glabrata to those of S. cerevisiae showed various global similarities and differences among orthologous genes. Thus, the C. glabrata transcriptome can complement the annotation of the genome database and should provide new insights into the organization, regulation, and function of genes of this important human pathogen. PMID:24725256

  17. Detection of DNA damage in haemocytes of zebra mussel using comet assay.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Klobucar, G I; Mojas, N; Erben, R; Papes, D

    2001-02-20

    The aim of the study was to use the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, for detection of possible DNA damage after exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and to evaluate the potential application of the comet assay on mussel haemocytes for genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environment. Zebra mussels were exposed for seven days to different concentrations (10, 80, 100, 150 microg/l) of PCP and in the river Sava downstream from Zagreb municipal wastewater outlet. Significant increase in DNA damage was observed after exposure to PCP at doses of 80 microg/l and higher and after in situ exposure in the river Sava as well. This study confirmed that the comet assay applied on zebra mussel haemocytes may be a useful tool in determining the potential genotoxicity of water pollutants. PMID:11342246

  18. Candida glabrata survives and replicates in human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Duarte, Ana Rosa; Castrejón-Jiménez, Nayeli Shantal; Baltierra-Uribe, Shantal Lizbeth; Pérez-Rangel, Sofia Judith; Carapia-Minero, Natalee; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; López-Santiago, Rubén; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; García-Pérez, Blanca Estela

    2016-06-01

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic pathogen that is considered the second most common cause of candidiasis after Candida albicans Many characteristics of its mechanisms of pathogenicity remain unknown. Recent studies have focused on determining the events that underlie interactions between C. glabrata and immune cells, but the relationship between this yeast and osteoblasts has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of interaction between human osteoblasts and C. glabrata, and to identify the roles played by some of the molecules that are produced by these cells in response to infection. We show that C. glabrata adheres to and is internalized by human osteoblasts. Adhesion is independent of opsonization, and internalization depends on the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that C. glabrata survives and replicates in osteoblasts and that this intracellular behavior is related to the level of production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. Opsonized C. glabrata stimulates the production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 cytokines. Adhesion and internalization of the pathogen and the innate immune response of osteoblasts require viable C. glabrata These results suggest that C. glabrata modulates immunological mechanisms in osteoblasts to survive inside the cell. PMID:27073253

  19. Remote Control of Intestinal Stem Cell Activity by Haemocytes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sveta; Li, Xiaoxue; Collas, Esther Jeanne; Boquete, Jean-Phillipe; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The JAK/STAT pathway is a key signaling pathway in the regulation of development and immunity in metazoans. In contrast to the multiple combinatorial JAK/STAT pathways in mammals, only one canonical JAK/STAT pathway exists in Drosophila. It is activated by three secreted proteins of the Unpaired family (Upd): Upd1, Upd2 and Upd3. Although many studies have established a link between JAK/STAT activation and tissue damage, the mode of activation and the precise function of this pathway in the Drosophila systemic immune response remain unclear. In this study, we used mutations in upd2 and upd3 to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in the systemic immune response. Our study shows that haemocytes express the three upd genes and that injury markedly induces the expression of upd3 by the JNK pathway in haemocytes, which in turn activates the JAK/STAT pathway in the fat body and the gut. Surprisingly, release of Upd3 from haemocytes upon injury can remotely stimulate stem cell proliferation and the expression of Drosomycin-like genes in the intestine. Our results also suggest that a certain level of intestinal epithelium renewal is required for optimal survival to septic injury. While haemocyte-derived Upd promotes intestinal stem cell activation and survival upon septic injury, haemocytes are dispensable for epithelium renewal upon oral bacterial infection. Our study also indicates that intestinal epithelium renewal is sensitive to insults from both the lumen and the haemocoel. It also reveals that release of Upds by haemocytes coordinates the wound-healing program in multiple tissues, including the gut, an organ whose integrity is critical to fly survival. PMID:27231872

  20. DNA damage in haemocytes and midgut gland cells of Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae) spiders exposed to food contaminated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Stalmach, Monika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Skowronek, Magdalena; Mędrzak, Monika

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of Cd on haemocytes and midgut gland cells of web-building spiders, Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae), exposed to the metal under laboratory conditions. Analyzes were conducted on adult females and males, fed for four weeks with cadmium-contaminated Drosophila hydei flies, grown on a medium suplemented with 0.25 mM CdCl2. The comet assay, providing a quantitative measure of DNA strand breaks, was used to evaluate the DNA damage caused by the metal. Cadmium content was measured in whole spider bodies by the AAS method. Metal body burden was significantly lower in females (0.25 µgg(-1) dry weight) than in males (3.03 µgg(-1) dry weight), suggesting that females may have more effective mechanisms controlling the uptake of metal, via the digestive tract, or its elimination from the body. Irrespectively of sex, spiders fed prey contaminated with cadmium showed significantly higher values of comet parameters: tail DNA (TDNA), tail length (TL) and olive tail moment (OTM), in comparison with the control. In midgut gland cells, the level of DNA damage was higher for males than females, while in haemocytes the genotoxic effect of cadmium was greater in females. The obtained results indicate that in spiders cadmium displays strong genotoxic effects and may cause DNA damage even at low concentrations, however the severity of damage seems to be sex- and internal organ-dependent. The comet assay can be considered a sensitive tool for measuring the deleterious effect of cadmium on DNA integrity in spiders. PMID:25531832

  1. Proposal of an in vivo comet assay using haemocytes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the first application of an in vivo alkaline comet assay using haemocytes of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. These cells, which play a role similar to that of mammalian blood, can be easily obtained and represent an overall exposure of the treated larvae. To validate the assay, we evaluated the response of these cells to three well-known mutagenic agents: ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), potassium dichromate (PD), and gamma radiation (γ-irradiation). Third-instar Drosophila larvae were exposed to different concentrations of EMS (1, 2, and 4 mM) and PD (0.5, 1, and 2.5 mM) and to different doses of γ-irradiation (2, 4, and 8 Gγ). Subsequently, haemolymph was extracted from the larvae, and haemocytes were isolated by centrifugation and used in the comet assay. Haemocytes exhibited a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, indicating that these cells are clearly sensitive to the treatments. These results suggest that the proposed in vivo comet test, using larvae haemocytes of D. melanogaster, may be a useful in vivo assay for genotoxicity assessment. PMID:20740640

  2. First cytochemical study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Matozzo, V.; Marin, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a morphological study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii was carried out by means of light microscopy and differing cytochemical assays. Analysis of haemocyte size frequency distribution (performed by means of a Coulter Counter) revealed the presence of two distinct haemocyte fractions in C. aestuarii haemolymph, depending on cell size. The first fraction was of about 3–5 µm in diameter and 30–50 fL in volume, the second was of about 6–12 µm in diameter and over 200 fL in volume. Mean cell diameter and volume were 8.20±1.7 µm and 272.30±143.5 fL, respectively. Haemocytes observed under light microscope were distinguished in three cell types: granulocytes (28%; 11.94±1.43 µm in diameter) with evident cytoplasmic granules, semigranulocytes (27%; 12.38±1.76 µm in diameter) with less granules than granulocytes, and hyalinocytes (44%; 7.88±1.6 µm in diameter) without granules. In addition, a peculiar cell type was occasionally found (about 1%): it was 25–30 µm in diameter and had a great vacuole and a peripheral cytoplasm with granules. Granulocyte and semigranulocyte granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. Giemsa’s dye confirmed that granulocytes and semigranulocytes were larger than hyalinocytes. Pappenheim’s panoptical staining and Ehrlich’s triacid mixture allowed to distinguish granule-containing cells (including semigranulocytes) in acidophils (64%), basophils (35%) and neutrophils (1%). Hyalinocytes showed always a basophilic cytoplasm. Haemocytes were positive to the PAS reaction for carbohydrates, even if cytoplasm carbohydrate distribution varied among cell types. Lastly, lipids were found on cell membrane and in cytoplasm of all haemocyte types in the form of black spots produced after Sudan Black B staining. The morphological characterisation of C. aestuarii haemocytes by light microscopy was necessary before performing both ultrastructural and functional

  3. Haemocyte parameters associated with resistance to brown ring disease in Ruditapes spp. clams.

    PubMed

    Allam, B; Ashton-Alcox, K A; Ford, S E

    2001-01-01

    Brown ring disease (BRD) is a shell disease caused by Vibrio tapetis. This pathogen disturbs the periostracal lamina causing the appearance of a brown conchiolin deposit on the inner face of the shell, within the extrapallial space. Although differences in resistance to BRD have been documented, their relationship to possible defense functions has never been investigated. In this study, flow cytometry was used to analyze cellular parameters in asymptomatic and experimentally infected Ruditapes philippinarum from France and the west coast of the USA. Parallel analyses were made on Ruditapes decussatus, the native European clam, which is highly resistant to BRD. In the haemolymph and extrapallial fluid of animals without BRD, total haemocyte counts, the percentage of granulocytes, and the phagocytic activity against latex beads or V. tapetis by the haemocytes were significantly higher in American R. philippinarum than in French R. philippinarum. In most cases, levels in R. decussatus were the highest of all three groups. Four weeks following challenge with V. tapetis, BRD prevalence reached 52 in American clams and 100% in French specimens, but only 37% in R. decussatus. In symptomatic animals, phagocytosis of V. tapetis increased significantly in the resistant species of clam, R. decussatus, was unchanged in US clams, and decreased significantly in FR specimens when compared to asymptomatic individuals from each population. Ingestion of V. tapetis by haemocytes in the extrapallial fluid, which is in contact with the periostracal lamina, could be the main defense mechanism used to counter the pathogen. Our results suggest that resistance to BRD may well be related to the concentration of granular haemocytes and the phagocytic activity of haemocytes. PMID:11356217

  4. Interactions between copy number and expression level of genes involved in fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Salma; Mary, Charles; Sellami, Hayet; Michel-Nguyen, Annie; Ayadi, Ali; Ranque, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the relative involvement of drug resistance gene copy number and overexpression in fluconazole resistance in clinical C. glabrata isolates using a population-based approach. Methods: Fluconazole resistance levels were quantified using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) via Etest method. Both gene expression levels and gene copy number of CgCDR1, CgPDH1, CgERG11, and CgSNQ2 were assessed via quantitative real-time PCR. The influence of the main effects and first-level interactions of both the expression level and copy number of these genes on fluconazole resistance levels were analyzed using a multivariate statistical model. Results: Forty-three C. glabrata isolates were collected from 30 patients during in a hospital survey. In the multivariate analysis, C. glabrata fluconazole MICs were independently increased by CgSNQ2 overexpression (p < 10−4) and the interaction between CgPDH1 gene copy number and CgPDH1 expression level (p = 0.038). In contrast, both CgPDH1 overexpression (p = 0.049) and the interaction between CgSNQ2 and CgERG11 expression (p = 0.003) led to a significant decrease in fluconazole MICs. Conclusion: Fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata involves complex interactions between drug resistance gene expression and/or copy number. The population-based multivariate analysis highlighted the involvement of the CgSNQ2 gene in fluconazole resistance and the complex effect of the other genes such as PDH1 for which overexpression was associated with reduced fluconazole resistance levels, while the interaction between PDH1 overexpression and copy number was associated with increased resistance levels. PMID:24273749

  5. Propargyl-Linked Antifolates are Dual Inhibitors of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species of Candida, primarily C. albicans and with increasing prevalence, C. glabrata, are responsible for the majority of fungal bloodstream infections that cause morbidity, especially among immune compromised patients. While the development of new antifungal agents that target the essential enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), in both Candida species would be ideal, previous attempts have resulted in antifolates that exhibit inconsistencies between enzyme inhibition and antifungal properties. In this article, we describe the evaluation of pairs of propargyl-linked antifolates that possess similar physicochemical properties but different shapes. All of these compounds are effective at inhibiting the fungal enzymes and the growth of C. glabrata; however, the inhibition of the growth of C. albicans is shape-dependent with extended para-linked compounds proving more effective than compact, meta-linked compounds. Using crystal structures of DHFR from C. albicans and C. glabrata bound to lead compounds, 13 new para-linked compounds designed to inhibit both species were synthesized. Eight of these compounds potently inhibit the growth of both fungal species with three compounds displaying dual MIC values less than 1 μg/mL. Analysis of the active compounds shows that shape and distribution of polar functionality is critical in achieving dual antifungal activity. PMID:24568657

  6. Evaluation of the molluscicidal potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Pereira Filho, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  7. EVALUATION OF THE MOLLUSCICIDAL POTENTIAL OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 ON Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  8. Two unlike cousins: Candida albicans and C. glabrata infection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Sascha; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. glabrata are the two most common pathogenic yeasts of humans, yet they are phylogenetically, genetically and phenotypically very different. In this review, we compare and contrast the strategies of C. albicans and C. glabrata to attach to and invade into the host, obtain nutrients and evade the host immune response. Although their strategies share some basic concepts, they differ greatly in their outcome. While C. albicans follows an aggressive strategy to subvert the host response and to obtain nutrients for its survival, C. glabrata seems to have evolved a strategy which is based on stealth, evasion and persistence, without causing severe damage in murine models. However, both fungi are successful as commensals and as pathogens of humans. Understanding these strategies will help in finding novel ways to fight Candida, and fungal infections in general. PMID:23253282

  9. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24252826

  10. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Norwegian Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kari-Mette; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Ingebretsen, André; Vikholt, Katharina Johnsen; Örtengren, Ulf Thore; Olsen, Ingar; Enersen, Morten; Gaustad, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients have resulted in greater incidence of invasive fungal infections with high mortality. Candida albicans infections dominate, but during the last decade, Candida glabrata has become the second highest cause of candidemia in the United States and Northern Europe. Reliable and early diagnosis, together with appropriate choice of antifungal treatment, is needed to combat these challenging infections. Objectives To confirm the identity of 183 Candida glabrata isolates from different human body sites using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and VITEK®2, and to analyze isolate protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven antifungal drugs was determined for the isolates to elucidate susceptibility. Design A total of 183 C. glabrata isolates obtained between 2002 and 2012 from Norwegian health-care units were analyzed. For species verification and differentiation, biochemical characterization (VITEK®2) and mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF) were used. MIC determination for seven antifungal drugs was undertaken using E-tests®. Results Using VITEK®2, 92.9% of isolates were identified as C. glabrata, while all isolates (100%) were identified as C. glabrata using MALDI-TOF. Variation in protein spectra occurred for all identified C. glabrata isolates. The majority of isolates had low MICs to amphotericin B (≤1 mg/L for 99.5%) and anidulafungin (≤0.06 mg/L for 98.9%). For fluconazole, 18% of isolates had MICs >32 mg/L and 82% had MICs in the range ≥0.016 mg/L to ≤32 mg/L. Conclusions Protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility characteristics of the C. glabrata isolates were diverse. Clustering of protein profiles indicated that many azole resistant isolates were closely related. In most cases, isolates had highest susceptibility to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. The results confirmed previous observations of high

  11. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G.; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata. PMID:27029023

  12. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. PMID:25867917

  13. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  14. Biological, biochemical and histopathological features related to parasitic castration of Biomphalaria glabrata infected by Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Faro, Marta Julia; Perazzini, Mariana; Corrêa, Lygia dos Reis; Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina; Pinheiro, Jairo; Mota, Ester Maria; de Souza, Samaly; de Andrade, Zilton; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-06-01

    Parasitic castration in the snail-trematode relationship can be understood as any change in the reproductive function of the snail that is due to interference by the developing larvae inside the snail that leads to the reduction or complete disruption of egg-laying activity. This study was designed to observe the parasitic castration of Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni during both the pre-patent and patent periods. The effect of infection on snail fecundity and fertility, growth rate and survival was studied during the 62 days following miracidia exposure. An integrated approach was employed that used biochemical and histological tools over the same period. To study the effect of infection on reproduction, we individually exposed 30 snails to 5 miracidia each and tracked their fertility and fecundity. For our histopathological studies, 50 snails were exposed to 20 miracidia each, and for our histochemical studies, 50 snails were exposed to 5 miracidia each. An equal number of uninfected snails were used as a control for each group. The B. glabrata exposed to the BH strain of S. mansoni showed 50% positivity for cercarial shedding. Both the experimental and control groups showed 100% survival. The pre-patent period lasted until 39 days after exposure to miracidia. Exposed snails that showed cercarial shedding exhibited higher growth rates than either exposed snails that did not demonstrate cercarial shedding or uninfected controls. Exposed snails without cercarial shedding and uninfected controls showed no differences in the reproductive parameters evaluated during the patent period; snails experiencing cercarial shedding showed a reduction in fecundity and fertility. These snails began to lay eggs only after the 50th day post miracidia exposure. The haemolymph glucose levels showed an oscillating pattern that decreased during periods of greater mobilisation of energy by the larvae and was accompanied by a depletion of glycogen in the

  15. Propensity Score Analysis of the Role of Initial Antifungal Therapy in the Outcome of Candida glabrata Bloodstream Infections.

    PubMed

    Puig-Asensio, M; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Aguado, J M; Merino, P; Lora-Pablos, D; Guinea, J; Martín-Dávila, P; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Almirante, B

    2016-06-01

    Candida glabrata isolates have reduced in vitro susceptibility to azoles, which raises concerns about the clinical effectiveness of fluconazole for treating bloodstream infection (BSI) by this Candida species. We aimed to evaluate whether the choice of initial antifungal treatment (fluconazole versus echinocandins or liposomal amphotericin B [L-AmB]-based regimens) has an impact on the outcome of C. glabrata BSI. We analyzed data from a prospective, multicenter, population-based surveillance program on candidemia conducted in 5 metropolitan areas of Spain (May 2010 to April 2011). Adult patients with an episode of C. glabrata BSI were included. The main outcomes were 14-day mortality and treatment failure (14-day mortality and/or persistent C. glabrata BSI for ≥48 h despite antifungal initiation). The impact of using fluconazole as initial antifungal treatment on the patients' prognosis was assessed by logistic regression analysis with the addition of a propensity score approach. A total of 94 patients with C. glabrata BSI were identified. Of these, 34 had received fluconazole and 35 had received an echinocandin/L-AmB-based regimen. Patients in the echinocandin/L-AmB group had poorer baseline clinical status than did those in the fluconazole group. Patients in the fluconazole group were more frequently (55.9% versus 28.6%) and much earlier (median time, 3 versus 7 days) switched to another antifungal regimen. Overall, 14-day mortality was 13% (9/69) and treatment failure 34.8% (24/69), with no significant differences between the groups. On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for baseline characteristics by propensity score, fluconazole use was not associated with an unfavorable evolution (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for 14-day mortality, 1.16, with 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.22 to 6.17; adjusted OR for treatment failure, 0.83, with 95% CI of 0.27 to 2.61). In conclusion, initial fluconazole treatment was not associated with a poorer outcome than that

  16. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C.; Velarde-Montes, Germán J.; García-de la Parra, Luz M.; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F.; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

  17. Humoral and haemocytic responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd exposure.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C; Velarde-Montes, Germán J; Voltolina, Domenico; García-de la Parra, Luz M; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G

    2014-01-01

    White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

  18. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of European and African Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, V; Lo Passo, C; van Diepeningen, A D; Rharmitt, S; Delfino, D; Cascio, A; Nnadi, N E; Cilo, B D; Sampaio, P; Tietz, H-J; Pemán, J; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic relatedness and epidemiology of 127 clinical and environmental Candida glabrata isolates from Europe and Africa using multilocus microsatellite analysis. Each isolate was first identified using phenotypic and molecular methods and subsequently, six unlinked microsatellite loci were analyzed using automated fluorescent genotyping. Genetic relationships were estimated using the minimum-spanning tree (MStree) method. Microsatellite analyses revealed the existence of 47 different genotypes. The fungal population showed an irregular distribution owing to the over-representation of genetically different infectious haplotypes. The most common genotype was MG-9, which was frequently found in both European and African isolates. In conclusion, the data reported here emphasize the role of specific C. glabrata genotypes in human infections for at least some decades and highlight the widespread distribution of some isolates, which seem to be more able to cause disease than others. PMID:26946511

  19. Intracellular survival of Candida glabrata in macrophages: immune evasion and persistence.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Lydia; Seider, Katja; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a successful human opportunistic pathogen which causes superficial but also life-threatening systemic infections. During infection, C. glabrata has to cope with cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, which belong to the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Candida glabrata is able to survive and even replicate inside macrophages while causing surprisingly low damage and cytokine release. Here, we present an overview of recent studies dealing with the interaction of C. glabrata with macrophages, from phagocytosis to intracellular growth and escape. We review the strategies of C. glabrata that permit intracellular survival and replication, including poor host cell activation, modification of phagosome maturation and phagosome pH, adaptation to antimicrobial activities, and mechanisms to overcome the nutrient limitations within the phagosome. In summary, these studies suggest that survival within macrophages may be an immune evasion and persistence strategy of C. glabrata during infection. PMID:26066553

  20. Cytotoxic and cytokine inducing properties of Candida glabrata in single and mixed oral infection models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lulu; Kashleva, Helena; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection, with Candida albicans being the most prevalent etiologic agent and Candida glabrata emerging as an important pathogen. C. glabrata is frequently co-isolated with C. albicans from oral lesions. Although C. albicans has been shown to trigger significant cytokine responses and cell damage, C. glabrata has not been systematically studied yet. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ability of C. glabrata to induce proinflammatory cytokine responses and host damage as a single infecting organism and in combination with C. albicans, using in vitro models of the oral mucosa. In monolayer oral epithelial cell cultures, C. glabrata failed to induce a significant interleukin-1α and interleukin-8 cytokine response and showed lower cytotoxicity, compared to C. albicans. However, C. glabrata triggered a significantly higher granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor response than C. albicans. C. glabrata strains showed a strain-dependent tissue damaging ability and a superficial invasion of the mucosal compartment in a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model of the human oral mucosa and submucosa. In the 3-D system, co-infection failed to promote host damage beyond the levels of infection with C. albicans alone. These studies indicate that C. glabrata induces cytokines in human oral epithelium in a strain-specific manner, but its tissue/cell damaging ability, compared to C. albicans, is low. Synergy between C. glabrata and C. albicans in cytokine induction and host damage was not observed with the strains tested. PMID:17306958

  1. Candida glabrata tryptophan-based pigment production via the Ehrlich pathway.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Sascha; Seider, Katja; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Heyken, Antje; Fleck, Christian Benjamin; Brock, Matthias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Hube, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Pigments contribute to the pathogenicity of many fungi, mainly by protecting fungal cells from host defence activities. Here, we have dissected the biosynthetic pathway of a tryptophan-derived pigment of the human pathogen Candida glabrata, identified key genes involved in pigment production and have begun to elucidate the possible biological function of the pigment. Using transcriptional analyses and a transposon insertion library, we have identified genes associated with pigment production. Targeted deletion mutants revealed that the pigment is a by-product of the Ehrlich pathway of tryptophan degradation: a mutant lacking a tryptophan-upregulated aromatic aminotransferase (Aro8) displayed significantly reduced pigmentation and a recombinantly expressed version of this protein was sufficient for pigment production in vitro. Pigment production is tightly regulated as the synthesis is affected by the presence of alternative nitrogen sources, carbon sources, cyclic AMP and oxygen. Growth of C. glabrata on pigment inducing medium leads to an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide, an effect which was not observed with a mutant defective in pigmentation. Furthermore, pigmented yeast cells had a higher survival rate when exposed to human neutrophils and caused increased damage in a monolayer model of human epithelia, indicating a possible role of pigmentation during interactions with host cells. PMID:20199593

  2. Elucidating the temporal and spatial dynamics of Biomphalaria glabrata genetic diversity in three Brazilian villages

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Corrêa-Oliveira, Guilherme; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Minchella, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the principal intermediate host for the parasite Schistosoma mansoni within Brazil. We assessed the potential effects of snail population dynamics on parasite transmission dynamics via population genetics. Methods We sampled snail populations located within the confines of three schistosome-endemic villages in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Snails were collected from individual microhabitats following seasonal periods of flood and drought over the span of one year. Snail spatio-temporal genetic diversity and population differentiation of 598 snails from 12 sites were assessed at 7 microsatellite loci. Results Average genetic diversity was relatively low, ranging from 4.29 to 9.43 alleles per locus and, overall, subpopulations tended to exhibit heterozygote deficits. Genetic diversity was highly spatially partitioned among subpopulations, while virtually no partitioning was observed across temporal sampling. Comparison with previously published parasite genetic diversity data indicated that S. mansoni populations are significantly more variable and less subdivided than those of the B. glabrata intermediate hosts. Discussion Within individual Brazilian villages, observed distributions of snail genetic diversity indicate temporal stability and very restricted gene flow. This is contrary to observations of schistosome genetic diversity over the same spatial scale, corroborating the expectation that parasite gene flow at the level of individual villages is likely driven by vertebrate host movement. PMID:23911082

  3. A galectin from Eriocheir sinensis functions as pattern recognition receptor enhancing microbe agglutination and haemocytes encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Huang, Mengmeng; Yi, Qilin; Guo, Ying; Gai, Yunchao; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Galectins are a family of β-galactoside binding lectins that function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The cDNA of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis galectin (designated as EsGal) was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The full-length cDNA of EsGal was 999 bp. Its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 218 amino acids containing a GLECT/Gal-bind_lectin domain and a proline/glycine rich low complexity region. The deduced amino acid sequence and domain organization of EsGal were highly similar to those of crustacean galectins. The mRNA transcripts of EsGal were found to be constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues and mainly in hepatopancreas, gill and haemocytes. The mRNA expression level of EsGal increased rapidly and significantly after crabs were stimulated by different microbes. The recombinant EsGal (rEsGal) could bind various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and glucan (GLU), and exhibited strong activity to agglutinate Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pichia pastoris, and such agglutinating activity could be inhibited by both d-galactose and α-lactose. The in vitro encapsulation assay revealed that rEsGal could enhance the encapsulation of haemocytes towards agarose beads. These results collectively suggested that EsGal played crucial roles in the immune recognition and elimination of pathogens and contributed to the innate immune response against various microbes in crabs. PMID:27095174

  4. Antioxidant defences and haemocyte internalization in Limnoperna fortunei exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Girardello, Francine; Leite, Camila Custódio; Branco, Catia Santos; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Fernandes, Andreia Neves; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-07-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) have been incorporated into a large range of materials for different applications in the last decades and are very likely to appear in wastewater and effluents, eventually reaching the aquatic environment. Therefore, the assessment of the biological impact of TiO2-NP on aquatic ecosystem is of a major concern. The mussels represent a target group for TiO2-NP toxicity, as they are filter feeders and are capable of bioaccumulating toxic compounds. Furthermore, the exotic organism Limnoperna fortunei, golden mussel, is a freshwater bivalve that has been used in biomonitoring environmental conditions. In this work, the TiO2-NP's ability to interact with haemocytes of golden mussel was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses were evaluated by superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) activities and protein sulfhydryl content, which were measured after the golden mussel was exposed to TiO2-NP (1, 5, 10 and 50μgmL(-1)). Results demonstrate that TiO2-NP was internalized by cells, causing alterations in haemocytes membrane. Antioxidant activity of Sod and Cat decreased after 2h TiO2-NP exposure. After 4h exposure, the enzymatic antioxidant activity was restored. Notably, the protein sulfhydryl content decreased after 2h to all the TiO2-NP concentrations and no alterations were observed after 4h of TiO2-NP exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of golden mussel as sentinel organism to TiO2-NP exposure. PMID:27152940

  5. Diamondoid naphthenic acids cause in vivo genetic damage in gills and haemocytes of marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Scarlett, Alan G; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2016-04-01

    Diamondoids are polycyclic saturated hydrocarbons that possess a cage-like carbon skeleton approaching that of diamond. These 'nano-diamonds' are used in a range of industries including nanotechnologies and biomedicine. Diamondoids were thought to be highly resistant to degradation, but their presumed degradation acid products have now been found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) and numerous crude oils. Recently, a diamondoid-related structure, 3-noradamantane carboxylic acid, was reported to cause genetic damage in trout hepatocytes under in vitro conditions. This particular compound has never been reported in the environment but led us to hypothesise that other more environmentally relevant diamondoid acids could also be genotoxic. We carried out in vivo exposures (3 days, semi-static) of marine mussels to two environmentally relevant diamondoid acids, 1-adamantane carboxylic acid and 3,5-dimethyladamantane carboxylic acid plus 3-noradamantane carboxylic acid with genotoxic damage assessed using the Comet assay. An initial screening test confirmed that these acids displayed varying degrees of genotoxicity to haemocytes (increased DNA damage above that of controls) when exposed in vivo to a concentration of 30 μmol L(-1). In a further test focused on 1-adamantane carboxylic acid with varying concentrations (0.6, 6 and 30 μmol L(-1)), significant (P < 0.05%) DNA damage was observed in different target cells (viz. gills and haemocytes) at 0.6 μmol L(-1). Such a level of induced genetic damage was similar to that observed following exposure to a known genotoxin, benzo(a)pyrene (exposure concentration, 0.8 μmol L(-1)). These findings may have implications for a range of worldwide industries including oil extraction, nanotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:26884235

  6. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections.

    PubMed

    Quintin, Jessica; Asmar, Joelle; Matskevich, Alexey A; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in vertebrates, wild-type flies contain C. glabrata systemic infections yet are unable to kill the injected yeasts. As for other fungal infections in Drosophila, the Toll pathway restrains C. glabrata proliferation. Persistent C. glabrata yeasts in wild-type flies do not appear to be able to take shelter in hemocytes from the action of the Toll pathway, the effectors of which remain to be identified. Toll pathway mutant flies succumb to injected C. glabrata. In this immunosuppressed background, cellular defenses provide a residual level of protection. Although both the Gram-negative binding protein 3 pattern recognition receptor and the Persephone protease-dependent detection pathway are required for Toll pathway activation by C. glabrata, only GNBP3, and not psh mutants, are susceptible to the infection. Both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are restrained by the Toll pathway, yet the comparative study of phenoloxidase activation reveals a differential activity of the Toll pathway against these two fungal pathogens. Finally, we establish that the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and yapsins are required for virulence of C. glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host. PMID:23401590

  7. Bacterial flora of the schistosome vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Ducklow, H W; Boyle, P J; Maugel, P W; Strong, C; Mitchell, R

    1979-01-01

    The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora in over 200 individuals from 10 wild populations and 3 laboratory colonies of the schistosome vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata was examined. Internal bacterial densities were inversely proportional to snail size and were higher in stressed and laboratory-reared snails. The numerically predominant bacterial genera in individual snails included Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Vibrio, and several members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae seldom predominated in laboratory colonies. Our data suggest that Vibrio extorquens and a Pasteurella sp. tend to predominate in high-bacterial-density snails. These snails may be compromised and may harbor opportunistic snail pathogens. PMID:539821

  8. Bacterial flora of the schistosome vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, H W; Boyle, P J; Maugel, P W; Strong, C; Mitchell, R

    1979-10-01

    The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora in over 200 individuals from 10 wild populations and 3 laboratory colonies of the schistosome vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata was examined. Internal bacterial densities were inversely proportional to snail size and were higher in stressed and laboratory-reared snails. The numerically predominant bacterial genera in individual snails included Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Vibrio, and several members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae seldom predominated in laboratory colonies. Our data suggest that Vibrio extorquens and a Pasteurella sp. tend to predominate in high-bacterial-density snails. These snails may be compromised and may harbor opportunistic snail pathogens. PMID:539821

  9. Application of the micronucleus and comet assays to mussel Dreissena polymorpha haemocytes for genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Pavlica, Mirjana; Erben, Radovan; Papes, Drazena

    2003-06-19

    Assessment of DNA damage is of primary concern when determining the pollution-related stress in living organisms. To monitor genotoxicity of the freshwater environments we used micronucleus (MN) and comet assay on Dreissena polymorpha haemocytes. Caged mussels, collected from the river Drava, were transplanted to four monitoring sites of different pollution intensity in the river Sava. Exposition lasted for a month. The baseline level of MN frequencies in the haemocytes of mussels from reference site (river Drava) was 0.5 per thousand. No increase in MN frequency was found in mussels from the medium-polluted site (Zagreb) in the river Sava while other, more polluted sites showed higher MN frequencies ranging from 2.7 per thousand (Lukavec) and 3.1 per thousand (Oborovo) to 5.2 per thousand (Sisak). Results from comet assay showed concordance with MN assay in indicating intensity of DNA damage. The use of haemocytes from caged, non-indigenous mussels in MN and comet assay proved to be a sensitive tool for the freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. PMID:12763672

  10. Cloning and expression of an actin gene in the haemocytes of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata, Gould 1850).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan

    2008-06-01

    An actin gene (designated pfact1) of pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, was cloned from haemocytes by the techniques of homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of Pfact1 cDNA was 1608 bp in length, having a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 82 bp, a 3' UTR of 395 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1131 bp encoding a polypeptide of 376 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 41.76 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 5.29. Sequence analysis revealed that Pfact1 shared high similarity with other actins and was more closely related to vertebrate cytoplastic actins than muscle types. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that molluscan actins could also be generally grouped into two classes: muscle type and cytoplasmic type, although both are similar to vertebrate cytoplastic actins. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression level of Pfact1 in haemocytes of P. fucata after the challenge of Vibrio alginolyticus, and results showed that Pfact1 exhibited stable expression in all time points, indicating that Pfact1 could be a suitable internal control for gene expression analysis in haemocytes of P. fucata. PMID:21798155

  11. Schistosoma mansoni: identification of chemicals that attract or trap its snail vector, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Uhazy, L S; Tanaka, R D; MacInnis, A J

    1978-09-01

    A new bioassay for chemical attractants of aquatic snails demonstrated that Biomphalaria glabrata could be attracted to or trapped in the vicinity of homogenates of lettuce. Fractionation of homogenates revealed the amino acids glutamate and proline and the primary attractants. Attraction was specific for the L form of glutamate. Proline appeared to stimulate reproductive activity. Glutathione, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and a number of other compounds had no effect. Extracts of lyophilized snail tissue also attracted other snails and may thus contain pheromones. These results permit formulation and testing of controlled-release attractants designed to overcome the repellant effects of slow-release molluscicides, as well as the design of stimulants to be used with no-release poisons. PMID:684418

  12. Metabolic Engineering of Candida glabrata for Diacetyl Production

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Nan; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Candida glabrata, an efficient pyruvate-producing strain, was metabolically engineered for the production of the food ingredient diacetyl. A diacetyl biosynthetic pathway was reconstructed based on genetic modifications and medium optimization. The former included (i) channeling carbon flux into the diacetyl biosynthetic pathway by amplification of acetolactate synthase, (ii) elimination of the branched pathway of α-acetolactate by deleting the ILV5 gene, and (iii) restriction of diacetyl degradation by deleting the BDH gene. The resultant strain showed an almost 1∶1 co-production of α-acetolactate and diacetyl (0.95 g L−1). Furthermore, addition of Fe3+ to the medium enhanced the conversion of α-acetolactate to diacetyl and resulted in a two-fold increase in diacetyl production (2.1 g L−1). In addition, increased carbon flux was further channeled into diacetyl biosynthetic pathway and a titer of 4.7 g L−1 of diacetyl was achieved by altering the vitamin level in the flask culture. Thus, this study illustrates that C. glabrata could be tailored as an attractive platform for enhanced biosynthesis of beneficial products from pyruvate by metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:24614328

  13. Iron-depletion promotes mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial integrity in pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Minoru; Tanabe, Koichi; Nakayama, Hironobu; Ueno, Keigo; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida glabrata, a haploid budding yeast, is the cause of severe systemic infections in immune-compromised hosts. The amount of free iron supplied to C. glabrata cells during systemic infections is severely limited by iron-chelating proteins such as transferrin. Thus, the iron-deficiency response in C. glabrata cells is thought to play important roles in their survival inside the host's body. In this study, we found that mitophagy was induced under iron-depleted conditions, and that the disruption of a gene homologous to ATG32, which is responsible for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, blocked mitophagy in C. glabrata. The mitophagic activity in C. glabrata cells was not detected on short-period exposure to nitrogen-starved conditions, which is a mitophagy-inducing condition used in S. cerevisiae. The mitophagy-deficient atg32Δ mutant of C. glabrata also exhibited decreased longevity under iron-deficient conditions. The mitochondrial membrane potential in Cgatg32Δ cells was significantly lower than that in wild-type cells under iron-depleted conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated infection, the Cgatg32Δ strain resulted in significantly decreased kidney and spleen fungal burdens compared with the wild-type strain. These results indicate that mitophagy in C. glabrata occurs in an iron-poor host tissue environment, and it may contribute to the longevity of cells, mitochondrial quality control, and pathogenesis. PMID:27347716

  14. Iron-depletion promotes mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial integrity in pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Minoru; Tanabe, Koichi; Nakayama, Hironobu; Ueno, Keigo; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-08-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid budding yeast, is the cause of severe systemic infections in immune-compromised hosts. The amount of free iron supplied to C. glabrata cells during systemic infections is severely limited by iron-chelating proteins such as transferrin. Thus, the iron-deficiency response in C. glabrata cells is thought to play important roles in their survival inside the host's body. In this study, we found that mitophagy was induced under iron-depleted conditions, and that the disruption of a gene homologous to ATG32, which is responsible for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, blocked mitophagy in C. glabrata. The mitophagic activity in C. glabrata cells was not detected on short-period exposure to nitrogen-starved conditions, which is a mitophagy-inducing condition used in S. cerevisiae. The mitophagy-deficient atg32Δ mutant of C. glabrata also exhibited decreased longevity under iron-deficient conditions. The mitochondrial membrane potential in Cgatg32Δ cells was significantly lower than that in wild-type cells under iron-depleted conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated infection, the Cgatg32Δ strain resulted in significantly decreased kidney and spleen fungal burdens compared with the wild-type strain. These results indicate that mitophagy in C. glabrata occurs in an iron-poor host tissue environment, and it may contribute to the longevity of cells, mitochondrial quality control, and pathogenesis. PMID:27347716

  15. Intraspecific and interspecific chemoattraction inBiomphalaria glabrata andHelisoma trivolvis (Gastropoda: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Marcopoulos, A A; Fried, B

    1994-10-01

    A Petri dish bioassay previously used to examine food preferences in planorbid snails was used to study intraspecific and interspecific chemoattraction inBiomphalaria glabrata (albino strain, M-line) andHelisoma trivolvis (Colorado strain) snails.B. glabrata snails showed significant intraspecific chemoattraction in the absence of visual cues and snail thigmotaxis.H. trivolvis snails also showed significant intraspecific chemoattraction. Interspecific chemoattraction between these species occurred in the bioassay, suggesting that the chemoattractants were not species specific. Artificial spring water conditioned by aqueous excretory-secretory products (snail-conditioned water) ofB. glabrata elicited significant intraspecific chemoattraction. However, lipophilic excretory-secretory products ofB. glabrata elicited significant chemorepulsion. Repellant factors in the lipophilic fraction were not characterized. PMID:24241838

  16. Haematopoiesis in molluscs: A review of haemocyte development and function in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves.

    PubMed

    Pila, E A; Sullivan, J T; Wu, X Z; Fang, J; Rudko, S P; Gordy, M A; Hanington, P C

    2016-05-01

    Haematopoiesis is a process that is responsible for generating sufficient numbers of blood cells in the circulation and in tissues. It is central to maintenance of homeostasis within an animal, and is critical for defense against infection. While haematopoiesis is common to all animals possessing a circulatory system, the specific mechanisms and ultimate products of haematopoietic events vary greatly. Our understanding of this process in non-vertebrate organisms is primarily derived from those species that serve as developmental and immunological models, with sparse investigations having been carried out in other organisms spanning the metazoa. As research into the regulation of immune and blood cell development advances, we have begun to gain insight into haematopoietic events in a wider array of animals, including the molluscs. What began in the early 1900's as observational studies on the morphological characteristics of circulating immune cells has now advanced to mechanistic investigations of the cytokines, growth factors, receptors, signalling pathways, and patterns of gene expression that regulate molluscan haemocyte development. Emerging is a picture of an incredible diversity of developmental processes and outcomes that parallels the biological diversity observed within the different classes of the phylum Mollusca. However, our understanding of haematopoiesis in molluscs stems primarily from the three most-studied classes, the Gastropoda, Cephalopoda and Bivalvia. While these represent perhaps the molluscs of greatest economic and medical importance, the fact that our information is limited to only 3 of the 9 extant classes in the phylum highlights the need for further investigation in this area. In this review, we summarize the existing literature that defines haematopoiesis and its products in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves. PMID:26592965

  17. Partial Decay of Thiamine Signal Transduction Pathway Alters Growth Properties of Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Noor F.; Neal, Erin M.; Leone, Sarah G.; Cali, Brian J.; Peel, Michael T.; Grannas, Amanda M.; Wykoff, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylated form of thiamine (Vitamin B1), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is essential for the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates in all organisms. Plants and microorganisms, such as yeast, synthesize thiamine de novo whereas animals do not. The thiamine signal transduction (THI) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well characterized. The ~10 genes required for thiamine biosynthesis and uptake are transcriptionally upregulated during thiamine starvation by THI2, THI3, and PDC2. Candida glabrata, a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, is closely related to S. cerevisiae but is missing half of the biosynthetic pathway, which limits its ability to make thiamine. We investigated the changes to the THI pathway in C. glabrata, confirming orthologous functions. We found that C. glabrata is unable to synthesize the pyrimidine subunit of thiamine as well as the thiamine precursor vitamin B6. In addition, THI2 (the gene encoding a transcription factor) is not present in C. glabrata, indicating a difference in the transcriptional regulation of the pathway. Although the pathway is upregulated by thiamine starvation in both species, C. glabrata appears to upregulate genes involved in thiamine uptake to a greater extent than S. cerevisiae. However, the altered regulation of the THI pathway does not alter the concentration of thiamine and its vitamers in the two species as measured by HPLC. Finally, we demonstrate potential consequences to having a partial decay of the THI biosynthetic and regulatory pathway. When the two species are co-cultured, the presence of thiamine allows C. glabrata to rapidly outcompete S. cerevisiae, while absence of thiamine allows S. cerevisiae to outcompete C. glabrata. This simplification of the THI pathway in C. glabrata suggests its environment provides thiamine and/or its precursors to cells, whereas S. cerevisiae is not as reliant on environmental sources of thiamine. PMID:27015653

  18. Partial Decay of Thiamine Signal Transduction Pathway Alters Growth Properties of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Iosue, Christine L; Attanasio, Nicholas; Shaik, Noor F; Neal, Erin M; Leone, Sarah G; Cali, Brian J; Peel, Michael T; Grannas, Amanda M; Wykoff, Dennis D

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylated form of thiamine (Vitamin B1), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is essential for the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates in all organisms. Plants and microorganisms, such as yeast, synthesize thiamine de novo whereas animals do not. The thiamine signal transduction (THI) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well characterized. The ~10 genes required for thiamine biosynthesis and uptake are transcriptionally upregulated during thiamine starvation by THI2, THI3, and PDC2. Candida glabrata, a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, is closely related to S. cerevisiae but is missing half of the biosynthetic pathway, which limits its ability to make thiamine. We investigated the changes to the THI pathway in C. glabrata, confirming orthologous functions. We found that C. glabrata is unable to synthesize the pyrimidine subunit of thiamine as well as the thiamine precursor vitamin B6. In addition, THI2 (the gene encoding a transcription factor) is not present in C. glabrata, indicating a difference in the transcriptional regulation of the pathway. Although the pathway is upregulated by thiamine starvation in both species, C. glabrata appears to upregulate genes involved in thiamine uptake to a greater extent than S. cerevisiae. However, the altered regulation of the THI pathway does not alter the concentration of thiamine and its vitamers in the two species as measured by HPLC. Finally, we demonstrate potential consequences to having a partial decay of the THI biosynthetic and regulatory pathway. When the two species are co-cultured, the presence of thiamine allows C. glabrata to rapidly outcompete S. cerevisiae, while absence of thiamine allows S. cerevisiae to outcompete C. glabrata. This simplification of the THI pathway in C. glabrata suggests its environment provides thiamine and/or its precursors to cells, whereas S. cerevisiae is not as reliant on environmental sources of thiamine. PMID:27015653

  19. Role of FKS Mutations in Candida glabrata: MIC values, echinocandin resistance, and multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cau D; Iqbal, Naureen; Bolden, Carol B; Kuykendall, Randall J; Harrison, Lee H; Farley, Monica M; Schaffner, William; Beldavs, Zintars G; Chiller, Tom M; Park, Benjamin J; Cleveland, Angela A; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is the second leading cause of candidemia in U.S. hospitals. Current guidelines suggest that an echinocandin be used as the primary therapy for the treatment of C. glabrata disease due to the high rate of resistance to fluconazole. Recent case reports indicate that C. glabrata resistance to echinocandins may be increasing. We performed susceptibility testing on 1,380 isolates of C. glabrata collected between 2008 and 2013 from four U.S. cities, Atlanta, Baltimore, Knoxville, and Portland. Our analysis showed that 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.6% of the isolates were resistant to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. We screened 1,032 of these isolates, including all 77 that had either a resistant or intermediate MIC value with respect to at least one echinocandin, for mutations in the hot spot regions of FKS1 and FKS2, the major mechanism of echinocandin resistance. Fifty-one isolates were identified with hot spot mutations, 16 in FKS1 and 35 in FKS2. All of the isolates with an FKS mutation except one were resistant to at least one echinocandin by susceptibility testing. Of the isolates resistant to at least one echinocandin, 36% were also resistant to fluconazole. Echinocandin resistance among U.S. C. glabrata isolates is a concern, especially in light of the fact that one-third of those isolates may be multidrug resistant. Further monitoring of U.S. C. glabrata isolates for echinocandin resistance is warranted. PMID:24890592

  20. SNF3 as High Affinity Glucose Sensor and Its Function in Supporting the Viability of Candida glabrata under Glucose-Limited Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzu Shan; Chew, Shu Yih; Rangasamy, Premmala; Mohd Desa, Mohd N.; Sandai, Doblin; Chong, Pei Pei; Than, Leslie Thian Lung

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3) as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR) pathway-related genes. The CgSNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01 and 0.1%) in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1 and 2%). It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1%) and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (four out of nine). Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment. PMID:26648919

  1. Convergent Evolution of Calcineurin Pathway Roles in Thermotolerance and Virulence in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lien; Konieczka, Jay H.; Springer, Deborah J.; Bowen, Samantha E.; Zhang, Jing; Silao, Fitz Gerald S.; Bungay, Alice Alma C.; Bigol, Ursela G.; Nicolas, Marilou G.; Abraham, Soman N.; Thompson, Dawn A.; Regev, Aviv; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that is frequently drug tolerant, resulting in difficulties in treatment and a higher mortality in immunocompromised patients. The calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin plays critical roles in controlling drug tolerance, hyphal growth, and virulence in diverse fungal pathogens via distinct mechanisms involving survival in serum or growth at host temperature (37° and higher). Here, we comprehensively studied the calcineurin signaling cascade in C. glabrata and found novel and uncharacterized functions of calcineurin and its downstream target Crz1 in governing thermotolerance, intracellular architecture, and pathogenesis in murine ocular, urinary tract, and systemic infections. This represents a second independent origin of a role for calcineurin in thermotolerant growth of a major human fungal pathogen, distinct from that which arose independently in Cryptococcus neoformans. Calcineurin also promotes survival of C. glabrata in serum via mechanisms distinct from C. albicans and thereby enables establishment of tissue colonization in a murine systemic infection model. To understand calcineurin signaling in detail, we performed global transcript profiling analysis and identified calcineurin- and Crz1-dependent genes in C. glabrata involved in cell wall biosynthesis, heat shock responses, and calcineurin function. Regulators of calcineurin (RCN) are a novel family of calcineurin modifiers, and two members of this family were identified in C. glabrata: Rcn1 and Rcn2. Our studies demonstrate that Rcn2 expression is controlled by calcineurin and Crz1 to function as a feedback inhibitor of calcineurin in a circuit required for calcium tolerance in C. glabrata. In contrast, the calcineurin regulator Rcn1 activates calcineurin signaling. Interestingly, neither Rcn1 nor Rcn2 is required for virulence in a murine systemic infection model. Taken together, our findings show that calcineurin signaling plays

  2. Candida glabrata susceptibility to antifungals and phagocytosis is modulated by acetate

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Sandra; Alves, Rosana; Carneiro, Catarina; Silva, Sónia; Brown, Alistair J.; Istel, Fabian; Kuchler, Karl; Sampaio, Paula; Casal, Margarida; Henriques, Mariana; Paiva, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is considered a major opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. The capacity of this yeast species to cause infections is dependent on the ability to grow within the human host environment and to assimilate the carbon sources available. Previous studies have suggested that C. albicans can encounter glucose-poor microenvironments during infection and that the ability to use alternative non-fermentable carbon sources, such as carboxylic acids, contributes to the virulence of this fungus. Transcriptional studies on C. glabrata cells identified a similar response, upon nutrient deprivation. In this work, we aimed at analyzing biofilm formation, antifungal drug resistance, and phagocytosis of C. glabrata cells grown in the presence of acetic acid as an alternative carbon source. C. glabrata planktonic cells grown in media containing acetic acid were more susceptible to fluconazole and were better phagocytosed and killed by macrophages than when compared to media lacking acetic acid. Growth in acetic acid also affected the ability of C. glabrata to form biofilms. The genes ADY2a, ADY2b, FPS1, FPS2, and ATO3, encoding putative carboxylate transporters, were upregulated in C. glabrata planktonic and biofilm cells in the presence of acetic acid. Phagocytosis assays with fps1 and ady2a mutant strains suggested a potential role of FPS1 and ADY2a in the phagocytosis process. These results highlight how acidic pH niches, associated with the presence of acetic acid, can impact in the treatment of C. glabrata infections, in particular in vaginal candidiasis. PMID:26388859

  3. Evaluation of the mitochondrial system in the gonad-digestive gland complex of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Santos, Anderson Teixeira; Garcia, Juberlan da Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-05-01

    The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated after exposure to 50 miracidia. The snails were dissected one, two, three and four weeks after infection for collection and mechanical permeabilization of the gonad-digestive gland (DGG) complex. The results obtained indicate that prepatent infection by this echinostomatid fluke significantly suppresses the phosphorylation state (respiratory state 3) and basal oxygen consumption of B. glabrata, demonstrating that the infection reduces the ability of the intermediate host to carry out aerobic oxidative reactions. Additionally, relevant variations related to the uncoupled mitochondrial (state 3u) of B. glabrata infected by E. paraensei were observed. Four weeks after exposure, a significant reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption after addition of ADP (3.68±0.26pmol O2/mg proteins) was observed in the infected snails in comparison with the respective control group (5.14±0.25). In the uncoupled state, the infected snails consumed about 62% less oxygen than the infected snails (7.87±0.84pmol O2/mg proteins) in the same period. These results demonstrate a reduction in oxidative decarboxylation rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and faster anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the infected snails. The possible mechanisms that explain this new metabolic condition in the infected organisms are discussed. PMID:27079167

  4. Efficient Mating-Type Switching in Candida glabrata Induces Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Boisnard, Stéphanie; Zhou Li, Youfang; Arnaise, Sylvie; Sequeira, Gregory; Raffoux, Xavier; Enache-Angoulvant, Adela; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Fairhead, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an apparently asexual haploid yeast that is phylogenetically closer to Saccharomyces cerevisiae than to Candida albicans. Its genome contains three MAT-like cassettes, MAT, which encodes either MATa or MATalpha information in different strains, and the additional loci, HML and HMR. The genome also contains an HO gene homolog, but this yeast has never been shown to switch mating-types spontaneously, as S. cerevisiae does. We have recently sequenced the genomes of the five species that, together with C. glabrata, make up the Nakaseomyces clade. All contain MAT-like cassettes and an HO gene homolog. In this work, we express the HO gene of all Nakaseomyces and of S. cerevisiae in C. glabrata. All can induce mating-type switching, but, despite the larger phylogenetic distance, the most efficient endonuclease is the one from S. cerevisiae. Efficient mating-type switching in C. glabrata is accompanied by a high cell mortality, and sometimes results in conversion of the additional cassette HML. Mortality probably results from the cutting of the HO recognition sites that are present, in HML and possibly HMR, contrary to what happens naturally in S. cerevisiae. This has implications in the life-cycle of C. glabrata, as we show that efficient MAT switching is lethal for most cells, induces chromosomal rearrangements in survivors, and that the endogenous HO is probably rarely active indeed. PMID:26491872

  5. Systematic Phenotyping of a Large-Scale Candida glabrata Deletion Collection Reveals Novel Antifungal Tolerance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Ekkehard; Istel, Fabian; Tscherner, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Ames, Lauren; Firon, Arnaud; Green, Brian; Cabral, Vitor; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Quintin, Jessica; Seider, Katja; Frohner, Ingrid; Glaser, Walter; Jungwirth, Helmut; Bachellier-Bassi, Sophie; Chauvel, Murielle; Zeidler, Ute; Ferrandon, Dominique; Gabaldón, Toni; Hube, Bernhard; d'Enfert, Christophe; Rupp, Steffen; Cormack, Brendan; Haynes, Ken; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is a frequent cause of candidiasis, causing infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated disease. The inherent tolerance of C. glabrata to azole drugs makes this pathogen a serious clinical threat. To identify novel genes implicated in antifungal drug tolerance, we have constructed a large-scale C. glabrata deletion library consisting of 619 unique, individually bar-coded mutant strains, each lacking one specific gene, all together representing almost 12% of the genome. Functional analysis of this library in a series of phenotypic and fitness assays identified numerous genes required for growth of C. glabrata under normal or specific stress conditions, as well as a number of novel genes involved in tolerance to clinically important antifungal drugs such as azoles and echinocandins. We identified 38 deletion strains displaying strongly increased susceptibility to caspofungin, 28 of which encoding proteins that have not previously been linked to echinocandin tolerance. Our results demonstrate the potential of the C. glabrata mutant collection as a valuable resource in functional genomics studies of this important fungal pathogen of humans, and to facilitate the identification of putative novel antifungal drug target and virulence genes. PMID:24945925

  6. Quantitative and ultrastructural changes in the haemocytes of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) treated individually or in combination with Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Shaurub, El-Sayed H; Abd El-Meguid, Afaf; Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M

    2014-10-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC) and the possible ultrastructural alterations induced in the haemocytes of the fourth larval instars of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 96 h post-feeding on a semi-synthetic diet, treated with the LC50 of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and the LC50 of azadirachtin alone, and the LC25 of SpliMNPV combined with the LC25 of azadirachtin were studied and compared to the control. Single treatment with the virus and azadirachtin or combined treatment significantly decreased the THC compared to the control. There are five types of haemocytes in S. littoralis: prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. The most common symptoms in granulocytes and plasmatocytes, the main affected cell types, due to viral infection were the presence of virogenic stroma, peripheral dispersion of the chromatin and disappearance of the nucleoli. However, the most common symptoms in these two types of haemocytes due to treatment with azadirachtin were the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with fibrous materials, due to probably apoptosis, in their cisternae and disorganization of mitochondria (looped, vacuolated and swollen). In addition, the cytoplasm of granulocytes was vacuolated with the appearance of autophagic lysosomes, while plasmatocytes showed ruptured cell membrane and folded nuclear envelope. Combined treatment with the NPV and azadirachtin induced the same pathological changes which were recorded from individual treatment with the virus or azadirachtin to the same haemocytes. It can be concluded that the change in the THC and ultrastructure of granulocytes and plasmatocytes may affect the cellular-mediated immune response in S. littoralis. Moreover, it seems likely that mitochondria were the target site of azadirachtin, as they were affected in both granulocytes and plasmatocytes treated with azadirachtin alone or in

  7. In vivo exposure to microcystins induces DNA damage in the haemocytes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, as measured with the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Juhel, Guillaume; O'Halloran, John; Culloty, Sarah C; O'riordan, Ruth M; Davenport, John; O'Brien, Nora M; James, Kevin F; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla

    2007-01-01

    The Comet assay was used to investigate the potential of the biotoxin microcystin (MC) to induce DNA damage in the freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Mussels maintained in the laboratory were fed daily, over a 21-day period, with one of four strains of the cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. Three of the strains produced different profiles of MC toxin, while the fourth strain did not produce MCs. The mussels were sampled at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days by withdrawing haemocytes from their adductor muscle. In addition, a positive control was performed by exposing a subsample of the mussels to water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)). Cell viability, measured with the Fluorescein Diacetate/Ethidium Bromide test, indicated that the MC concentrations, to which the mussels were exposed, were not cytotoxic to the haemocytes. The Comet assay performed on the haemocytes indicated that exposure to CdCl(2) produced a dose-responsive increase in DNA damage, demonstrating that mussel haemocytes were sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. DNA damage, measured as percentage tail DNA (%tDNA), was observed in mussels exposed to the three toxic Microcystis strains, but not in mussels exposed to the nontoxic strain. Toxin analysis of the cyanobacterial cultures confirmed that the three MC-producing strains exhibit different toxin profiles, with the two MC variants detected being MC-LF and MC-LR. Furthermore, the DNA damage that was observed appeared to be strain-specific, with high doses of MC-LF being associated with a higher level of genotoxicity than low concentrations of MC-LR. High levels of MC-LF also seemed to induce relatively more persistent DNA damage than small quantities of MC-LR. This study is the first to demonstrate that in vivo exposure to MC-producing strains of cyanobacteria induces DNA damage in the haemocytes of zebra mussels and confirms the sublethal toxicity of these toxins. PMID:17163507

  8. A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?

    PubMed Central

    Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Allienne, Jean François; Portela, Julien; Calvayrac, Christophe; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects. Methodology/Principal findings In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs. Conclusions/Significance This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field. PMID:25719489

  9. Production of White Colonies on CHROMagar Candida(TM) by Members of the Candida glabrata Clade and Other Species with Overlapping Phenotypic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that species of the Candida glabrata clade and species with phenotypic traits overlapping with C. glabrata would produce white colonies on CHROMagar Candida. Of 154 isolates (seven species) tested, C. bracarensis, C. nivariensis, C. norvegensis, C. glabrata, and C. inconspicua produ...

  10. Ecology of bacterial communities in the schistosomiasis vector snailBiomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, H W; Clausen, K; Mitchell, R

    1981-09-01

    The internal colony-forming bacterial flora of the schistosome intermediate host snailBiomphalaria glabrata (Say) has been characterized in ca. 500 individual snails from Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia, and from laboratory aquaria. Freshly captured wild snails harbor 2-40×10(6) CFU·g(-1), and healthy aquarium snails harbor 4-16×10(7) CFU·g(-1), whereas moribund individuals have 4-10 times as many bacteria as healthy individuals from the same habitats.Pseudomonas spp. are the most common predominant bacteria in normal snails, whereasAcinetobacter, Aeromonas, andMoraxella spp. predominate in moribund snails. External bacterial populations in water appear to have little effect on the composition and size of the flora in any snail. In addition to normal (healthy) and moribund snails, a third group of snails has been distinguished on the basis of internal bacterial density and predominating genera. These "high-density" snails may have undergone stresses and may harbor opportunistic pathogens. The microfloras of wild and laboratory-reared snails can be altered and stimulated to increase in density by crowding the snails or treating them with antibiotics. PMID:24227500

  11. Medical treatment of a pacemaker endocarditis due to Candida albicans and to Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Roger, P M; Boissy, C; Gari-Toussaint, M; Foucher, R; Mondain, V; Vandenbos, F; le Fichoux, Y; Michiels, J F; Dellamonica, P

    2000-09-01

    We describe a case of pacemaker infection due to two fungal species: Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the intraventricular wires. Because of severe underlying diseases, surgery was believed to be contraindicated. The patient was treated using high dose of fluconazole, resulting in clinical improvement and negative blood cultures. However, 2 months later, the patient underwent a fatal stroke. At autopsy, a large vegetation was found only all along the wires. Postmortem culture of the infected material was positive for both C. albicans and C. glabrata. PMID:11023765

  12. Demographic responses to multi-generation cadmium exposure in two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    SciTech Connect

    Salice, Christopher J.; Miller, Thomas J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2008-08-20

    A life table response experiment (LTRE) was used to quantify the population-level effects of continuous, multi-generation cadmium exposure on two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata; the parasite resistant BS90 and parasite susceptible NMRI strains. Snails were exposed to waterborne cadmium for three consecutive generations. Survival, growth and reproduction were measured empirically and incorporated into a stage-based, deterministic population model. Cadmium significantly affected hatching success, time to maturity and juvenile and adult survival in both strains. There were significant effects of generation on fecundity, hatching success time to maturity and juvenile survival in NMRI and time to maturity and adult survival in BS90. Cadmium significantly affected the population growth rate, lambda (λ), in BS90. Cadmium, generation and the cadmium x generation interaction had significant effects on λ in NMRI. At the high cadmium exposure, λ for NMRI showed a decrease from generation 1 to generation 2 followed by and increase from generation 2 to 3. Lambda in high cadmium BS90 steadily decreased over the three generations while NMRI at this same concentration was similar to the controls. The results indicated that strain-specific differences in response to multi-generation cadmium exposure are evident in B. glabrata. Moreover, effects seen in the first generation are not necessarily indicative of effects in subsequent generations. Changes in λ over the course of the three-generation exposure suggest that acclimation and/or adaptation to cadmium may have occurred, particularly in NMRI at the high cadmium exposure level.

  13. Comparative toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C; Geraldino, Barbara R; Coelho, Deise R; De-Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2010-09-01

    Plant molluscicides have been regarded as possible alternatives to the costly and environmentally hazardous molluscicides currently available. This study was undertaken to compare the developmental toxicity of a plant molluscicide (Euphorbia milii latex, LAT) with that of three synthetic molluscicidal compounds. Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses (0-15 h after spawning) were exposed to molluscicides for 96 h and thereafter examined up to the 14th day after spawning. Embryo deaths, abnormal embryo development (malformations) and the day of hatching were recorded. Although exhibiting a weak ovicidal effect, LAT markedly impaired the development of snail embryos at concentrations 1000 microg L(-1) and produced anomalies (EC(50)=2040 microg L(-1)) such as abnormal shells, hydropic embryos, cephalic and non-specific malformations. Embryolethal potencies of molluscicides were as follows: triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH; LC(50)=0.30 microg L(-1))>niclosamide (NCL; LC(50)=70 microg L(-1))>copper sulphate (CuSO(4); LC(50)=2190 microg L(-1)) > LAT (LC(50)=34030 microg L(-1)). A few malformations were recorded in embryos exposed to concentrations of TPTH within the range of lethal concentrations, while almost no anomalies were noted among those treated with NCL or CuSO(4). A hatching delay (hatching on day 10 after spawning or later) was observed among LAT-exposed embryos. The effects of NCL, TPTH and CuSO4 on hatching were to some extent masked by their marked embryolethality. The no-observed effect concentrations (NOEC) for embryotoxicity were as follows: TPTH, 0.1 microg L(-1); NCL, 25.0 microg L(-1); CuSO(4), 500.0 microg L(-1) and LAT, 500.0 microg L(-1). Results from this study suggest that, although LAT was not acutely embryolethal after a short-term exposure, it markedly disrupted snail development. The marked embryotoxicity of E. milii possibly contributes to its effectiveness as a molluscicide. PMID:20594574

  14. Mechanisms of azole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Naumiuk, Łukasz; Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Candida glabrata is currently ranked as the second most frequently isolated aetiological agent of human fungal infections, next only to Candida albicans. In comparison with C. albicans, C. glabrata shows lower susceptibility to azoles, the most common agents used in treatment of fungal infections. Interestingly, the mechanisms of resistance to azole agents in C. albicans have been much better investigated than those in C. glabrata. The aim of the presented study was to determine the mechanisms of resistance to azoles in 81 C. glabrata clinical isolates from three different hospitals in Poland. The investigation was carried out with a Sensititre Yeast One test and revealed that 18 strains were resistant to fluconazole, and 15 were cross-resistant to all other azoles tested (voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole). One isolate resistant to fluconazole was cross-resistant to voriconazole, and resistance to voriconazole only was observed in six other isolates. All strains were found to be susceptible to echinocandins and amphotericin B, and five were classified as resistant to 5-fluorocytosine. The sequence of the ERG11 gene encoding lanosterol 14-α demethylase (the molecular target of azoles) of 41 isolates, including all strains resistant to fluconazole and three resistant only to voriconazole, was determined, and no amino acid substitutions were found. Real-time PCR studies revealed that 13 of 15 azole-resistant strains showed upregulation of the CDR1 gene encoding the efflux pump. No upregulation of expression of the CDR2 or ERG11 gene was observed. PMID:25818698

  15. A Network of Paralogous Stress Response Transcription Factors in the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Merhej, Jawad; Thiebaut, Antonin; Blugeon, Corinne; Pouch, Juliette; Ali Chaouche, Mohammed El Amine; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Devaux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), transcriptome analyses, and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1) transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata, and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption, and iron metabolism. PMID:27242683

  16. First Report of Peanut Mottle Virus in Forage Peanut (Arachis glabrata) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

  17. Arteriovenous graft infection caused by Candida glabrata: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hung-Ling; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wu, Wei-Tsung; Lu, Po-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The infection rate of arteriovenous (AV) grafts is high, but fungal etiology is rare. Only five cases of graft infection due to Candida albicans (C. albicans) or C. tropicalis have been described in the literature. Herein, we report the first case of AV graft infection caused by C. glabrata. A 60-year-old woman on maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease was admitted because of intermittent fever, for 10 days. Upon physical examination, tenderness over the AV graft site was noticed. Blood culture yielded C. glabrata and her clinical symptoms improved after she was treated with micafungin for 1 month. However, C. glabrata candidemia reoccurred 5 weeks later. Cure was achieved after removal of the AV graft and anidulafungin treatment. Pus was observed in the removed graft, from which C. glabrata was isolated. The outcome of our case and patients from the literature review suggest that removal of the infected graft is important for treatment success of AV graft Candida infection. PMID:23838263

  18. A Network of Paralogous Stress Response Transcription Factors in the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Merhej, Jawad; Thiebaut, Antonin; Blugeon, Corinne; Pouch, Juliette; Ali Chaouche, Mohammed El Amine; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Devaux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), transcriptome analyses, and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1) transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata, and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption, and iron metabolism. PMID:27242683

  19. Proposal to conserve the name Celtis glabrata Steven ex Planch. (Cannabaceae) with a conserved type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The name Celtis glabrata is technically illegitimate and has nomenclatural priority over U. glabra and should be replaced under the international rules of botanical nomenclature. The replacement name Celtis planchoniana, proposed in 1997 but seldom adopted to date, is not the correct name for this s...

  20. Defining the transcriptomic landscape of Candida glabrata by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Linde, Jörg; Duggan, Seána; Weber, Michael; Horn, Fabian; Sieber, Patricia; Hellwig, Daniela; Riege, Konstantin; Marz, Manja; Martin, Ronny; Guthke, Reinhard; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-02-18

    Candida glabrata is the second most common pathogenic Candida species and has emerged as a leading cause of nosocomial fungal infections. Its reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and its close relationship to Saccharomyces cerevisiae make it an interesting research focus. Although its genome sequence was published in 2004, little is known about its transcriptional dynamics. Here, we provide a detailed RNA-Seq-based analysis of the transcriptomic landscape of C. glabrata in nutrient-rich media, as well as under nitrosative stress and during pH shift. Using RNA-Seq data together with state-of-the-art gene prediction tools, we refined the annotation of the C. glabrata genome and predicted 49 novel protein-coding genes. Of these novel genes, 14 have homologs in S. cerevisiae and six are shared with other Candida species. We experimentally validated four novel protein-coding genes of which two are differentially regulated during pH shift and interaction with human neutrophils, indicating a potential role in host-pathogen interaction. Furthermore, we identified 58 novel non-protein-coding genes, 38 new introns and condition-specific alternative splicing. Finally, our data suggest different patterns of adaptation to pH shift and nitrosative stress in C. glabrata, Candida albicans and S. cerevisiae and thus further underline a distinct evolution of virulence in yeast. PMID:25586221

  1. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Keenan, Kendra E.; Updike, Wanda S.; Oliver, Marquam R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement). His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1) placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained), and (2) chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis). To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections. PMID:25431708

  2. Enhancement of acetoin production in Candida glabrata by in silico-aided metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetoin is a promising chemical compound that can potentially serve as a high value-added platform for a broad range of applications. Many industrial biotechnological processes are moving towards the use of yeast as a platform. The multi-auxotrophic yeast, Candida glabrata, can accumulate a large amount of pyruvate, but produces only trace amounts of acetoin. Here, we attempted to engineer C. glabrata to redirect the carbon flux of pyruvate to increase acetoin production. Results Based on an in silico strategy, a synthetic, composite metabolic pathway involving two distinct enzymes, acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC), was constructed, leading to the accumulation of acetoin in C. glabrata. Further genetic modifications were introduced to increase the carbon flux of the heterologous pathway, increasing the production of acetoin to 2.08 g/L. Additionally, nicotinic acid was employed to regulate the intracellular NADH level, and a higher production of acetoin (3.67 g/L) was obtained at the expense of 2,3-butanediol production under conditions of a lower NADH/NAD+ ratio. Conclusion With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering and cofactor engineering, C. glabrata was designed and constructed to improve acetoin production. PMID:24725668

  3. In Vitro Activities of Six Antifungal Drugs Against Candida glabrata Isolates: An Emerging Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Amirrajab, Nasrin; Badali, Hamid; Didehdar, Mojtaba; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Lotfi, Nazanin; Shokohi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background Candida glabrata is a pathogenic yeast with several unique biological features and associated with an increased incidence rate of candidiasis. It exhibits a great degree of variation in its pathogenicity and antifungal susceptibility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the following six antifungal drugs against clinical C. glabrata strains: amphotericin B (AmB), ketoconazole (KTZ), fluconazole (FCZ), itraconazole (ITZ), voriconazole (VCZ), and caspofungin (CASP). Materials and Methods Forty clinical C. glabrata strains were investigated using DNA sequencing. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility was determined as described in clinical laboratory standard institute (CLSI) documents (M27-A3 and M27-S4). Results The sequence analysis of the isolate confirmed as C. glabrata and deposited on NCBI GenBank under the accession number no. KT763084-KT763123. The geometric mean MICs against all the tested strains were as follows, in increasing order: CASP (0.17 g/mL), VCZ (0.67 g/mL), AmB (1.1 g/mL), ITZ (1.82 g/mL), KTZ (1.85 g/mL), and FCZ (6.7 g/mL). The resistance rates of the isolates to CASP, FCZ, ITZ, VZ, KTZ, and AmB were 5%, 10%, 72.5%, 37.5%, 47.5%, and 27.5%, respectively. Conclusions These findings confirm that CASP, compared to the other antifungals, is the potent agent for treating candidiasis caused by C. glabrata. However, the clinical efficacy of these novel antifungals remains to be determined. PMID:27540459

  4. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on

  5. Upregulation of the Adhesin Gene EPA1 Mediated by PDR1 in Candida glabrata Leads to Enhanced Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Silva, Luis A.; Moeckli, Beat; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida species causing disseminated infection, after C. albicans. C. glabrata is intrinsically less susceptible to the widely used azole antifungal drugs and quickly develops secondary resistance. Resistance typically relies on drug efflux with transporters regulated by the transcription factor Pdr1. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PDR1 lead to a hyperactive state and thus efflux transporter upregulation. Our laboratory has characterized a collection of C. glabrata clinical isolates in which azole resistance was found to correlate with increased virulence in vivo. Contributing phenotypes were the evasion of adhesion and phagocytosis by macrophages and an increased adhesion to epithelial cells. These phenotypes were found to be dependent on PDR1 GOF mutation and/or C. glabrata strain background. In the search for the molecular effectors, we found that PDR1 hyperactivity leads to overexpression of specific cell wall adhesins of C. glabrata. Further study revealed that EPA1 regulation, in particular, explained the increase in adherence to epithelial cells. Deleting EPA1 eliminates the increase in adherence in an in vitro model of interaction with epithelial cells. In a murine model of urinary tract infection, PDR1 hyperactivity conferred increased ability to colonize the bladder and kidneys in an EPA1-dependent way. In conclusion, this study establishes a relationship between PDR1 and the regulation of cell wall adhesins, an important virulence attribute of C. glabrata. Furthermore, our data show that PDR1 hyperactivity mediates increased adherence to host epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the adhesin gene EPA1. IMPORTANCE Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen in human diseases and is also rapidly acquiring drug resistance. Drug resistance can be mediated by the transcriptional activator PDR1, and this results in the upregulation of multidrug transporters

  6. Upregulation of the Adhesin Gene EPA1 Mediated by PDR1 in Candida glabrata Leads to Enhanced Host Colonization.

    PubMed

    Vale-Silva, Luis A; Moeckli, Beat; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida species causing disseminated infection, after C. albicans. C. glabrata is intrinsically less susceptible to the widely used azole antifungal drugs and quickly develops secondary resistance. Resistance typically relies on drug efflux with transporters regulated by the transcription factor Pdr1. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PDR1 lead to a hyperactive state and thus efflux transporter upregulation. Our laboratory has characterized a collection of C. glabrata clinical isolates in which azole resistance was found to correlate with increased virulence in vivo. Contributing phenotypes were the evasion of adhesion and phagocytosis by macrophages and an increased adhesion to epithelial cells. These phenotypes were found to be dependent on PDR1 GOF mutation and/or C. glabrata strain background. In the search for the molecular effectors, we found that PDR1 hyperactivity leads to overexpression of specific cell wall adhesins of C. glabrata. Further study revealed that EPA1 regulation, in particular, explained the increase in adherence to epithelial cells. Deleting EPA1 eliminates the increase in adherence in an in vitro model of interaction with epithelial cells. In a murine model of urinary tract infection, PDR1 hyperactivity conferred increased ability to colonize the bladder and kidneys in an EPA1-dependent way. In conclusion, this study establishes a relationship between PDR1 and the regulation of cell wall adhesins, an important virulence attribute of C. glabrata. Furthermore, our data show that PDR1 hyperactivity mediates increased adherence to host epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the adhesin gene EPA1. IMPORTANCE Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen in human diseases and is also rapidly acquiring drug resistance. Drug resistance can be mediated by the transcriptional activator PDR1, and this results in the upregulation of multidrug transporters. Intriguingly

  7. Identification of Candida glabrata Genes Involved in pH Modulation and Modification of the Phagosomal Environment in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gerwien, Franziska; Allert, Stefanie; Brunke, Sascha; Schwarzmüller, Tobias; Ames, Lauren; Zubiria-Barrera, Cristina; Mansour, Michael K.; Becken, Ulrike; Barz, Dagmar; Vyas, Jatin M.; Reiling, Norbert; Haas, Albert; Haynes, Ken; Kuchler, Karl; Hube, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata currently ranks as the second most frequent cause of invasive candidiasis. Our previous work has shown that C. glabrata is adapted to intracellular survival in macrophages and replicates within non-acidified late endosomal-stage phagosomes. In contrast, heat killed yeasts are found in acidified matured phagosomes. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the processes leading to inhibition of phagosome acidification and maturation. We show that phagosomes containing viable C. glabrata cells do not fuse with pre-labeled lysosomes and possess low phagosomal hydrolase activity. Inhibition of acidification occurs independent of macrophage type (human/murine), differentiation (M1-/M2-type) or activation status (vitamin D3 stimulation). We observed no differential activation of macrophage MAPK or NFκB signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors after internalization of viable compared to heat killed yeasts, but Syk activation decayed faster in macrophages containing viable yeasts. Thus, delivery of viable yeasts to non-matured phagosomes is likely not triggered by initial recognition events via MAPK or NFκB signaling, but Syk activation may be involved. Although V-ATPase is abundant in C. glabrata phagosomes, the influence of this proton pump on intracellular survival is low since blocking V-ATPase activity with bafilomycin A1 has no influence on fungal viability. Active pH modulation is one possible fungal strategy to change phagosome pH. In fact, C. glabrata is able to alkalinize its extracellular environment, when growing on amino acids as the sole carbon source in vitro. By screening a C. glabrata mutant library we identified genes important for environmental alkalinization that were further tested for their impact on phagosome pH. We found that the lack of fungal mannosyltransferases resulted in severely reduced alkalinization in vitro and in the delivery of C. glabrata to acidified phagosomes. Therefore, protein

  8. Time-to-reporting of blood culture positivity and central venous catheter-associated Candida glabrata fungemia in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Stempel, Jessica M; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2016-07-01

    Among cancer patients with Candida glabrata (the Candida species with the slowest in-vitro growth) fungemia, time-to-positive blood culture reporting (TTR) was shorter in catheter-associated candidemia (mean±standard deviation: 67±35 h) than in candidemia from other sources (79±31, P<.01). TTR<48 h was 92% specific for catheter-associated C. glabrata fungemia. PMID:27133559

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of a ubiquitin gene ( Ub L40 ) in the haemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis under bacterial challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dingkun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin, a highly conserved stress-related protein, is assigned multiple functions, such as DNA processing, protein degradation, and ribosome synthesis. The Crassostrea hongkongensis ubiquitin gene (designated ChUb L40 ) was cloned by a combination of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of ChUb L40 is 496 bp in length, consisting of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp, a 3'-UTR of 75 bp and an open reading frame of 387 bp encoding a ubiquitin fusion protein of 128 amino acids. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ChUb L40 reveals that Ub L40 is highly conservative during evolution. The expression patterns of ChUb L40 gene in various tissues were examined by real-time PCR. The expression level of ChUb L40 in haemocytes is down-regulated at 4 h and gradually returned to its original level from 6 h to 24 h after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Our results suggest that ChUb L40 is ubiquitously expressed and plays an important role in immune defense against bacterial challenge.

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity. PMID:24371565

  11. Echinocandin resistance and population structure of invasive Candida glabrata isolates from two university hospitals in Germany and Austria.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Ulrike; Schmidt, Dirk; Willinger, Birgit; Steinmann, Eike; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is emerging and is associated with the presence of FKS mutations. In this study, we analysed the antifungal susceptibility, presence of FKS mutations and clonality of C. glabrata blood culture isolates from two hospitals in Germany and Austria. Susceptibility testing of 64 C. glabrata bloodstream isolates from two university hospitals was performed with broth microdilution method according to EUCAST. In addition, all isolates were screened for FKS mutations. Molecular fingerprinting was performed by microsatellite PCR with three separate primer pairs and semiautomated repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR). One C. glabrata isolate from Germany (1.5%) was echinocandin resistant, with a corresponding mutation in FKS2 gene hot spot 1. The discriminatory power of microsatellite PCR was higher than that of rep-PCR (Simpson Index of 0.94 vs. 0.88); microsatellite PCR created 31 separate genotypes, whereas rep-PCR created 17. Predominant genotypes or clusters of isolates from Germany and Austria were present, with no epidemiological evidence of nosocomial transmissions. Although we found a low incidence of echinocandin resistance in C. glabrata in our settings, further surveillance projects in central Europe are warranted for monitoring future epidemiological trends. The genetic population structure of C. glabrata demonstrates overrepresented geographical clusters. PMID:26806376

  12. Candida glabrata sepsis associated with chorioamnionitis in an IVF twin pregnancy: Should we deliver?

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu Qi; Ng, Oon Tek; Khong, Chit Chong

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-acquired Candida glabrata chorioamnionitis successfully treated through systemic maternal antifungal treatment prior to delivery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind in the literature. C. glabrata chorioamnionitis in pregnancy is rare, but the current literature suggests a very high fetal fatality in such cases. It is known to have an association with cervical stitch, amniocentesis, chorionic villous sampling, and assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF. Given the increasing global use of artificial reproductive techniques, it is important to raise awareness of this condition and highlight its potential complications. Early recognition of possible fetal infection could enable early initiation of systemic antifungal treatment. It would be prudent to consider early delivery once fetal maturity is achieved despite normal fetal monitoring. PMID:25510957

  13. Emergence of cercariae of Echinostoma caproni and Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata under different laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; LaTerra, R; Kim, Y

    2002-12-01

    Release of Echinostoma caproni cercariae and Schistosoma mansoni from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails maintained under different laboratory conditions was studied. Infected snails were isolated individually for 1 h in Stender dishes containing 5 ml of artificial spring water and the number of cercariae released during this time was recorded. Of numerous conditions tested, the addition of lettuce, the use of water conditioned by B. glabrata snails and a temperature of 35 degrees C significantly increased the release of E. caproni cercariae. A significant increase in cercarial release of S. mansoni was seen only in cultures fed lettuce. A temperature of 12 degrees C caused a significant decrease in cercarial release of both E. caproni and S. mansoni. Increased snail activity associated with feeding behaviour was probably responsible for the enhanced cercarial sheds observed in this study. PMID:12498644

  14. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon under acute copper stress.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Ye, Chao-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular toxicity of copper-induced injury to the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h LC(50) (median lethal concentration) of Cu(2+) on P. monodon (11.63+/-1.14g) were found to be 3.49, 1.54, 0.73 and 0.40mgL(-1), respectively. Total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, respiratory burst (RB), cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (cf-Ca(2+)) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of shrimp were determined after exposure to different concentrations of Cu(2+) (0, 0.05, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1)) for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. There was no significant effect on the analytic indicator of shrimp exposed to 0.05mgL(-1) Cu(2+). THC decreased after Cu-exposure to 0.5mgL(-1) for 48h, 1.5mgL(-1) for 24h and 3.5mgL(-1) for 12h. Phagocytic activity decreased in P. monodon following 48h exposure to 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). RB was induced after 6h exposure to 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). cf-Ca(2+) concentration increased after 48h exposure to 0.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+), and 12h exposure to 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). The percentage of apoptotic cells increased to 9.5%, 16.3% and 18.6% respectively following 48h exposure to 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). These results indicate that Cu can induce oxidative stress, elevation of cf-Ca(2+) and cell apoptosis, and inhibit phagocytic activity in the shrimp P. monodon, and the lethal injury of Cu(2+) to P. monodon may be mainly due to the sharp reduction of THC caused by ROS-induced apoptosis. PMID:20398793

  15. UPC2A is required for high-level azole antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Sarah G; Caudle, Kelly E; Vermitsky, John-Paul; Chadwick, Sean G; Toner, Geoffrey; Barker, Katherine S; Gygax, Scott E; Rogers, P David

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata, the second most common cause of Candida infections, is associated with high rates of mortality and often exhibits resistance to the azole class of antifungal agents. Upc2 and Ecm22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Upc2 in Candida albicans are the transcriptional regulators of ERG11, the gene encoding the target of azoles in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Recently two homologs for these transcription factors, UPC2A and UPC2B, were identified in C. glabrata. One of these, UPC2A, was shown to influence azole susceptibility. We hypothesized that due to the global role for Upc2 in sterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans, disruption of UPC2A would enhance the activity of fluconazole in both azole-susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) and -resistant C. glabrata clinical isolates. To test this hypothesis, we constructed mutants with disruptions in UPC2A and UPC2B alone and in combination in a matched pair of clinical azole-SDD and -resistant isolates. Disruption of UPC2A in both the SDD and resistant isolates resulted in increased susceptibility to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, including a reduction in fluconazole MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, enhanced azole activity by time-kill analysis, a decrease in ergosterol content, and downregulation of baseline and inducible expression of several sterol biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that Upc2A is a key regulator of ergosterol biosynthesis and is essential for resistance to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. glabrata. Therefore, the UPC2A pathway may represent a potential cotherapeutic target for enhancing azole activity against this organism. PMID:24867980

  16. Production of White Colonies on CHROMagar Candida Medium by Members of the Candida glabrata Clade and Other Species with Overlapping Phenotypic Traits▿

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Justin A.; Chase, Nancy; Lee, Richard; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Merz, William G.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that species of the Candida glabrata clade and species with phenotypic traits that overlap those of C. glabrata would produce white colonies on CHROMagar Candida medium. Of 154 isolates (seven species) tested, C. bracarensis, C. nivariensis, C. norvegensis, C. glabrata, and C. inconspicua produced white colonies; the Pichia fermentans group and C. krusei did not. Many of these species are difficult to identify phenotypically; white colonies may signal the need for the use of molecular approaches. PMID:18685009

  17. Biofilm formation in Candida glabrata: What have we learnt from functional genomics approaches?

    PubMed

    d'Enfert, Christophe; Janbon, Guilhem

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are a source of therapeutic failures because of their intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials. Candida glabrata is one of the pathogenic yeasts that is responsible for life-threatening disseminated infections and able to form biofilms on medical devices such as vascular and urinary catheters. Recent progresses in the functional genomics of C. glabrata have been applied to the study of biofilm formation, revealing the contribution of an array of genes to this process. In particular, the Yak1 kinase and the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex have been shown to relieve the repression exerted by subtelomeric silencing on the expression of the EPA6 and EPA7 genes, thus allowing the encoded adhesins to exert their key roles in biofilm formation. This provides a framework to evaluate the contribution of other genes that have been genetically linked to biofilm development and, based on the function of their orthologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, appear to have roles in adaptation to nutrient deprivation, calcium signaling, cell wall remodeling and adherence. Future studies combining the use of in vitro and animal models of biofilm formation, omics approaches and forward or reverse genetics are needed to expand the current knowledge of C. glabrata biofilm formation and reveal the mechanisms underlying their antifungal tolerance. PMID:26678748

  18. An invertebrate-specific and immune-responsive microRNA augments oyster haemocyte phagocytosis by targeting CgIκB2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway is an evolutionally conserved pathway in activating immune response, in which IκBs can repress the activation. In the present study, cgi-miR-2d, an invertebrate-specific microRNA, was proved to regulate CgIκB2 expression and haemocyte phagocytosis during bacterial infection in oyster Crassostrea gigas. The expression of cgi-miR-2d was significantly up-regulated after Vibrio splendidus challenge, while CgIκB2 transcripts decreased. Significant decreases in both luminescence and CgIκB2 3'UTR level was observed after transfection of cgi-miR-2d in CgIκB2 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay. CgIκB2 mRNA level decreased significantly (0.51-fold of control group, p < 0.05) in gain-of-function assay of cgi-miR-2d in vivo while it increased markedly (1.27-fold, p < 0.05) when cgi-miR-2d was repressed (0.10-fold, p < 0.01). A significant increase of haemocyte phagocytosis rate was observed in cgi-miR-2d overexpression group (p < 0.01), consistent with results in CgIκB2 knock-down group (p < 0.01). Moreover, the apoptosis rate of haemocytes was found significantly declined (28.57%, p < 0.01) in gain-of-function assay of cgi-miR-2d. Together, those results not only depicted the functional conservation of miR-2d family in anti-apoptosis of oysters but also highlighted its interaction with phagocytosis by modulating NF-κB pathway, which might dedicate critically to the well-balance of host immune response. PMID:27404434

  19. An invertebrate-specific and immune-responsive microRNA augments oyster haemocyte phagocytosis by targeting CgIκB2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway is an evolutionally conserved pathway in activating immune response, in which IκBs can repress the activation. In the present study, cgi-miR-2d, an invertebrate-specific microRNA, was proved to regulate CgIκB2 expression and haemocyte phagocytosis during bacterial infection in oyster Crassostrea gigas. The expression of cgi-miR-2d was significantly up-regulated after Vibrio splendidus challenge, while CgIκB2 transcripts decreased. Significant decreases in both luminescence and CgIκB2 3′UTR level was observed after transfection of cgi-miR-2d in CgIκB2 3′UTR luciferase reporter assay. CgIκB2 mRNA level decreased significantly (0.51-fold of control group, p < 0.05) in gain-of-function assay of cgi-miR-2d in vivo while it increased markedly (1.27-fold, p < 0.05) when cgi-miR-2d was repressed (0.10-fold, p < 0.01). A significant increase of haemocyte phagocytosis rate was observed in cgi-miR-2d overexpression group (p < 0.01), consistent with results in CgIκB2 knock-down group (p < 0.01). Moreover, the apoptosis rate of haemocytes was found significantly declined (28.57%, p < 0.01) in gain-of-function assay of cgi-miR-2d. Together, those results not only depicted the functional conservation of miR-2d family in anti-apoptosis of oysters but also highlighted its interaction with phagocytosis by modulating NF-κB pathway, which might dedicate critically to the well-balance of host immune response. PMID:27404434

  20. Expression of Efflux Pumps and Fatty Acid Activator One Genes in Azole Resistant Candida Glabrata Isolated From Immunocompromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Farahyar, Shirin; Zaini, Farideh; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Rezaie, Sassan; Falahati, Mehraban; Safara, Mahin; Raoofian, Reza; Hatami, Kamran; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-07-01

    Acquired azole resistance in opportunistic fungi causes severe clinical problems in immunosuppressed individuals. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of azole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida glabrata. Six unmatched strains were obtained from an epidemiological survey of candidiasis in immunocompromised hosts that included azole and amphotericin B susceptible and azole resistant clinical isolates. Candida glabrata CBS 138 was used as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates was evaluated using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technology, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and sequencing were employed for identification of potential genes involved in azole resistance. Candida glabrata Candida drug resistance 1 (CgCDR1) and Candida glabrata Candida drug resistance 2 (CgCDR2) genes, which encode for multidrug transporters, were found to be upregulated in azole-resistant isolates (≥2-fold). Fatty acid activator 1 (FAA1) gene, belonging to Acyl-CoA synthetases, showed expression in resistant isolates ≥2-fold that of the susceptible isolates and the reference strain. This study revealed overexpression of the CgCDR1, CgCDR2, and FAA1 genes affecting biological pathways, small hydrophobic compounds transport, and lipid metabolism in the resistant clinical C.glabrata isolates. PMID:27424018

  1. Time to Positivity and Detection of Growth in Anaerobic Blood Culture Vials Predict the Presence of Candida glabrata in Candidemia: a Two-Center European Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaasch, Achim J.; Soriano, Alex; Torres, Jorge-Luis; Vergara, Andrea; Morata, Laura; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De La Calle, Cristina; Alejo, Izaskun; Hernández, Cristina; Cardozo, Celia; Marco, Franscesc; Del Río, Ana; Almela, Manel; Mensa, Josep; Martínez, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the accuracy of exclusive or earlier growth in anaerobic vials to predict Candida glabrata in a large series of candidemic patients from two European hospitals using the Bactec 9240 system. Alternatively, C. glabrata can be predicted by a time to positivity cutoff value, which should be determined for each setting. PMID:24899027

  2. Schistosomiasis Control Using Piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at Different Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sá; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes Victor; Fokoue, Harold Hilarion; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Marques, Joaquim Vogt; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. Methods and Findings The molluscicidal activity of P. tuberculatum was monitored on methanolic extracts from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit and stems). The compounds responsible for the molluscicidal activity were identified using 1H NMR and ESIMS data and multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. These results indicated that the high molluscicidal activity displayed by root extracts (LC50 20.28 µg/ml) was due to the presence of piplartine, a well-known biologically-active amide. Piplartine was isolated from P. tuberculatum root extracts, and the molluscicidal activity of this compound on adults and embryos of B. glabrata was determined. The compound displayed potent activity against all developmental stages of B. glabrata. Next, the environmental toxicity of piplartine was evaluated using the microcrustacean Daphnia similis (LC50 7.32 µg/ml) and the fish Danio rerio (1.69 µg/ml). The toxicity to these organisms was less compared with the toxicity of niclosamide, a commercial molluscicide. Conclusions The development of a new, natural molluscicide is highly desirable, particularly because the commercially available molluscicide niclosamide is highly toxic to some organisms in the environment (LC50 0.25 µg/ml to D. similis and 0.12 µg/ml to D. rerio). Thus, piplartine is a potential candidate for a natural molluscicide that has been extracted from a tropical plant species and showed less toxic to environment. PMID

  3. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Zimmerman, Offer; Finn, Talya; Amit, Sharon; Novikov, Anna; Wertheimer, Noa; Lurie-Weinberger, Mor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance). We used population analysis profiling (PAP) to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR) and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6%) of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC) revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHR C. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029). Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole. PMID:27486188

  4. β-Aescin at subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) enhances susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to nystatin.

    PubMed

    Franiczek, Roman; Gleńsk, Michał; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    Aescin (escin) derived from the seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a natural mixture of triterpene saponins exhibiting a wide variety of pharmacological properties, including antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to α-aescin sodium, β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium using the disk diffusion (DD) and broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration (0.5×MIC) of β-aescins on the nystatin MIC was also studied. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method. Both β-aescins effectively inhibited the growth of all 24 strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 8 to 32 μg/ml for β-aescin crystalline, whereas those of β-aescin sodium were slightly lower and ranged from 4 to 16 μg/ml. In contrast, α-aescin sodium was found to be completely ineffective against the strains studied. MIC values of nystatin were reduced 2-16-fold and 2-4-fold in the presence of subinhibitory concentration of β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium, respectively. Results of the present study may suggest the additive interaction between β-aescin and nystatin. PMID:26092104

  5. Two Clinical Isolates of Candida glabrata Exhibiting Reduced Sensitivity to Amphotericin B Both Harbor Mutations in ERG2

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Claire M.; Bader, Oliver; Parker, Josie E.; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Two novel isolates of Candida glabrata exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B (MIC, 8 μg ml−1) were found to be ERG2 mutants, wherein Δ8-sterol intermediates comprised >90% of the total cellular sterol fraction. Both harbored an alteration at Thr121 in ERG2; the corresponding residue (Thr119) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for sterol Δ8-Δ7 isomerization. This constitutes the first report of C. glabrata harboring mutations in ERG2 and exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B. PMID:23027188

  6. Rediae of echinostomatid and heterophyid trematodes suppress phagocytosis of haemocytes in Littorina littorea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Shaposhnikova, Tania G; Gorbushin, Alexander M

    2006-05-01

    A modulation of the phagocytic activity of hemocytes from the common periwinkle Littorina littorea by secretory-excretory products (SEP) released by trematode rediae during axenic in vitro cultivation was studied. The SEP released by the parasites Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) and Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidae) were found to inhibit the phagocytosis of zymozan particles by periwinkle hemocytes. The specificity of SEP effects was assessed: SEP of Himasthla militaris and Cryptocotyle concavum, two trematodes belonging to the same genera but infecting another closely related prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae, were also shown to be able to suppress L. littorea hemocytes phagocytic activity. However, no decrease in phagocytosis rate was observed when SEP of H. elongata and C. lingua were applied to monolayers of hemocytes from the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. SEP from H. elongata was fractionated; only those fractions containing proteins of molecular weight more than 50 kDa were shown to possess inhibitory activity. Different H. elongata SEP concentrations were tested in for their ability to suppress phagocytosis by L. littorea hemocytes. Even very low SEP concentrations were shown to retain their ability to decrease phagocytosis rate, the inhibitory effect being dose-dependent. Hemocytes derived from snails naturally infected with H. elongata were also found to have lower phagocytic ability as compared to healthy individuals. PMID:16438967

  7. A family of variable immunoglobulin and lect in domain containing molecules in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Duval, David; Mouahid, Gabriel; Emans, Rémi; Allienne, Jean-François; Galinier, Richard; Genthon, Clémence; Dubois, Emeric; Pasquier, Louis Du; Adema, Coen M; Grunau, Christoph; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Technical limitations have hindered comprehensive studies of highly variable immune response molecules that are thought to have evolved due to pathogen-mediated selection such as Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) from Biomphalaria glabrata. FREPs combine upstream immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains with a C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain (FreD) and participate in reactions against trematode parasites. From RNAseq data we assembled a de novo reference transcriptome of B. glabrata to investigate the diversity of FREP transcripts. This study increased over two-fold the number of bonafide FREP subfamilies and revealed important sequence diversity within FREP12 subfamily. We also report the discovery of related molecules that feature one or two IgSF domains associated with different C-terminal lectin domains, named C-type lectin-related proteins (CREPs) and Galectin-related protein (GREP). Together, the highly similar FREPs, CREPs and GREP were designated VIgL (Variable Immunoglobulin and Lectin domain containing molecules). PMID:25451302

  8. Autoactivation by a Candida glabrata copper metalloregulatory transcription factor requires critical minor groove interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, K A; Thiele, D J

    1996-01-01

    Rapid transcriptional autoactivation of the Candida glabrata AMT1 copper metalloregulatory transcription factor gene is essential for survival in the presence of high extracellular copper concentrations. Analysis of the interactions between purified recombinant AMT1 protein and the AMT1 promoter metal regulatory element was carried out by a combination of missing-nucleoside analysis, ethylation interference, site-directed mutagenesis, and quantitative in vitro DNA binding studies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that monomeric AMT1 binds the metal regulatory element with very high affinity and utilizes critical contacts in both the major and minor grooves. A single adenosine residue in the minor groove, conserved in all known yeast Cu metalloregulatory transcription factor DNA binding sites, plays a critical role in both AMT1 DNA binding in vitro and Cu-responsive AMT1 gene transcription in vivo. Furthermore, a mutation in the AMT1 Cu-activated DNA binding domain which converts a single arginine, found in a conserved minor groove binding domain, to lysine markedly reduces AMT1 DNA binding affinity in vitro and results in a severe defect in the ability of C. glabrata cells to mount a protective response against Cu toxicity. PMID:8552101

  9. Roles of vacuolar H+-ATPase in the oxidative stress response of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Kohei; Takazono, Takahiro; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is responsible for the acidification of eukaryotic intracellular compartments and plays an important role in oxidative stress response (OSR), but its molecular bases are largely unknown. Here, we investigated how V-ATPase is involved in the OSR by using a strain lacking VPH2, which encodes an assembly factor of V-ATPase, in the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata The loss of Vph2 resulted in increased H2O2 sensitivity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level independently of mitochondrial functions. The Δvph2 mutant also displayed growth defects under alkaline conditions accompanied by the accumulation of intracellular ROS and these phenotypes were recovered in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Both expression and activity levels of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and catalase (Cta1) were decreased in the Δvph2 mutant. Phenotypic analyses of strains lacking and overexpressing these genes revealed that Sod2 and Cta1 play a predominant role in endogenous and exogenous OSR, respectively. Furthermore, supplementation of copper and iron restored the expression of SOD2 specifically in the Δvph2 mutant, suggesting that the homeostasis of intracellular cupper and iron levels maintained by V-ATPase was important for the Sod2-mediated OSR. This report demonstrates novel roles of V-ATPase in the OSR in C. glabrata. PMID:27370212

  10. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates. PMID:26281965

  11. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Wang, Tianfang; Rotgans, Bronwyn A; McManus, Donald P; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata) is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs), a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR), have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing. PMID:27253696

  12. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Di; Wang, Tianfang; Rotgans, Bronwyn A.; McManus, Donald P.; Cummins, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata) is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs), a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR), have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing. PMID:27253696

  13. New insights into the amphibious life of Biomphalaria glabrata and susceptibility of its egg masses to fungal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg masses of an aquatic snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, matured, and juveniles subsequently eclosed and were mobile in a stable water film of transitory habitats simulated by two different simple test devices described here. The viability of eggs maintained in an unstable film due to low ambient mois...

  14. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  15. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  16. Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Lennard Richard, Mara L; Gross, Paul S; Loker, Eric S

    2010-01-01

    A 70-mer-oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12h post-wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (Schistosoma mansoni or Echinostoma paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down-regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

  17. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis. PMID:26146832

  18. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K.; Adema, Coen M.; Sullivan, John T.; Loker, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy–based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features) to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter) and solute linked carrier (influx transporter). Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70) were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide’s lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and has

  19. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M; Sullivan, John T; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features) to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter) and solute linked carrier (influx transporter). Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70) were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and has been

  20. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zielińska Jurek, Anna; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

  1. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Echinocandin Nonsusceptible Candida glabrata Bloodstream Infections: Data From a Large Multisite Population-Based Candidemia Surveillance Program, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Cleveland, Angela A.; Farley, Monica M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Schaffner, William; Beldavs, Zintar G.; Derado, Gordana; Pham, Cau D.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Smith, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Echinocandins are first-line treatment for Candida glabrata candidemia. Echinocandin resistance is concerning due to limited remaining treatment options. We used data from a multisite, population-based surveillance program to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for echinocandin nonsusceptible (NS) C glabrata candidemia. Methods. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program conducts population-based laboratory surveillance for candidemia in 4 metropolitan areas (7.9 million persons; 80 hospitals). We identified C glabrata cases occurring during 2008–2014; medical records of cases were reviewed, and C glabrata isolates underwent broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing. We defined echinocandin-NS C glabrata (intermediate or resistant) based on 2012 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints. Independent risk factors for NS C glabrata were determined by stepwise logistic regression. Results. Of 1385 C glabrata cases, 83 (6.0%) had NS isolates (19 intermediate and 64 resistant); the proportion of NS isolates rose from 4.2% in 2008 to 7.8% in 2014 (P < .001). The proportion of NS isolates at each hospital ranged from 0% to 25.8%; 3 large, academic hospitals accounted for almost half of all NS isolates. In multivariate analysis, prior echinocandin exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6–1.2), previous candidemia episode (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.1), hospitalization in the last 90 days (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0–3.5, and fluconazole resistance [aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0–6.4]) were significantly associated with NS C glabrata. Fifty-nine percent of NS C glabrata cases had no known prior echinocandin exposure. Conclusion. The proportion of NS C glabrata isolates rose significantly during 2008–2014, and NS C glabrata frequency differed across hospitals. In addition to acquired resistance resulting from prior drug exposure, occurrence of NS C

  2. Gastric trichobezoar associated with perforated peptic ulcer and Candida glabrata infection

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Héctor Losada; Catalán, Cecilia Huenchullán; Demetrio, Rodrigo Arriagada; Rivas, Macarena Espinoza; Parraguez, Natalia Castagnoli; Alvarez, Martín Alanis

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are accumulations of human or plant fiber located in the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. Patients remain asymptomatic for several years, and the symptoms develop as these accumulations increase in size to the point of obstruction or perforation. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient at 10 d postpartum, who presented with acute abdomen associated with sepsis. Given the urgency of the clinical picture, at no point was the presence of a giant bezoar at gastric level suspected, specifically a trichobezoar. The emergency abdominal and pelvic ultrasound revealed only unspecific signs of perforated hollow viscus. Diagnosis was therefore made intraoperatively. A complete gastric trichobezoar was found with gastric perforation and secondary peritonitis. The peritoneal fluid culture revealed Candida glabrata. PMID:25516871

  3. Candida glabrata among Candida spp. from environmental health practitioners of a Brazilian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Catarina; de Oliveira Silva, Elisa; Gonçalves, Lindyanne Lemos; Nery, Jéssica Maria; Silva, Naiara Chaves; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of the species Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida was evaluated in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital from the environment and health practitioners. In a 12-month period we had a total positivity of 19.65% of Candida spp. The most recurring non-albicans Candida species was C. glabrata (37.62%), generally considered a species of low virulence, but with a higher mortality rate than C. albicans. Subsequently, C. parapsilosis (25.74%) and C. tropicalis (16.86%) were the second and third most commonly isolated species. Considering the total samples collected from the emergency room and from the inpatient and the pediatric sector, 19.10% were positive for Candida spp., with the predominance of non-albicans Candida species (89.42%). The high percentage of positivity occurred in the hands (24.32%) and the lab coats (21.88%) of the health care assistants. No sample of C. albicans presented a profile of resistance to the drugs. All the non-albicans Candida species presented a decreased susceptibility to miconazole and itraconazole, but they were susceptible to nystatin. Most of the isolates were susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. As expected, a high resistance rate was observed in C. glabrata and C. krusei, which are intrinsically less susceptible to this antifungal agent. The contamination of environmental surfaces by Candida spp. through hand touching may facilitate the occurrence of Candida infections predominantly in immunocompromised patients. In addition to that, the antifungal agents used should be carefully evaluated considering local epidemiologic trends in Candida spp. infections, so that therapeutic choices may be better guided. PMID:26991302

  4. 3D-Ultrastructure, Functions and Stress Responses of Gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) Rhogocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M. Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the “slit apparatus”, local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed–though not proven–that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory

  5. 3D-ultrastructure, functions and stress responses of gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) rhogocytes.

    PubMed

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the "slit apparatus", local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed-though not proven-that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory proteins

  6. The Nuclear Receptors of Biomphalaria glabrata and Lottia gigantea: Implications for Developing New Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Satwant; Jobling, Susan; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Routledge, Edwin J.; Lockyer, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription regulators involved in an array of diverse physiological functions including key roles in endocrine and metabolic function. The aim of this study was to identify nuclear receptors in the fully sequenced genome of the gastropod snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and compare these to known vertebrate NRs, with a view to assessing the snail's potential as a invertebrate model organism for endocrine function, both as a prospective new test organism and to elucidate the fundamental genetic and mechanistic causes of disease. For comparative purposes, the genome of a second gastropod, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea was also investigated for nuclear receptors. Thirty-nine and thirty-three putative NRs were identified from the B. glabrata and L. gigantea genomes respectively, based on the presence of a conserved DNA-binding domain and/or ligand-binding domain. Nuclear receptor transcript expression was confirmed and sequences were subjected to a comparative phylogenetic analysis, which demonstrated that these molluscs have representatives of all the major NR subfamilies (1-6). Many of the identified NRs are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, however differences exist, most notably, the absence of receptors of Group 3C, which includes some of the vertebrate endocrine hormone targets. The mollusc genomes also contain NR homologues that are present in insects and nematodes but not in vertebrates, such as Group 1J (HR48/DAF12/HR96). The identification of many shared receptors between humans and molluscs indicates the potential for molluscs as model organisms; however the absence of several steroid hormone receptors indicates snail endocrine systems are fundamentally different. PMID:25849443

  7. In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin against Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis Evaluated by Time-Kill Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin killing activities against Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis were evaluated by the time-kill methodology. The concentrations assayed were 0.06, 0.125, and 0.5 μg/ml, which are achieved in serum. Anidulafungin and micafungin required between 13 and 26 h to reach the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% killing) against C. glabrata and C. bracarensis. All echinocandins were less active against C. nivariensis. PMID:25801575

  8. Genome size estimates for two important freshwater molluscs, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the schistosomiasis vector snail (Biomphalaria glabrata).

    PubMed

    Gregory, T Ryan

    2003-10-01

    The haploid genome sizes of two important molluscs were assessed by Feulgen image analysis densitometry. The genome size of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a prolific invader of North American lakes, was estimated to be 1C = 1.70 +/- 0.03 pg, and that of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the predominant intermediate vector of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni, was estimated at 0.95 +/- 0.01 pg. These estimates will be important in future efforts in molluscan genomics, which at present lags far behind work being carried out with vertebrate and arthropod models. B. glabrata in particular, which has one of the smallest known gastropod genomes, is recommended as a highly suitable target for future genome sequencing. PMID:14608401

  9. FKS mutations and elevated echinocandin MIC values among Candida glabrata isolates from U.S. population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zimbeck, Alicia J; Iqbal, Naureen; Ahlquist, Angela M; Farley, Monica M; Harrison, Lee H; Chiller, Tom; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2010-12-01

    Candida glabrata is the second leading cause of candidemia in the United States. Its high-level resistance to triazole antifungal drugs has led to the increased use of the echinocandin class of antifungal agents for primary therapy of these infections. We monitored C. glabrata bloodstream isolates from a population-based surveillance study for elevated echinocandin MIC values (MICs of ≥0.25 μg/ml). From the 490 C. glabrata isolates that were screened, we identified 16 isolates with an elevated MIC value (2.9% of isolates from Atlanta and 2.0% of isolates from Baltimore) for one or more of the echinocandin drugs caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin. All of the isolates with elevated MIC values had a mutation in the previously identified hot spot 1 of either the glucan synthase FKS1 (n = 2) or FKS2 (n = 14) gene. No mutations were detected in hot spot 2 of either FKS1 or FKS2. The predominant mutation was mutation of FKS2-encoded serine 663 to proline (S663P), found in 10 of the isolates with elevated echinocandin MICs. Two of the mutations, R631G for FKS1 and R665G for FKS2, have not been reported previously for C. glabrata. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that the predominance of the S663P mutation was not due to the clonal spread of a single sequence type. With a rising number of echinocandin therapy failures reported, it is important to continue to monitor rates of elevated echinocandin MIC values and the associated mutations. PMID:20837754

  10. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of the schistosome-vector freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, J; Steiner, C; Pointier, J-P; Jarne, P

    2002-10-01

    The phylogeography of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata remains poorly known, although this species is the major vector of schistosomiasis in the New World. It was here investigated in South America and the Lesser Antilles, based on partial mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) gene sequences. Sampling included 17 populations from a large part of the current geographic range of the species (Brazil, Venezuela and Lesser Antilles). Substantial variability was detected, as well as a high amount of phylogenetically informative signal. The molecular phylogeny inferred splits B. glabrata into Northern and Southern clades separated by the Amazon river, and may even suggest a supra-specific status for B. glabrata. Brazilian populations were the most diverse and appeared basal to the other populations. Venezuelan haplotypes formed a single clade, albeit not strongly supported. Two Venezuelan haplotypes appear rather similar to Brazilian haplotypes. Similarly, Lesser Antilles haplotypes clustered in the same monophyletic clade, which suggests that the recent colonisation of the Antilles has a northern South American origin. However, the estimated divergence time between Antilles and Venezuelan sequences is extremely large (conservatively higher than 10(5) years). These results are discussed in the light of (i) phylogeographic patterns at South American scale, and (ii) recurrent introduction of molluscs, especially in the Antilles, as a consequence of human activities. PMID:12242642

  11. Fucoidan stimulates cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John T.; Belloir, Joseph A.; Beltran, Roxxana V.; Grivakis, Aris; Ransone, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult Salvador (schistosome-resistant) strain Biomphalaria glabrata snails were injected with 5 μl of 10 mg/ml solutions of the sulfated polysaccharides λ carageenan, dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and heparin, the nonsulfated polysaccharide laminarin, and the monosaccharides L-fucose and L-galactose, and mitotic activity in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) was measured in histological sections at 24h post injection. Among the substances tested, only fucoidan induced elevated mitotic activity. Desulfated fucoidan was not mitogenic, indicating that sulfate groups are required for activity. Schistosome-susceptible M-line snails possessed minimal or no hematopoietic tissue in their APO, which did not respond to fucoidan. Immersion of juvenile Salvador snails in 1 or 10 mg/ml solutions of fucoidan for 3h did not elevate mitotic activity at 24h post immersion, suggesting that the external and digestive tract epithelia of B. glabrata are impermeable to this molecule. These results provide support for the hypothesis that fucosylated glycans on the tegument and in excretory-secretory products of sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni are in part responsible for increased mitotic activity in the APO of B. glabrata infected with this trematode or injected with its extracts. PMID:25233872

  12. Probing the Active Site of Candida Glabrata Dihydrofolate Reductase with High Resolution Crystal Structures and the Synthesis of New Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Smith, A; Priestley, N; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a fungal strain resistant to many commonly administered antifungal agents, has become an emerging threat to human health. In previous work, we validated that the essential enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, is a drug target in C. glabrata. Using a crystal structure of dihydrofolate reductase from C. glabrata bound to an initial lead compound, we designed a class of biphenyl antifolates that potently and selectively inhibit both the enzyme and the growth of the fungal culture. In this work, we explore the structure-activity relationships of this class of antifolates with four new high resolution crystal structures of enzyme:inhibitor complexes and the synthesis of four new inhibitors. The designed inhibitors are intended to probe key hydrophobic pockets visible in the crystal structure. The crystal structures and an evaluation of the new compounds reveal that methyl groups at the meta and para positions of the distal phenyl ring achieve the greatest number of interactions with the pathogenic enzyme and the greatest degree of selectivity over the human enzyme. Additionally, antifungal activity can be tuned with substitution patterns at the propargyl and para-phenyl positions.

  13. Global Analysis of the Evolution and Mechanism of Echinocandin Resistance in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Babak, Sheena D.; Babak, Tomas; Diezmann, Stephanie; Hill, Jessica A.; Xie, Jinglin Lucy; Chen, Ying-Lien; Poutanen, Susan M.; Rennie, Robert P.; Heitman, Joseph; Cowen, Leah E.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistance has a profound impact on human health. Candida glabrata is a leading human fungal pathogen that can rapidly evolve resistance to echinocandins, which target cell wall biosynthesis and are front-line therapeutics for Candida infections. Here, we provide the first global analysis of mutations accompanying the evolution of fungal drug resistance in a human host utilizing a series of C. glabrata isolates that evolved echinocandin resistance in a patient treated with the echinocandin caspofungin for recurring bloodstream candidemia. Whole genome sequencing identified a mutation in the drug target, FKS2, accompanying a major resistance increase, and 8 additional non-synonymous mutations. The FKS2-T1987C mutation was sufficient for echinocandin resistance, and associated with a fitness cost that was mitigated with further evolution, observed in vitro and in a murine model of systemic candidemia. A CDC6-A511G(K171E) mutation acquired before FKS2-T1987C(S663P), conferred a small resistance increase. Elevated dosage of CDC55, which acquired a C463T(P155S) mutation after FKS2-T1987C(S663P), ameliorated fitness. To discover strategies to abrogate echinocandin resistance, we focused on the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and downstream effector calcineurin. Genetic or pharmacological compromise of Hsp90 or calcineurin function reduced basal tolerance and resistance. Hsp90 and calcineurin were required for caspofungin-dependent FKS2 induction, providing a mechanism governing echinocandin resistance. A mitochondrial respiration-defective petite mutant in the series revealed that the petite phenotype does not confer echinocandin resistance, but renders strains refractory to synergy between echinocandins and Hsp90 or calcineurin inhibitors. The kidneys of mice infected with the petite mutant were sterile, while those infected with the HSP90-repressible strain had reduced fungal burden. We provide the first global view of mutations accompanying the

  14. Circulating Biomphalaria glabrata hemocyte subpopulations possess shared schistosome glycans and receptors capable of binding larval glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Timothy P; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gonzalez, Laura A; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2013-01-01

    Host lectin-like recognition molecules may play an important role in innate resistance in Biomphalaria glabrata snails to larval schistosome infection, thus implicating parasite-expressed glycans as putative ligands for these lectin receptors. While host lectins may utilize specific glycan structures for parasite recognition, it also has been hypothesized that the parasite may use this system to evade immune detection by mimicking naturally-expressed host glycans, resulting in reduced immunorecognition capacity. By employing immunocytochemical (ICC) and Western blot assays using schistosome glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mABs) we sought to identify specific glycan epitopes (glycotopes) shared in common between larval Schistosoma mansoni and B. glabrata hemocytes, the primary immune effector cells in snails. Results confirmed the presence of selected larval glycotopes on subpopulations of hemocytes by ICC and association with numerous hemocyte proteins by Western blot analyses, including a trimannosyl core N-glycan (TriMan), and two fucosylated lacdiNAc (LDN) variants, F-LDN and F-LDN-F. Snail strain differences were seen in the prevalence of constitutively expressed F-LDN on hemocytes, and in the patterns of protein immunoreactivity with these mABs. In contrast, there was little to no hemocyte reactivity with mABs for Lewis X (LeX), LDN, LDN-F or LDN-DF. When intact hemocytes were exposed to larval transformation products (LTPs), distinct cell subpopulations displayed weak (LeX, LDN-DF) to moderate (LDN, LDN-F) glycotope reactivity by ICC, including snail strain differences in the prevalence of LDN-reactive cellular subsets. Far-Western blot analyses of the hemocytes following exposure to larval transformation proteins (LTPs) also revealed multiple mAB-reactive hemocyte protein bands for LeX, LDN, LDN-F, and LDN-DF. These results demonstrate the existence of complex patterns of shared larval glycan constitutively expressed on hemocytes and their proteins

  15. Assessment of the genotoxic potential along the Danube River by application of the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussels: The Joint Danube Survey 3.

    PubMed

    Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Liška, Igor; Gačić, Zoran; Paunović, Momir; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the level of genotoxic pollution along the Danube River by measuring the level of DNA damage in the haemocytes of freshwater mussels of Unio sp. (Unio pictorum/Unio tumidus) and Sinanodonta woodiana. The comet assay was used for the assessment of DNA damage. The research was performed on 34 out of 68 sites analysed within the Joint Danube Survey 3 - the world's biggest river research expedition of its kind in 2013. During research, 2285 river kilometres were covered with an average distance of 68 km between the sites. The complex data set on concentrations of various substances present in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment on investigated sites gave the opportunity to identify the groups of xenobiotics which mostly affect the studied biomarker - DNA damage. The highest levels of DNA damage were recorded in the section VI (Panonnian Plain), which is under the impact of untreated wastewater discharges. Both positive and negative influences of the large tributaries on the level of genotoxicity in the Danube River were evident. Significant correlation in response was detected between the studied species of freshwater mussels. The level of DNA damage in mussels correlated with concentrations of compounds from the group of hazardous priority substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), persistent organic pollutants (dioxins) and emerging pollutants (Oxazepam, Chloridazon-desphenyl). PMID:26117499

  16. An immune-enriched oligo-microarray analysis of gene expression in Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) haemocytes after a Perkinsus olseni challenge.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Moreira, Rebeca; Milan, Massimo; Bargelloni, Luca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2015-03-01

    Parasites of the genus Perkinsus cause high mortality and economic losses in bivalves commonly produced in global aquaculture. Although the immune responses of oysters and clams naturally infected with Perkinsus marinus or Perkinsus olseni have been extensively studied, there is not much information on host response at the early stages of infection. In this study, we analysed how P. olseni influences the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from the Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) using temporal experimental infections and an immune-enriched microarray. We identified an early phase of infection that was characterised by no mortality and by the increased expression of genes associated with pathogen recognition, production of nitrogen radicals and antimicrobial activity. Cellular processes such as inhibition of serine proteases and proliferation were also involved in this early response. This phase was followed by an intermediate stage, when the pathogen was most likely multiplying and infecting new areas of the body, and animals began to die. In this stage, many genes related to cell movement were over-expressed. Thirty days after infection metabolic pathway genes were the most affected. Apoptosis appears to be important during pathogenesis. Our results provide novel observations of the broader innate immune response triggered by P. olseni at different infection stages. PMID:25555813

  17. Determination and quantification of Schistosoma mansoni cercarial emergence from Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Matthew S; Lewis, Fred A; Driver, James D; Granath, Willard O

    2014-12-01

    Living and fixed samples of Schistosoma mansoni -infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails were used to determine the relative contributions of different snail tissues to cercarial emergence (shedding). Three methods of observations were employed: (1) direct microscopical observations of shedding snails; (2) microscopic analysis of 5 μm serial sections (H&E stained) of actively shedding snails; and (3) scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of snails that were fixed while actively shedding. For this investigation, there were advantages and disadvantages to using each method. We confirmed the results of others that there were 3 tissues of the snail that contributed most prominently to cercarial release (mantle collar, pseudobranch, and headfoot). Based on histological analysis of cercarial accumulations in presumed shedding sites in these 3 tissues, 57% of the cercariae could be seen in the mantle collar, 30.6% in the pseudobranch, and 12.5% in the headfoot. Other anterior structures were involved to a much lesser extent. SEM observations clearly showed cercariae emerging either body first, tail first, or likely emerging en masse from blebs, especially from the mantle collar. These studies provide a more quantitative appraisal of the role the different anterior snail tissues play in cercarial emergence. PMID:25019357

  18. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (11.1460  μ g·mL(-1) and 25.8689  μ g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (29.018  μ g·mL(-1) and 17.230  μ g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277  μ g·mL(-1) and 706.990  μ g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  19. Characterization of the myoglobin and its coding gene of the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Dewilde, S; Winnepenninckx, B; Arndt, M H; Nascimento, D G; Santoro, M M; Knight, M; Miller, A N; Kerlavage, A R; Geoghagen, N; Van Marck, E; Liu, L X; Weber, R E; Moens, L

    1998-05-29

    A cDNA clone isolated from a Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) neural cDNA library was identified as encoding a myoglobin-like protein of 148 amino acids with a single domain and a calculated mass of 16,049.29. Alignment with globin sequences with known tertiary structure confirms its overall globin nature. The expressed myoglobin was identified in the radular muscle and isolated. Oxygen equilibrium measurements on the protein reveal a high oxygen affinity. Val-B10 and Gln-E7, important residues for the determination of the oxygen affinity, are strikingly different from the standard molluscan pattern (Conti, E., Moser, C., Rizzi, M., Mattevi, A., Lionetti, C., Coda, A., Ascenzi, P., Brunori, M., Bolognesi, M. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 233, 498-508). The single gene encoding the globin chain is interrupted by three introns at positions A3.2, B12.2, and G7.0. Comparison with other nonvertebrate globin genes reveals on the one hand conservation (B12.2 and G7.0) and on the other hand variability of the insertion positions (A3.2). The Biomphalaria myoglobin sequence was used together with all other molluscan globin sequences available to assess the origin and phylogeny of the phylum. Our results confirm the doubts raised about monophyletic origin of the Mollusca, which was first observed using SSU rRNA as a molecular marker. PMID:9593695

  20. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  1. Development of the Statocyst in the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael; Hejl, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The development of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined from embryo to adult. Special emphasis was put on the growth of the statoconia in the statocysts. In the statocysts of embryonic snails (90-120 h after oviposition) there is not a single statolith but an average of 40-50 statoconia per statocyst. The number of statoconia increases to 385-400 when the snails reach a shell diameter of 4 mm and remains relatively constant thereafter, irrespective of shell size. Small statoconia are found in supporting cells, which suggests that the statoconia are produced within these cells. The average diameter of statoconia and the total mass of statoconia increase with increasing shell diameter. The average number of large statoconia (diameter greater than 7 micrometers) per statocyst continues to increase from 2 to 10 mm animals while the number of small ones (diameter less than 4 micrometers) initially rises and then decreases after 4 mm. These results demonstrate continuous growth of the statoconia in the cyst lumen of Biomphalaria. The single statoconia vibrate in a regular pattern in vivo, indicating beating of the statocyst cilia. The statoconia sink under the influence of gravity to load and stimulate receptor cells which are at the bottom. The length of cilia and the size of statocyst gradually increase as the animal grows. However, the increase in the volume of the statocyst is relatively small compared with the increase in body weight during normal development.

  2. Identification of Genes in Candida glabrata Conferring Altered Responses to Caspofungin, a Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, Anne G.; Arora, Gaurav; Ferrandino, Rocco; Gerace, Erica L.; Mohammednetej, Maedeh; Nosair, Waseem; Rattila, Shemona; Subic, Amanda Zirzow; Rolfes, Ronda

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an important human fungal pathogen whose incidence continues to rise. Because many clinical isolates are resistant to azole drugs, the drugs of choice to treat such infections are members of the echinocandin family, although there are increasing reports of resistance to these drugs as well. In efforts to better understand the genetic changes that lead to altered responses to echinocandins, we screened a transposon-insertion library of mutants for strains to identify genes that are important for cellular responses to caspofungin, a member of this drug family. We identified 16 genes that, when disrupted, caused increased tolerance, and 48 genes that, when disrupted, caused increased sensitivity compared to the wild-type parental strain. Four of the genes identified as causing sensitivity are orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding proteins important for the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. In addition, several other genes are orthologs of the high affinity Ca2+ uptake system (HACS) complex genes. We analyzed disruption mutants representing all 64 genes under 33 different conditions, including the presence of cell wall disrupting agents and other drugs, a variety of salts, increased temperature, and altered pH. Further, we generated knockout mutants in different genes within the CWI pathway and the HACS complex, and found that they too exhibited phenotypes consistent with defects in cell wall construction. Our results indicate that small molecules that inhibit the CWI pathway, or that the HACS complex, may be an important means of increasing the efficacy of caspofungin. PMID:27449515

  3. Candida glabrata binds to glycosylated and lectinic receptors on the coronary endothelial luminal membrane and inhibits flow sense and cardiac responses to agonists.

    PubMed

    Torres-Tirado, David; Knabb, Maureen; Castaño, Irene; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Rubio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata (CG) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that initiates infection by binding to host cells via specific lectin-like adhesin proteins. We have previously shown the importance of lectin-oligosaccharide binding in cardiac responses to flow and agonists. Because of the lectinic-oligosaccharide nature of CG binding, we tested the ability of CG to alter the agonist- and flow-induced changes in cardiac function in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed strong attachment of CG to the coronary endothelium, even after extensive washing. CG shifted the coronary flow vs. auricular-ventricular (AV) delay relationship upward, indicating that greater flow was required to achieve the same AV delay. This effect was completely reversed with mannose, partially reversed with galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, but hyaluronan had no effect. Western blot analysis was used to determine binding of CG to isolated coronary endothelial luminal membrane (CELM) receptors, and the results indicate that flow-sensitive CELM receptors, ANG II type I, α-adrenergic 1A receptor, endothelin-2, and VCAM-1 bind to CG. In addition, CG inhibited agonist-induced effects of bradykinin, angiotensin, and phenylephrine on AV delay, coronary perfusion pressure, and left ventricular pressure. Mannose reversed the inhibitory effects of CG on the agonist responses. These results suggest that CG directly binds to flow-sensitive CELM receptors via lectinic-oligosaccharide interactions with mannose and disrupts the lectin-oligosaccharide binding necessary for flow-induced cardiac responses. PMID:26491100

  4. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Kloos, Helmut; Passos, Liana Kanovaloff Janotti; Loverde, Philip; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Gazzinelli, Andréa

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate) and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams. PMID:15654420

  5. Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-11-15

    THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate, and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 {angstrom} apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5{beta}-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that an unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product.

  6. Differential spatial repositioning of activated genes in Biomphalaria glabrata snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M; Knight, Matty

    2014-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in

  7. The Structure of the Statocyst of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The two statocysts are located on the dorsal-lateral side of the left and right pedal ganglion. The statocysts are spherical, fluid-filled capsules with a diameter of approximately 60 microns for young and 110 microns for adult snails. The wall of the cyst is composed of large receptor cells and many smaller supporting cells. The receptor cells bear cilia which are evenly distributed on the apical surface. The cilia have the typical 9+2 internal tubule configuration. Striate rootlets originate from the base of the basal body and run downward into the cytoplasm. Side-roots arise from one side of the basal body and a basal foot from the other. For each receptor cell, the basal foot always points to the periphery of the surface, indicating that the receptor cell is non-polarized. The receptor cells contain cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, compact Golgi bodies and multivesicular bodies. Supporting cells bearing microvilli are interposed between the receptor cells. The junction complex between the supporting cells and the receptor cells is composed of adherens and septate junctions, while between supporting cells only the adherens junctions are present. The static nerve arises from the lateral side of the cyst and contains axons in which parallel neurotubules and mitochondria are found. The axons arise directly from the base of the receptor cells without synapse. In the cyst lumen there are unattached statoconia. The statoconia have a plate-like or concentric membranous ring structure. Based on the morphology, the function of the statocyst in Biomphalaria is discussed.

  8. A multiplex PCR protocol for rapid identification of Candida glabrata and its phylogenetically related species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Scordino, Fabio; Pernice, Ida; Lo Passo, Carla; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of Candida glabrata and its closely related species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis. The method uses four PCR primers, targeting the ITS1 region and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. The combination of these primers yielded unique results to all Candida species tested. The PCR assay we developed was found to be a rapid, specific and easy to perform method and it will be useful for characterizing large numbers of isolates for epidemiological studies. PMID:19635503

  9. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  10. Identification and Comparative Analysis of the Tegillarca granosa Haemocytes MicroRNA Transcriptome in Response to Cd Using a Deep Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yongbo; Zhang, Lili; Dong, Yinghui; Lin, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) that can base pair with their target mRNAs, which represses their translation or induces their degradation in various biological processes. To identify miRNAs regulated by heavy metal stress, we constructed two sRNA libraries for the blood clam Tegillarca granosa: one for organisms exposed to toxic levels of cadmium (Cd) and one for a control group. Results Sequencing of the two libraries and subsequent analysis revealed 215 conserved and 39 new miRNAs. Most of the new miRNAs in T. granosa were up- or down-regulated in response to Cd exposure. There were significant differences in expression between the Cd and control groups for 16 miRNAs. Of these, five miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 11 were significantly down-regulated in the Cd stress library. Potential targets were predicted for the 16 differential miRNAs in pre-miRNAs identified according to sequence homology. Some of the predicted miRNA targets are associated with regulation of the response to stress induced by heavy metals. Five differentially expressed miRNAs (Tgr-nmiR-8, Tgr-nmiR-21, Tgr-miR-2a, Tgr-miR-10a-5p, and Tgr-miR-184b) were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Our study is the first large-scale identification of miRNAs in T. granosa haemocytes. Our findings suggest that some miRNAs and their target genes and pathways may play critical roles in the responses of this species to environmental heavy metal stresses. PMID:24690903

  11. Recurrent Episodes of Candidemia Due to Candida glabrata with a Mutation in Hot Spot 1 of the FKS2 Gene Developed after Prolonged Therapy with Caspofungin

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Sara; Gómez-López, Alicia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Jiménez Díez-Canseco, Leticia; Gómez-Garcés, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    We report two episodes of recurrent candidemia caused by echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata in a 69-year-old patient who underwent repeated abdominal surgery. In the first episode of candidemia, an echinocandin-susceptible Candida glabrata strain was isolated, and the patient was treated with caspofungin. The isolates from the later episodes showed resistance to echinocandins. Analysis of the HS1 region of the FKS2 gene showed the amino acid substitution S663P. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated a strong genetic relationship between the isolates. PMID:22391532

  12. Identification of signature volatiles to discriminate Candida albicans, glabrata, krusei and tropicalis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Moritz; Hartwig, Stefan; Schütte, Eyke; Gillissen, Bernhard; Preissner, Robert; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Kastner, Isabell; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-02-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection of the oral cavity. Clinical diagnoses require mycological confirmation, which is time-consuming in case of culture testing. The aim of the study was to identify signature volatiles to develop a chairside breath test to diagnose oral candidiasis. Headspaces above Candida albicans, glabrata, tropicalis, krusei cultures, and growth media as control were analysed after eight and 24 h using offline gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The identification of signature volatiles was assisted using various microbial databases. Retrieved volatile patterns enabled Candida species discrimination in vitro. For C. albicans 3-methyl-2-butanone and styrene and for C. krusei a combination of p-xylene, 2-octanone, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate were found to be specific. 1-hexanol was found in C. tropicalis, but is emitted by a variety of other microorganisms. C. glabrata was characterised through the absence of these volatiles. The development of a breath test is a promising approach in confirming suspicions of oral candidiasis. To confirm the retrieved results in vivo, breath tests in affected and healthy subjects have to be performed. PMID:26667499

  13. Development of a Candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amdS).

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianmin; Blaylock, Morganne; Wickes, Cameron F; Welte, William; Mehrtash, Adrian; Wiederhold, Nathan; Wickes, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    The gene encodingAspergillus nidulansacetamidase (amdS) was placed under control ofCandida albicans ACT1promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containingC. glabrata ARS10,CEN8orARS10+CEN8sequences. All plasmids transformedC. glabratawild-type cells to acetamide+, with theARS-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4)transformants μg(-1)). Plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dependent on chromosomal element, thus recycling the acetamide- phenotype. TheamdSplasmid was used to transform a set of clinical isolates resistant to a variety of antifungal drugs. All strains were successfully transformed to the acetamide+ phenotype at high frequency, confirming that this plasmid construct could be used as a simple dominant marker on virtually any strain. Gap repair experiments demonstrated that just as inSaccharomyces cerevisiae, gap repair functions efficiently inC. glabrata, suggesting thatC. glabratahas numerous similarities toS. cerevisiaewith regard to ease of molecular manipulation. TheamdSsystem is inexpensive and efficient, and combined with existingC. glabrataplasmid elements, confers a high transformation frequency forC. glabratawith a phenotype that can be easily recycled. PMID:26975388

  14. Biocatalytic reduction of racemic 2-arenoxycycloalkanones by yeasts P. glucozyma and C. glabrata: one way of achieving chiral 2-arenoxycycloalcohols.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Cecilia; Peña, Miguel; Del Olmo, Marcel Lí

    2016-06-01

    Chiral β-aryloxy alcohols are interesting building blocks that form part of drugs like β adrenergic antagonists. Acquiring cyclic rigid analogs to obtain more selective drugs is interesting. Thus, we used whole cells of yeast strains Pichia glucozyma and Candida glabrata to catalyze the reduction of several 2-arenoxycycloalkanones to produce chiral 2-arenoxycycloalcohols with good/excellent enantioselectivity. In both cases, the alcohol configuration that resulted from the carbonyl group reduction was S. Yeast P. glucozyma allowed the conversion of both enantiomers of the starting material to produce 2-arenoxycycloalcohols with configuration (1S, 2R) and (1S, 2S). The reaction with C. glabrata nearly always allowed the kinetic resolution of the starting ketone, recovering 2-arenoxycycloalkanone with configuration S and (1S, 2R)-2-arenoxycycloalcohol.All the four possible stereoisomers of 2-phenoxycyclohexanol and the two enantiomers of 2-phenoxycyclohexanone were obtained by combining the biocatalyzed reaction with the oxidation/reduction of the chiral compounds with standard reagents. This is a simple approach for the synthesis of the rigid chiral moiety 2-arenoxycycloalcohols contained in putative β-blockers 2-arenoxycycloalkanepropanolamines. PMID:26754816

  15. Genome-Wide Scan and Test of Candidate Genes in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Reveal New Locus Influencing Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Bonner, Kaitlin M.; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Johnstun, Joel A.; Yeh, Jan-Ying; Marine, Melanie; Tavalire, Hannah F.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Blouin, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background New strategies to combat the global scourge of schistosomiasis may be revealed by increased understanding of the mechanisms by which the obligate snail host can resist the schistosome parasite. However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. We first identify a genomic region, RADres, showing the highest differentiation between susceptible and resistant inbred lines among 1611 informative restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) markers, and show that it significantly influences resistance in an independent set of 439 outbred snails. The additive effect of each RADres resistance allele is 2-fold, similar to that of the previously identified resistance gene sod1. The data fit a model in which both loci contribute independently and additively to resistance, such that the odds of infection in homozygotes for the resistance alleles at both loci (13% infected) is 16-fold lower than the odds of infection in snails without any resistance alleles (70% infected). Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium is high, with both sod1 and RADres residing on haplotype blocks >2Mb, and with other markers in each block also showing significant effects on resistance; thus the causal genes within these blocks remain to be demonstrated. Other candidate loci had no effect on resistance, including the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex and three genes (aif, infPhox, and prx1) with immunological roles and expression patterns tied to resistance, which must therefore be trans-regulated. Conclusions/Significance The loci RADres and sod1 both have strong effects on resistance to S. mansoni. Future approaches to control schistosomiasis may benefit from further efforts to characterize and harness this natural genetic variation. PMID:26372103

  16. Production of white colonies on CHROMagar Candida BD by species in the C. glabrata clade, and other species with overlapping phenotypic traits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromogenic agars are important diagnostic media used in the clinical mycology laboratory. Candida spp. that produced white colonies on CHROMagar Candida (Becton Dickinson) (CAC) were found during a study designed to detect and identify C. bracarensis, a newly-described species in the C. glabrata c...

  17. Identification of Components of the SUMOylation Machinery in Candida glabrata: ROLE OF THE DESUMOYLATION PEPTIDASE CgUlp2 IN VIRULENCE.

    PubMed

    Gujjula, Rahul; Veeraiah, Sangeetha; Kumar, Kundan; Thakur, Suman S; Mishra, Krishnaveni; Kaur, Rupinder

    2016-09-01

    Regulation of protein function by reversible post-translational modification, SUMOylation, is widely conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom. SUMOylation is essential for cell growth, division, and adaptation to stress in most organisms, including fungi. As these are key factors in determination of fungal virulence, in this study, we have investigated the importance of SUMOylation in the human pathogen, Candida glabrata We identified the enzymes involved in small ubiquitin-like modifier conjugation and show that there is strong conservation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. glabrata We demonstrate that SUMOylation is an essential process and that adaptation to stress involves changes in global SUMOylation in C. glabrata Importantly, loss of the deSUMOylating enzyme CgUlp2 leads to highly reduced small ubiquitin-like modifier protein levels, and impaired growth, sensitivity to multiple stress conditions, reduced adherence to epithelial cells, and poor colonization of specific tissues in mice. Our study thus demonstrates a key role for protein SUMOylation in the life cycle and pathobiology of C. glabrata. PMID:27382059

  18. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Influences Compatibility between the Gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Digenean Trematode Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pila, Emmanuel A.; Tarrabain, Mahmoud; Kabore, Alethe L.; Hanington, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects over 260 million people worldwide especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Schistosomes must undergo their larval development within specific species of snail intermediate hosts, a trait that is shared among almost all digenean trematodes. This unique and long-standing host-parasite relationship presents an opportunity to study both the importance of conserved immunological features in novel immunological roles, as well as new immunological adaptations that have arisen to combat a very specific type of immunological challenge. While it is well supported that the snail immune response is important for protecting against schistosome infection, very few specific snail immune factors have been identified and even fewer have been functionally characterized. Here, we provide the first functional report of a snail Toll-like receptor, which we demonstrate as playing an important role in the cellular immune response of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata following challenge with Schistosoma mansoni. This TLR (BgTLR) was identified as part of a peptide screen of snail immune cell surface proteins that differed in abundance between B. glabrata snails that differ in their compatibility phenotype to challenge by S. mansoni. The S. mansoni-resistant strain of B. glabrata (BS-90) displayed higher levels of BgTLR compared to the susceptible (M-line) strain. Transcript expression of BgTLR was found to be very responsive in BS-90 snails when challenged with S. mansoni, increasing 27 fold relative to β-actin (non-immune control gene); whereas expression in susceptible M-line snails was not significantly increased. Knockdown of BgTLR in BS-90 snails via targeted siRNA oligonucleotides was confirmed using a specific anti-BgTLR antibody and resulted in a significant alteration of the resistant phenotype, yielding patent infections in 43% of the normally resistant snails, which

  19. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Influences Compatibility between the Gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Digenean Trematode Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Tarrabain, Mahmoud; Kabore, Alethe L; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects over 260 million people worldwide especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Schistosomes must undergo their larval development within specific species of snail intermediate hosts, a trait that is shared among almost all digenean trematodes. This unique and long-standing host-parasite relationship presents an opportunity to study both the importance of conserved immunological features in novel immunological roles, as well as new immunological adaptations that have arisen to combat a very specific type of immunological challenge. While it is well supported that the snail immune response is important for protecting against schistosome infection, very few specific snail immune factors have been identified and even fewer have been functionally characterized. Here, we provide the first functional report of a snail Toll-like receptor, which we demonstrate as playing an important role in the cellular immune response of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata following challenge with Schistosoma mansoni. This TLR (BgTLR) was identified as part of a peptide screen of snail immune cell surface proteins that differed in abundance between B. glabrata snails that differ in their compatibility phenotype to challenge by S. mansoni. The S. mansoni-resistant strain of B. glabrata (BS-90) displayed higher levels of BgTLR compared to the susceptible (M-line) strain. Transcript expression of BgTLR was found to be very responsive in BS-90 snails when challenged with S. mansoni, increasing 27 fold relative to β-actin (non-immune control gene); whereas expression in susceptible M-line snails was not significantly increased. Knockdown of BgTLR in BS-90 snails via targeted siRNA oligonucleotides was confirmed using a specific anti-BgTLR antibody and resulted in a significant alteration of the resistant phenotype, yielding patent infections in 43% of the normally resistant snails, which

  20. Accurate initiation of mRNA synthesis in extracts from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Woontner, M; Jaehning, J A

    1993-12-01

    We demonstrate the successful adaptation to other yeast species of a protocol previously described for production of transcriptionally active whole cell extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Woontner and Jaehning, 1990, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8979-8982). Extracts prepared from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata were all capable of initiating transcription from a template containing the S. cerevisiae CYC1 TATA box fused to a G-less cassette. Transcription in all of the extracts was sensitive to inhibition by alpha-amanitin, indicating that it was catalysed by RNA polymerase II, and was dramatically stimulated by the chimeric activator GAL4/VP16. The different extracts used different subsets of a group of three initiation sites. PMID:8154183

  1. Dithiocarbamates are strong inhibitors of the beta-class fungal carbonic anhydrases from Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Monti, Simona Maria; Maresca, Alfonso; Viparelli, Francesca; Carta, Fabrizio; De Simone, Giuseppina; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-01-15

    A series of N-mono- and N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates have been investigated as inhibitors of three β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, that is, Can2, CaNce103 and CgNce103, respectively. These enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the subnanomolar to the micromolar range, depending on the substitution pattern at the nitrogen atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding group. This new class of β-CA inhibitors may have the potential for developing antifungal agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which drug resistance was reported, and may also explain the efficacy of dithiocarbamates as agricultural antifungal agents. PMID:22209456

  2. Phenotypic Switching in Candida glabrata Accompanied by Changes in Expression of Genes with Deduced Functions in Copper Detoxification and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Zhao, Rui; Daniels, Karla; Radke, Josh; Soll, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Most strains of Candida glabrata switch spontaneously between a number of phenotypes distinguishable by graded brown coloration on agar containing 1 mM CuSO4, a phenomenon referred to as “core switching.” C. glabrata also switches spontaneously and reversibly from core phenotypes to an irregular wrinkle (IWr) phenotype, a phenomenon referred to as “irregular wrinkle switching.” To identify genes differentially expressed in the core phenotypes white (Wh) and dark brown (DB), a cDNA subtraction strategy was employed. Twenty-three genes were identified as up-regulated in DB, four in Wh, and six in IWr. Up-regulation was verified in two unrelated strains, one a and one α strain. The functions of these genes were deduced from the functions of their Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs. The majority of genes up-regulated in DB (78%) played deduced roles in copper assimilation, sulfur assimilation, and stress responses. These genes were differentially up-regulated in DB even though the conditions of growth for Wh and DB, including CuSO4 concentration, were identical. Hence, the regulation of these genes, normally regulated by environmental cues, has been usurped by switching, presumably as an adaptation to the challenging host environment. These results are consistent with the suggestion that switching provides colonizing populations with a minority of cells expressing a phenotype that allows them to enrich in response to an environmental challenge, a form of rapid adaptation. However, DB is the most commonly expressed phenotype at sites of host colonization, in the apparent absence of elevated copper levels. Hence, up-regulation of these genes by switching suggests that in some cases they may play roles in colonization and virulence not immediately obvious from the roles played by their orthologs in S. cerevisiae. PMID:16087748

  3. Application of CHROMagar Candida for rapid screening of clinical specimens for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Houston, A; Coffmann, S

    1996-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a new differential culture medium that allows selective isolation of yeasts and simultaneously identifies colonies of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We evaluated the use of this medium with 316 yeast isolates including 247 isolated directly on CHROMagar from clinical material. Over 95% of stock and clinical isolates of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei were correctly identified on the basis of colony morphology and pigmentation on CHROMagar. Additionally, CHROMagar also allowed the identification of C. (Torulopsis) glabrata at a similar level of accuracy. The overall agreement between two observers in reading the CHROMagar plates was 95%. Growth of Candida sp. isolates on CHROMagar had no adverse effect on antifungal MICs or Vitek identification results. In parallel, cultures of 548 stool and rectal swab specimens set up on CHROMagar and Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) were positive in 234 instances. CHROMagar was positive and SGA was negative for 11 specimens, and CHROMagar was negative and SGA was positive for 18 specimens. A single yeast species was isolated on both media from 162 specimens, and in 146 (90%) of these specimens the same species was detected on both CHROMagar and SGA. A total of 43 of the 234 positive cultures contained mixtures of yeast species. Twenty (47%) of these mixed cultures were detected only on CHROMagar. CHROMagar is extremely useful in making a rapid presumptive identification of common yeast species. This capability plus the ability to detect mixed cultures of Candida spp. promises to improve and streamline the work flow in the mycology and clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:8748273

  4. Identification and characterization of two novel types of non-clip domain serine proteases (PtSP and PtSPH1) from cDNA haemocytes library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianqian; Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Shuangyan; Song, Chengwen

    2012-05-01

    In our previous studies, five serine proteases containing clip domain were characterized from the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. To further investigate the characterization and function of serine proteases, one serine protease (PtSP) and one serine protease homolog (PtSPH1) without clip domain were identified from haemocytes cDNA library in this paper. They both possessed an SP or SP-like domain at the C-terminal. In contrast to PtSP, absence of Ser catalytic residue resulted in the loss of serine protease activity of PtSPH1. Phylogenetic analysis suggested either SPs or SPHs might not have a single origin in gene evolution. Six introns presented in PtSP genomic DNA with one uncommon splice site (GG) was discovered at exon 1/intron 1 boundary region. Four introns with common splice sites were found in PtSPH1 genomic DNA. RT-PCR results showed that PtSP mRNA was mainly distributed in haemocytes, gill and eyestalk, whereas PtSPH1 transcript was mainly expressed in stomach. PtSP showed slight increase during the first 48 h compared to control groups except 8 h point after Micrococcus luteus challenge. However, significant up-regulation was observed in the expression level of PtSPH1 challenged by Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus, Gram-positive bacteria M. luteus and fungi Pichia pastoris during the first 48 h. It indicates that PtSPH1 might be more sensitive to microorganism challenges compared with PtSP. PMID:22289714

  5. Molecular evidence supports an african affinity of the neotropical freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata, say 1818, an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G; Jones, C S; Lockyer, A E; Hughes, S; Brown, D; Noble, L R; Rollinson, D

    2000-12-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria, Preston 1910, are the most important and widely distributed intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the blood fluke responsible for human intestinal schistosomiasis, in Africa and the Neotropics. S. mansoni is thought to have been imported repeatedly into the Americas during the last 500 years with the African slave trade. Surprisingly considering that the New and Old World separated 95-106 million years (Myr) ago, the disease rapidly became established due to the presence of endemic susceptible hosts. Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships within Biomphalaria may provide insights into the successful intercontinental spread of S. mansoni. Parsimony and distance analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences show African taxa to be monophyletic and Neotropical species paraphyletic, with Biomphalaria glabrata forming a separate clade from other Neotropical Biomphalaria, and ancestral to the African taxa. A west to east trans-Atlantic dispersal of a B. glabrata-like taxon, possibly as recently as the Plio-Pleistocene (1.8-3.6 Myr ago) according to a general mitochondrial clock, would fit these observations. Vicariance or an African origin for B. glabrata followed by multiple introductions to South America over the past 500 years with the African slave trade seem unlikely explanations. Knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships among important intermediate host species may prove useful in furthering control measures which exploit genetic differences in susceptibility to parasites, and in elucidating the evolution of schistosome resistance. PMID:11133023

  6. Gain-of-Function Mutations in PDR1, a Regulator of Antifungal Drug Resistance in Candida glabrata, Control Adherence to Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Silva, Luís; Ischer, Françoise; Leibundgut-Landmann, Salomé

    2013-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is known to develop resistance to azole drugs due to increased drug efflux. The mechanism consists of CgPDR1-mediated upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters. A range of gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in CgPDR1 have been found to lead not only to azole resistance but also to enhanced virulence. This implicates CgPDR1 in the regulation of the interaction of C. glabrata with the host. To identify specific CgPDR1-regulated steps of the host-pathogen interaction, we investigated in this work the interaction of selected CgPDR1 GOF mutants with murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1)-derived macrophages, as well as different epithelial cell lines. GOF mutations in CgPDR1 did not influence survival and replication within macrophages following phagocytosis but led to decreased adherence to and uptake by macrophages. This may allow evasion from the host's innate cellular immune response. The interaction with epithelial cells revealed an opposite trend, suggesting that GOF mutations in CgPDR1 may favor epithelial colonization of the host by C. glabrata through increased adherence to epithelial cell layers. These data reveal that GOF mutations in CgPDR1 modulate the interaction with host cells in ways that may contribute to increased virulence. PMID:23460523

  7. Epigenetic modulation, stress and plasticity in susceptibility of the snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata, to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Knight, Matty; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-06-01

    Blood flukes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis - a major neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in numerous countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. During the past decade, a concerted effort has been made to control the spread of schistosomiasis, using a drug intervention program aimed at curtailing transmission. These efforts notwithstanding, schistosomiasis has re-emerged in southern Europe, raising concerns that global warming could contribute to the spread of this disease to higher latitude countries where transmission presently does not take place. Vaccines against schistosomiasis are not currently available and reducing transmission by drug intervention programs alone does not prevent reinfection in treated populations. These challenges have spurred awareness that new interventions to control schistosomiasis are needed, especially since the World Health Organization hopes to eradicate the disease by 2025. For one of the major species of human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria serve as the obligate intermediate host of this parasite. To determine mechanisms that underlie parasitism by S. mansoni of Biomphalaria glabrata, which might be manipulated to block the development of intramolluscan larval stages of the parasite, we focused effort on the impact of schistosome infection on the epigenome of the snail. Results to date reveal a complex relationship, manifested by the ability of the schistosome to manipulate the snail genome, including the expression of specific genes. Notably, the parasite subverts the stress response of the host to ensure productive parasitism. Indeed, in isolates of B. glabrata native to central and South America, susceptible to infection with S. mansoni, the heat shock protein 70 (Bg-HSP70) gene of this snail is rapidly relocated in the nucleus and transcribed to express HSP70

  8. Efficient pyruvate production by a multi-vitamin auxotroph of Torulopsis glabrata: key role and optimization of vitamin levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chen, J; Lun, S Y; Rui, X S

    2001-06-01

    A multi-vitamin auxotroph, Torulopsis glabrata strain WSH-IP303, which can use ammonium chloride as a sole nitrogen source for pyruvate production, was selected. To optimize pyruvate yield and productivity, a simple but useful, orthogonal design method, was used to investigate the relationship between thiamine, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, and riboflavin. Thiamine was confirmed to be the most important factor affecting pyruvate production. When the concentration of thiamine was 0.01 mg/l or 0.015 mg/l, glucose consumption was improved by increasing the nicotinic acid concentration. When the concentrations of nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, biotin, and riboflavin were 8.0, 0.015, 0.4, 0.04, and 0.1 mg/l, respectively, pyruvate concentration and yield reached 52 g/l and 0.52 g/g, respectively, in a 48-h flask culture. By employing a combination of the optimum vitamin concentrations, a batch culture was conducted in a 2.5-l fermentor with an initial glucose concentration of 112 g/l; and the pyruvate concentration reached 69 g/l after 56 h (yielding 0.62 g/g). PMID:11525614

  9. A Shift from Cellular to Humoral Responses Contributes to Innate Immune Memory in the Vector Snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Pinaud, Silvain; Portela, Julien; Duval, David; Nowacki, Fanny C.; Olive, Marie-Aude; Allienne, Jean-François; Galinier, Richard; Dheilly, Nolwenn M.; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past ten years have provided evidence that invertebrate antiparasitic responses may be primed in a sustainable manner, leading to the failure of a secondary encounter with the same pathogen. This phenomenon called “immune priming” or "innate immune memory" was mainly phenomenological. The demonstration of this process remains to be obtained and the underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered and exhaustively tested with rigorous functional and molecular methods, to eliminate all alternative explanations. In order to achieve this ambitious aim, the present study focuses on the Lophotrochozoan snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, in which innate immune memory was recently reported. We provide herein the first evidence that a shift from a cellular immune response (encapsulation) to a humoral immune response (biomphalysin) occurs during the development of innate memory. The molecular characterisation of this process in Biomphalaria/Schistosoma system was undertaken to reconcile mechanisms with phenomena, opening the way to a better comprehension of innate immune memory in invertebrates. This prompted us to revisit the artificial dichotomy between innate and memory immunity in invertebrate systems. PMID:26735307

  10. Atomic structure of the nuclear pore complex targeting domain of a Nup116 homologue from the yeast, Candida glabrata

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Kim, Seung Joong; Manglicmot, Danalyn; Bain, Kevin T.; Gilmore, Jeremiah; Gheyi, Tarun; Phillips, Jeremy; Pieper, Ursula; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Franke, Josef D.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Tsuruta, Hiro; Atwell, Shane; Thompson, Devon A.; Emtage, J. Spencer; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Rout, Michael P.; Sali, Andrej; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-10-23

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC), embedded in the nuclear envelope, is a large, dynamic molecular assembly that facilitates exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The yeast NPC is an eightfold symmetric annular structure composed of {approx}456 polypeptide chains contributed by {approx}30 distinct proteins termed nucleoporins. Nup116, identified only in fungi, plays a central role in both protein import and mRNA export through the NPC. Nup116 is a modular protein with N-terminal 'FG' repeats containing a Gle2p-binding sequence motif and a NPC targeting domain at its C-terminus. We report the crystal structure of the NPC targeting domain of Candida glabrata Nup116, consisting of residues 882-1034 [CgNup116(882-1034)], at 1.94 {angstrom} resolution. The X-ray structure of CgNup116(882-1034) is consistent with the molecular envelope determined in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering. Structural similarities of CgNup116(882-1034) with homologous domains from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup116, S. cerevisiae Nup145N, and human Nup98 are discussed.

  11. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426 mg/L and LC(50) 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94 mg/L, LC(50) 13.51 mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  12. A Shift from Cellular to Humoral Responses Contributes to Innate Immune Memory in the Vector Snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Pinaud, Silvain; Portela, Julien; Duval, David; Nowacki, Fanny C; Olive, Marie-Aude; Allienne, Jean-François; Galinier, Richard; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past ten years have provided evidence that invertebrate antiparasitic responses may be primed in a sustainable manner, leading to the failure of a secondary encounter with the same pathogen. This phenomenon called "immune priming" or "innate immune memory" was mainly phenomenological. The demonstration of this process remains to be obtained and the underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered and exhaustively tested with rigorous functional and molecular methods, to eliminate all alternative explanations. In order to achieve this ambitious aim, the present study focuses on the Lophotrochozoan snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, in which innate immune memory was recently reported. We provide herein the first evidence that a shift from a cellular immune response (encapsulation) to a humoral immune response (biomphalysin) occurs during the development of innate memory. The molecular characterisation of this process in Biomphalaria/Schistosoma system was undertaken to reconcile mechanisms with phenomena, opening the way to a better comprehension of innate immune memory in invertebrates. This prompted us to revisit the artificial dichotomy between innate and memory immunity in invertebrate systems. PMID:26735307

  13. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  14. Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes†||‡

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain, and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 Å apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5-β-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product. PMID:20968298

  15. Study of the snail intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni on Itamaracá Island in northeast Brazil: spatial displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by Biomphalaria straminea.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Constança S; Barbosa, Verônica S; Nascimento, Wheverton C; Pieri, Otavio S; Araújo, Karina C G M

    2014-05-01

    In 2012 a malacological survey of the breeding sites of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea , the two intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni , was carried out on Itamaraca Island in Pernambuco, Brazil. This study has now been extended by studying the competition between the two species. Snails were collected and dissected to identify the species and tests were performed to verify S. mansoni infection. Student's t test was used to compare the proportion between the two species and their breeding sites and a parasitological survey was conducted among local residents, using the Kato-Katz method. The spatial distribution of the two snail species was determined using TerraView, while a snail density map was constructed by Kernel estimate. The survey identified two breeding sites for B. glabrata with 17 specimens and 19 breeding sites for B. straminea with 459 snails, all of them negative for S. mansoni infection. The statistical analysis revealed that the proportion of the numbers of specimens and breeding sites of B. straminea (37.84 ± 9.01) were significantly greater than those of B. glabrata (8.50 ± 6.50). Parasitological examinations from 41 residents diagnosed two cases of schistosomiasis with parasite loads of 60 and 84 eggs per 1 g of stool, respectively. This indiction of a competitive process between the two snail species requires monitoring of schistosomiasis in the resident and travelling human populations occupying this environment, which could potentially result in social and economic changes on the island risking its attraction as a centre for eco-tourism. PMID:24893012

  16. Pivotal Role for a Tail Subunit of the RNA Polymerase II Mediator Complex CgMed2 in Azole Tolerance and Adherence in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Sapan; Shivarathri, Raju; Srivastava, Vivek Kumar; Ferrari, Sélène; Sanglard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal therapy failure can be associated with increased resistance to the employed antifungal agents. Candida glabrata, the second most common cause of invasive candidiasis, is intrinsically less susceptible to the azole class of antifungals and accounts for 15% of all Candida bloodstream infections. Here, we show that C. glabrata MED2 (CgMED2), which codes for a tail subunit of the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex, is required for resistance to azole antifungal drugs in C. glabrata. An inability to transcriptionally activate genes encoding a zinc finger transcriptional factor, CgPdr1, and multidrug efflux pump, CgCdr1, primarily contributes to the elevated susceptibility of the Cgmed2Δ mutant toward azole antifungals. We also report for the first time that the Cgmed2Δ mutant exhibits sensitivity to caspofungin, a constitutively activated protein kinase C-mediated cell wall integrity pathway, and elevated adherence to epithelial cells. The increased adherence of the Cgmed2Δ mutant was attributed to the elevated expression of the EPA1 and EPA7 genes. Further, our data demonstrate that CgMED2 is required for intracellular proliferation in human macrophages and modulates survival in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Lastly, we show an essential requirement for CgMed2, along with the Mediator middle subunit CgNut1 and the Mediator cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin subunit CgSrb8, for the high-level fluconazole resistance conferred by the hyperactive allele of CgPdr1. Together, our findings underscore a pivotal role for CgMed2 in basal tolerance and acquired resistance to azole antifungals. PMID:25070095

  17. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  18. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka; Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  19. Chemoattraction and penetration of Echinostoma trivolvis and E. caproni cercariae in the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes dialysate.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Frazer, B A; Reddy, A

    1997-01-01

    A petri-dish bioassay was used to study the chemoattraction and penetration of the cercariae of Echinostoma trivolvis and E. caproni in the presence of snail dialysates from Helisoma trivolvis (Pennsylvania and Colorado strains). Biomphalaria glabrata, and Lynmaea elodes. Significant chemoattraction was seen with E. trivolvis cercariae in the presence of all snail dialysates released from nonperforated dialysis sacs with a molecular-weight exclusion of 12,000. Under the same conditions, E. caproni was significantly attracted to B. glabrata and H. trivolvis (CO strain) but not to L. elodes or H. trivolvis (PA strain). Dialysis sacs were perforated with needles to allow the release of snail substances of all molecular weights into the bioassay. Cercariae of both species were significantly attracted to all snail dialysates released from perforated sacs. Moreover, cercariae entered these sacs and penetrated the snails, and 24 h later the percentage of cysts per snail species ranged from 70% to 83% for E. trivolvis and from 73% to 93% for E. caproni. Dialysates released from intact sacs were extracted in choloroform-methanol (2:1) to obtain hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. When these extracts were placed on agar plugs in the bioassay, the lipophilic fraction, but not the hydrophilic fraction, was mainly chemoattractive. PMID:9039703

  20. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilmin vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50of CAS and FLU against singleCandida spp.and mixedCandida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicansandC. glabratamixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages ofCandidabiofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (P< .05) but not different when CAS at 0.5 MIC combined with FLU at 0.25 or 0.5MIC, compared to CAS treatment alone. Structural analyses revealed that CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms showed less hyphae and blastospores with some aberrant cells compared to control group. Although it was evident that a greater CFU ofCandida glabratawere demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent. PMID:26768371

  1. Multifunctional role of β-1, 3 glucan binding protein purified from the haemocytes of blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus and in vitro antibacterial activity of its reaction product.

    PubMed

    Anjugam, Mahalingam; Iswarya, Arokiadhas; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-01

    β-1, 3 glucan binding protein (β-GBP) was isolated from the haemocytes of blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus and purified by laminarin coupled Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography. The purified β-GBP has the molecular mass of 100 kDa, confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The X-ray diffraction analysis of purified β-GBP indicates the crystalline nature of the protein and also the presence of single peak confirming the existence of β-glucan molecule. The results of agglutination assay showed that the purified β-GBP had the ability to agglutinate with yeast cell, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian erythrocytes. β-GBP can agglutinate with yeast cells at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. The phagocytic and encapsulation activity of purified β-GBP from P. pelagicus was determined with yeast cell S. cerevisiae and sepharose bead suspension respectively. This reveals that, β-GBP have the ability to detect the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) found on the surface of fungi and bacteria. The recognition of invading foreign substances and in the involvement of functional activities induces the activation of prophenoloxidase. This revealed that β-GBP play a major role in the innate immune system of crustaceans by stimulating the prophenoloxidase system. Moreover, it was obvious to note that β-GBP reaction product exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This study concludes the functional aspects of β-GBP purified from P. pelagicus and its vital role in the stimulation of prophenoloxidase cascade during the pathogenic infection. PMID:26611720

  2. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika; Sanglard, Dominique; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  3. Characterization of immune genes from the schistosome host snail Biomphalaria glabrata that encode peptidoglycan recognition proteins and gram-negative bacteria binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yong; Loker, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs) and gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) play an essential role in Toll/Imd signaling pathways in arthropods. The existence of homologous pathways involving PGRPs and GNBPs in other major invertebrate phyla such as the Mollusca remains unclear. In this paper, we report four full-length PGRP cDNAs and one full-length GNBP cDNA cloned from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, designated as BgPGRPs and BgGNBP, respectively. Three transcripts are generated from a long form PGRP gene (BgPGRP-LA) by alternative splicing and one from a short form PGRP gene (BgPGRP-SA). BgGNBP encodes a putative secreted protein. Northern blots demonstrated that expression of BgPGRP-SA and BgGNBP was down-regulated in B. glabrata at 6 h after exposure to three types of microbes. No significant changes in expression were observed in snails at 2 days post-exposure (dpe) to the trematodes Echinostoma paraensei or S. mansoni. However, up-regulation of BgPGRP-SA in M line snails at later time points of infection with E. paraensei (i.e., 12 and 17 dpe) was observed. Our study revealed that exposure to either microbes or trematodes did not alter the expression levels of BgPGRP-LAs, which were consistently low. This study provides new insights into the potential pathogen recognition capabilities of molluscs, indicates that further studies of the Toll/Imd pathways in this phylum are in order, and provides additional ways to judge the importance of this pathway in the evolution of internal defense across the animal phyla. PMID:17805526

  4. Using lysosomal membrane stability of haemocytes in Ruditapes philippinarum as a biomarker of cellular stress to assess contamination by caffeine, ibuprofen, carbamazepine and novobiocin.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Martínez, Gabriela V; Buratti, Sara; Fabbr, Elena; DelValls, Angel T; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2013-07-01

    Although pharmaceuticals have been detected in the environment only in the range from ng/L to microg/L, it has been demonstrated that they can adversely affect the health status of aquatic organisms. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) has previously been applied as an indicator of cellular well-being to determine health status in bivalve mussels. The objective of this study is to evaluate LMS in Ruditapes philippinarum haemolymph using the neutral red retention assay (NRRA). Clams were exposed in laboratory conditions to caffeine (0.1, 5, 15, 50 microg/L), ibuprofen (0.1, 5, 10, 50 microg/L), carbamazepine and novobiocin (both at 0.1, 1, 10, 50 microg/L) for 35 days. Results show a dose-dependent effect of the pharmaceuticals. The neutral red retention time measured at the end of the bioassay was significantly reduced by 50% after exposure to environmental concentrations (p < 0.05) (caffeine = 15 microg/L; ibuprofen = 10 microg/L; carbamazepine = 1 microg/L and novobiocin = 1 microg/L), compared to controls. Clams exposed to these pharmaceuticals were considered to present a diminished health status (retention time < 45 min), significantly worse than controls (96 min) (p < 0.05). The predicted no environmental effect concentration (PNEC) results showed that these pharmaceuticals are very toxic at the environmental concentrations tested. Measurement of the alteration of LMS has been found to be a sensitive technique that enables evaluation of the health status of clams after exposure to pharmaceuticals under laboratory conditions, thus representing a robust Tier-1 screening biomarker. PMID:24218854

  5. Identification and characterisation of functional expressed sequence tags-derived simple sequence repeat (eSSR) markers for genetic linkage mapping of Schistosoma mansoni juvenile resistance and susceptibility loci in Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, André; Su, Xin-zhuan; Mu, Jianbing; Bhusudsawang, Ganlayarat; Ukoskit, Kitipat; Knight, Matty

    2013-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni has a strong genetic component, offering the possibility for investigating host–parasite interactions at the molecular level, perhaps leading to novel control approaches. The identification, mapping and molecular characterisation of genes that influence the outcome of parasitic infection in the intermediate snail host is, therefore, seen as fundamental to the control of schistosomiasis. To better understand the evolutionary processes driving disease resistance/susceptibility phenotypes, we previously identified polymorphic random amplification of polymorphic DNA and genomic simple sequence repeats from B. glabrata. In the present study we identified and characterised polymorphic expressed simple sequence repeats markers (Bg-eSSR) from existing B. glabrata expressed sequence tags. Using these markers, and with previously identified genomic simple sequence repeats, genetic linkage mapping for parasite refractory and susceptibility phenotypes, the first known for B. glabrata, was initiated. Data mining of 54,309 expressed sequence tag, produced 660 expressed simple sequence repeats of which dinucleotide motifs (TA)n were the most common (37.88%), followed by trinucleotide (29.55%), mononucleotide (18.64%) and tetranucleotide (10.15%). Penta- and hexanucleotide motifs represented <3% of the Bg-eSSRs identified. While the majority (71%) of Bg-eSSRs were monomorphic between resistant and susceptible snails, several were, however, useful for the construction of a genetic linkage map based on their inheritance in segregating F2 progeny snails derived from crossing juvenile BS-90 and NMRI snails. Polymorphic Bg-eSSRs assorted into six linkage groups at a logarithm of odds score of 3. Interestingly, the heritability of four markers (Prim1_910, Prim1_771, Prim6_1024 and Prim7_823) with juvenile snail resistance were, by t-test, significant (P < 0.05) while an allelic marker, Prim24_524, showed linkage with the

  6. New Insights into the Structure of (1→3,1→6)-β-D-Glucan Side Chains in the Candida glabrata Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, Douglas W.; West, Lara J.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Wempe, Michael F.; Power, Trevor D.; Ensley, Harry E.; Haynes, Ken; Williams, David L.; Kruppa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    β-glucan is a (1→3)-β-linked glucose polymer with (1→6)-β-linked side chains and a major component of fungal cell walls. β-glucans provide structural integrity to the fungal cell wall. The nature of the (1–6)-β-linked side chain structure of fungal (1→3,1→6)-β-D-glucans has been very difficult to elucidate. Herein, we report the first detailed structural characterization of the (1→6)-β-linked side chains of Candida glabrata using high-field NMR. The (1→6)-β-linked side chains have an average length of 4 to 5 repeat units spaced every 21 repeat units along the (1→3)-linked polymer backbone. Computer modeling suggests that the side chains have a bent curve structure that allows for a flexible interconnection with parallel (1→3)-β-D-glucan polymers, and/or as a point of attachment for proteins. Based on these observations we propose new approaches to how (1→6)-β-linked side chains interconnect with neighboring glucan polymers in a manner that maximizes fungal cell wall strength, while also allowing for flexibility, or plasticity. PMID:22096604

  7. Localization of Tyrosine Hydroxylase-like Immunoreactivity in the Nervous Systems of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, Intermediate Hosts for Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Deborah; Habib, Mohammed R.; Delgado, Nadia; Vaasjo, Lee O.; Croll, Roger P.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Planorbid snails of the genus Biomphalaria are major intermediate hosts for the digenetic trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence suggests that levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) are reduced during the course of S. mansoni multiplication and transformation within the snail. This investigation used immunohistochemical methods to localize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, in the nervous system of Biomphalaria. The two species examined, Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, are the major intermediate hosts for S. mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 90% of global cases of human intestinal schistosomiasis occur. TH-like immunoreactive (THli) neurons were distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and labeled fibers were present in all commissures, connectives, and nerves. Some asymmetries were observed, including a large distinctive neuron (LPeD1) in the pedal ganglion described previously in several pulmonates. The majority of TH-like immunoreactive neurons were detected in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), especially in lip and foot regions of the anterior integument. Independent observations supporting the dopaminergic phenotype of THli neurons included 1) block of LPeD1 synaptic signaling by the D2/3 antagonist sulpiride, and 2) the similar localization of aqueous aldehyde (FaGlu) induced fluorescence. The distribution of THli neurons indicates that, as in other gastropods, dopamine functions as a sensory neurotransmitter and in the regulation of feeding and reproductive behaviors in Biomphalaria. It is hypothesized that infection could stimulate transmitter release from dopaminergic sensory neurons and that dopaminergic signaling could contribute to modifications of both host and parasite behavior. PMID:24477836

  8. Cytometric analysis, genetic manipulation and antibiotic selection of the snail embryonic cell line Bge from Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Yan, Hongbin; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Bridger, Joanna; Mann, Victoria H; Smout, Michael J; Brindley, Paul J; Knight, Matty

    2015-07-01

    The invertebrate cell line, Bge, from embryos of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, remains to date the only established cell line from any species of the Phylum Mollusca. Since its establishment in 1976 by Eder Hansen, few studies have focused on profiling its cytometrics, growth characteristics or sensitivity to xenobiotics. Bge cells are reputed to be challenging to propagate and maintain. Therefore, even though this cell line is a noteworthy resource, it has not been studied widely. With growing interest in functional genomics, including genetic transformation, to elucidate molecular aspects of the snail intermediate hosts responsible for transmission of schistosomiasis, and aiming to enhance the convenience of maintenance of this molluscan cell line, we deployed the xCELLigene real time approach to study Bge cells. Doubling times for three isolates of Bge, termed CB, SL and UK, were longer than for mammalian cell lines - longer than 40 h in complete Bge medium supplemented with 7% fetal bovine serum at 25°C, ranging from ∼42 h to ∼157 h when 40,000 cells were seeded. To assess the potential of the cells for genetic transformation, antibiotic selection was explored. Bge cells were sensitive to the aminonucleoside antibiotic puromycin (from Streptomyces alboniger) from 5 μg/ml to 200 ng/ml, displaying a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ∼1.91 μg/ml. Sensitivity to puromycin, and a relatively quick kill time (<48 h in 5 μg/ml) facilitated use of this antibiotic, together with the cognate resistance gene (puromycin N-acetyl-transferase) for selection of Bge cells transformed with the PAC gene (puroR). Bge cells transfected with a plasmid encoding puroR were partially rescued when cultured in the presence of 5 μg/ml of puromycin. These findings pave the way for the development of functional genomic tools applied to the host-parasite interaction during schistosomiasis and neglected tropical trematodiases at large. PMID:25907768

  9. Clotrimazole Drug Resistance in Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates Correlates with Increased Expression of the Drug:H+ Antiporters CgAqr1, CgTpo1_1, CgTpo3, and CgQdr2

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Catarina; Ribeiro, Jonathan; Miranda, Isabel M.; Silva-Dias, Ana; Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Rodrigues, Acácio G.; Teixeira, Miguel C.

    2016-01-01

    For years, antifungal drug resistance in Candida species has been associated to the expression of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters. More recently, a few drug efflux pumps from the Drug:H+ Antiporter (DHA) family have also been shown to play a role in this process, although to date only the Candida albicans Mdr1 transporter has been demonstrated to be relevant in the clinical acquisition of antifungal drug resistance. This work provides evidence to suggest the involvement of the C. glabrata DHA transporters CgAqr1, CgQdr2, CgTpo1_1, and CgTpo3 in the clinical acquisition of clotrimazole drug resistance. A screening for azole drug resistance in 138 C. glabrata clinical isolates, from patients attending two major Hospitals in Portugal, was performed. Based on this screening, 10 clotrimazole susceptible and 10 clotrimazole resistant isolates were selected for further analysis. The transcript levels of CgAQR1, CgQDR2, CgTPO1_1, and CgTPO3 were found to be significantly up-regulated in resistant isolates when compared to the susceptible ones, with a level of correlation that was found to be similar to that of CgCDR2, an ABC gene known to be involved in the clinical acquisition of resistance. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the CgTPO3 gene was deleted in an azole resistant C. glabrata isolate, exhibiting high levels of expression of this gene. The deletion of CgTPO3 in this isolate was found to lead to decreased resistance to clotrimazole and fluconazole, and increased accumulation of azole drugs, thus suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the manifestation of azole resistance. PMID:27148215

  10. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns activate expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, immunity and detoxification in the amebocyte-producing organ of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Loker, Eric S; Sullivan, John T

    2016-03-01

    The anterior pericardial wall of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been identified as a site of hemocyte production, hence has been named the amebocyte-producing organ (APO). A number of studies have shown that exogenous abiotic and biotic substances, including pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are able to stimulate APO mitotic activity and/or enlarge its size, implying a role for the APO in innate immunity. The molecular mechanisms underlying such responses have not yet been explored, in part due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient APO tissue for gene expression studies. By using a modified RNA extraction technique and microarray technology, we investigated transcriptomic responses of APOs dissected from snails at 24 h post-injection with two bacterial PAMPs, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN), or with fucoidan (FCN), which may mimic fucosyl-rich glycan PAMPs on sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni. Based upon the number of genes differentially expressed, LPS exhibited the strongest activity, relative to saline-injected controls. A concurrent activation of genes involved in cell proliferation, immune response and detoxification metabolism was observed. A gene encoding checkpoint 1 kinase, a key regulator of mitosis, was highly expressed after stimulation by LPS. Also, seven different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that play an essential role in protein synthesis were found to be highly expressed. In addition to stimulating genes involved in cell proliferation, the injected substances, especially LPS, also induced expression of a number of immune-related genes including arginase, peptidoglycan recognition protein short form, tumor necrosis factor receptor, ficolin, calmodulin, bacterial permeability increasing proteins and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Importantly, significant up-regulation was observed in four GiMAP (GTPase of immunity-associated protein) genes, a result which provides the first evidence suggesting an immune role of Gi

  11. Flooding modifies the genotoxic effects of pollution on a worm, a mussel and two fish species from the Sava River.

    PubMed

    Aborgiba, Mustafa; Kostić, Jovana; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Elbahi, Samia; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Paunović, Momir; Gačić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    Extreme hydrological events, such as water scarcity and flooding, can modify the effect of other stressors present in aquatic environment, which could result in the significant changes in the ecosystem functioning. Presence and interaction of various stressors (genotoxic pollutants) in the environment can influence the integrity of DNA molecules in aquatic organisms which can be negatively reflected on the individual, population and community levels. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the impact of flooding, in terms of genotoxicity, on organisms belonging to different trophic levels. The study was carried out on the site situated in the lower stretch of the Sava River which faced devastating effects of severe flooding in May 2014. The flooding occurred during our field experiment and this event provided a unique opportunity to assess its influence to the environment. The in situ effects of this specific situation were monitored by measuring physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of water, and by comparing the level of DNA damage in coelomocytes and haemocytes of freshwater worms Branchiura sowerbyi, haemocytes of freshwater mussels Unio tumidus and blood cells of freshwater fish Abramis bjoerkna/Abramis sapa, by means of the comet assay. Our study indicated that the flooding had a significant impact on water quality by decreasing the amount and discharge rate of urban wastewaters but simultaneously introducing contaminants from the nearby fly ash disposal field into river by runoff, which had diverse effects on the level of DNA damage in the studied organisms. This indicates that the assessment of genotoxic pollution in situ is strongly affected by the choice of the bioindicator organism. PMID:25861862

  12. Genotoxic effects of two nickel-compounds in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, R

    2011-01-10

    In view of the scarcely available information on the in vivo mutagenic and co-mutagenic activity of nickel, the genotoxic potential of two nickel-compounds, nickel chloride (NiCl(2)) and nickel sulphate (NiSO(4)), was assessed in Drosophila melanogaster by measuring two different genetic endpoints. On the one hand, we used the wing-spot assay, which is based on the principle that the loss of heterozygosity of two suitable recessive markers, multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 (flr(3)), can lead to the formation of mutant clones in the imaginal disks of larval cells. On the other hand, the in vivo comet assay, which detects single- and double-strand DNA breaks, was also used with larval haemocytes. These cells offer several advantages: they are highly sensitive to genotoxic agents, the sampling and processing methodologies are quite simple and the level of basal DNA damage is relatively low. No significant increases in the frequencies of the three categories of mutant spots (i.e. small single spots, large single spots, and twin spots) were observed in the wing-spot assay; however, NiSO(4) induced significant dose-dependent increases in DNA damage in the comet assay. In addition, the combined treatments with gamma-radiation and NiCl(2) and NiSO(4) showed a slight but significant increase in the frequency of the three categories of mutant spots compared with the frequency induced by gamma-radiation alone, indicating that both nickel compounds have a synergistic interaction. These results support the assumption that both nickel compounds could act as co-mutagens interfering with DNA-repair processes and that the in vivo comet assay is a sensitive and effective method for detecting the DNA damage induced by NiSO(4) in haemocytes of D. melanogaster. PMID:21073980

  13. Effective immunosuppression with dexamethasone phosphate in the Galleria mellonella larva infection model resulting in enhanced virulence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Torres, Miquel Perez; Entwistle, Frances; Coote, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate whether immunosuppression with dexamethasone 21-phosphate could be applied to the Galleria mellonella in vivo infection model. Characterised clinical isolates of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae were employed, and G. mellonella larvae were infected with increasing doses of each strain to investigate virulence in vivo. Virulence was then compared with larvae exposed to increasing doses of dexamethasone 21-phosphate. The effect of dexamethasone 21-phosphate on larval haemocyte phagocytosis in vitro was determined via fluorescence microscopy and a burden assay measured the growth of infecting bacteria inside the larvae. Finally, the effect of dexamethasone 21-phosphate treatment on the efficacy of ceftazidime after infection was also noted. The pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae or E. coli in G. mellonella larvae was dependent on high inoculum numbers such that virulence could not be attributed specifically to infection by live bacteria but also to factors associated with dead cells. Thus, for these strains, G. mellonella larvae do not constitute an ideal infection model. Treatment of larvae with dexamethasone 21-phosphate enhanced the lethality induced by infection with E. coli or K. pneumoniae in a dose- and inoculum size-dependent manner. This correlated with proliferation of bacteria in the larvae that could be attributed to dexamethasone inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis and acting as an immunosuppressant. Notably, prior exposure to dexamethasone 21-phosphate reduced the efficacy of ceftazidime in vivo. In conclusion, demonstration of an effective immunosuppressant regimen can improve the specificity and broaden the applications of the G. mellonella model to address key questions regarding infection. PMID:26920133

  14. In vivo effects of LCO soluble fraction on immune-related functions and gene transcription in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg).

    PubMed

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Renault, Tristan; Faury, Nicole; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The effects of a soluble fraction of light cycle oil (LCO) on haemocyte parameters, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and mRNA expression of immune-related genes, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were tested after seven days of exposure and two weeks of recovery period. Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) out of ten detected in tank water had bioaccumulated at the end of the contamination period. The concentration of PAHs in oyster tissues decreased during the recovery period and 14 days after the exposure, 69% of bioaccumulated PAHs were detected in contaminated oysters. The exposure induced severe oyster mortality (21%), external and internal green colouration of the shell and a significant decrease of PO activity. The mRNA expression of several genes was altered. As a conclusion, a modulation of immune-related parameters was demonstrated using three different approaches, namely cellular (flow cytometry), biochemical (spectrophotometry) and genomics (gene transcription) in oysters after contact with soluble fraction of LCO. PMID:19800699

  15. Strong negative effects of simulated heat waves in a tropical butterfly.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Klockmann, Michael; Reim, Elisabeth

    2014-08-15

    Climate change poses a significant challenge to all natural systems on Earth. Especially increases in extreme weather events such as heat waves have the potential to strongly affect biodiversity, though their effects are poorly understood because of a lack of empirical data. Therefore, we here explore the sensitivity of a tropical ectotherm, which are in general believed to have a low warming tolerance, to experimentally simulated climate change using ecologically realistic diurnal temperature cycles. Increasing the mean temperature permanently by 3°C had mostly minor effects on developmental traits in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Simulated heat waves (strongly elevated temperatures for some time though retaining the same overall temperature mean), in contrast, caused strong negative effects by prolonging development time (by up to 10%) and reducing body mass (-21%), especially when combined with reduced relative humidity. Detrimental effects were carried over into the adult stage, diminishing subsequent performance. Most strikingly, higher temperatures suppressed adult immune function (haemocytes: -54%, lysozyme activity: -32%), which may potentially change the way species interact with antagonists. Heat waves thus reduced fitness parameters by 10-25% for development time and body mass and by up to 54% for immune parameters even in this plastic and widespread butterfly, exemplifying the potentially dramatic impact of extreme weather events on biodiversity. PMID:24902752

  16. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Cardiovascular Development of Chick Embryo.

    PubMed

    Ye, W; Wang, F; Zhang, W; Fang, N; Zhao, W; Wang, J

    2016-06-01

    The biological effects on cardiovascular development of chicken embryos were examined after radiation exposure using mobile phone (900 MHz; specific absorption rate˜1.07 W/kg) intermittently 3 h per day during incubation. Samples were selected by morphological and histological methods. The results showed the rate of embryonic mortality and cardiac deformity increased significantly in exposed group (P < 0.05). No any histological pathological changes were observed on Day 5-7 (D5-D7) of incubation. A higher distribution of lipid droplets was unexpectedly present in myocardial tissue from the exposure groups on D10-D13. Soon afterwards, myofilament disruption, atrioventricular valve focal necrosis, mitochondria vacuolization and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decrease appeared on D15-D21 of incubation. Comet assay data showed the haemocyte mean tail in the exposed group was significantly larger than that of the control (P < 0.01). The arterial vascular wall of exposed group was thicker (P < 0.05) than that of the control on D13, which was reversed to normal in later stages. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure of MPR may induce myocardium pathological changes, DNA damage and increased mortality; however, there was little effect on vascular development. PMID:26171674

  17. Thermal and physical stresses induce a short-term immune priming effect in Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Browne, Niall; Surlis, Carla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Exposure of larvae of Galleria mellonella larvae to mild physical (i.e. shaking) or thermal stress for 24h increased their ability to survive infection with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia however larvae stressed in a similar manner but incubated for 72h prior to infection showed no elevation in their resistance to infection with A. fumigatus. Stressed larvae demonstrated an elevated haemocyte density 24h after initiation of the stress event but this declined at 48 and 72h. Larval proteins such as apolipophorin, arylophorin and prophenoloxidase demonstrated elevated expression at 24h but not at 72h. Larvae maintained at 37°C showed increased expression of a range of antimicrobial and immune-related proteins at 24h but these decreased in expression thereafter. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae are capable of altering their immune response following exposure to mild thermal or physical stress to mount a response capable of counteracting microbial infection which reaches a peak 24h after the initiation of the priming event and then declines by 72h. A short-term immune priming effect may serve to prevent infection but maintaining an immune priming effect for longer periods may be metabolically costly and unnecessary while living within the colony of another insect. PMID:24561359

  18. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.

    PubMed

    Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1998-12-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop. PMID:19274256

  19. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop. PMID:19274256

  20. Synergistic Antifungal Effect of Glabridin and Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li Ping; Zhang, Jun Dong; Li, Qun; Shen, Hui; Chen, Si Min; He, Li Juan; Yan, Lan; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections is increasing in recent years. The present study mainly investigated glabridin (Gla) alone and especially in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida Glabratas) by different methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) indicated that Gla possessed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity at relatively high concentrations. After combining with FLC, Gla exerted a potent synergistic effect against drug-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis at lower concentrations when interpreted by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). Disk diffusion test and time-killing test confirming the synergistic fungicidal effect. Cell growth tests suggested that the synergistic effect of the two drugs depended more on the concentration of Gla. The cell envelop damage including a significant decrease of cell size and membrane permeability increasing were found after Gla treatment. Together, our results suggested that Gla possessed a synergistic effect with FLC and the cell envelope damage maybe contributed to the synergistic effect, which providing new information for developing novel antifungal agents. PMID:25058485

  1. Effect of experimental exposure to differently virulent Aphanomyces astaci strains on the immune response of the noble crayfish Astacus astacus.

    PubMed

    Becking, Thomas; Mrugała, Agata; Delaunay, Carine; Svoboda, Jiří; Raimond, Maryline; Viljamaa-Dirks, Satu; Petrusek, Adam; Grandjean, Frédéric; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2015-11-01

    European crayfish are sensitive to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, carried by North American crayfish species due to their less effective immune defence mechanisms against this disease. During a controlled infection experiment with a susceptible crayfish species Astacus astacus using three A. astaci strains (representing genotype groups A, B, and E), we investigated variation in their virulence and in crayfish immune defence indicators (haemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and production of reactive oxygen species). Experimental crayfish were exposed to two dosages of A. astaci spores (1 and 10 spores mL(-1)). The intensity and timing of the immune response differed between the strains as well as between the spore concentrations. Stronger and faster change in each immune parameter was observed in crayfish infected with two more virulent strains, indicating a relationship between crayfish immune response and A. astaci virulence. Similarly, the immune response was stronger and was observed earlier for the higher spore concentration. For the first time, the virulence of a strain of the genotype group E (isolated from Orconectes limosus) was experimentally tested. Total mortality was reached after 10 days for the two higher spore dosages (10 and 100 spores mL(-1)), and after 16 days for the lowest (1 spore mL(-1)), revealing equally high and rapid mortality as caused by the genotype group B (from Pacifastacus leniusculus). No mortality occurred after infection with genotype group A during 60 days of the experimental trial. PMID:26410255

  2. Using biochemical markers to assess the effects of imposed temperature stress on freshwater decapod crustaceans: Cherax quadricarinatus as a test case.

    PubMed

    Bone, J W P; Renshaw, G M C; Furse, J M; Wild, C H

    2015-04-01

    The effects of thermal stress can impact negatively on the abundance and distribution of temperature-sensitive species, particularly freshwater crustaceans. This study investigated the effects of thermal stress on physiological and biochemical parameters at five treatment temperatures resulting in minimal (25 °C), moderate (27, 29 °C) or severe (31, 33 °C) thermal stress in the common tropical freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The aim was to develop a suite of stress-sensitive assays to use on threatened populations of freshwater crustaceans, particularly those restricted to cooler temperatures and only found in high altitude refugia. Significant increases in indicators of oxidative and metabolic stress were observed at 29 °C and were elevated further at 33 °C. After a 50-day acclimation to an imposed temperature stress, significant changes in the level of total glutathione, total lipids, muscular protein, total haemocyte count, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls were observed between treatments while superoxide dismutase activity and haemolymph protein concentrations did not change. The data provided proof of concept that measuring key biochemical responses to high temperature can provide a means of contrasting the level of thermal stress experienced between individuals of the same species adapted to different temperatures. The methods developed are expected to be of use in research on wild populations of other freshwater poikilothermic organisms, particularly those susceptible to increased environmental temperatures associated with climate change. PMID:25528146

  3. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  4. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  5. Drug-Resistant Candida glabrata Infection in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients are at risk for candidemia, and increasing Candida spp. resistance poses an emerging threat. We determined rates of antifungal drug resistance, identified factors associated with resistance, and investigated the correlation between resistance and all-cause mortality rates among cancer patients with ≥1 C. glabrata–positive blood culture at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA, during March 2005–September 2013. Of 146 isolates, 30 (20.5%) were resistant to fluconazole, 15 (10.3%) to caspofungin, and 10 (6.8%) to multiple drugs (9 caspofungin-resistant isolates were also resistant to fluconazole, 1 to amphotericin B). Independently associated with fluconazole resistance were azole preexposure, hematologic malignancy, and mechanical ventilation. Independently associated with caspofungin resistance were echinocandin preexposure, monocytopenia, and total parenteral nutrition. Fluconazole resistance was highly associated with caspofungin resistance, independent of prior azole or echinocandin use. Caspofungin resistance was associated with increased 28-day all-cause mortality rates. These findings highlight the need for good stewardship of antifungal drugs. PMID:25340258

  6. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200 nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvements were observed in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, concentrations of biochemical constituents and total and differential haemocytes count of prawns fed with 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed. Prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed negative performance. Activity of antioxidants and metabolic enzymes in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns showed no significant alterations (P>0.05) prawns fed with up to 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (P<0.05) elevations in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes activities. Hence, 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) diets may have toxic effect to M. rosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL. PMID:26854244

  7. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species.

    PubMed

    Galpert, Deborah; Del Río, Sara; Herrera, Francisco; Ancede-Gallardo, Evys; Antunes, Agostinho; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2015-01-01

    Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles) are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification. PMID:26605337

  8. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Galpert, Deborah; del Río, Sara; Herrera, Francisco; Ancede-Gallardo, Evys; Antunes, Agostinho; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2015-01-01

    Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles) are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification. PMID:26605337

  9. Effect of thermal stress on protein expression in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.

    PubMed

    González-Riopedre, M; Novás, A; Dobaño, E; Ramos-Martínez, J I; Barcia, R

    2007-07-01

    The exposure of organisms to stressing agents may affect the level and pattern of protein expression. Certain proteins with an important role in protein homeostasis and in the tolerance to stress, known as stress proteins, are especially affected. Different tissues and cells show a range of sensitivities to stress, depending on the habitat to which organisms have adapted. The response of different tissues and cells from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. to heat shock has been studied in this work using different exposure times and temperatures. During the assays, protein expression was observed to vary depending on the tissue studied, the temperature or the exposure time used. But maybe the most prominent thing is the different response obtained from the cultured haemocytes and those freshly obtained from stressed mussels, which makes us think that the extraction procedure is the main cause of the response of non-cultured cells, although the haemolymph may contain components that modulate haemocyte response. PMID:17462933

  10. Relative sensitivity of two marine bivalves for detection of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects: a field assessment in the Tamar Estuary, South West England.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Lorna J; Cheung, Victoria V; Fisher, Andrew S; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2013-04-01

    The input of anthropogenic contaminants to the aquatic environment is a major concern for scientists, regulators and the public. This is especially relevant in areas such as the Tamar valley in SW England, which has a legacy of contamination from industrial activity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Following on from previous laboratory validation studies, this study aimed to assess the relationship between genotoxic and cytotoxic responses and heavy metal concentrations in two bivalve species sampled from locations along the Tamar estuary. Adult cockles, Cerastoderma edule, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were sampled from five locations in the Tamar and one reference location on the south Devon coast. Bivalve haemocytes were processed for comet and neutral red retention (NRR) assays to determine potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, respectively. Sediment and soft tissue samples were analysed for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sediment concentrations were consistent with the physico-chemical nature of the Tamar estuary. A significant correlation (P = 0.05) was found between total metal concentration in sediment and C. edule soft tissues, but no such correlation was found for M. edulis samples. DNA damage was elevated at the site with highest Cr concentrations for M. edulis and at the site with highest Ni and Pb concentrations for C. edule. Analysis of NRR revealed a slight increase in retention time at one site, in contrast to comet data. We conclude that the comet assay is a reliable indicator of genotoxic damage in the field for both M. edulis and C. edule and discuss reasons for the apparent discrepancy with NRR. PMID:22890867

  11. A novel polyherbal microbicide with inhibitory effect on bacterial, fungal and viral genital pathogens.

    PubMed

    Talwar, G P; Dar, Sajad A; Rai, Mahendra K; Reddy, K V R; Mitra, Debashis; Kulkarni, Sujata V; Doncel, Gustavo F; Buck, Christopher B; Schiller, John T; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju; Agrawal, S S; Bansal, Kavita; Verma, Jitendra K

    2008-08-01

    A polyherbal cream (Basant) has been formulated using diferuloylmethane (curcumin), purified extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla), purified saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, Aloe vera and rose water along with pharmacopoeially approved excipients and preservatives. Basant inhibits the growth of WHO strains and clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including those resistant to penicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. It has pronounced inhibitory action against Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis, including three isolates resistant to azole drugs and amphotericin B. Basant displayed a high virucidal action against human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1NL4.3 in CEM-GFP reporter T and P4 (Hela-CD4-LTR-betaGal) cell lines with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1:20000 dilution and nearly complete (98-99%) inhibition at 1:1000 dilution. It also prevented the entry of HIV-1(IIIB) virus into P4-CCR5 cells (EC50 approximately 1:2492). Two ingredients, Aloe and Amla, inhibited the transduction of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) pseudovirus in HeLa cells at concentrations far below those that are cytotoxic and those used in the formulation. Basant was found to be totally safe according to pre-clinical toxicology carried out on rabbit vagina after application for 7 consecutive days or twice daily for 3 weeks. Basant has the potential of regressing vulvovaginal candidiasis and preventing N. gonorrhoeae, HIV and HPV infections. PMID:18571386

  12. Effects of incubation temperature, inoculum size, and medium on agreement of macro- and microdilution broth susceptibility test results for yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R A; McIntyre, K A; Galgiani, J N

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature and inoculum on the agreement of macro- and microdilution broth MICs of five antifungal agents against six isolates of Candida species or Torulopsis glabrata. Incubation temperature affected results with amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, and SCH 39304, producing better agreement at 35 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Agreement between methods was better with an inoculum size of 10(2) than with one of 10(4) yeast cells per ml in testing fluconazole or SCH 39304, and the discrepancies seen with a higher incubation temperature and a larger inoculum appeared to be additive. However, inoculum size did not seem to affect agreement between methods in testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, or ketoconazole. Regardless of test conditions, macrodilution broth MICs of amphotericin B for different isolates were strikingly higher than microdilution test MICs, with mean differences being greater than ninefold under some test conditions. We conclude that for most currently available antifungal agents, an incubation temperature of 35 degrees C and a starting yeast inoculum of less than 10(4) cells per ml improve the agreement between macro- and microdilution broth tests. PMID:2221863

  13. Antiproliferative effect and characterization of a novel antifungal peptide derived from human Chromogranin A

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; LU, YA-LI; LU, YAN-BO; ZHANG, HUI-RU; HUANG, LIANG; YIN, YANLI; ZHANG, LIN; LIU, SHUAI; LU, ZHIFANG; SUN, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    CGA-N46 is a novel antifungal peptide derived from the N-terminus of human Chromogranin A, corresponding to the 31st to 76th amino acids. Further research on its activities and characteristics may be helpful for the application of CGA-N46 in medical or other situations. In the present study, the antifungal spectrum and physicochemical characteristics of CGA-N46 were investigated using an antifungal assay, its antiproliferative effects on cancer and normal cells were assessed using MTT assay and its combinatorial effect with other antibiotics was analyzed using checkerboard analysis. The results showed that CGA-N46 exhibited antifungal activity against the tested Candidas (C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. albicans) at a concentration of <0.8 mM, but had no effect on the growth of filamentous fungi or other types of fungi (Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), even at a concentration of 3.2 mM. CGA-N46 had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells and a reversible effect on the growth of normal primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells, but no hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes at the minimum inhibitory concentration of CGA-N46 against yeasts. The antifungal activity of CGA-N46 was stable at a temperature <40°C or within a broad pH range (pH 5.0–7.0). Its antifungal activity was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with fluconazole and terbinafine. The present results indicate that CGA-N46 is a safe, physicochemically stable, antifungal peptide with anticancer cell activity that exhibits an additive effect with conventional antibiotics. PMID:26668630

  14. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  15. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study)

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract’s effects on biofilm formation. Materials and Methods: Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after

  16. Effects of near-infrared laser radiation on the survival and inflammatory potential of Candida spp. involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Clemente, A M; Rizzetto, L; Castronovo, G; Perissi, E; Tanturli, M; Cozzolino, F; Cavalieri, D; Fusi, F; Cialdai, F; Vignali, L; Torcia, M G; Monici, M

    2015-10-01

    Candida spp. usually colonize ulcerative lesions of atrophic mucosa in patients with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis inducing severe inflammation. The spread of antifungal-resistant strains strongly encouraged the search of complementary or alternative therapeutic strategies to cure inflamed mucosa. In this paper, we studied the effects of a near-infrared (NIR) laser system with dual-wavelength emission (808 nm + 904 nm) on the survival and inflammatory potential of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. Laser treatment was performed with a Multiwave Locked System laser. Survival and apoptosis of fungal strains were evaluated by colony-forming units (CFU) counting and annexin V staining. Cytokine production was evaluated by ImmunoPlex array. Laser treatment significantly affected the survival of Candida spp. by inducing apoptosis and induced a lower production of inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells compared to untreated fungi. No differences in the survival and inflammatory potential were recorded in treated or untreated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, used as the control non-pathogenic microorganism. Laser treatment altered the survival and inflammatory potential of pathogenic Candida spp. These data provide experimental support to the use of NIR laser radiation as a co-adjuvant of antifungal therapy in patients with oral mucositis (OM) complicated by Candida infections. PMID:26173694

  17. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women.

    PubMed

    Alczuk, Silvia de Souza Dantas; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina; Shinobu-Mesquita, Cristiane Suemi; Martins, Helen Priscilla Rodrigues; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group) and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control) that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) for sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC. PMID:25923898

  18. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    ALCZUK, Silvia de Souza Dantas; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patrícia de Souza; ROCHA-BRISCHILIARI, Sheila Cristina; SHINOBU-MESQUITA, Cristiane Suemi; MARTINS, Helen Priscilla Rodrigues; GIMENES, Fabrícia; de ABREU, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; CARVALHO, Maria Dalva de Barros; PELLOSO, Sandra Marisa; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; CONSOLARO, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

     Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group) and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control) that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) for sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC. PMID:25923898

  19. Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy for the Inactivation of Candida spp. on Dentures: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Dovigo, Livia Nordi; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the inactivation of different species of Candida on maxillary complete dentures. Background data: The treatment of denture stomatitis requires the inactivation of Candida spp. on dentures. PDT has been reported as an effective method for Candida inactivation. Methods: Reference strains of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei were tested. Thirty-four dentures were fabricated in a standardized procedure and subjected to ethylene oxide sterilization. The dentures were individually inoculated with one of the strains and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Dentures submitted to PDT (P+L+) were individually sprayed with 50 mg/L of Photogem® (PS) and, after 30 min, illuminated by LED light for 26 min (37.5 J/cm2). Additional dentures were treated only with PS (P+L-) or light (P-L+) or neither (P-L-). Samples of serial dilutions were spread on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colonies were counted and the values of log (cfu/mL) were analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results: For all species of Candida, PDT resulted in significant reduction (p<0.05) of cfu/mL values from dentures when compared with P-L- (reductions from 1.73 to 3.99 log10). Significant differences (p<0.05), but lower reductions, were also observed for P+L- and P-L+when compared with P-L- for some species of Candida. Conclusions: PDT was an effective method for reducing Candida spp. on dentures. PMID:21916614

  20. Drosophila as a model to study the role of blood cells in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihui; Kounatidis, Ilias; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila has a primitive yet effective blood system with three types of haemocytes which function throughout different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Haemocytes play essential roles in tissue modeling during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, and also in innate immunity. The open circulatory system of Drosophila makes haemocytes ideal signal mediators to cells and tissues in response to events such as infection and wounding. The application of recently developed and sophisticated genetic tools to the relatively simple genome of Drosophila has made the fly a popular system for modeling human tumorigensis and metastasis. Drosophila is now used for screening and investigation of genes implicated in human leukemia and also in modeling development of solid tumors. This second line of research offers promising opportunities to determine the seemingly conflicting roles of blood cells in tumor progression and invasion. This review provides an overview of the signaling pathways conserved in Drosophila during haematopoiesis, haemostasis, innate immunity, wound healing and inflammation. We also review the most recent progress in the use of Drosophila as a cancer research model with an emphasis on the roles haemocytes can play in various cancer models and in the links between inflammation and cancer. PMID:24409421

  1. Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Adewunmi, C O; Oguntimein, B O; Furu, P

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the major constituents of Zingiber officinale responsible for its molluscicidal activity and the effect of the active component on different stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Gingerol and shogaol exhibited potent molluscicidal activity on Biomphalaria glabrata. Gingerol (5.0 ppm) completely abolished the infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia and cercariae in B. glabrata and mice, respectively, indicating that the molluscicide is capable of interrupting schistosome transmission at a concentration lower than its molluscicidal concentrations. PMID:2236291

  2. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp. PMID:27368541

  3. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-Bromo-2-Chloro-2-(4-Chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-Phenylethanone against Candida Strains

    PubMed Central

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Estrada-Mata, Eine; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (compound 4). The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of α-chloro-β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of 63 clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species toward compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 μg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint) against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG), was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis) and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival) and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (< CC20 at 64 μg/mL). Furthermore, XTT assay denoted clear metabolic activity of sessile cells in the presence of compound 4. Thus, the effect of compound 4 on formed C. albicans biofilms was minimal. Moreover, strain 90028 exhibited no defects in hyphal growth on Caco-2 monolayer under compound 4 influence at MIC = 16 μg/mL. The MIC values of compound 4 against C. albicans 90028, in medium with sorbitol did not suggest that compound 4 acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall synthesis. Our findings with compound 4 suggest a general strategy for antifungal agent development that might be useful in limiting the emergence of resistance in Candida strains. PMID:27610100

  4. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-Bromo-2-Chloro-2-(4-Chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-Phenylethanone against Candida Strains.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Estrada-Mata, Eine; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (compound 4). The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of α-chloro-β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of 63 clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species toward compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 μg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint) against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG), was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis) and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival) and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (< CC20 at 64 μg/mL). Furthermore, XTT assay denoted clear metabolic activity of sessile cells in the presence of compound 4. Thus, the effect of compound 4 on formed C. albicans biofilms was minimal. Moreover, strain 90028 exhibited no defects in hyphal growth on Caco-2 monolayer under compound 4 influence at MIC = 16 μg/mL. The MIC values of compound 4 against C. albicans 90028, in medium with sorbitol did not suggest that compound 4 acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall synthesis. Our findings with compound 4 suggest a general strategy for antifungal agent development that might be useful in limiting the emergence of resistance in Candida strains. PMID:27610100

  5. Antifungal Effects of Common Mouthwashes on Candida Strains Colonized in the Oral Cavities of Liver Transplant Recipients in South Iran in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Haddadi, Pardis; Badiee, Parisa; Malekhoseini, Seyed Ali; Jafarian, Hadis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the opportunistic microorganisms, fungi, particularly Candida, play an important role in the mortality of transplant recipients. Thus, controlling and preventing fungal colonizations in various parts of the body, including the oral cavity, can reduce the possibility of post-transplant invasive fungal infections. This can be done simply by using mouthwashes. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of fungal species of Candida within the oral cavities of liver transplant recipients, and to evaluate the effects on Candida colonization of different exposure times to common mouthwashes. Patients and Methods: Specimens were taken from the oral cavities of 101 liver transplant recipients who were referred to our clinic for their first monthly examination. After cultivation and DNA extraction, yeast strains were identified with the RFLP technique. Each strain’s susceptibility to 0.2% chlorhexidine, Vi-One, Oral-B, Nanosil D1, and Nystatin mouthwashes was determined based on the CLSI M27-A2 standard method. Results: The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS. Out of 101 samples from liver transplant recipients, 68 cases showed fungi growing within the culture media (67.4%). C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively, were the first and second most frequent types. Mouthwash susceptibility tests revealed that their antifungal effects over 60 seconds were significantly higher than with an exposure time of 30 seconds. At both 30 and 60 seconds, chlorhexidine was significantly the most efficient. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine mouthwash with an exposure time of 60 seconds or more is suggested as an effective antifungal agent to be included in the medication regimen of liver transplant patients pre- and postoperatively, in order to prevent fungal colonization and subsequent systemic infections. PMID:27110254

  6. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  7. The Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Is a Universal Action Mechanism of Amphotericin B against Pathogenic Yeasts and Contributes to the Fungicidal Effect of This Drug

    PubMed Central

    Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia; Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Román, Elvira; Sánchez-Fresneda, Ruth; Casas, Celia; Herrero, Enrique; Argüelles, Juan Carlos; Pla, Jesús; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is an antifungal drug that binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, causing the loss of ions. In addition, AMB induces the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and although these molecules have multiple deleterious effects on fungal cells, their specific role in the action mechanism of AMB remains unknown. In this work, we studied the role of ROS in the action mechanism of AMB. We determined the intracellular induction of ROS in 44 isolates of different pathogenic yeast species (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii). We also characterized the production of ROS in AMB-resistant isolates. We found that AMB induces the formation of ROS in all the species tested. The inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by rotenone blocked the induction of ROS by AMB and provided protection from the killing action of the antifungal. Moreover, this phenomenon was absent in strains that displayed resistance to AMB. These strains showed an alteration in the respiration rate and mitochondrial membrane potential and also had higher catalase activity than that of the AMB-susceptible strains. Consistently, AMB failed to induce protein carbonylation in the resistant strains. Our data demonstrate that the production of ROS by AMB is a universal and important action mechanism that is correlated with the fungicidal effect and might explain the low rate of resistance to the molecule. Finally, these data provide an opportunity to design new strategies to improve the efficacy of this antifungal. PMID:25155595

  8. The production of reactive oxygen species is a universal action mechanism of Amphotericin B against pathogenic yeasts and contributes to the fungicidal effect of this drug.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia; Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Román, Elvira; Sánchez-Fresneda, Ruth; Casas, Celia; Herrero, Enrique; Argüelles, Juan Carlos; Pla, Jesús; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is an antifungal drug that binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, causing the loss of ions. In addition, AMB induces the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and although these molecules have multiple deleterious effects on fungal cells, their specific role in the action mechanism of AMB remains unknown. In this work, we studied the role of ROS in the action mechanism of AMB. We determined the intracellular induction of ROS in 44 isolates of different pathogenic yeast species (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii). We also characterized the production of ROS in AMB-resistant isolates. We found that AMB induces the formation of ROS in all the species tested. The inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by rotenone blocked the induction of ROS by AMB and provided protection from the killing action of the antifungal. Moreover, this phenomenon was absent in strains that displayed resistance to AMB. These strains showed an alteration in the respiration rate and mitochondrial membrane potential and also had higher catalase activity than that of the AMB-susceptible strains. Consistently, AMB failed to induce protein carbonylation in the resistant strains. Our data demonstrate that the production of ROS by AMB is a universal and important action mechanism that is correlated with the fungicidal effect and might explain the low rate of resistance to the molecule. Finally, these data provide an opportunity to design new strategies to improve the efficacy of this antifungal. PMID:25155595

  9. Lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytosis and tolerance to emersion in the mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) following exposure to acute, sublethal, copper.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S

    2003-08-01

    The mytilid mussel Perna viridis is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region and is potentially a suitable candidate for biological effects (biomarker) monitoring in the subtropics. A suite of cytological and physiological responses to acute (48-72 h) copper exposures of 50-200 microgl(-1) were assessed in order to determine the suitability of P. viridis for marine pollution monitoring. Copper elicited significant destabilisation of the haemocyte lysosomal membranes and also impaired phagocytosis. Survival during emersion following exposure to copper was not related to the experimental copper exposures suggesting that higher metal concentrations may be required to interfere with anaerobic enzymes responsible for suppression of metabolism. Based on this preliminary study, cytological biomarkers evaluated in the haemocytes extracted from P. viridis should prove an effective non-destructive means of assessing metal pollution throughout the mussels subtropical range. PMID:12820995

  10. Thai koi-hoi snail dish and angiostrongyliasis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Effects of food flavoring and alcoholic drink on the third-stage larvae in infected snail meat.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Punthuprapasa, Paibulaya; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-04-01

    Human infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Parastrongylus cantonensis) in Thailand, especially in the northeastern region, is associated with the habit of eating koi-hoi, which contains raw snail meat. Infection results from the snails being carriers of the larval parasite. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of food flavorings in koi-hoi, alcohol, and exposure time of the two variable on the infective larvae of A. cantonensis. Infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails were used for koi-hoi preparation. Raw snail meat was mixed with koi-hoi flavoring and left at room temperature for various time periods ranging from 5 to 60 minutes. At a predetermined time, two pieces of snail meat were removed at random and examined for viability (as determined by motility) of the parasitic third-stage larvae. At the same time, two random pieces of snail meat were removed and treated with 10 mL of a local 40% alcoholic drink for 30 minutes before examination of larval viability. Exposure of infected snail meat for 10 minutes or more to koi-hoi food flavoring resulted in significantly more nonmotile (dying or dead) larvae. Addition of the local alcoholic drink after exposure to the flavoring exerted an additional killing effect on the larvae. Despite long exposure time, both the koi-hoi flavoring and addition of alcoholic drink were not completely effective in killing the infective larvae in the snail meat. Thorough cooking of the food intended for human consumption should still be practiced. PMID:19272010

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of granulin-like molecules of insects.

    PubMed

    Hanington, Patrick C; Brennan, Lesley J; Belosevic, Miodrag; Andrew Keddie, B

    2008-05-01

    Granulins are a group of highly conserved growth factors that have been described from a variety of organisms spanning the metazoa. Here, we report on the identification of two partial transcripts encoding granulin-like molecules from Aa23 embryonic cells of Aedes albopictus and primary haemocytes from Manduca sexta. Both these partial transcripts had the characteristic 12-cysteine motif that is a hallmark of the granulin family and they represent the first granulin mRNA transcripts identified from insects. Moreover, we demonstrate that the recombinant granulin molecule that we originally cloned in the goldfish, induced proliferation of both Aa23 embryonic cells and primary haemocytes. Interestingly, this proliferative effect was upregulated in the presence of the intracellular symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Thus, granulin appears to be a highly conserved growth factor not only in lower vertebrates but also invertebrates. PMID:18405836

  12. Invertebrate extracellular phagocyte traps show that chromatin is an ancient defence weapon

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Calum T.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.; Gray, Robert D.; Rossi, Adriano G.; Smith, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled release of chromatin from the nuclei of inflammatory cells is a process that entraps and kills microorganisms in the extracellular environment. Now termed ETosis, it is important for innate immunity in vertebrates. Paradoxically, however, in mammals, it can also contribute to certain pathologies. Here we show that ETosis occurs in several invertebrate species, including, remarkably, an acoelomate. Our findings reveal that the phenomenon is primordial and predates the evolution of the coelom. In invertebrates, the released chromatin participates in defence not only by ensnaring microorganisms and externalizing antibacterial histones together with other haemocyte-derived defence factors, but crucially, also provides the scaffold on which intact haemocytes assemble during encapsulation; a response that sequesters and kills potential pathogens infecting the body cavity. This insight into the early origin of ETosis identifies it as a very ancient process that helps explain some of its detrimental effects in mammals. PMID:25115909

  13. Steroid hormone "cortisone" and "20-hydroxyecdysone" involved in the non-specific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Hsu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of two steroid hormones on phenoloxidase activity, O2(-) production in the haemocytes, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity, and plasma cholesterol concentrations in white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Phenoloxidase activity, THC and plasma cholesterol concentration in shrimps treated with cortisone and 20-hydroxyecdysone were found to be lower when compared with the control groups. In the observation of O2(-) production, treatment of cortisone and hydroxyecdysone were reducing the activity in the 1st day, but to be undiversified with the elapsed time. By contrast, SOD activity in the hepatopancreas, plasma GOT activity, and GPT activity were significantly increased when compared with the control groups. PMID:27403594

  14. Voriconazole-Induced Inhibition of the Fungicidal Activity of Amphotericin B in Candida Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Voriconazole: an Effect Not Predicted by the MIC Value Alone ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lignell, Anders; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Cars, Otto; Sanglard, Dominique; Sjölin, Jan

    2011-01-01

    An antagonistic effect of voriconazole on the fungicidal activity of sequential doses of amphotericin B has previously been demonstrated in Candida albicans strains susceptible to voriconazole. Because treatment failure and the need to switch to other antifungals are expected to occur more often in infections that are caused by resistant strains, it was of interest to study whether the antagonistic effect was still seen in Candida strains with reduced susceptibility to voriconazole. With the hypothesis that antagonism will not occur in voriconazole-resistant strains, C. albicans strains with characterized mechanisms of resistance against voriconazole, as well as Candida glabrata and Candida krusei strains with differences in their degrees of susceptibility to voriconazole were exposed to voriconazole or amphotericin B alone, to both drugs simultaneously, or to voriconazole followed by amphotericin B in an in vitro kinetic model. Amphotericin B administered alone or simultaneously with voriconazole resulted in fungicidal activity. When amphotericin B was administered after voriconazole, its activity was reduced (median reduction, 61%; range, 9 to 94%). Levels of voriconazole-dependent inhibition of amphotericin B activity differed significantly among the strains but were not correlated with the MIC values (correlation coefficient, −0.19; P = 0.65). Inhibition was found in C. albicans strains with increases in CDR1 and CDR2 expression but not in the strain with an increase in MDR1 expression. In summary, decreased susceptibility to voriconazole does not abolish voriconazole-dependent inhibition of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B in voriconazole-resistant Candida strains. The degree of interaction could not be predicted by the MIC value alone. PMID:21282443

  15. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Joanna; Michaelides, Ellie B; Rupasinghe, Thusitha; Tull, Dedreia; Green, Mark P; Jones, Therésa M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant) in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO) activity) were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested. PMID:26339535

  16. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Ellie B.; Rupasinghe, Thusitha; Tull, Dedreia; Green, Mark P.; Jones, Therésa M.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant) in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO) activity) were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested. PMID:26339535

  17. First Evidence of Immunomodulation in Bivalves under Seawater Acidification and Increased Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Matozzo, Valerio; Chinellato, Andrea; Munari, Marco; Finos, Livio; Bressan, Monica; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Water acidification, temperature increases and changes in seawater salinity are predicted to occur in the near future. In such a global climate change (GCC) scenario, there is growing concern for the health status of both wild and farmed organisms. Bivalve molluscs, an important component of coastal marine ecosystems, are at risk. At the immunological level, the ability of an organism to maintain its immunosurveillance unaltered under adverse environmental conditions may enhance its survival capability. To our knowledge, only a few studies have investigated the effects of changing environmental parameters (as predicted in a GCC scenario) on the immune responses of bivalves. In the present study, the effects of both decreased pH values and increased temperature on the important immune parameters of two bivalve species were evaluated for the first time. The clam Chamelea gallina and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, widespread along the coast of the Northwestern Adriatic Sea, were chosen as model organisms. Bivalves were exposed for 7 days to three pH values (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4) at two temperatures (22 and 28°C). Three independent experiments were carried out at salinities of 28, 34 and 40 PSU. The total haemocyte count, Neutral Red uptake, haemolymph lysozyme activity and total protein levels were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that tested experimental conditions affected significantly most of the immune parameters measured in bivalves, even if the variation pattern of haemocyte responses was not always linear. Between the two species, C. gallina appeared more vulnerable to changing pH and temperature than M. galloprovincialis. Overall, this study demonstrated that climate changes can strongly affect haemocyte functionality in bivalves. However, further studies are needed to clarify better the mechanisms of action of changing environmental parameters, both individually and in combination, on bivalve haemocytes. PMID:22479452

  18. Effects of dietary beta-1,3-glucan on the growth, survival, physiological and immune response of marron, Cherax tenuimanus (smith, 1912).

    PubMed

    Sang, Huynh Minh; Fotedar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous and isocalorific diets supplemented with five different levels of beta-1,3-glucan (0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8%) were formulated and tested for marron (Cherax tenuimanus) growth, survival, organosomatic indices, osmoregulatory capacity and immunological parameters (total and differential haemocyte counts, haemolymph clotting time and bacteraemia). The sixth diet without any beta-1,3-glucan was used as a control. Each diet was provided to 18 marron (0.47 +/- 0.02 g initial weight) replicated 3 times in individual 250 L fiberglass cylindrical tanks. Each tank was provided with a biological filtration recirculating water system. After 84 days of culture, the survival and yield were higher in the marron fed 0.1% beta glucan supplemented diet. The different levels of beta glucan did not alter any of the physiological parameters of marron. However, dietary supplementation with beta glucan resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) total haemocyte count (THC) and granular cells. The bacteraemia rank was lower in all diets having beta glucan supplemented with more than or equal to 0.1% compared to the control and 0.08% beta glucan supplemented diets. Results suggest that dietary beta-1,3-glucan at a minimum concentration of 0.1-0.2% can improve the immune system of marron. PMID:20139008

  19. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met(5)]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met(5)]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors. PMID:27193598

  20. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors. PMID:27193598

  1. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  2. Genotoxicity testing of two lead-compounds in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-09-18

    The in vivo genotoxic activity of two inorganic lead compounds was studied in Drosophila melanogaster by measurement of two different genetic endpoints. We used the wing-spot test and the comet assay. The comet assay was conducted with larval haemocytes. The results from the wing-spot test showed that neither lead chloride, PbCl(2), nor lead nitrate, Pb(NO(3))(2), were able to induce significant increases in the frequency of mutant spots. In addition, the combined treatments with gamma-radiation and PbCl(2) or Pb(NO(3))(2) did not show significant variations in the frequency of the three categories of mutant spots recorded, compared with the frequency induced by gamma-radiation alone. This seems to indicate that the lead compounds tested do not interact with the repair of the genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. When the lead compounds were evaluated in the in vivo comet assay with haemocytes, Pb(NO(3))(2) was effective in inducing significant increases of DNA damage with a direct dose-response pattern. These results confirm the usefulness of the comet assay with haemocytes as an in vivo model and support the assumption that there is a genotoxic risk associated with lead exposure. PMID:21645631

  3. Immunotoxicity in ascidians: antifouling compounds alternative to organotins-IV. The case of zinc pyrithione.

    PubMed

    Cima, Francesca; Ballarin, Loriano

    2015-03-01

    New biocides such as the organometallic compound zinc pyrithione (ZnP) have been massively introduced by many countries in formulations of antifouling paints following the ban on tributyltin (TBT). The effects of sublethal concentrations (LC50=82.5 μM, i.e., 26.2 mg/l) on cultured haemocytes of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri have been investigated and compared with TBT. The percentage of haemocytes with amoeboid morphology and containing phagocytised yeast cells were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after exposure to 0.1 (31.7 μg/l) and 0.5 μM (158 μg/l), respectively. An antagonistic interaction in inducing cytoskeletal alterations was observed when ZnP and TBT were co-present in the exposure medium. ZnP affected only the actin component. As caused by TBT, ZnP induced apoptosis and inhibited both oxidative phosphorylation and lysosomal activities. In contrast to the case of TBT, a decrement in Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and a decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) were detected after incubation at the highest concentration (1 μM, i.e., 317.7 μg/l) used. In comparison with other antifouling compounds, ZnP shows as much toxicity as TBT to cultured haemocytes at extremely low concentrations interfering with fundamental cell activities. PMID:25576186

  4. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  5. Sublethal effect of copper toxicity against histopathological changes in the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Maharajan, A; Rajalakshmi, S; Vijayakumaran, M; Kumarasamy, P

    2012-02-01

    The tissue damage induced by various organic pollutants in aquatic animals is well documented, but there is a dearth of information relating to the histological alterations induced by copper in the spiny lobster. In the present study, intermoult juveniles of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (average weight 150-200 g) were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of the copper (9.55 and 19.1 μg/l) for a period of 28 days. The muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of the lobsters were then dissected out and processed for light microscopic studies. Exposure to copper was found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of the muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of P. homarus. The alterations included disruption and congestion of muscle bundle in muscle tissue; blackened haemocytes; distended lumen and F cell; necrosis of the tubules of the hepatopancreas; disarrangement of circular muscle of the midgut; accumulation of haemocytes in the haemocoelic space; swelling and fusion of lamellae; abnormal gill tips; hyperplastic, necrotic, and blackened secondary gill lamellae of the gills; damaged neurosecretory cell and sensory and motor fibre; necrotic of the thoracic ganglion; dispersedly arranged muscle bands; clumped satellite cells and nucleus of the heart. The results obtained suggest that the muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of lobsters exposed to copper were structurally altered. Such alterations could affect vital physiological functions, such as absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas, digestion of gut and respiration, osmotic and ionic regulations of the gills, which in turn could ultimately affect the survival and growth of P. homarus. Thus, all possible remedial measures should be adopted to prevent the occurrence of copper contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:21861131

  6. In vitro pharmacodynamic modelling of anidulafungin against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Ortega, Ignacio; Eraso, Elena; Suárez, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fit anidulafungin in vitro static time-kill data from nine strains of Candida with a pharmacodynamic (PD) model in order to describe the antifungal activity of this drug against Candida spp. Time-kill data from strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis clades were best fit using an adapted sigmoidal Emax model and resulted in a set of PD parameters (Emax, EC50 and Hill factor) for each fungal strain. The data were analysed with NONMEM 7. Anidulafungin was effective in a species- and concentration-dependent manner against the strains of C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis clades as observed with the EC50 estimates. Maximum killing rate constant (Emax) values were higher against C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis complex strains. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the activity of anidulafungin against Candida can be accurately described using an adapted sigmoidal Emax model. PMID:26857078

  7. Pasture management effects on diet composition and cattle performance on continuously stocked rhizoma peanut-mixed grass swards.

    PubMed

    Valencia, E; Williams, M J; Chase, C C; Sollenberger, L E; Hammond, A C; Kalmbacher, R S; Kunkle, W E

    2001-09-01

    In Florida, rhizoma peanut (RP; Arachis glabrata Benth.), a tropical legume, combines the attributes of excellent nutritive value, competitive ability with tropical grasses, and high animal performance. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spring N fertilization (0 vs 35 kg/ha) and summer stocking rate (1.5 and 2.5 bulls/ha) on herbage mass, nutritive value, herbage allowance, and diet botanical composition of grazed RP-grass swards and their interaction with growth and development of bulls (Senepol, and Brahman or Angus). The study was conducted in 1995 and 1996 at the USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agriculture Research Station in Brooksville, FL. Nitrogen was applied in April of each year, and all pastures were stocked with 1.5 bulls/ha until approximately July of each year, when stocking rate was increased on half the pastures to 2.5 bulls/ha. Herbage mass (HM, kg/ha), herbage allowance (HA, kg/kg BW), nutritive value (CP and in vitro organic matter digestibility [IVOMD]), and diet botanical composition (fecal microhistological) readings were determined. Animal measurements included total and seasonal (spring vs summer), ADG, hip height (cm), scrotal circumference (SC, cm), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, mg/dL). Herbage mass (3.0 +/- 0.12 Mg/ha and 3.4 +/- 0.13 Mg/ha in 1995 and 1996, respectively) was not affected by nitrogen fertilization or stocking rate but was affected by season (P < 0.05) due to increased plant growth rate associated with summer rainfall. Stocking rate did affect herbage availability, but it never fell below 3 kg/kg BW, indicating herbage availability was never limiting. Crude protein (200 to 140 g/kg) and IVOMD (650 to 540 g/kg) were not affected by treatment, but declined (P < 0.001) from spring until fall. Treatments also had no effect on diet botanical composition. Summer ADG averaged about 0.2 kg/d lower than spring ADG, due, in part, to seasonal declines in nutritive value. Because herbage allowance was never limiting

  8. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal

  9. The acute modulation of norepinephrine on immune responses and genes expressions via adrenergic receptors in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), immunocompetent parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Lactococcus garvieae), and prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein, LGBP; prophenoloxidase, proPO; peroxinectin, PE; α2-macroglobulin, α2-M) expressions were investigated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii received NE through injection at 50 pmol/prawn after 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. Furthermore, the PO activity, RB, SOD activity, phagocytic activity and proPO system-related genes expressions were determined in haemocytes incubated with cacodylate buffer (CAC), NE, and NE co-treated with various adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists in vitro. Results showed that NE, THC, granular cells, PO activity, SOD activity, proPO system-related genes expressions, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae increased; PO activity per granulocyte and RB per haemocyte decreased from 30 to 120 min; semigranular cells and RB increased in the initial 30 min, and then decreased at 120 min when the prawns received NE by injection. In vitro studies, all the determined immune parameters and genes expressions were significantly decreased in haemocytes incubated with NE after 30 min. The negative effects of NE were prevented on the PO activity and phagocytic activity by the β-AR antagonist of metoprolol (Met), on the SOD activity by the β-AR antagonist of propranolol (Pro), on the RB by the β-AR antagonist of Met and prazosin (Pra), and on the proPO system-related genes expressions by α-AR antagonist of Pra. These results show that NE modulates prawn haemocytes proPO system-related genes expressions via α1-AR, PO activity and phagocytosis via β1-AR, respiratory burst via α1-and β1-ARs, and SOD activity via β2-AR. It is concluded that NE stimulates the regulation of immunocompetence parameters

  10. The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nermin H; Melake, Nahla A; Somily, Ali M; Zakaria, Azza S; Baddour, Manal M; Mahmoud, Amany Z

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the incidence of biofilm formation among Candida isolates and to investigate the effect of high doses of fluconazole {FLC}, voriconazole {VOC} and amphotericin B {AMB}, singly and in combination on mature biofilms. Moreover, it aimed to assess the expression of selected genes (CDR1, KRE1 and SKN1) responsible for Candida biofilm resistance. The study included 49 patients; samples were collected from the King Khalid Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Isolates were prepared for biofilm formation and quantification using 0.4% (w/v) crystal violet. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) were conducted by the broth microdilution method. Biofilm eradication was evaluated using counting, XTT stain intensity and observed under the inverted microscope. Selected genes were evaluated in Candida biofilms under the effect of antifungal exposure using QPCR. The major isolates were Candida albicans (65.3%) followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. 77.6% of the strains were biofilm formers. AMB showed susceptibility in 87.8% of isolates, followed by VOC (77.6%) and FLC (67.3%). MIC50 and MIC90 were (0.03, 0.125), (0.5, 8), (2, >128) μg/ml for AMB, VOC and FLC, respectively. 34.7% and 18.4% of the isolates were antagonistic to AMB/FLC and AMB/VOC, respectively. Mature biofilms of ten selected isolates were found resistant to FLC (1000 μg/ml). VOR and AMB concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation was 16-250 fold higher than the MIC for planktonic cells. Isolates showed significant reduction with antifungal combination when compared with the untreated controls (p value ⩽ 0.01), or using fluconazole alone (p value ⩽ 0.05). High doses of the antifungals were employed to assess the effect on the persisters' selected gene expression. Marked over expression of SKN1 and to a

  11. The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Białoń, M; Krzyśko-Łupicka, T; Koszałkowska, M; Wieczorek, P P

    2014-02-01

    Candida yeasts are saprophytes naturally present in the environment and forming colonies on human mucous membranes and skin. They are opportunistic fungi that cause severe and even fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Several essential oils, including eucalyptus, pine, cinnamon and lemon, have been shown to be effective against Candida strains. This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial lemon essential oils and their antifungal potential against selected Candida yeast strains. Antifungal potential and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for six commercial lemon essential oils against five Candida yeast strains (Candida albicans 31, Candida tropicalis 32, Candida glabrata 33, Candida glabrata 35 and Candida glabrata 38). On the basis of the GCMS analysis, it was found that the tested lemon essential oils had different chemical compositions, but mostly, they contained almost exclusively terpenes and oxygenated terpenes. The tests show that antifungal potential of lemon essential oils against Candida yeast strains was related to the high content of monoterpenoids and the type of Candida strains. From six tested commercial oils, only four (ETJA, Vera-Nord, Avicenna-Oil and Aromatic Art) shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata). Vera-Nord and Avicenna-Oil show the best activity and effectively inhibit the growth of the C. albicans strain across the full range of the concentrations used. Our study characterises lemon essential oils, which could be used as very effective natural remedies against candidiasis caused by C. albicans. PMID:24436010

  12. Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 550 Side Effects WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS? WHO GETS SIDE EFFECTS? ... t assume that you will get every side effect that’s listed! Most people have few or only ...

  13. Behavioural and immunological responses to an immune challenge in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-10-01

    Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare. PMID:24021926

  14. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. PMID:26118934

  15. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Fournier, Michel; Gauthier-Clerc, Sophie; Rioux, Pascal; Pelletier, Émilien

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity) and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT) activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) performed on the digestive gland were estimated as biomarkers in clams fed in mesocosm with PAH contaminated phytoplankton. MDA levels and CAT activities were also measured in situ in organisms sampled in a control site (Metis Beach, Québec, Canada) as well as organisms sampled in a site receiving domestic effluents (Pointe-au-Père, Québec, Canada), to assess effects of abiotic variables related to seasonal variations and mixed contamination on the selected parameters. Results Results on immune parameters suggest that the PAHs may interfere with the maturation and/or differentiation processes of haemocytes. MDA results showed that lipid peroxidation did not occur following the exposure. The levels of CAT activity corresponded to weak antioxidant activity (no significant differences). Recovery was noted for all the immune endpoints at the end of the experiment. Conclusion Results suggest that immune parameters are early biomarkers that can efficiently detect a physiological change during a short term exposure to low concentrations of PAHs. The in situ survey (in the natural environment) suggested that clams from the Pointe-au-Père site did not show any oxidative stress as well as the clams contaminated in mesocosm, probably due to the low concentrations of PAHs used for this study. MDA levels increased however in organisms from Metis Beach, a response probably related to domestic effluents or parasitism. PMID:19055737

  16. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  17. Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

    2013-11-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme

  18. Melatonin: a possible link between the presence of artificial light at night and reductions in biological fitness

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Therésa M.; Durrant, Joanna; Michaelides, Ellie B.; Green, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning the ecological impacts of the presence of artificial night lighting remain elusive. One suspected underlying cause is that the presence of light at night (LAN) supresses nocturnal production of melatonin, a key driver of biological rhythm and a potent antioxidant with a proposed role in immune function. Here, we briefly review the evidence for melatonin as the link between LAN and changes in behaviour and physiology. We then present preliminary data supporting the potential for melatonin to act as a recovery agent mitigating the negative effects of LAN in an invertebrate. Adult crickets (Teleogryllus commodus), exposed to constant illumination, were provided with dietary melatonin (concentrations: 0, 10 or 100 µg ml−1) in their drinking water. We then compared survival, lifetime fecundity and, over a 4-week period, immune function (haemocyte concentration, lysozyme-like and phenoloxidase (PO) activity). Melatonin supplementation was able only partially to mitigate the detrimental effects of LAN: it did not improve survival or fecundity or PO activity, but it had a largely dose-dependent positive effect on haemocyte concentration and lysozyme-like activity. We discuss the implications of these relationships, as well as the usefulness of invertebrates as model species for future studies that explore the effects of LAN. PMID:25780235

  19. Candida bracarensis Detected Among Isolates of Candida glabrata by Petide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence in Situ Hybirdization: Susceptibility Data and Documentation of Presumed Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular taxonomic studies have revealed new yeast (Candida) species among phenotypically-delineated species: the best example being Candida dubliniensis. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of two new molecularly-defined species, Candida bracarensis and Candida nivariensis, which ...

  20. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes–haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation. PMID:24789904

  1. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-06-22

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation. PMID:24789904

  2. Effects of Treated versus Untreated Polystyrene on Caspofungin In Vitro Activity against Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Albataineh, Mohammad T; Sanders, Carmita; McElmeel, Maria; Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-03-01

    Significant interlaboratory variability is observed in testing the caspofungin susceptibility of Candida species by both the CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methodologies. We evaluated the influence of treated versus untreated polystyrene microtiter trays on caspofungin MICs using 209 isolates of four Candida species, including 16 C. albicans and 11 C. glabrata isolates with defined FKS mutations. Caspofungin MICs were also determined using the commercially available YeastOne and Etest assays and 102 isolates. All C. glabrata isolates had caspofungin MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml, the clinical breakpoint for caspofungin resistance in this species, measured using trays made of treated polystyrene, regardless of the FKS status. In contrast, susceptible isolates could readily be distinguished from resistant/non-wild-type isolates when caspofungin MICs were measured using untreated polystyrene trays and both the YeastOne and Etest assays. Similar results were also observed for C. krusei isolates, as all isolates had caspofungin MICs above the threshold for resistance measured using treated polystyrene trays. In contrast, C. albicans isolates could be correctly identified as susceptible or resistant when caspofungin MICs were measured with treated or untreated trays and with the YeastOne and Etest assays. MICs falsely elevated above the resistance breakpoint were also not observed for C. tropicalis isolates. These results demonstrated that the use of treated polystyrene may be one factor that leads to falsely elevated caspofungin in vitro susceptibility results and that this may also be a greater issue for some Candida species than for others. PMID:26763959

  3. Thermal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. "Further Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  5. Thermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, M.E.; Talmadge, S.S.; Cravens, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    A literature review is presented of recent studies on the role of temperature effects and change in temperature caused by thermal power plants on aquatic life. Several of these studies involve the use of models that allow testing of hypotheses concerning the effects of temperature on fish and insects. 91 references.

  6. Gauging Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

  7. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26434711

  8. Insulin delays the progression of Drosophila cells through G2/M by activating the dTOR/dRaptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mary Y W; Cully, Megan; Andersen, Ditte; Leevers, Sally J

    2007-01-01

    In Drosophila and mammals, insulin signalling can increase growth, progression through G1/S, cell size and tissue size. Here, we analyse the way insulin affects cell size and cell-cycle progression in two haemocyte-derived Drosophila cell lines. Surprisingly, we find that although insulin increases cell size, it slows the rate at which these cells increase in number. By using BrdU pulse-chase to label S-phase cells and follow their progression through the cell cycle, we show that insulin delays progression through G2/M, thereby slowing cell division. The ability of insulin to slow progression through G2/M is independent of its ability to stimulate progression through G1/S, so is not a consequence of feedback by the cell-cycle machinery to maintain cell-cycle length. Insulin's effects on progression through G2/M are mediated by dTOR/dRaptor signalling. Partially inhibiting dTOR/dRaptor signalling by dsRNAi or mild rapamycin treatment can increase cell number in cultured haemocytes and the Drosophila wing, respectively. Thus, insulin signalling can influence cell number depending on a balance between its ability to accelerate progression through G1/S and delay progression through G2/M. PMID:17183368

  9. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  10. Determination of antimicrobial activity and resistance to oxidation of moringa peregrina seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined. PMID:22367027

  11. Health Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  12. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  13. Hirudinicidal activities of some natural molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, G; Adewunmi, C O; Becker, W; Agbedahunsi, J M; Dörfler, G

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with (molluscicides) aridanin isolated from Tetrapleura tetraptera, aridan, an extract from T. tetraptera, endod, an extract from Phytolacca dodecandra and niclosamide on non-target aquatic organisms such as leech, hydra, tadpoles, anopheline mosquito larvae and brine shrimps and compared with their toxicity to the target snail. Biomphalaria glabrata. Aridanin, aridan, endod, and niclosamide produced rapid knockdown effects on B. glabrata at 0.04, 1.00, 30.00, and 40.00 ppm, respectively. All the molluscicides killed the leech, a pest of animals and man at molluscicidal concentrations. The hydra and tadpoles tested were sensitive to the molluscicides except aridanin but the shrimps and anopheline mosquito larvae were resistant to all the molluscicides. PMID:8170154

  14. Plasma Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radio communication with space probes requires sending signals through the Earth's ionosphere and usually the solar wind. During planetary flybys, the signal may also pass through the ionosphere of another planet. These ionized media can perturb the radio signal in a variety of ways. Examples of these perturbations are variations in the electrical length between the spacecraft and the ground station, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized signals, amplitude and phase scintillations, and spectral and angular broadening. These plasma effects can have undesirable influences on telemetry performance and thus need to be understood from a communications engineering viewpoint. The plasma effects are, however, useful from a scientific viewpoint, since the effects on the communications link can often be inverted to estimate the physical conditions in the plasma.

  15. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T

    2016-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-α-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. PMID:26482310

  16. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Alix T.

    2015-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-α-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. PMID:26482310

  17. Thermal Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panyue; Ye, Jie; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2014 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: anaerobic wastewater and sludge treatment, biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, membrane biological treatment, sewage sludge pyrolysis, natural treatment, resource recovery, electrolysis, oxidation and adsorption treatment. PMID:26420108

  18. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  19. Sleeper Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Daphne; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.

    2007-01-01

    Early experience preserves and refines many capabilities that emerge prenatally. Here we describe another role that it plays--establishing the neural substrate for capabilities that emerge at a much later point in development. The evidence comes from sleeper effects: permanent deficits when early experience was absent in capabilities that normally…

  20. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    PubMed

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  1. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  2. Blazhko Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

  3. Zeeman Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The splitting of a spectral line into two, three or more components, that occurs when the source of that line lies within a magnetic field. This phenomenon is named after the Dutch physicist, Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943), who discovered the effect in the laboratory, in 1896. The separation of the components of a line is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and the number of components,...

  4. Thermal Effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2015 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment for organic conversion, industrial wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and solid waste, sludge biochar preparation and application, pyrolysis of sewage sludge, reduction heavy metal in sewage sludge and soil, and other issues of wastewater and sludge treatment. PMID:27620109

  5. Integrating temperature and nutrition--environmental impacts on an insect immune system.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Globally increasing temperatures may strongly affect insect herbivore performance. In contrast to direct effects of temperature on herbivores, indirect effects mediated via thermal effects on host-plant quality are only poorly understood, despite having the potential to substantially impact the herbivores' performance. Part of this performance is the organisms' immune system which may be of pivotal importance for local survival. We here use a full-factorial design to explore the direct (larvae were reared at 17°C or 25°C) and indirect effects (host plants were reared at 17°C or 25°C) of temperature on immune function of the temperate-zone butterfly Pieris napi. At the higher rearing temperature haemocyte numbers and prophenoloxidase activity were reduced. Plant temperature, in contrast, did not affect immune competence despite clear effects on insect growth patterns. Overall, thermal and dietary impacts on the insects' immune responses were weak and trait-specific. PMID:24636910

  6. Erosion Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  7. Effective committees.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2012-03-01

    A committee is a group of people officially delegated to perform a function, such as investigating, considering, reporting, or acting on a matter. Some committees function like task forces and work on specific, time-limited projects. When the work is finished, the committees are no longer needed. These committees are called ad hoc committees. Other committees are standing committees. They are created by the standing orders, rules, by-laws, or regulations of an organization and exist and function indefinitely (eg, finance, membership, education, nomination). Both types of committees can form subcommittees if the workloads are heavy or complex in nature. Committees can be among the most important working forces of an organization. They serve as work units of the organization, taking work and breaking it into meaningful and manageable chunks. They efficiently carry out the work of the organization. Committee work should be a rewarding experience for both the members and the organization. Committees represent, involve, and serve members, as well as provide an important training ground for future leaders of an organization. New or inexperienced members can gain valuable insight into an organization and develop confidence by serving on committees. There are several key elements of effective committees, including (1) a clear, written purpose; (2) an effective committee chair; (3) thoughtfully appointed members; and (4) well-run meetings. PMID:22386164

  8. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID

  9. Microbial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lamborg, M.R.; Hardy, R.W.F.; Paul, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The postulated doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ is not likely to have direct effect on soil microbial activity because during the growing season, the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the soil atmosphere is already ten to fifty times higher than existing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Based on all available experimental information, it is estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ will cause an increase in primary productivity of 10 to 40% depending on locale. The increase in biomass will, in turn, produce a limitation of available soil nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Increased organic carbon together with nitrogen and/or phosphorus limitation will result in a preferential increase in nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal activities as the expedient means for supplying required nutrients to sustain the predicted increase in primary productivity. Therefore, increased emphasis should be placed on fundamental research related to soil microbiology with special reference to nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, and to the mycorrhizal fungi. 111 references, 2 figures.

  10. Echinocandin and Triazole Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles for Clinical Opportunistic Yeast and Mold Isolates Collected from 2010 to 2011: Application of New CLSI Clinical Breakpoints and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Characterization of Geographic and Temporal Trends of Antifungal Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Shawn A.; Woosley, Leah N.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    triazoles were active against other yeasts (MIC90, 2 μg/ml). The echinocandins and triazoles were active against Aspergillus spp. (MIC90/minimum effective concentration [MEC90] range, 0.015 to 2 μg/ml), but the echinocandins were not active against other molds (MEC90 range, 4 to >16 μg/ml). Overall, echinocandin and triazole resistance rates were low; however, the fluconazole and echinocandin coresistance among C. glabrata strains warrants continued close surveillance. PMID:23720791

  11. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. PMID:27288994

  12. Toll-pathway in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) responds to white spot syndrome virus infection: evidence through molecular characterisation and expression profiles of MyD88, TRAF6 and TLR genes.

    PubMed

    Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Paria, Anutosh; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

    2014-12-01

    The Toll-pathway plays key roles in regulating the innate immune response in invertebrates. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) are key molecules in this signalling pathway. To investigate the role of Toll-pathway in innate immune response of shrimp, Penaeus monodon, MyD88 (PmMyD88) and TRAF6 (PmTRAF6) were identified and characterised. PmMyD88 cDNA is 1716 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp encoding a putative protein of 482 amino acids, with a death domain, a TIR domain and C-terminal extension domain. PmTRAF6 cDNA is 2563 bp long with an ORF of 1785 bp (594 amino acids) with an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger domain, two TRAF-type zinc finger domains, a coiled region and a MATH domain. In healthy shrimp, PmMyD88, PmTRAF6 and PmToll were detected in 15 tissues with the highest expression in midgut, eyestalk and lymphoid organ, respectively. Responses of these genes to WSSV in experimentally-infected P. monodon as well as in cultured haemocytes and also effect of poly I:C on the gene expression in vitro was investigated at six time-points in seven tissues. PmToll showed significant up-regulation at all time-points of infection in six tissues and until 24 h post-infection in vitro. However, poly I:C-induced haemocytes showed up-regulation of the gene until 48 h post-exposure. WSSV caused significant up-regulation of PmMyD88 in most of the tissues tested. The virus challenge as well as poly I:C induction in vitro also resulted in significant up-regulation of the gene. Up-regulated expression of PmTRAF6 was detected in haemocytes and lymphoid organ at late stage of infection. In vitro virus challenge showed significant up-regulation of PmTRAF6 at almost all time-points whereas no significant change in the expression was observed on poly I:C induction. The responses of these key genes, observed in the present study, suggest that Toll-pathway as a whole may play a crucial

  13. Effective Teaching/Effective Urban Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan; Charner-Laird, Megin; Kirkpatrick, Cheryl L.; Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Gordon, Pamela J.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which 17 novice teachers define and describe effective urban teaching and the stark contrasts that these teachers draw between effective urban teaching and effective teaching. The authors find that descriptions of students played a considerable role when participants made distinctions between effective teaching…

  14. Repeated sampling of individual bivalve mollusks I: intraindividual variability and consequences for haemolymph constituents of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Ford, Susan E; Paillard, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Components of the haemolymph are understood to constitute the internal defense system of bivalve mollusks and their levels are often considered to be indicators of "health"; however, relatively little proof exists of the role that these elements play in the success or failure of defense against a pathogen. A change associated with infection may be the consequence of disease rather than a measure of the capacity to respond effectively to a pathogen. One way to assess whether haemocyte or serum-component concentrations are related to resistance to microbial infection is to sample individuals over time, both before and after they are experimentally or naturally infected. But sampling itself may alter the parameter being assessed. In addition, interindividual variation is large and the degree of intraindividual variation over time is largely unknown. To evaluate intra- vs interindividual variability measured over time and to assess the effects of repeated sampling, we subjected Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, to multiple haemolymph samplings during both field and laboratory experiments, and measured four parameters: haemocyte density, protein concentration, and the activities of leucine amino peptidase and DOPA-oxidase. A repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that individuals with high or low levels at one sampling, tended to have high or low levels, respectively, at the other sampling times. Furthermore, the index of individuality, which is the ratio of intra- to interindividual variability, for these four parameters was comparable to that for human serum components. Repeated sampling had no measured effect on field-deployed clams, which were sampled at intervals of 1-3 months, but significantly depressed values in laboratory-held clams sampled at 1-month intervals. Results demonstrated relative intraindividual constancy in the measured variables and suggested that minimizing sample frequency and volume, and maintaining animals in a comparatively natural

  15. Immune defence under extreme ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Owing to global climate change, the extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an extreme temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance. PMID:20610417

  16. Social Context Effects on School Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Murphy, Joseph

    In this two-part paper, an attempt is made to examine the relationship between social contexts and effective schools and specifically to contribute to the development of a conceptual model for understanding how social contexts influence the operation of effective schools and student learning. In the first part, school effects research is drawn…

  17. Seasonality of bioaccumulation of trace organics and lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Wu, Rudolf S S; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Shin, Paul K S

    2010-02-15

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels is widely used as a biomarker in coastal environments to demonstrate exposure to trace organic pollutants. However, few studies have determined the long-term influences of seasonal variations on the bioaccumulation of trace organics and subsequently altered response of lysosomal integrity in mussels. This study aimed to test three null hypotheses that (1) bioaccumulations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (SigmaPAH) and (2) total polychlorinated biphenyl (SigmaPCB), and (3) lysosomal integrity as indicated by Neutral Red retention time (NRRT) in haemocytes, in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were not seasonally dependent. The tissue concentrations of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB and haemocytic NRRT were determined in P. viridis in a metropolitan harbour, subtropical Hong Kong during the wet and dry seasons from 2004 to 2007. Additional information on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and total ammonia nitrogen in seawater, and sediment levels of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB, were extracted from published data and re-analyzed. Our results accepted all null hypotheses, based on the minimal seasonal influences of seawater temperature and salinity on all studied parameters, in which no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons were detected. The seasonal effect was likely outweighed by the greatly improved water quality and pollution abatement noted inside the harbour, with a gradual shift in mussel PAHs from a pyrolytic origin to a petrogenic origin. Spatially, the site east of the harbour was relatively unpolluted. The single use of NRRT in P. viridis explained 25% of the total variation of the integrated pollution patterns in seawater, sediments and mussels. The present study suggested that the dynamic change of trace organics could be reflected by the response on lysosomal integrity in P. viridis, which was recommended as a routine screening biomarker in monitoring of harbour water quality across seasons. PMID

  18. On Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  19. Improving School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

    School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

  20. On effect size.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2012-06-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension, measure/index, and value), outline 10 corollaries that follow from our definition, and review ideal qualities of effect sizes. Our definition of effect size is general and subsumes many existing definitions of effect size. We define effect size as a quantitative reflection of the magnitude of some phenomenon that is used for the purpose of addressing a question of interest. Our definition of effect size is purposely more inclusive than the way many have defined and conceptualized effect size, and it is unique with regard to linking effect size to a question of interest. Additionally, we review some important developments in the effect size literature and discuss the importance of accompanying an effect size with an interval estimate that acknowledges the uncertainty with which the population value of the effect size has been estimated. We hope that this article will facilitate discussion and improve the practice of reporting and interpreting effect sizes. PMID:22545595

  1. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH. PMID:25380800

  2. Regulation with placebo effects.

    PubMed

    Malani, Anup

    2008-12-01

    A growing scientific literature supports the existence of placebo effects from a wide range of health interventions and for a range of medical conditions. This Article reviews this literature, examines the implications for law and policy, and suggests future areas for research on placebo effects. In particular, it makes the case for altering the drug approval process to account for, if not credit, placebo effects. It recommends that evidence of placebo effects be permitted as a defense in cases alleging violations of informed consent or false advertising. Finally, it finds that tort law already has doctrines such as joint and several liability to account for placebo effects. Future research on placebo effects should focus on whether awareness of placebo effects can disable these effects and whether subjects can control their own placebo effects. PMID:19353835

  3. [Placebo and placebo effect].

    PubMed

    Aulas, J-J

    2005-11-01

    The word placebo appeared for the first time in an English medical dictionary in 1785. In French, it appeared much latter in 1958. This word defines an experimental tool used for rigourous evaluation of a specific effect of pharmacological treatment and the non specific effect of any therapy. The placebo effect is the strictly psychological or psychophysiological effect of a placebo. The two principal components of placebo effect as a pain killer, which has been extensively studied in this field, are positive expectancies of both the patient and the physician. Although the mechanisms of action of placebo effect are not well understood, results of several recent works are particularly interesting. PMID:16292233

  4. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Wu, Haiyan; Zhu, Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Li, Ruoyu; Fang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  5. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu; Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2011-01-10

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  6. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...

  7. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  8. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  9. Effective College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)

  10. The Hydrophobic Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huque, Entazul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

  11. Emotional Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Emotional Side Effects In this section you can learn more about ... Finding and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Children and Cancer ...

  12. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  13. Sadaaki Iwanaga: Discovery of the lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-D-glucan-mediated proteolytic cascade and unique proteins in invertebrate immunity.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Muta, Tatsushi

    2010-05-01

    Horseshoe crab haemolymph contains a single type of cells, granular haemocytes, which are extremely sensitive to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lead to haemolymph coagulation. Sadaaki Iwanaga isolated protease zymogens from the haemocytes and reconstituted LPS and beta-1,3-d-glucans-mediated haemolymph coagulation. This led to the first discovery of a proteolytic cascade triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, an important milestone for studies on invertebrate innate immunity. Moreover, he separated components derived from haemocyte granules and haemolymph plasma, and consequently identified unique defense molecules, such as lectins, serpins, cystatins, antimicrobial substances and substrates for transglutaminase. Through steady and persistent studies on the horseshoe crab host defense system, he made great progress in the field. Now we know that LPS-induced haemocyte exocytosis leads not only to coagulation but also activates a sophisticated immune response network that coordinately induces pathogen recognition, elimination and wound healing. PMID:20406733

  14. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  15. Andexanet: Effectively Reversing Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2016-06-01

    Despite direct oral anticoagulants becoming a mainstay of anticoagulant therapy, the effective, timely, and safe reversal of their anticoagulant effect remains challenging. Emerging evidence attests that andexanet, a recombinant and inactive variant of native factor X (FXa), competitively inhibits and counteracts the anticoagulant effect of many inhibitors of native activated FXa. PMID:27048885

  16. Effects of spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the effects of spatial resolution on extraction of geologic information are woefully lacking but spatial resolution effects can be examined as they influence two general categories: detection of spatial features per se; and the effects of IFOV on the definition of spectral signatures and on general mapping abilities.

  17. Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    Research studies that have focused on identifying the characteristics or correlates of elementary and secondary schools that are unusually effective are reviewed, concentrating on the "effective schools" movement. Research on effective schools supports the conclusion that they rank high on certain characteristics frequently referred to as…

  18. Effective Teachers of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David; Poulson, Louise; Fox, Richard

    A study was commissioned to help the Teacher Training Agency and teachers in England to understand more clearly how effective teachers help children to become literate. Research aims were to: identify the key factors of what effective teachers know, understand, and do that enables them to put effective literacy teaching into practice; identify the…

  19. Characteristics of Effective Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    THe confusing and often contradictory literature on organizational effectiveness is reviewed briefly, followed by a discussion of the leading models of effectiveness, their relative applicability to colleges and universities, questions for guiding the design of a specific study of organizational effectiveness, and guidelines for effective…

  20. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  1. The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin J

    2009-07-01

    The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

  2. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  3. Running effective meetings, running effective groups.

    PubMed

    Ogborn, S E

    1994-12-01

    Meetings are effective if they meet the objectives of each person involved in the least amount of time possible. Different strategies are needed for different types of meetings. Different leadership styles are necessary depending on the members' personality preferences and the stages of the group's development. Good leaders know how to adapt to these preferences and stages. PMID:10139146

  4. Effect identification in comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic medical records means there are now vast data resources available for comparative effectiveness research (CER). In concert with conventional randomized controlled trials, CER holds great promise for advancing our understanding of how different therapeutic treatments yield different health outcomes in different settings and with different populations. But in a research culture fixated on estimating correlations and p-values, the threat of misinterpretation of results and improper CER inferences is troubling. Accordingly, this paper aims to shore up the inferential foundations of CER by introducing the fundamentals of effect identification, which is the process of identifying or teasing out empirically defensible causal effects from competing explanations. Three primary requirements of effect identification-positivity, exchangeability, and consistency- are explained and simple exampled are given. The take home message is that so-called big data from medical records may not yield better or more useful results. Advances will come only when the right question is addressed with the appropriate data and methods. PMID:25848556

  5. The enigma of the haemogram "left-shift" in periwinkles infected with trematodes.

    PubMed

    Gorbushin, Alexander M; Iakovleva, Nadya V

    2008-06-01

    To make further progress in the understanding of digenean immune evasive tactics in their snail host, we compared the haemopoietic parameters and haemocyte functional potencies in the prosobranch Littorina littorea, which were either healthy or infected with echinostome trematode Himasthla elongata. The haemocyte concentration in the circulation of infected individuals was significantly higher than in uninfected ones, 3300 microl(-1) and 1882 microl(-1), respectively. Intense haemopoiesis in haemolymph of infected snails was evidenced by 4-fold higher BrdU incorporation into nuclei of haemocytes as well as elevated level of cyclin D expression in these cells. Evident skewing of the haemocyte population toward a higher frequency of immature, undifferentiated haemocytes in infected L. littorea was found. Haemocytes in infected snails had a much lower functional potency in production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Correlation analysis shows that both cytotoxic and ROI generation values were significantly and negatively correlated with proportion of juvenile cells in circulation. Experimental injection of H. elongata excretory/secretory products modulated haemopoiesis toward increasing a juvenile cells proportion by 7th day post-injection. This can be considered a haemogram "left-shift" by analogy to that seen in the human neutrophil compartment, when more immature bandforms are found in blood during acute inflammation or bone marrow disorders. We hypothesize that echinostomatide trematodes may interfere in the normal neuroendocrine management of haemopoiesis in the host and cause a haemopoietic signal to initiate multiplication to near neoplastic levels. PMID:18387820

  6. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  7. Dynamic ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

  8. Atomic lighthouse effect.

    PubMed

    Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency. PMID:25401364

  9. Atomic lighthouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máximo, C. E.; Kaiser, R.; Courteille, Ph. W.; Bachelard, R.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease of the magnetic field efficiency.

  10. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  11. Cardiac effects of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Dicken, Bryan; Bigam, David; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits. PMID:24621650

  12. Volcanic effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

  13. Interdependence and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wageman, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the differential effects of task design and reward system design on group functioning in a large U.S. corporation; the effectiveness of "hybrid" groups (having tasks and rewards with both individual and group elements); and how individuals' autonomy preferences moderate their responses to interdependence. Groups performed best when…

  14. Effective rigidity of membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliti, L.

    1986-12-01

    The role of thermal fluctuations of shape (undulations) in reducing the effective rigidity of membranes is reviewed. The consequences of this effect on vesicle size distribution and on the structure of microemulsions, as well as on other physical phenomena, are sketched.

  15. Defining Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  16. Dimensions of Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberly, Ronald C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of teacher effectiveness in college departments of sociology, anthropology, and social work. Five types of teacher effectiveness were found to be potentially useful for student, faculty, and administrative purposes. They include teacher task responsiveness, respect for students, teacher capability, student development, and…

  17. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  19. Organizational Effectiveness of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil

    1982-01-01

    Because organizational effectiveness of schools is difficult to define, a model is needed to explain the complexities of the concept. Two models offer some promise. One is the goal model, which defines effectiveness as the degree to which organizations meet or surpass their goals (either official or operational). The other is the system resource…

  20. Developing Effective Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T.J.

    In this introductory work, the main principles on which British companies are basing management development programs are presented, and stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial talent are set forth: stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial t"lent are set forth: program planning based on clear objectives and communication;…

  1. Correlational effect size benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. PMID:25314367

  2. Overview of atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rote, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Effluents from the transportation system are the major cause of Satellite Power System related atmospheric effects. These effects are discussed and include inadvertent weather modification, air quality degradation, compositional changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere, formation of noctilucent clouds, plasma density changes, airglow enhancements, and changes in composition and dynamics of the plasmasphere and magnetosphere.

  3. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  4. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  5. Cardiovascular Effects Of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1992-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents study of effects of weightlessness and simulations upon cardiovascular systems of humans and animals. Reviews research up to year 1987 in United States and Soviet space programs on such topics as physiological changes induced by weightlessness in outer space and by subsequent return to Earth gravity and also reviews deconditioning effects of prolonged bed rest on ground.

  6. The Chelate Effect Redefined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)

  7. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  8. Effects on Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of controlled and modified atmospheres on insects is reviewed and summarized in this chapter. Traditionally, controlled and modified atmospheres are used to store and preserve fresh fruits and vegetables. The effects on insects and the potential of these treatments are secondary to the...

  9. The Kaye Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

  10. Music Teacher Effectiveness Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Manny

    Although relatively few studies exist, a review of the research reveals some common characteristics of an effective music teacher. Effective music teachers tend to be extroverted, enthusiastic, and care sincerely for their students. Such teachers are competent in musicianship (particularly in diagnosing and correcting musical errors and in using…

  11. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECTS OF STATINS

    PubMed Central

    Liao, James K.; Laufs, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. In clinical trials, statins are beneficial in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the overall benefits observed with statins appear to be greater than what might be expected from changes in lipid levels alone, suggesting effects beyond cholesterol lowering. Indeed, recent studies indicate that some of the cholesterol-independent or “pleiotropic” effects of statins involve improving endothelial function, enhancing the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation, and inhibiting the thrombogenic response. Furthermore, statins have beneficial extrahepatic effects on the immune system, CNS, and bone. Many of these pleiotropic effects are mediated by inhibition of isoprenoids, which serve as lipid attachments for intracellular signaling molecules. In particular, inhibition of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho, Ras, and Rac, whose proper membrane localization and function are dependent on isoprenylation, may play an important role in mediating the pleiotropic effects of statins. PMID:15822172

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of Tunisian Limoniastrum guyonianum Durieu ex Boiss extracts.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Amel; Benzarti, Anissa; Arem, Amira El; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Hammami, Saoussen; Gorcii, Mohamed; Mastouri, Maha; Hellal, Ahmed Noureddine; Mighri, Zine

    2016-07-01

    In the present investigation, extracts obtained from L. guyonianum Durieu ex Boiss. aerial parts were used to evaluate total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. A study of antioxidant activities of the prepared samples was carried out on the basis of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+.) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Moreover, the efficiency of methanolic, chloroformic and petroleum ether extracts and the deriving fractions from the methanolic extract was tested against human bacterial and fungal pathogenic strains using micro dilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plate. Furthermore, leaves and stems extracts were subjected to RP-HPLC for phenolic compounds identification. Results showed that polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities varied considerably as function of solvent polarity. Moreover, antiradical capacities against DPPH, ABTS(+.) and reducing power were maxima in methanol aerial parts extract which showed the highest polyphenol contents (134mg CE/g DW). The antimicrobial activities showed that methanolic, chloroformic and petroleum ether extracts were found to be most potent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 23 and 46μ.mL(-1), respectively. The fractions F(13) and F(16) have a great antifungal potential against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilesis (MIC=39μ.mL(-1)). The RP-HPLC analysis lead the identification of gallic, procatechuic and trans-cinnamic acids, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, n-propyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, epicatechin, naringin and myricetin in L. guyonianum Durieu ex Boiss. leaves and stems extracts. PMID:27393443

  13. The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

  14. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Felypressin

    PubMed Central

    Cecanho, Rodrigo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Ranali, José

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of felypressin (FEL) were studied in Wistar rats. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure measurements were taken in awake rats treated with vasopressin (AVP), FEL, or epinephrine (EPI). Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls (P < .05) were applied. Felypressin and AVP induced a pressor effect, and bradycardia was inhibited by IV V1 antagonist. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. Epinephrine induced a higher pressor effect and a similar bradycardia that was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on area postrema and central V1 receptors. These effects are potentially less harmful to the cardiovascular system than the effects of EPI. PMID:17177590

  16. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  17. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group. PMID:26980800

  18. Bustling argon: biological effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

  19. Improving engineering effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiero, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, K.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological changes resulting from long term weightlessness are reviewed and activities conducted to study cardiovascular deconditioning at NASA Ames are discussed. Emphasis is on using monkeys in chair rest, water immersion, and tilt table studies to simulate space environment effects.

  1. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  2. Effects of New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Transnational implications of technological change and innovation in telecommunications are discussed, including impact on jobs and industrial relations, computer security, access to information, and effects of technological innovation on international economic systems. (SK)

  3. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  4. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. PMID:21406855

  5. Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, E.W.; Brown, K.; Rivers, B.; Knight, R.

    1984-01-01

    PHA-stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes were used as a model system for assessing the in vitro effects of calcium cyclamate. Techniques of autoradiography, cytological staining, cell counting, liquid scintillation and karyotyping were used to study the cytogenetic damage and biochemical effects of calcium cyclamate when assayed in 24 hour intervals for 96 hours. The cells were exposed to 10(-2) and 10(-3) molar concentrations of calcium cyclamate in TC 199 medium with fetal calf serum and antibiotics. It was noted that the addition of cyclamate increased mitotic rate of lymphocyte cells in cultures. It was determined that calcium cyclamate impaired the synthesis of deoxribonunucleic acid (as depicted by decreased incorporation of tritiated thymidine), reduced grain counts in autoradiographs and increased chromosome aberrations in cyclamate treated PHA stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Morphological changes and growth rates showed significant effects. These studies indicate that calcium cyclamate has variable significant effects on leucocytes growth and chromosome morphology.

  6. Effects of Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... you or your family member has ever had heat stroke, or suffered from the condition in a previous surgery, be sure to tell the physician anesthesiologist. Regional Anesthesia The potential side effects of regional anesthesia (such as an epidural or ...

  7. Comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, J A; Schaefer, P W; Romero, J M; Rabinov, J D; Sanelli, P C; Manchikanti, L

    2014-09-01

    The goal of comparative effectiveness research is to improve health care while dealing with the seemingly ever-rising cost. An understanding of comparative effectiveness research as a core topic is important for neuroradiologists. It can be used in a variety of ways. Its goal is to look at alternative methods of interacting with a clinical condition, ideally, while improving delivery of care. While the Patient-Centered Outcome Research initiative is the most mature US-based foray into comparative effectiveness research, it has been used more robustly in decision-making in other countries for quite some time. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence of the United Kingdom is a noteworthy example of comparative effectiveness research in action. PMID:24874531

  8. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

  9. Evaluating teaching effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kirschling, J M; Fields, J; Imle, M; Mowery, M; Tanner, C A; Perrin, N; Stewart, B J

    1995-12-01

    Major reform in nursing education is underway, with increased emphasis being placed on the importance of the teacher-student relationship. An instrument for evaluation of teaching effectiveness, developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Nursing, attempts to capture the student's perception of the quality of the teacher-student relationship as well as other salient aspects of teaching practices. The evaluation tool contains 26 items evaluating teaching effectiveness and 14 items that evaluate the course. The teaching effectiveness items yield five scales including: knowledge and expertise, facilitative teaching methods, communication style, use of own experiences, and feedback. Psychometric testing has been completed and there is evidence of construct validity in relation to teaching effectiveness and internal consistency reliability for the five scales. PMID:8583255

  10. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  11. Systems effectiveness evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicely, H. P., Jr.; Givens, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Eight integrated computer programs provide needed capability to reduce man-hours needed to perform routine monitoring and assessment of effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability of large electronic equipment systems.

  12. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Specific Types of Emergencies Health Effects of Tsunamis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... environmental hazards. The majority of deaths associated with tsunamis are related to drownings, but traumatic injuries are ...

  13. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  14. [Genetic effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

  15. Modulational effects in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, T.

    1997-12-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed.

  16. Secondary pool boiling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Tsubaki, A.; Zuhlke, C.; Anderson, T.; Alexander, D.; Gogos, G.; Ndao, S.

    2016-02-01

    A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.

  17. "Side" effects: a misnomer.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The tragic results for the babies of patients prescribed thalidomide, although they can indeed be termed "side" effects, hardly warrant so slight an epithet, and Dr Joyce in his paper would like the term to be dropped in favour of "additional" effects of drugs. Despite extensive clinical trials before drugs are put before the prescribing doctor, side effects cannot be entirely anticipated or eliminated, and indeed many are not harmful. However, it is important, Dr Joyce argues, for information to the doctor from the patient and from the doctor to the manufacturer to be collected and evaluated. Only in this way can effects of drugs other than those intended be drawn to the notice of the manufacturer. The commentary by two practising physicians emphasizes the ambiguities in the descriptive literature accompanying a new drug. Dr Herxheimer and Dr Higgs would like to see some sort of panel to be established to reassess drugs in the light of observations on their effects and "side" effects on patients, a task which the existing Committee on Safety of Medicines could not at the moment undertake. A medical need for a new drug should be established before it is manufactured, let alone offered to the general practitioner. PMID:823336

  18. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  19. In Vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Optimized Nitroglycerin-Citrate-Ethanol as a Nonantibiotic, Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Ruth A; Rosenblatt, Joel; Hirsh-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Murray, Kimberly; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2016-09-01

    The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0.01% to 0.0015% or 0.003%. The optimized formulations demonstrated complete and rapid (2 h) eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR Enterobacter cloacae, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Escherichia coli, MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata biofilms. The optimized NiCE lock solutions demonstrated anticoagulant activities comparable to those of heparin lock solutions. NiCE lock solution was significantly more effective than taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata The optimized, nonantibiotic, heparin-free NiCE lock solution demonstrates rapid broad-spectrum biofilm eradication as well as effective anticoagulant activity, making NiCE a high-quality ACLS candidate for clinical assessment. PMID:27297475

  20. The influence of photodynamic therapy parameters on the inactivation of Candida spp: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F.; Mima, E. G.; Dovigo, L. N.; Bagnato, V. S.; Jorge, J. H.; de Souza Costa, C. A.; Pavarina, A. C.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT), such as pre-irradiation time (PIT), on the inactivation of Candida spp. was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Suspensions of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were treated with Photogem®, incubated for 5, 10 or 15 min and illuminated with a blue LED light. Colonies were cultivated and log values of CFU ml-1 were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis test. For in vivo evaluation, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans. PDT was performed on the dorsum of the tongue by topical administration of Photogem® and illumination after 5, 10 or 15 min. C. albicans was recovered from the tongue and the number of CFU ml-1 was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Animals were killed and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis. Susceptibility of Candida spp. suspensions to PDT was in decreasing order: C. albicans = C. tropicalis < C. krusei < C. glabrata. No significant difference was observed among the different PIT (p > 0.05), both in vivo and in vitro. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) of log(CFU ml-1) of C. albicans from tongues of mice was observed with no adverse effects in the tissue. PDT was effective to inactivate in vitroCandida spp. and for reduction of C. albicans in vivo, independently of the PIT used.

  1. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  2. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma. Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient. PMID:25705688

  3. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  4. The negative repetition effect.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising negative repetition effect, in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and across pairs, the target words were drawn from a small set of categories. In the repetition condition, the pairs were initially presented in a random order and then presented a 2nd time blocked by the category of the target words. In the single presentation condition, the pairs were presented only in the blocked order. Participants in the former condition recalled fewer target words on a free recall test despite having seen the word pairs twice (the negative repetition effect). This phenomenon is explored in a series of 5 experiments assessing 3 theoretical accounts of the effect. The experiments demonstrate that the negative repetition effect generalizes over multiple encoding conditions (reading and generative encoding), over different memory tests (free and cued recall), and over delay (5 min and 2 days). The results argue against a retrieval account and a levels-of-processing account but are consistent with the item-specific-relational account, the account upon which the effect was initially predicated. PMID:23421508

  5. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  6. A "voice inversion effect?".

    PubMed

    Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

  7. Pleiotropic effects of statins

    PubMed Central

    Kavalipati, Narasaraju; Shah, Jay; Ramakrishan, Ananthraman; Vasnawala, Hardik

    2015-01-01

    Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe. PMID:26425463

  8. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  9. Cyclone vibration effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.C.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-09-01

    A Government Accounting Office review of coal mine dust sampling procedures recommended studies be performed to determine accuracy and precision of dust measurements taken with current equipment. The effects of vibration on the 10-mm Dorr-Oliver nylon cyclone run at a flow rate of 2 L/min were investigated. A total of 271 samples were taken during 95 tests. All tests lasted about 7 h each and were performed inside a 19 l capacity aerosol chamber. Coal dust concentrations of about 2 mg/m/SUP/3 in air and a respirable fraction of 25-30% were used. The effects of a variety of vibration frequencies and stroke lengths were tested in two modes (horizontal and vertical). At most frequencies and stroke lengths, vibration was found to have an insignificant effect on cyclone performance.

  10. Transgenerational genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Vicki R; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2012-01-01

    Since Mendel, studies of phenotypic variation and disease risk have emphasized associations between genotype and phenotype among affected individuals in families and populations. Although this paradigm has led to important insights into the molecular basis for many traits and diseases, most of the genetic variants that control the inheritance of these conditions continue to elude detection. Recent studies suggest an alternative mode of inheritance where genetic variants that are present in one generation affect phenotypes in subsequent generations, thereby decoupling the conventional relations between genotype and phenotype, and perhaps, contributing to ‘missing heritability’. Under some conditions, these transgenerational genetic effects can be as frequent and strong as conventional inheritance, and can persist for multiple generations. Growing evidence suggests that RNA mediates these heritable epigenetic changes. The primary challenge now is to identify the molecular basis for these effects, characterize mechanisms and determine whether transgenerational genetic effects occur in humans. PMID:22122083

  11. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  12. Effective Documentation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

  13. Cosmological memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  14. Yeasts Associated with Culex pipiens and Culex theileri Mosquito Larvae and the Effect of Selected Yeast Strains on the Ontogeny of Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Steyn, A; Roets, F; Botha, A

    2016-04-01

    The success of mosquitoes in nature has been linked to their microbiota and bacteria in particular. Yet, knowledge on their symbioses with yeasts is lacking. To explore possible associations, culturable yeasts were isolated from wild larvae of Culex pipiens and Culex theileri. These yeasts were classified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses and identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. Representative strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Galactomyces, Hannaella, Meyerozyma, Pichia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Wickerhamomyces were isolated. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first records of the yeast microbiota from wild mosquito larvae and show that they may harbour potential clinically relevant yeast species, including the well-known opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans. Also, diminished numbers of yeast isolates originating from adults, compared to larvae, support the hypothesis of microbial reduction/elimination during adult emergence and extend it to include yeasts. In addition, strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida pseudolambica, Cryptococcus gattii, Metschnikowia bicuspidata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were tested as sole feed during a 21-day feeding experiment wherein cumulative larval growth, survival and pupation of Cx. pipiens were recorded. Although most yeasts supported larval growth in a similar manner to the positive control S. cerevisiae strain, the different yeast strains impacted differently on Culex pipiens ontogeny. Notably, survival and pupation of larvae were negatively impacted by a representative strain of the primary pathogen C. gattii - signifying some yeasts to be natural antagonists of mosquitoes. PMID:26573833

  15. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    PubMed

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-06-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26417709

  16. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

  17. Effective Temperature of Mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derényi, Imre; Szöllősi, Gergely J.

    2015-02-01

    Biological macromolecules experience two seemingly very different types of noise acting on different time scales: (i) point mutations corresponding to changes in molecular sequence and (ii) thermal fluctuations. Examining the secondary structures of a large number of microRNA precursor sequences and model lattice proteins, we show that the effects of single point mutations are statistically indistinguishable from those of an increase in temperature by a few tens of kelvins. The existence of such an effective mutational temperature establishes a quantitative connection between robustness to genetic (mutational) and environmental (thermal) perturbations.

  18. Modeling Hofmeister Effects.

    PubMed

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A

    2009-03-11

    A two dimensional model of water, so-called Mercedes-Benz model, was used to study effects of the size of hydrophobic solute on the insertion thermodynamics in electrolyte solutions. The model was examined by the constant pressure Monte Carlo computer simulation. The results were compared with the experimental data for noble gasses and methane in water and electrolyte solution. The influence of different ions at infinite dilution on the free energy of transfer was explored. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results was obtained. The mechanism of Hofmeister effects was proposed. PMID:20161468

  19. Modeling Hofmeister Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    A two dimensional model of water, so-called Mercedes-Benz model, was used to study effects of the size of hydrophobic solute on the insertion thermodynamics in electrolyte solutions. The model was examined by the constant pressure Monte Carlo computer simulation. The results were compared with the experimental data for noble gasses and methane in water and electrolyte solution. The influence of different ions at infinite dilution on the free energy of transfer was explored. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results was obtained. The mechanism of Hofmeister effects was proposed. PMID:20161468

  20. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  1. Magnetic Nernst effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes in continuous media predicts the existence of a magnetic Nernst effect that results from a magnetic analog to the Seebeck effect in a ferromagnet and magnetophoresis occurring in a paramagnetic electrode in contact with the ferromagnet. Thus, a voltage that has DC and AC components is expected across a Pt electrode as a response to the inhomogeneous magnetic induction field generated by magnetostatic waves of an adjacent YIG slab subject to a temperature gradient. The voltage frequency and dependence on the orientation of the applied magnetic induction field are quite distinct from that of spin pumping.

  2. [Cytoprotective effects of bilirubin].

    PubMed

    Vítek, L

    2005-01-01

    Bilirubin, a major product of heme catabolism, belongs to compounds with pleiotropic biologic effects. For a long time bilirubin was considered as a metabolite dangerous for human health, neonatologists know well serious clinical complication of neonatal jaundice called bilirubin encephalopathy. Nevertheless, recent data has demonstrated that bilirubin exhibits potent antioxidant and even anti-inflammatory effects with substantial clinical impacts. The aim of the present study was to summarize present knowledge in this rapidly evolving field and suggest further possible clinical consequences. PMID:15981989

  3. Photostimulated even acoustoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, G. M.; Shon, N. Kh.; Tsurkan, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Photostimulated photogalvanic (PG) and acoustogalvanic (AG) currents in a semiconductor placed in the field of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies Omega sub 1 = 2Omega sub 2 are analyzed. These currents affect the probability of electron scattering and the HF acoustic flux field. Under specified double laser illumination the system comprising an electron gas and photons becomes noncentrosymmetric, which leads to the PG and AG effects. The AG effect represents a contribution to the acoustoelectric current that is linear according to intensity and even according to the acoustic wave vector.

  4. Enhancing board effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Curran, Connie R; Totten, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Like any other job, board work is associated with specific competencies. Competencies are the combination of knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed to perform a job or task effectively. Boards are only as strong as their weakest member. Board education should focus on improving the knowledge and skills of the board and individual members and on overall board performance. Assessment of individual board member performance is designed to evaluate the trustee's knowledge of board roles and responsibilities and the expectations of board members. Board effectiveness is built through competency-based board member recruitment and selection; board member education and development; and evaluation of board, board member, and meeting performance. PMID:21291066

  5. Nonequilibrium effects in Isoscaling

    SciTech Connect

    Dorso, C. O.; Lopez, J. A.

    2007-02-12

    In this work we study within a simple model different properties of the system that allow us to understand the properties of the isoscaling observable. We first show that isoscaling is a general property of fragmenting systems. We show this by using a simple generalized percolation model. We show that the usual isoscaling property can be obtained in the case of bond percolation in bichromatic lattices with any regular topology. In this case the probabilities of each color (isospin) are independent. We then explore the effect of introducing 'non-equilibrium' effects.

  6. Contamination effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

  7. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  8. Using Your Library Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennepin County Library, Minnetonka, MN.

    This collection of materials for a three-hour instructional program for young people and adults in the effective use of the public library includes an introduction to the program, a teaching guide for the librarian, a packet of materials for students, and a summary of 90 evaluations of the program as it was presented at two area libraries and…

  9. Teacher Effectiveness: A Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    1969-01-01

    This document summarizes the highlights of research on teacher effectiveness and concludes with recommendations based on a synthesis of this past work. The various methodologies that have been used are discussed, from rating scales to objective observation techniques, such as OScAR and the ecological studies. The major problems in teacher…

  10. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  11. DCPS Effective Schools Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    DCPS is committed to providing "all" students with the caliber of education they deserve. The goal of the DCPS Effective Schools Framework is to ensure that every child, in every classroom, has access to a high-quality and engaging standards-based instructional program, and that all school supports are aligned to support teaching and learning. The…

  12. Globalisation, Effectiveness and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimore, Peter

    This paper reports principally on two studies, prompted by research on school effectiveness in the United States and England, which indicate globalization is beginning to affect school improvement. The first study cites case studies of two schools--from working-class, multi-ethnic, poorly educated areas of Singapore and London--to determine if…

  13. Effects of New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A series of articles looks at computerization and unions in Australia, France, and India; bargaining agreements about technological innovation in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States; and the effects of technology on the labor force in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States. (SK)

  14. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  15. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  16. Effective Intervention for Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Randie; Kellner, Millicent H.; Green, Stuart; Elias, Maurice J.

    2012-01-01

    Most professional educators are aware that every school should have an effective approach to harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) prevention in which every member of the school community participates. Regardless of the approach a school takes, all students and all staff members should be knowledgeable participants who have been trained to…

  17. The Effective Clinical Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wink, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the common problems with clinical conferences and suggests approaches to maximize student learning. Suggests that an effective clinical conference has three characteristics: (1) it is a group event; (2) it contributes to the achievement of course and clinical objectives; and (3) it provides a setting for students to explore personal…

  18. Designing "Educationally Effective" Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses data from a curriculum intervention project designed to introduce new forms of discussion, seen as educationally effective, into the primary classroom. While the introduction of talk as an aid to learning is premised on a social approach to learning, such interventions are often evaluated in terms of cognitive benefits and…

  19. Effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

  20. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors explain how…

  1. Effective Use of Usenet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Continues a description of the Usenet computer network that began in the previous issue. The effective use of Usenet is discussed, including how to screen out unwanted information, the most helpful newsgroups to access, and setting up news reader software. Ideas for library outreach services via Usenet are also suggested. (LRW)

  2. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  3. Contaminant effects on fisheries

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, V.W.; Hodson, P.V.; Nriagu, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the effects of water pollution on fish and fisheries. Topics include: monitoring lead pollution in fish, metallothionein and acclimation to heavy metals in fish, modeling approaches, appraising the status of fisheries, and assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Effects on saltwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, D.J.; Oshida, P.S.; Wilkes, F.G.; Mearns, A.J.; Ginn, T.C.; Carr, R.S.

    1984-06-01

    A review of the literature reveals numerous articles dealing with the uptake of metals by marine organisms. Cadmium, copper, zinc, and methyl mercury have been shown to have toxic effects on fish, oysters, clams, lobsters, and other marine animals. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the accumulation of these metals. 237 references.

  5. Is Effective Teaching Stable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Helen; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the ecological validity of using observation-based scores to evaluate individual teachers' effectiveness, mirroring their use by school administrators. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, the authors asked (a) how similar are teachers' emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support scores from…

  6. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  7. Teaching Effective Interviewing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Frankie

    Through careful preparation and followup, students can insure successful job interviews. If they evaluate their own skills and expectations and assess employer characteristics before interviews, they can increase their credibility with interviewers and make more effective job decisions. If they anticipate irrelevant or illegal questions on such…

  8. Heterologous vaccine effects.

    PubMed

    Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Aaby, Peter; Shann, Frank; Netea, Mihai G; Levy, Ofer; Louis, Jacques; Picot, Valentina; Greenberg, Michael; Warren, William

    2016-07-25

    The heterologous or non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines, at times defined as "off-target effects" suggest that they can affect the immune response to organisms other than their pathogen-specific intended purpose. These NSEs have been the subject of clinical, immunological and epidemiological studies and are increasingly recognized as an important biological process by a growing group of immunologists and epidemiologists. Much remain to be learned about the extent and underlying mechanisms for these effects. The conference "Off-target effects of vaccination" held in Annecy-France (June 8-10 2015) intended to take a holistic approach drawing from the fields of immunology, systems biology, epidemiology, bioinformatics, public health and regulatory science to address fundamental questions of immunological mechanisms, as well as translational questions about vaccines NSEs. NSE observations were examined using case-studies on live attenuated vaccines and non-live vaccines followed by discussion of studies of possible biological mechanisms. Some possible pathways forward in the study of vaccines NSE were identified and discussed by the expert group. PMID:27312214

  9. Pleiotropic effects of incretins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia) and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia). The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the “glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones” of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-17-37 and GLP17-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine), central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius) and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health. PMID:22701844

  10. Building Effective Afterschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

  11. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  12. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  13. Case 26: Somogyi effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This individual has a classic manifestation of the Somogyi effect, which is fasting morning hyperglycemia in response to hypoglycemia in the early morning and late night hours. The danger is that if night-time blood glucose levels are not measured, the physician may interpret the patient as having h...

  14. Alexandrite effect spectropyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2006-08-01

    Alexandrite crystal is commonly used for making alexandrite laser, and it also has a less-known phenomenon called the alexandrite effect that refers to the color change between different light sources. A novel spectropyrometer for temperature measurement of a radiating body utilizing the alexandrite effect is introduced. The alexandrite effect method for temperature measurement is based on the relationship between the temperature of blackbody and the hue-angle in the CIELAB color space. The alexandrite effect spectropyrometer consists of an optical probe, a spectrometer, a computer, and an alexandrite filter. It measures the spectral power distribution of a radiating body through the alexandrite filter, calculates the hue-angle, and determines the temperature. The spectropyrometer is suitable for temperature measurement of any radiating body with or without spectral lines in its spectral power distribution from 1000 K to 100000 K. The spectropyrometer is particularly useful for high to ultrahigh temperature measurement of any radiating bodies with spectral line emissions, such as electric arcs and discharges, plasmas, and high temperature flames.

  15. Tips for Effective Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Kevin F.

    2009-01-01

    School business officials' days are filled with numbers and reports--audits, balance sheets, check registers, financial statements, journal entries, vouchers, and warrant reports, just to name a few. Those are all important tools that school business officers use to manage the financial resources of the district effectively. However, they are also…

  16. Cost Effective Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  17. Radiation: Doses, Effects, Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lean, Geoffrey, Ed.

    Few scientific issues arouse as much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This booklet is an attempt to summarize what is known about radiation and provide a basis for further discussion and debate. The first four chapters of the booklet are based on the most recent reports to the United Nations' General Assembly by the United Nations…

  18. Fast and effective?

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2013-12-18

    The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting. PMID:24345130

  19. The Effective, Efficient Professor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a succinct overview of the book "The Effective, Efficient Professor" (P. Wankat) that presents a wealth of strategies and techniques for successful faculty members. Sections of the book focus on time management, teaching, students, and scholarship and service. Includes some practical tips from the book ranging from instructional…

  20. Desert Storm environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, E. W.

    It is noted that after more than six months of operation of the Patriot launch station in the Saudi Arabian desert no problems that were attributed to high temperature occurred. The environmental anomalies that did occur were cosmetic in nature and related to dust and salt fog. It was concluded that the Desert Storm environmental effects were typical of worldwide hot, dry climates.

  1. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  2. Making Effective Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Although the focus of this issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is on making effective assignments, most of the articles also emphasize the importance and power of writing. Articles deal with the following topics: (1) the use of I-search (as explained by Kenneth Macrorie in "Searching Writing") as a form of research paper that narrates the…

  3. Using Media Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Recommends that media presentations can be used effectively in the history classroom as images of reality. Suggests films and television programs and documentaries that can be utilized to show how movies play a role in shaping opinion and changing perceptions. (DK)

  4. Conducting Effective Simulator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerling, Kenneth D.

    This paper describes the simulator phase of Commonwealth Edison's program for training and licensing operators of nuclear power stations. Topics covered include (1) preparing the students before starting the simulator phase; (2) the simulator schedule and the number of students that can be trained effectively in a class; (3) format and structure…

  5. Research and Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David

    This paper presents one researcher's premise that the most important variable in determining classroom effectiveness is the congruence of the delivered curriculum with the desired outcomes or, that students be given the opportunity to learn what is expected of them. This theory presupposes that curriculum expectations be made clear to students,…

  6. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobo, Amber Leann

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that there is a correlation between teacher characteristics (e.g., pedagogical knowledge, teacher preparation/certification) and student achievement. Current political contexts call for the utilization of student achievement data to measure the effectiveness of our education systems. A solid research base of how teacher…

  7. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  8. Creating Effective Multimedia Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents information on several critical themes related to multimedia instruction for those involved in the design, development, or use of computer delivered instruction. Addresses software product life cycle; systematic approach to design; multimedia design and development teams; production values; critical components of effective multimedia;…

  9. Dimensions of Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud; Hord, Shirley M.

    This volume provides a comprehensive synthesis of competencies that research has associated with the administration of effective schools. Following an introduction, section 1, "Re-thinking the Organizational Structure of Schools," presents current thinking on the organizational structure in which school administrators function. Alternative models…

  10. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  11. Evaluating Effective Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Vaughn E.; Dougher, M. Kirk

    This paper outlines the purposes, professional obligations, and key components to consider when providing effective evaluation in psychotherapy supervision. An overview of various methods for gathering supervision data for evaluation purposes is provided including self-reporting; process notes; video and audiotaping; live observation; co-therapy;…

  12. Holding Effective Board Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Advice and tested methods for management of meetings from superintendents and board members are combined in this reference book on conducting effective school board meetings. Intended for a wide readership, it contains three chapters and an exhibit section comprising over one-third of the document. Following a brief introduction, chapter 1,…

  13. Effective Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  14. Resources for Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walline, Jane K.

    A special studies institute on resources for effective teaching was designed to train newly appointed or potential Curriculum Resource Consultants (CRC) who work in conjunction with special education instructional materials centers in Michigan. Objectives of the workshop sequences included the development of teacher-training competencies in the…

  15. Commentary: Expanding on Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E., Jr.; Massetti, Greta M.

    2003-01-01

    Atkins, Graczyk, Frazier, and Abdul-Adil (2003) make the point that there have been three limitations of mental health services for children and families in low-income, urban settings: (a) accessibility; (b) effectiveness; and (c) sustainability. Their article focuses extensively on improving access and addressing issues of sustainability in…

  16. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  17. Effective Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Robert N.

    Beginning with the observation that educators are faced with rising public expectations, declining resources, and increased public criticism, this paper describes a six-fold model for determining how staff development is operating and how it can be made to operate more effectively, in a self-renewing manner. The six dimensions consist of the…

  18. Minnesota School Effectiveness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This packet is designed to assist educational leaders in presenting current research-based information on the characteristics of effective schools to their school staff. The packet is divided into five sections, each including a sample presentation script, transparency models, and worksheets for promoting group discussion. The first section is an…

  19. Matthew Effects for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Which children are most at risk of experiencing a Matthew effect in reading? We investigated this question using population-based methodology. First, we identified children entering kindergarten on socio-demographic factors (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) known to index the relative risks and resources available to them as…

  20. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)