These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Distributed modelling of the regional climatic equilibrium line altitude of glaciers in the European Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers are among the key indicators of ongoing climate change. The equilibrium line altitude is a theoretical line which defines the altitude at which annual accumulation equals the ablation. It represents the lowest boundary of the climatic glacierisation and, therefore, is an excellent proxy for climate variability. In this study we introduce a simple approach for modelling the glacier distribution

Michael Zemp; Martin Hoelzle; Wilfried Haeberli

2007-01-01

2

Reconstruction of equilibrium-line altitudes for tropical and sub-tropical glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past fluctuations of tropical and sub-tropical glaciers provide important palaeoclimate proxies for regions where other forms of evidence are rare. However, published equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) estimates for tropical and sub-tropical glaciers at the LGM vary widely, reflecting the diversity of methods and approaches employed by different research groups. This complicates regional and global comparisons of ELA estimates, and emphasises the

Douglas I. Benna; Lewis A. Owenb; Henry A. Osmastonc; Geoffrey O. Seltzer; Stephen C. Porterd; Bryan Marke

3

A theoretical approach to glacier equilibrium-line altitudes using meteorological data and glacier mass-balance records from southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a close exponential relationship between mean ablation-season temperature and winter precipitation at the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) of 10 Norwegian glaciers, three equations are derived. The first equation enables calculation of the minimum altitude of areas climatically suited for glacier formation, and is termed the altitude of instantaneous glacierization (AIG). Equation (2) is derived based on the ‘principle of

Øyvind Lie; Svein Olaf Dahl; Atle Nesje

2003-01-01

4

Reconstructing glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age in SE Tibet by glacier mapping and equilibrium line altitude calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate glaciers in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range, southeastern Tibet, are highly sensitive to climate change and therefore of particular high interest for research on late Holocene changes of the monsoonal climate in High Asia. However, because of the remoteness of the area, the scarcity of empirical data, and the challenges to remote sensing work posed by cloud and snow cover, knowledge about the glacier dynamics and changes in this region is still very limited. In this study, we applied a remote sensing approach in which 1964 glaciers were mapped from a Landsat ETM+ scene and subsequently parameterized by DEM-supported measurements. Geomorphological evidence, i.e., trimlines and latero-frontal moraines, were used to obtain quantitative data on the glaciers' morphological characteristics and the changes since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum glacier advance. Statistical analysis of glacier length change revealed an average retreat of ~ 27% and a trend toward stronger retreat for smaller glaciers. An evaluation of different methods to calculate equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) indicates that an optimized toe-to-ridge altitude method (TRAM) is more suitable than other methods in settings with complex topography and a lack of mass balance measurements. A large number of glacier measurements are crucial for high quality of TRAM results, and special attention has to be paid to different glacier characteristics. In order to determine the best-fitting TRAM ratio value and to test the quality of the calculated ELAs, a remote sensing approach was applied: for each investigated glacier, the altitudes of transient snowlines visible in the late summer Landsat scene were measured from the DEM and compared to TRAM results. The interpolated ELA results show a SE-NW gradient ranging from 4400 to 5600 m asl and an average ELA rise of ~ 136 m since the LIA. Because of the high spatial resolution of measurements, the ELA distribution reveals topographic effects down to the catchment scale, specifically orographic rainfall and leeward shielding. The interpretation of these patterns reveals that the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range is influenced by both, the Indian (ISM) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). However, the EASM does not reach the western part of the study area. The results indicate that the monsoonal temperate glaciers' high sensitivity to climate change is driven by two double forcings owing to the coincidence of accumulation and ablation phases.

Loibl, David; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Grießinger, Jussi

2014-06-01

5

Reconstruction of late Holocene glacier retreat and relevant climatic and topographic patterns in southeastern Tibet by glacier mapping and equilibrium line altitude calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate glaciers in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha range, southeastern Tibet, are highly sensitive to climate change and are therefore of particular high interest for research on late Holocene changes of the monsoonal climate in High Asia. However, due to the remoteness of the area, the scarcity of empirical data, and the challenges to remote sensing work posed by cloud and snow cover, knowledge about the glacier dynamics and changes is still very limited. We applied a remote sensing approach that allowed a comprehensive regional glacier survey despite the few available data. Geomorphologic characteristics, distribution and late Holocene changes of 1964 glaciers were mapped from one of the few appropriate late summer satellite images: a Landsat ETM+ scene from September 23, 1999. The glacier dataset was subsequently parameterized by DEM supported measurements. Complex climate-relief-glacier interactions were studied in detail for three large glaciers in neighboring valleys. Despite their spatial proximity, these display strong heterogeneity in terms of catchment morphology, debris cover, and glacier characteristics. The results of this case study then provided the conceptual basis to use geomorphological evidence, i.e. trimlines and latero-frontal moraines, to obtain quantitative data on the changes since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum glacier advance. Statistical analysis of glacier length change revealed an average retreat of ~ 40 % and a trend towards stronger retreat for smaller glaciers. An evaluation of different methods to calculate equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) indicates that an optimized toe-to-ridge altitude method (TRAM) outperforms other methods in settings with complex topography and a lack of mass-balance measurements. However, a large number of glacier measurements is crucial for high quality TRAM results and special attention has to be paid to different morphological glacier characteristics: debris-cover, reconstitution, valley floor limitation, and detachment of glacier tributaries, are criteria that prevent reliable ELA calculations. In order to determine the best-fitting TRAM ratio value and to test the quality of the calculated ELAs, a remote sensing approach was applied: the altitudes of transient snowlines visible in the late summer Landsat scene were measured from the DEM and compared to TRAM results for each glacier. The interpolated ELA results show a southeast-northwest gradient ranging from 4,400 to 5,600 m a.s.l. and an average ELA rise of ~ 98 m since the LIA. Due to the large amount of measurements, the ELA distribution reveals topographic effects down to the catchment scale, i.e. orographic rainfalls and leeward shielding. Contrasting to the expectations for subtropical settings, glaciers on south facing slopes have not retreated strongest and ELAs on south facing slopes did not rise furthest. Instead, highly heterogeneous spatial patterns emerge that show a strong imprint of both, topography and monsoonal dynamics. The interpretation of these patterns provides insights into the monsoonal system and the characteristics of late Holocene glacier change in southeastern Tibet. For example, the ELA distribution reveals that the study area is influenced by both, Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon, but that the latter does not reach the Tibetan Plateau.

Loibl, David; Lehmkuhl, Frank

2014-05-01

6

Glacier equilibrium line altitudes as palaeoclimatic information sources - examples from the Alpine Younger Dryas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) and flucutations of the ELA (dELA) of well dated glacial advances are valuable terrestrial sources for palaeoclimatic information, which are physically well understood (Kuhn 1981, Kaser and Osmaston 2001). Values of dELA can be used to infer quantitatively standard climatic parameters like precipitation and precipitation change. ELAs of former glaciers are usually calculated from maps of the glacier topography based on the moraines and related geomorphological features. Then either the analytical glacial-meterological model for ELA fluctuations by Kuhn (1981) or the statistical parameterization of the climate at the ELA in terms of "summer temperature" and "precipitation" by Ohmura et al. (1992) can be used for palaeoclimatic interpretation. As dELA is influenced both by factors governing accumulation and ablation, some external climatic information on one parameter is necessary to obtain the other. Moraines of the Younger Dryas "Egesen-Stadial" can be found throughout the Alps. Early Younger Dryas (Egesen-I, Ivy-Ochs et al. 1996) dELAs show a distinct spatial pattern. They were highest (ca. 450-600 m against "present-day") in areas exposed towards the West and Northwest. In the central valleys, it was in the order of -300 m and less. Presently, almost 200 data points are available. Summer temperature depression (dTs) can be derived from the Younger Dryas timberline depression and other proxy data (Ammann and Oldfield 2000). It seems to be in the order of -3.5 K in the central Alps. Along the northern and western fringe of the Alps, it may be somewhat larger (-4 to -4.5 K). dELA and dTs values are then used to calculate precipitation change (dP). Early Younger Dryas climate in the central valleys of the Alps seems to have been considerably drier than today (dP -30%). In areas open to the West and Northwest, precipitation seems to have been the same as today or even slightly higher (dP 0 - +10%). These results agree well with the results from permafrost-climate studies (Sailer et al. 2000) and the qualitative information from biological proxy data. They also support the results from Atmospheric General Circulation models for the Younger Dryas in Europe, which point towards a more zonal type of circulation. Parts of the study were financially supported by the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF) under grant P12600-GEO. References: Ammann, B., F.Oldfield (ed.).2000. Palaeo3 159(2-4). Ivy-Ochs, S., Ch. Schluechter, P.W.Kubik, H.A.Synal, J.Beer, H. Kerschner. 1996. Eclogae Geol. Helv. 89(3), 1049-1063. Kuhn, M. 1981. IAHS publ. 131, 3-20. Kaser, G., H.Osmaston. 2001. Tropical Glaciers. Cambridge University Press. Kerschner, H., G.Kaser, R.Sailer. 2000. Ann. Glaciol. 31, 80-84. Ohmura, A., P.Kasser and M.Funk. 1992. J.Glaciol., 38(130), 397 - 411.

Kerschner, H.; Sailer, R.; Hertl, A.; Schuh, M.

2003-04-01

7

Late-Pleistocene Equilibrium-Line Altitudes, Atmospheric Circulation, and Timing of Mountain Glacier Advances in the Interior Northwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstructed equilibrium-line altitudes for late- Pleistocene glaciers in eastern Oregon, central and northern Idaho, and western Montana. Over 500 cirque to small valley glaciers were mapped where moraines and other evidence for ice margins could be confidently interpreted on digital topographic maps. Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) were estimated using the accumulation-area ratio method. Spatial patterns of ELAs show a strong

Grant A. Meyer; Peter J. Fawcett; William W. Locke

8

Can the snowline be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line and mass balance for glaciers in the outer tropics?  

E-print Network

´gicas y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Mayor de San Andre´s , La Paz, Bolivia 4 IRD/Universite´ Joseph of the hydrological year is a good indicator of the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) for mid-latitude glaciers using direct field ELA and mass-balance measurements made on Glaciar Zongo, Bolivia ($1688 S

Rabatel, Antoine

9

Reconstruction of Equilibrium Line Altitudes of Nevado Coropuna Glaciers (Southern Peru) from the Late Pleistocene to the present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nevado Coropuna (15°31'S-72°39'W) is a volcanic complex located 200 km NE of the city of Arequipa, in the Southern Peruvian Andes. The summit area in the complex is covered with a glacier system formed by dozens of branches descending in all directions totaling many km2 in surface area. The study of the volcanic complex and its glaciers is of great interest because it is the main water reserve for tens of thousands of people, because of the risk scenario created by the presence of ice masses on a volcano with relatively recent activity, and because it constitutes an excellent geoindicator of the effects of climate change on ice masses in the western mountain chain of the Central Andes. This research aims to analyze glacier evolution using as geoindicators variations in glacier surface and equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs), defining deglaciation rates based on those variations and preparing forecasts with them on when the ice masses might disappear if the same rates were to occur in the future. In addition, a first estimation is attempted of the chronologies of the last phase of volcanic activity and the last phase of maximum glacier advance that can be attributed to the Late Glacial or Last Glacial Maximum periods. To achieve these aims, digital topography with 50m contour interval, two orthophotos of the central section of the Coropuna complex (15-6-1955 and 21-10-1986), an ASTER satellite image (12-11-2007) and geomorphological mapping of the volcanic complex created in a previous phase of the research (Ubeda, 2007) were integrated into a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was used to determine the global extent of the glacier system, and in more detail, that of two groups (NE and SE) in 1955, 1986 and 2007. Using the geomorphological cartography as a basis, the extent of the glaciers during their last advance in the Little Ice Age (LIA) and their last maximum advance were calculated. Next, surface areas for all phases were calculated using automatic functions within the GIS operating environment. To reconstruct the ELAs of the glaciers, the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR) method was used. This method is extensively described in Osmaston (2005). To determine the rates of deglaciation, variations observed for 2007 in surface areas and ELAs against their values in 1986, 1955 and the Little Ice Age (LIA) were used as geoindicators. Establishing deglaciation rates has allowed forecasts to be made as to when the complete disappearance of ice mass could occur for three future scenarios, considering the hypothetical reproduction in each scenario of the rates of deglaciation observed since 1986 (Scenario 1), 1955 (Scenario 2) and the LIA (Scenario 3). To determine the chronology of the last maximum advance of the glaciers and the last volcanic manifestations, samples were taken from moraine blocks and glaciated rocky thresholds, and also from lava ejected during the last eruption, in the eastern sector of the complex. Due to their recent external appearance, since they have been channeled by glacial valleys and have been affected by ice masses only at the head, these lavas had been dated as Holocene. Absolute dating was performed using cosmogenic methods (Cl36). As a result of applying the proposed method, glacial system surface areas have been estimated for 2007 (47 km2), 1986 (54 km2) and 1955 (56 km2), implying a reduction of ~18% in 52 years. The process appears to have speeded up in the last decades (~13% in only 21 years). Surfaces were also estimated and ELAs reconstructed for the NE and SE groups in 2007, 1986, 1955, the Little Ice Age and during the last maximum advance. Glaciers from the NE group show an area during all periods (2.3, 2.7, 2.9, 3.3 and 30 km2) smaller than SE group glaciers (8.1, 9.9, 10.3, 11.9 and 66.5 km2). An individual analysis of glaciers in the NE and SE groups in 2007 shows a reduction in surface area two to four times greater than that observed between 1955 and 1986. ELAs are also higher for all periods in the Northern section (5968, 5930, 5923, 5886 and 5186 m) than in

Úbeda, J.; Palacios, D.; Vázquez, L.

2009-04-01

10

Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash exercise and animation explores glaciers, including their formation, growth, and retreat. This resource provides animations, diagrams, models in which students can see the influence of temperature and precipitation on glacier growth, and supplementary information that may serve as an overview or review of glaciers for introductory level physical geology or Earth science students at the high school or undergraduate level.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

11

Modeling of glacier bed topography from glacier outlines, central branch lines, and a DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the expected future climate change, glacier ice as a resource will be further diminished and its sea-level rise contribution further increased. A key for a more accurate determination of future glacier evolution is to improve our currently sparse knowledge on glacier bedrock topography. Here, we present a simplified method implemented in a geographic information system to approximate subglacial

Frank Paul; Andreas Linsbauer

2012-01-01

12

Two independent methods for mapping the grounding line of an outlet glacier - example from the Astrolabe Glacier, Terre Adélie, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grounding line is a key element acting on the dynamics of coastal outlet glaciers. Knowing its position accurately is fundamental for both modelling the glacier dynamics and establishing a benchmark to which one can later refer in case of change. Here we map the grounding line of the Astrolabe Glacier in East Antarctica (66°41´ S; 140°05´ E), using hydrostatic and tidal methods. The first method is based on new surface and ice thickness data from which the line of buoyant flotation is found. We compare this hydrostatic map with kinematic GPS measurements of the tidal response of the ice surface. By detecting the transitions where the ice starts to move vertically in response to the tidal forcing we find control points for the grounding line position along GPS profiles. %If it can be shown that the long-term viscous mechanical behaviour of the ice slab validates the hydrostatic approach, mapping the grounding line from the ice supper surface displacements conversely requires correcting for the rigid elastic slab effect that dominates at tidal frequencies. With the help of a 2-dimensional elastic plate model, rigid elastic deviations are computed and applied to these control points. Once the extent of the grounding zone, the kinematic approach is consistent with the hydrostatic map. These two approaches lead us to propose a grounding line for the Astrolabe Glacier that significantly deviates from those obtained so far from satellite imagery.

Le Meur, E.; Sacchettini, M.; Garambois, S.; Berthier, E.; Drouet, A. S.; Durand, G.; Young, D.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Gim, Y.; Kirchner, D.; de Fleurian, B.; Gagliardini, O.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.

2013-08-01

13

Present and former equilibrium-line altitudes near Mount Everest, Nepal and Tibet.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New information on equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) of present and former glaciers in the Mount Everest area of eastern Nepal and southern Tibet has been derived from field mapping and interpretation of topographic maps and Landsat imagery. Present ELAs rise from south to north across the Himalayan Range from 5200 to 5800 m, as indicated by the altitudes of lowest cirque glaciers and highest lateral and medial moraines on valley glaciers. In contrast, ELAs during maximum late Pleistocene glaciation rose in altitude from 4300 to 5500m across the range, as indicated by altitudes of lowest cirque floors and maximum extent of glacial deposits. Highest ELAs occurred on previously unrecognized ice caps that formerly covered extensive highland areas in Tibet north of the range crest. Depression of ELAs during the late Pleistocene glaciation was about twice as great south of the range crest (950m) as north of it (400m).-from Author

Williams, V. S.

1983-01-01

14

Widespread, rapid grounding line retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica, from 1992 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the grounding line retreat of glaciers draining the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica using Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite radar interferometry from 1992 to 2011. Pine Island Glacier retreated 31 km at its center, with most retreat in 2005-2009 when the glacier ungrounded from its ice plain. Thwaites Glacier retreated 14 km along its fast flow core and 1 to 9 km along the sides. Haynes Glacier retreated 10 km along its flanks. Smith/Kohler glaciers retreated the most, 35 km along its ice plain, and its ice shelf pinning points are vanishing. These rapid retreats proceed along regions of retrograde bed elevation mapped at a high spatial resolution using a mass conservation technique that removes residual ambiguities from prior mappings. Upstream of the 2011 grounding line positions, we find no major bed obstacle that would prevent the glaciers from further retreat and draw down the entire basin.

Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.; Scheuchl, B.

2014-05-01

15

Submarine melting at the grounding line of Greenland's tidewater glaciers: Observations and Implications. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional view on the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is that interior snowfall accumulation is balanced by discharge of surface runoff and icebergs at the periphery. Most Greenland glaciers however terminate in the ocean, and melt in contact with the warm ocean waters to produce glacial melt before detaching into icebergs. Underneath floating ice shelves, the melting process is governed by the buoyancy associated with the melting of glacier ice at the seawater-ice interface. Under tidewater glaciers, the melting process is also forced by the strongly buoyant influx of subglacial freshwater near the grounding line. In August 2008, we collected bathymetry, temperature, salinity and current velocity data in front of 4 west Greenland glaciers (Eqip Sermia, Kangilerngata Sermia, Sermeq Kujatdleq and Sermeq Avangnardleq) to calculate the rates of submarine melting of the calving faces. The results revealed large rates of melting (meters per day), and large spatial variations from fjord to fjord as well as across the calving faces. In August 2010, we returned to Eqip Sermia, Sermeq Avangnardleq and visited Store and Little glaciers to conduct similar measurements. Strong outflows of subglacial water were detected on Avangnardleq, Lille and Store glaciers, and high rates of submarine melting were deduced from the data. We find that the sea bed in front of the calving faces (100 to 500 m) are much shallower than in the bulk of the glacial fjords (800 to 900 m), and the sill depth at the fjord entrance (~300 m ) is confirmed to be the major control on the access of warm ocean waters to the submerged calving faces. In the presence of heavy brash ice, our data suggest a conceivably weakened submarine circulation. Finally, we combine our summer data with long-term records of temperature and salinity, at the depth relevant to submarine melting, from the ECCO2 ocean state estimation project to examine seasonal to long-term trends in thermal forcing from the ocean. We observe a strong seasonality and large inter-annual variations in glacial fjords of interest. This enables a quantification of thermal forcing of the ocean on the calving faces of Greenland, its potential impact on submarine melting, which in turn effects glacier un-grounding, glacier velocity, glacier mass balance, and ultimately ice sheet mass balance as a whole.

Rignot, E. J.; Xu, Y.; Koppes, M. N.; Menemenlis, D.; Schodlok, M.; Spreen, G.

2010-12-01

16

Polar versus temperate grounding-line sedimentary systems and marine glacier stability during sea level rise by global warming  

SciTech Connect

Marine-ending glaciers may retreat with global warming as sea level rises by ocean thermal expansion. If the sea floor rises by sediment accumulation, then glaciers may not feel the effect of sea level rise. A submersible ROV and other techniques have been used to collect data from temperate and polar glaciers to compare sediment production and mass balance of their grounding-line systems. Temperature Alaskan valley glaciers flow at about 0.2--2 km/a and have high volumes of supraglacial, englacial and subglacial debris. However, most sediment contributed to the base of their tidewater cliffs comes from subglacial streams or squeezing out subglacial sediment and pushing it with other marine sediment into a morainal bank. Blue Glacier, a thin, locally fed polar glacier in Antarctica, flows slowly and has minimal glacial debris. The grounding-line system at the tidewater cliff is a morainal bank that forms solely by pushing of marine sediment. An Antarctic polar outlet glacier, Mackay Glacier, terminating as a floating glacier-tongue, has similar volumes of basal debris to Alaskan temperature glaciers and flows at 250 m/a. However, no subglacial streams issued from Mackay's grounding line and all sedimentation was by rockfall and grainfall rainout from seawater undermelt of the tongue. A grounding-line wedge of glacimarine diamicton is deposited over subglacial (lodgement ) till. Although Antarctic grounding-line accumulation rates are three orders of magnitude smaller than Alaskan rates, both are capable of compensating for predicted rises in sea level by thermal heating from global warming.

Powell, R.D. (Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Geology Dept.); Pyne, A.R. (Victoria Univ., Wellington (New Zealand). Antarctic Research Center); Hunter, L.E.; Rynes, N.R.

1992-01-01

17

An improved method based on shallow ice approximation to calculate ice thickness along flow-line and volume of mountain glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the water storage and project the future evolution of glaciers, the ice-thickness of glaciers is an essential\\u000a input. However, direct measurements of ice thickness are laborious, not feasible everywhere, and necessarily restricted to\\u000a a small number of glaciers. In this article, we develop a simple method to estimate the ice-thickness along flow-line of mountain\\u000a glaciers. Different from the

Huilin Li; Zhongqin Li; Mingjun Zhang; Wenfeng Li

2011-01-01

18

The length of the world's glaciers - a new approach for the global calculation of center lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier length is an important measure of glacier geometry. Nevertheless, global glacier inventories are mostly lacking length data. Only recently semi-automated approaches to measure glacier length have been developed and applied regionally. Here we present a first global assessment of glacier length using an automated method that relies on glacier surface slope, distance to the glacier margins and a set of trade-off functions. The method is developed for East Greenland, evaluated for East Greenland as well as for Alaska and eventually applied to all ~ 200 000 glaciers around the globe. The evaluation highlights accurately calculated glacier length where digital elevation model (DEM) quality is high (East Greenland) and limited accuracy on low-quality DEMs (parts of Alaska). Measured length of very small glaciers is subject to a certain level of ambiguity. The global calculation shows that only about 1.5% of all glaciers are longer than 10 km, with Bering Glacier (Alaska/Canada) being the longest glacier in the world at a length of 196 km. Based on the output of our algorithm we derive global and regional area-length scaling laws. Differences among regional scaling parameters appear to be related to characteristics of topography and glacier mass balance. The present study adds glacier length as a key parameter to global glacier inventories. Global and regional scaling laws might prove beneficial in conceptual glacier models.

Machguth, H.; Huss, M.

2014-09-01

19

Enthalpy Recovery of Polystyrene: Is the Liquid Equilibrium Line Reached?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glasses are not in thermodynamic equilibrium below the glass transition temperature (Tg), and consequently, their properties such as enthalpy, volume, and mechanical properties evolve toward equilibrium in a process known as structural recovery or physical aging. However, several recent studies have suggested that the equilibrium liquid line is not reached even when properties have ceased to evolve. In this work, we present measurements of the enthalpy recovery of polystyrene at the aging temperature of 15^oC below the nominal Tg, for aging times up to 1 year. The results are analyzed in the context of the TNM model of structural recovery. The results show that the equilibrium liquid enthalpy line is indeed reached at temperatures below Tg when enthalpy recovery ceases to evolve. Our results will be discussed and compared to results from works leading to different conclusions. We also use our results to probe the issue of whether or not equilibrium relaxation times diverge from super-Arrhenius behavior below Tg.

Koh, Yung P.; Simon, Sindee L.

2013-03-01

20

Quasi-equilibrium electron density along a magnetic field line  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is developed to determine the density of high-energy electrons along a magnetic field line for a low-{beta} plasma. This method avoids the expense and statistical noise of traditional particle tracking techniques commonly used for high-energy electrons in bombardment plasma generators. By preserving the magnetic mirror and assuming a mixing timescale, typically the elastic collision frequency with neutrals, a quasi-equilibrium electron distribution can be calculated. Following the transient decay, the analysis shows that both the normalized density and the reduction fraction due to collision converge to a single quasi-equilibrium solution.

Mao, Hann-Shin; Wirz, Richard [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2012-11-26

21

Glacier fluctuations in the Kenai Fjords, Alaska, U.S.A.: An evaluation of controls on Iceberg-calving glaciers  

SciTech Connect

The histories of four iceberg-calving outlet-glacier systems in the Kenai Fjords National Park underscore the importance of fiord depth, sediment supply, and fiord geometry on glacier stability. These parameters, in turn, limit the reliability of calving glacier chronologies as records of climatic change. Tree-ring analysis together with radiocarbon dating show that the Northwestern and McCarty glaciers, with large drainage basins, were advancing in concert with nearby land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 600. After an interval of retreat and possible nonclimatically induced extension during the Medieval Warm Period, these ice margins advanced again through the Little Ice Age and then retreated synchronously with the surrounding land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 1900. In contrast, Holgate and Aialik glaciers, with deeper fiords and smaller basins, retreated about 300 yr earlier. Reconstructions of Little Ice Age glaciers suggest that equilibrium-line altitudes of Northwestern and McCarty glaciers were, respectively, 270 and 500 m lower than now. Furthermore, the reconstructions show that these two glaciers were climatically sensitive when at their terminal moranies. However, with ice margins at their present recessional positions and accumulation area ratios between 0.8 and 0.9, only McCarty Glacier shows evidence of advance. Aialik and Holgate glaciers were climatically insensitive during the Little Ice Age maxima and remain insensitive to climate. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Wiles, G.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Calkin, P.E. [Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Post, A. [Geological Survey, Vashon, WA (United States)

1995-08-01

22

Central Himalayan Glaciers and Climate Change- Pinder Glacier- A preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) are the prime lifeline of Indian Subcontinent. There are about nine thousand glaciers of different size in this region. It is located within the latitudes 270N to 360N and longitude 720E to 960E. The second largest glacier, outside the polar and sub polar regions, Siachen glacier of length 74 km, is located in IHR. Many rivers in this continent originated from these glaciers. Study on the fluctuations especially of the snow cover and related parameters are important for the proper management of these rivers. Annual balance, fluctuations of glaciers, hydrological behaviour and the assessment of the winter snow pack are also critical for the proper flow and control of Himalayan Rivers. There are many hydroelectric and irrigation facilities in these snow fed rivers. Glacial melt is important as far as the river flow is concerned. Researchers had observed that the glacial mass balance has been found to show an inverse relationship with the monsoon. Glacial hydrometry and glacial melt are important aspects as far the studies of glaciers in this region. Himalayan glaciers are also important for ecosystem stability. In this perspective attempts had been made to examine the various environmental parameters of Pindari glacier and the upper reaches of the Pindari river. Pindari glacier is located in the Central Himalayan region. It is of length 8 Km. A few records available with Geological Survey of India for a period of hundred years reveals that Pindari glacial have an annual retreat of 8-10 M. Pindrai glacier had retreated about 425 M with in a period of fifty seven years. Pindari river originates from the buffer zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and is located in the lower regime of Pindari glacier. It is one of the prominent tributaries of Alaknanda. Tributaries of Pindari river are from Maktoli glacier, Kafani glacier and Sunderdhunga glacier. The changes in the Pindiari catchment area had been examined from the year 1990. Remote Sensing data of different years were used to analyze the changes in aerial extent of the pindari glacier. Pindari landscap is formed by the combined geomorphological process of fluvial and glacial. These processes are also maintaining the ecosystem balance of the catchment area. Snow covers area of this higher landscapet had been reduced considerably. The timberline of this region is shifting upper side of the glaciers, whereas the equilibrium line is also retreating. The spatial invasion in timber line and the retreat of the equilibrium line will further establish the negative mass balance of this glacier. However, the climatic variation may exacerbate the ecosystem balance of the region. All the reports on the glaciers in IHR regions review a negative mass balance and annual retreat up the glaciers. The observation records of these glaciers in IHR are about a period of hundred years this is quite in sufficient it establishes the relation between climate change and the glaciers retreat. However it is a known fact that the impact of rise in temperature due to anthropogenic effect may overstretch the rate the natural process of glacier retreat. The present study also discusses the unique phenomena of glacier melt due to climatic variations and its catastrophe.

Pillai, J.; Patel, L. K.

2011-12-01

23

Remote Sensing Applications for the Bering Glacier, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing is an invaluable tool to monitor and characterize the Bering Glacier System. The Bering Glacier is located in coastal, south-central Alaska and is the largest and longest glacier in continental North America, with an area of approximately 5,175 km2, and a length of 190 km. It is also the largest surging glacier in America, having surged at least five times during the twentieth century. The last great surge occurred in 1993- 1995. Bering Glacier alone covers more than 6 percent of the glacier covered area of Alaska and may contain 15- 20 percent of Alaska's total glacier ice. Applications of glacier remote sensing include but are not limited to: mapping extent and features, ice velocities through sequential observations, glacier terminus locations, snow line location, glacier albedo, changes in glacier volume, iceberg surveys and calving rates, hydrographic and water quality parameters in ice marginal lakes, and land cover classification maps. Historical remote sensing images provide a much needed geospatial time record of the dynamic changes Bering Glacier has undergone, including changes due to its surge behavior and response to climate change. Remote sensing images dating back to the early 1990s have been used to map the glacier terminus retreat of approximately five to seven kilometers which has resulted in Vitus Lake increasing in volume approximately 260 percent since 1995 to the current (2006) volume of 9.4 km3 of water. Using elevation data obtained from remote sensing and GPS surface points, we have determined that the glacier elevation has decreased approximately 150 m in elevation at the terminus and 30 m at a position 300 m below the present (2006) equilibrium line (~1,300 m) since 1972. Satellite observations have recorded the upward migration in altitude of the equilibrium line to its present position (slightly > 1,200 m). The decrease in glacier volume, obtained using remote sensing derived elevation data, from 1957 to 2004 is estimated at approximately 104 km3. Remote sensing data has also mapped the sediment rich (rock flower) water flowing into Vitus Lake providing insight into the hydrologic circulation of the Bering Glacier system, showing major glacier discharge from the Abandoned River, Arrowhead Point, and Lamire Bay in the area of Vitus Lake west of Taggland.

Liversedge, L.; Shuchman, R.; Josberger, E.; Payne, J.; Hatt, C.; Spaete, L.

2007-12-01

24

Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge  

E-print Network

Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge Jean´veloppement, La Paz, Bolivia Received 24 April 2002; revised 6 June 2002; accepted 6 June 2002; published 10 the equilibrium line of the Zongo glacier (2.4 km2 ), Bolivia (16°S). Study of the influence of wind, air

Berthier, Etienne

25

Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, New Zealand: Historic length records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compilation of modern and historical length change records for Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers demonstrates that these glaciers have lost ~ 3 km in length and at least 3-4 km2 in area since the 1800s, with the greatest overall loss occurring between 1934 and 1983. Within this dramatic and ongoing retreat, both glaciers have experienced periods of re-advance. The record from Franz Josef Glacier is the most detailed, and shows major advances from 1946 to 1951 (340 m), 1965-1967 (400 m), 1983-1999 (1420 m) and 2004-2008 (280 m). At Fox Glacier the record is similar, with advances recorded during 1964-1968 (60 m), 1985-1999 (710 m) and 2004-2008 (290 m). Apart from the latest advance event, the magnitude of advance has been greater at Franz Josef Glacier, suggesting a higher length sensitivity. Analysis of the relationship between glacier length and a reconstructed annual equilibrium line altitude (ELA) record shows that the glaciers react very quickly to ELA variations - with the greatest correlation at 3-4 years' lag. The present (2014) retreat is the fastest retreat in the records of both glaciers. While decadal length fluctuations have been linked to hemispheric ocean-atmosphere variability, the overall reduction in length is a clear sign of twentieth century warming. However, documenting glacier length changes can be challenging; especially when increased surface debris-cover makes identification of the ‘true’ terminus a convoluted process.

Purdie, Heather; Anderson, Brian; Chinn, Trevor; Owens, Ian; Mackintosh, Andrew; Lawson, Wendy

2014-10-01

26

Glacier Hazards From Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive slide show presents aerial photographs of seven glaciers worldwide. All of the glaciers present some form of hazard due to the rapid melting of mountain glaciers and a detailed explanation is given for each. Two of the photos contain superimposed before and after photographs and a sliding line which allows the viewer to alternate the two views. Locations of the glaciers include Bhutan and Nepal, Russia and Italy, as well as Alaska in the United States.

27

Linking glacier annual mass balance and glacier albedo retrieved from MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albedo is one of the variables controlling the mass balance of temperate glaciers. Multispectral imagers, such as MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites, provide a means to monitor glacier surface albedo. In this study, different methods to retrieve broadband glacier surface albedo from MODIS data are compared. The effect of multiple reflections due to the rugged topography and of the anisotropic reflection of snow and ice are particularly investigated. The methods are tested on the Saint Sorlin Glacier (Grandes Rousses area, French Alps). The accuracy of the retrieved albedo is estimated using both field measurements, at two automatic weather stations located on the glacier, and albedo values derived from terrestrial photographs. For summers 2008 and 2009, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between field measurements and the broadband albedo retrieved from MODIS data at 250 m spatial resolution was found to be 0.052 or about 10% relative error. The RMSD estimated for the MOD10 daily albedo product is about three times higher. One decade (2000-2009) of MODIS data were then processed to create a time series of albedo maps of Saint Sorlin Glacier during the ablation season. The annual mass balance of Saint Sorlin Glacier was compared with the minimum albedo value (average over the whole glacier surface) observed with MODIS during the ablation season. A strong linear correlation exists between the two variables. Furthermore, the date when the average albedo of the whole glacier reaches a minimum closely corresponds to the period when the snow line is located at its highest elevation, thus when the snow line is a good indicator of the glacier equilibrium line. This indicates that this strong correlation results from the fact that the minimal average albedo values of the glacier contains considerable information regarding the relative share of areal surfaces between the ablation zone (i.e. ice with generally low albedo values) and the accumulation zone (i.e. snow with a relatively high albedo). As a consequence, the monitoring of the glacier surface albedo using MODIS data can provide a useful means to evaluate the interannual variability of the glacier mass balance. Finally, the albedo in the ablation area of Saint Sorlin Glacier does not exhibit any decreasing trend over the study period, contrasting with the results obtained on Morteratsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps.

Dumont, M.; Gardelle, J.; Sirguey, P.; Guillot, A.; Six, D.; Rabatel, A.; Arnaud, Y.

2012-12-01

28

Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is -6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is -101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA). Glacier volume reductions between -35 to -62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between -73 and -96%.

Shea, J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Bajracharya, S.

2014-10-01

29

Modeling mountain pine beetle disturbance in Glacier National Park using multiple lines of evidence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Temperate forest ecosystems are subject to various disturbances which contribute to ecological legacies that can have profound effects on the structure of the ecosystem. Impacts of disturbance can vary widely in extent, duration and severity over space and time. Given that global climate change is expected to increase rates of forest disturbance, an understanding of these events are critical in the interpretation of contemporary forest patterns and those of the near future. We seek to understand the impact of the 1970s mountain pine beetle outbreak on the landscape of Glacier National Park and investigate any connection between this event and subsequent decades of extensive wildfire. The lack of spatially explicit data on the mountain pine beetle disturbance represents a major data gap and inhibits our ability to test for correlations between outbreak severity and fire severity. To overcome this challenge, we utilized multiple lines of evidence to model forest canopy mortality as a proxy for outbreak severity. We used historical aerial and landscape photos, reports, aerial survey data, a six year collection of Landsat imagery and abiotic data in combination with regression analysis. The use of remotely sensed data is critical in large areas where subsequent disturbance (fire) has erased some of the evidence from the landscape. Results indicate that this method is successful in capturing the spatial heterogeneity of the outbreak in a topographically complex landscape. Furthermore, this study provides an example on the use of existing data to reduce levels of uncertainty associated with an historic disturbance.

Assal, Timothy; Sibold, Jason

2013-01-01

30

Linking glacier annual mass balance and glacier albedo retrieved from MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites, provide a means to monitor glacier surface albedo. In this study, different methods to retrieve broadband glacier surface albedo from MODIS data are compared. The effect of multiple reflections due to the rugged topography and of the anisotropic reflection of snow and ice are particularly investigated. The methods are tested on the Saint Sorlin Glacier (Grandes Rousses area, French Alps). The accuracy of the retrieved albedo is estimated using both field measurements, at two automatic weather stations located on the glacier, and albedo values derived from terrestrial photographs. For summers 2008 and 2009, the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) between field measurements and the broadband albedo retrieved from MODIS data at 250m spatial resolution was found to be 0.052 or about 10% relative error. The RMSD estimated for the MOD10 daily albedo product is about three times higher. One decade (2000-2009) of MODIS data were then processed to create a time series of albedo maps of four glaciers in the French Alps including Saint Sorlin Glacier during the ablation season. The annual mass balance of each glacier was compared with the minimum albedo value (average over the whole glacier surface) observed with MODIS during the ablation season. A strong linear correlation exists between the two variables. Furthermore, the date when the average albedo of the whole glacier reaches a minimum closely corresponds to the period when the snowline is located at its highest elevation, thus when the snowline is a good indicator of the glacier equilibrium line. This indicates that this strong correlation results from the fact that the minimal average albedo values of the glacier contains a considerable information regarding the relative share of areal surfaces between the ablation zone (i.e. ice with generally low albedo values) and the accumulation zone (i.e. snow with a relatively high albedo). As a consequence, the monitoring of the glacier surface albedo using MODIS data can provide a useful means to evaluate the inter-annual variability of the glacier mass balance. Finally, the albedo in the ablation area of Saint Sorlin Glacier does not exhibit any decreasing trend over the study period, contrasting with the results obtained on Morteratsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps.

Dumont, M.; Gardelle, J.; Sirguey, P. J.; Guillot, A.; Décaux, L.; Rabatel, A.; Six, D.; Arnaud, Y.

2012-12-01

31

Linking glacier annual mass balance and glacier albedo retrieved from MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albedo is one of the variables controlling the mass balance of temperate glaciers. Multispectral imagers, such as MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites, provide a means to monitor glacier surface albedo. In this study, different methods to retrieve broadband glacier surface albedo from MODIS data are compared. The effect of multiple reflections due to the rugged topography and of the anisotropic reflection of snow and ice are particularly investigated. The methods are tested on the Saint Sorlin Glacier (Grandes Rousses area, French Alps). The accuracy of the retrieved albedo is estimated using both field measurements, at two automatic weather stations located on the glacier, and albedo values derived from terrestrial photographs. For summers 2008 and 2009, the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) between field measurements and the broadband albedo retrieved from MODIS data at 250 m spatial resolution was found to be 0.052 or about 10% relative error. The RMSD estimated for the MOD10 daily albedo product is about three times higher. One decade (2000-2009) of MODIS data were then processed to create a time series of albedo maps of Saint Sorlin Glacier during the ablation season. The annual mass balance of Saint Sorlin Glacier was compared with the minimum albedo value (average over the whole glacier surface) observed with MODIS during the ablation season. A strong linear correlation exists between the two variables. Furthermore, the date when the average albedo of the whole glacier reaches a minimum closely corresponds to the period when the snowline is located at its highest elevation, thus when the snowline is a good indicator of the glacier equilibrium line. This indicates that this strong correlation results from the fact that the minimal average albedo values of the glacier contains a considerable information regarding the relative share of areal surfaces between the ablation zone (i.e. ice with generally low albedo values) and the accumulation zone (i.e. snow with a relatively high albedo). As a consequence, the monitoring of the glacier surface albedo using MODIS data can provide a useful means to evaluate the inter-annual variability of the glacier mass balance. Finally, the albedo in the ablation area of Saint Sorlin Glacier does not exhibit any decreasing trend over the study period, contrasting with the results obtained on Morteratsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps.

Dumont, M.; Gardelle, J.; Sirguey, P.; Guillot, A.; Six, D.; Rabatel, A.; Arnaud, Y.

2012-07-01

32

Accurate delineation of the grounding line from kinematic GPS measurements. Application to an outlet glacier in East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar ice sheets have a huge potential in terms of sea level rise. Recent measurements show clear evidence of a generalized speeding up of outlet glaciers in Greenland and West Antarctica and the question whether similar behaviors are to be expected in East Antarctica is all the more crucial as this latter represents the largest ice reservoir. Moreover, many glaciers in the Wilkes-Terre Adélie sector are in a supposedly unstable configuration due to a landward downsloping bedrock. As a consequence, the Astrolabe Glacier (Terre Adélie land) was selected as a test zone for extensive field surveys like surface and bedrock heights, surface velocities, mass balance measurements. Among those, the exact position of the grounding line is fundamental as it represents a strong transition in the flow regime when the basal drag of the grounded ice reduces to virtually zero when this latter starts to float over the ocean. We here propose a method based on GPS measurements along various profiles in order to identify the presence or not of tidal movements of the ice surface indicating floating ice. The amplitude of the tides of the order of a meter requires accurate data only possible with the differential GPS method. Processing of these GPS data along selected profiles allows us to propose a position for the grounding line (hydrostatic one) which we then compare to that obtained from remote techniques (Landsat-7, ICESat, differential satellite synthetic-aperture radar interferometry). The exact position of the grounding line as well as the exact surface height along a radar transect across the glacier (giving the underlying bedrock topography) is also used to infer a mean density for the whole ice column by applying the hydrostatic criterion and a firn depth correction.

Le Meur, E.; Sacchettini, M.; Durand, G.; Drouet, A.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D.; Greenbaum, J.

2011-12-01

33

Variations in ELA of glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau over the past two decades and their implications for future glacier change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is a theoretical line on a glacier at which annual mass accumulation equals annual mass loss. Glacier behaviors such as advancing or retreating are controlled by the variations in ELA. Relative to its steady state, a glacier advances when its ELA falls, retreats when its ELA rises, or melts entirely when its ELA rises above its summit. In contrast to variations in glacier length or area, variations in ELA respond almost simultaneously to climate change. With global warming, studying ELA variations is of prime importance for understanding the behaviors of glaciers. Based on observations of the ELAs of the Qiyi Glacier in the Qilian Mountains, the Meikuang Glacier in the Kunlun Mountains and the Xiaodongkemadi Glacier in the Tanggula Mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, we found that the ELAs have risen about 160-180m since 1989. After analyzing the correlations between the ELAs and air temperature and precipitation, it was found that the warm season air temperature was the leading climatic factor influencing ELA. The present ELAs of those observed glaciers are much higher than their ELAs under the status of that their mass balances are zero. This suggests that those glaciers will continue to retreat in the near future.

Wang, N.; Pu, J.; Duan, K.; Yao, T.

2013-05-01

34

Climatic and topographic influences on glacier distribution in the Bhutan Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The locations and extent of mountain glaciers are affected by climatic constraints such as air temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, as well as by local topography, which influences avalanche accumulation and debris supply. To evaluate these influences on the elevational distribution of glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya, we created a glacier inventory together with debris-covered area and potential material-supply (PMS) slopes using satellite images with high spatial resolution. The median elevation of a glacier, which is used as a proxy of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), decreases with increasing annual precipitation, suggesting the influence of climatic factors, according to which the ELA is lowered in relatively warm and humid environments, and raised when the opposite conditions prevail. We found a weak but significant influence of topography on the elevational distribution of glaciers, indicated by the relationship between the deviation of the median elevation of an individual glacier from the regional average and the PMS slope ratio (defined as the ratio of the PMS slope area to glacier area). We further analysed the dependency of the median glacier elevation on the gradient and aspect of PMS slopes. We found that the median elevation is affected by the avalanche-driven redistribution of snow accumulation on debris-free glaciers, and that in debris-covered glaciers the debris supply affects glacier extent through the insulation effect of the debris layer.

Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Tadono, T.

2014-02-01

35

Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied  

E-print Network

mapping connected with the identity mapping, there is at most one smooth equilibrium. (Ng & Bhattacharjee. Field-lines are tied at z = 0 and z = L. Footpoint Mapping: x (z) = X[x (0),z], x (L) = X[x (0), L on a field line) Can we have more than one smooth equilibrium for a given smooth footpoint mapping? #12;A

Ng, Chung-Sang

36

Modeling on the Steady State of Thwaites Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thwaites Glacier (TWG) is the second largest ice stream in West Antarctica in terms of ice discharge, and the broadest ice stream in Antarctica (120 km wide). Observations and theory suggest that its configuration is inherently unstable in a warming climate. Satellite observations have revealed grounding line retreat, ice thinning, ice stream broadening and in more recent years ice flow acceleration. The most important part of the glacier evolution involves its grounding line dynamics and the impact of ice-ocean interactions. In a region between the grounding line and the limit of the flexure zone, some 10 km downstream, however, the glacier is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. Proper treatment of the grounding line dynamics requires full Stokes solution. Here, we model the grounding line of TWG in 2D, full Stokes, with the goal to examine whether the glacier is in a steady state configuration or not. The model treats ice sheet and ice shelf as two fluids coupled through the ice mass flux (Nowicki, 2008). Water stress is used as a constraint on the ice shelf instead of hydrostatic equilibrium. We use radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements of ice velocity and grounding line position through time, Bedmap2 and IceBridge thickness, and surface mass balance from RACMO to constrain the model. The results are used to conclude on the state of dynamic balance of the glacier. This work is funded by NASA Cryospheric Science Program.

Yu, H.; Rignot, E. J.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.

2013-12-01

37

Global phase equilibrium calculations: Critical lines, critical end points and liquid–liquid–vapour equilibrium in binary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general strategy for global phase equilibrium calculations (GPEC) in binary mixtures is presented in this work along with specific methods for calculation of the different parts involved. A Newton procedure using composition, temperature and volume as independent variables is used for calculation of critical lines. Each calculated point is analysed for stability by means of the tangent plane distance,

Martín Cismondi; Michael L. Michelsen

2007-01-01

38

Benchmark Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) operates a long-term "benchmark" glacier program to intensively monitor climate, glacier motion, glacier mass balance, glacier geometry, and stream runoff at a few select sites. The data collected are used to understand glacier-related hydrologic processes and improve the quantitative prediction of water resources, glacier-related hazards, and the consequences of climate change. This page presents some of the balance, runoff, and temperature data for three glaciers: Gulkana, South Cascade and Wolverine. Reports for each of these glaciers uses the collected data to draw many conclusions. There is also a section with common questions and myths about glaciers.

39

Linking glacier annual mass balance and glacier albedo from MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The albedo is one of the variables controlling the mass balance of temperate glaciers. Multispectral imagers, such as MODIS on board TERRA and AQUA, provide a means to monitor glacier albedo. In this study, different methods to retrieve broadband glacier albedo from MODIS data are compared. In particular, the effect of the multiple reflections due to the rugged topography and that of the anisotropic reflection of snow and ice are investigated. The methods are tested on the Saint Sorlin glacier (Grandes Rousses area, French Alps). The accuracy of the retrieved albedo is estimated using both field measurements and albedo derived from terrestrial photographs. The root mean square deviation between field measurements and the broadband albedo retrieved from MODIS pixels at 250m spatial resolution was found to be less than 0.06. One decade (2000-2010) of MODIS data were then processed to create a time series of albedo maps of Saint Sorlin glacier during the ablation season. It appears that the albedo in the ablation area of the glacier does not exhibit any marked decreasing trend during the decade under study. This contrasts with the situation observed on other glaciers in the Alps. In addition, the annual mass balance of Saint Sorlin Glacier was compared with the minimum albedo value (spatial averaged over the whole glacier) observed with MODIS during the ablation season. A high linear correlation exists between the two variables. Furthermore, the day on which the albedo reaches a minimum over the glacier closely corresponds to the day on which the snowline is found to be at its highest elevation, thus close to the glacier's equilibrium line. This indicates that the high correlation can be explained by the fact that this minimal albedo contains a high degree of information regarding the relative share of areal surfaces between the ablation zone (i.e., ice with a generally lower albedo) and the accumulation zone (i.e., snow with a relatively high albedo). This implies that monitoring the albedo of glacier with MODIS data can provide a useful means to approach the inter-annual variability of the glacier's mass balance.

Dumont, M.; Gardelle, J.; Arnaud, Y.; Guillot, A.; Sirguey, P.; Six, D.

2012-04-01

40

What do We Know the Snow Darkening Effect Over Himalayan Glaciers?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric absorbing aerosols such as dust, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) are now well known warming factors in the atmosphere. However, when these aerosols deposit onto the snow surface, it causes darkening of snow and thereby absorbing more energy at the snow surface leading to the accelerated melting of snow. If this happens over Himalayan glacier surface, the glacier meltings are expected and may contribute the mass balance changes though the mass balance itself is more complicated issue. Glacier has mainly two parts: ablation and accumulation zones. Those are separated by the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA). Above and below ELA, snow accumulation and melting are dominant, respectively. The change of ELA will influence the glacier disappearance in future. In the Himalayan region, many glacier are debris covered glacier at the terminus (i.e., in the ablation zone). Debris is pieces of rock from local land and the debris covered parts are probably not affected by any deposition of the absorbing aerosols because the snow surface is already covered by debris (the debris covered parts have different mechanism of melting). Hence, the contribution of the snow darkening effect is considered to be most important "over non debris covered part" of the Himalayan glacier (i.e., over the snow or ice surface area). To discuss the whole glacier retreat, mass balance of each glacier is most important including the discussion on glacier flow, vertical compaction of glacier, melting amount, etc. The contribution of the snow darkening is mostly associated with "the snow/ice surface melting". Note that the surface melting itself is not always directly related to glacier retreats because sometimes melt water refreezes inside of the glacier. We should discuss glacier retreats in terms of not only the snow darkening but also other contributions to the mass balance.

Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, K.-U.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M.; Mahanama, S. P.; Gautam, R.; Kim, K. M.; Dasilva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.

2011-01-01

41

Holocene climate and glacier variability at Hallet and Greyling Lakes, Chugach Mountains, south-central Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from lake sediments and glacier forefields from two hydrologically isolated lake basins is used to reconstruct Holocene\\u000a glacier and climate history at Hallet and Greyling Lakes in the central Chugach Mountains of south-central Alaska. Glacial\\u000a landform mapping, lichenometry, and equilibrium-line altitude reconstructions, along with changes in sedimentary biogenic-silica\\u000a content, bulk density, and grain-size distribution indicate a dynamic history of

Nicholas P. McKay; Darrell S. Kaufman

2009-01-01

42

Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate individual area and volume change by 2050 of all 67,028 glaciers, with a total area of 122,969 km2, delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory 2.0 of high mountain Asia (HMA). We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model RegCM 3.0 temperature and precipitation change projections forced by the IPCC A1B scenario. Glacier simulations were based on a novel surface mass balance-altitude parameterization fitted to observational data, and various volume-area scaling approaches using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission surface topography of each individual glacier. We generate mass balance-altitude relations for all the glaciers by region using nearest available glacier measurements. Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) sensitivities to temperature and precipitation change vary by region based on the relative importance of sublimation and melting processes. We also made simulations with mass balance tuned to match satellite observations of glacier thickness changes in HMA from 2003 to 2009. Net mass loss is half as much using the tuned model than using just glaciological calibration data, suggesting the representativity of benchmark glaciers is a larger source of uncertainty in future HMA contributions to sea level rise than errors in glacier inventories or volume-area scaling. Both models predict that about 35% of the glaciers in Karakoram and the northwestern Himalaya are advancing, which is consistent with the observed slight mass gain of glaciers in these regions in recent years. However, we find that 76% of all the glaciers will retreat, most of which are of the maritime type. We project total glacier area loss in high mountain Asia in 2050 to be 22% (in the tuned model) or 35% (un-tuned) of their extent in 2000, and they will contribute 5 mm (tuned model) to global sea level rise.

Zhao, Liyun; Ding, Ran; Moore, John C.

2014-11-01

43

Equilibrium Line Altitudes and paleotemperature reconstructions from Nevado Hualcán (9°S) and Nevado Coropuna (15°S), Tropical Andes (Peru).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reconstructed the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) in seven valleys on the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; 6122 m asl) and on the SE slope of Nevado Coropuna (15°S, 72°W; 6377masl) using the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio method (Osmaston 2005). We have also deduced the paleotemperatures using the following equation: ?T=ATLR•?ELA; being ?T (°C) the paleotemperature depression; ATLR (°C/m) the Atmospheric Temperature Lapse Rate; and ?ELA (m) the ELA depression. The ATLR for Coropuna was deduced through the use of data loggers. For Hualcán we used the value ATLR =0.0065°C/m, valid for the tropics (Kaser and Osmaston, 2002). We obtained the following results: 1) Hualcán: a) ELAs: 5124m (2003); 5018m (1962); 4994m during the Little Ice Age (LIA); and 4652m during the last studied maximum advance considered to be the Younger Dryas (YD, ~13-11ka) by correlation with nearby mountains (Glasser et al., 2009). b) ?ELAs: 106m (1962); 130m (LIA); and 199m (YD). c) ?T: -0.69°C (1962); -0.85°C (LIA); -3.07°C (YD). 2) Coropuna: a) ELAs: 5862m (2007); 5853m (1986); 5787m (1955); 5776 (LIA); and 4951m in the 13-1136Cl ka phase (Ubeda, 2011). b) ?ELA: 9m (1986); 66m (1955); 86m (LIA); and 911m in 13-1136Cl ka. C) ?T: -0.20°C (1986); -0.71°C (1955); and -7.65°C (13-1136Cl ka). The values ?T during LIA in Hualcán and Coropuna (0.85 and 0.72°C) are consistent with the global warming considered to be 0,74°C between 1906 and 2005 (IPCC, 2007). During the mid XXth century and the LIA, ?T is higher in Hualcán (0.69°C and 0.85°C) than in Coropuna (0.55°C and 0.72°C), with a regional gradient of -0.02°C per degree of latitude (°C/°). However, during the YD (13-1136Cl ka), ?T was higher in Coropuna (7.65°C) than in Hualcán (3.07°C), with a gradient of 0.76°C/°. Although other evidences exist of a pantropical cooling of >5°C during the last glaciation, in Coropuna this cooling was strengthened by the retro-alimentation of its glacial system which in 13-1136Cl ka had a surface of >400 km2 (Ubeda, 2011). Glasser, N.F., Clemmens, S., Schnabel, C., Fenton, C.R. and McHargue, L., 2009. Tropical glacier fluctuations in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru between 12.5 and 7.6 ka from cosmogenic 10Be dating. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28: 3448-3458. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp. Kaser, G. and Osmaston, H., 2002. Tropical Glaciers. International Hydrology Series. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (U.K.), 207 pp. Osmaston, H., 2005. Estimates of glacier equilibrium line altitudes by the Area x Altitude, the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio and the Area x Altitude Balance Index methods and their validation. Quaternary International, 22-31: 138-139. Úbeda, J., 2011. El impacto del cambio climático en los glaciares del complejo volcánico Nevado Coropuna (cordillera occidental de los Andes, Sur del Perú). PhD Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, (Spain), 558 pp. Available online: http://eprints.ucm.es/12076/ Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

Úbeda, J.; Giráldez, C.; Palacios, D.

2012-04-01

44

Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Sierra Nevada, California, and Their Implications for Snowline Reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice-walled melt ponds on the surfaces of active valley-floor rock glaciers and Matthes (Little Ice Age) moraines in the southern Sierra Nevada indicate that most of these landforms consist of glacier ice under thin ( ca. 1 - 10 m) but continuous covers of rock-fall-generated debris. These debris blankets effectively insulate the underlying ice and greatly reduce rates of ablation relative to that of uncovered ice. Such insulation explains the observations that ice-cored rock glaciers in the Sierra, actually debris-covered glaciers, are apparently less sensitive to climatic warming and commonly advance to lower altitudes than do adjacent bare-ice glaciers. Accumulation-area ratios and toe-to-headwall-altitude ratios used to estimate equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) of former glaciers may therefore yield incorrect results for cirque glaciers subject to abundant rockfall. Inadvertent lumping of deposits from former debris-covered and bare-ice glaciers partially explains an apparently anomalous regional ELA gradient reported for the pre-Matthes Recess Peak Neoglacial advance. Distinguishing such deposits may be important to studies that rely on paleo-ELA estimates. Moreover, Matthes and Recess Peak ELA gradients along the crest evidently depend strongly on local orographic effects rather than latitudinal climatic trends, indicating that simple linear projections and regional climatic interpretations of ELA gradients of small glaciers may be unreliable.

Clark, Douglas H.; Clark, Malcolm M.; Gillespie, Alan R.

1994-03-01

45

Glacier Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project to learn about ice cores and Antarctica. Use handout lab (Webquest: Glaciers) and follow instructions given for each procedure. Go to Ice Core Changes Go to Glacial Loss Go to Glacial Cover Animation Go to Snow Cover Go to Gulkana Glacier Home Page Go to Glacial Topography Go to Glacial Picture Archive Go to Additional Glacier Pictures ...

Kio, Mr.

2008-11-06

46

Glacier-and permafrost-related hazards increasingly threaten human lives,settlements,  

E-print Network

Glacier- and permafrost-related hazards increasingly threaten human lives where surface and sub-surface ice are involved.Changes in glacier and permafrost equilibrium in the Italian Alps. Glacier-related Hazards Glacier- and permafrost-related hazards include glacier lake

Kääb, Andreas

47

Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied  

E-print Network

· A theorem on Parker's model [Ng & Bhattacharjee, 1998] · Future directions Solar corona: heating problem://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/solar/quests.htm Solar corona: heating problem #12;Solar corona: basic parameters photosphere corona Temperature DensityNon-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Fields: Heating of the Solar

Ng, Chung-Sang

48

Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier variations in the European Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Alps, climatic conditions reflected in glacier and rock glacier activity in the earliest Holocene show a strong affinity to conditions in the latest Pleistocene (Younger Dryas). Glacier advances in the Alps related to Younger Dryas cooling led to the deposition of Egesen stadial moraines. Egesen stadial moraines can be divided into three or in some cases even more phases (sub-stadials). Moraines of the earliest and most extended advance, the Egesen maximum, stabilized at 12.2 ± 1.0 ka based on 10Be exposure dating at the Schönferwall (Tyrol, Austria) and the Julier Pass-outer moraine (Switzerland). Final stabilization of moraines at the end of the Egesen stadial was at 11.3 ± 0.9 ka as shown by 10Be data from four sites across the Alps. From west to east the sites are Piano del Praiet (northwestern Italy), Grosser Aletschgletscher (central Switzerland), Julier Pass-inner moraine (eastern Switzerland), and Val Viola (northeastern Italy). There is excellent agreement of the 10Be ages from the four sites. In the earliest Holocene, glaciers in the northernmost mountain ranges advanced at around 10.8 ± 1.1 ka as shown by 10Be data from the Kartell site (northern Tyrol, Austria). In more sheltered, drier regions rock glacier activity dominated as shown, for example, at Julier Pass and Larstig valley (Tyrol, Austria). New 10Be dates presented here for two rock glaciers in Larstig valley indicate final stabilization no later than 10.5 ± 0.8 ka. Based on this data, we conclude the earliest Holocene (between 11.6 and about 10.5 ka) was still strongly affected by the cold climatic conditions of the Younger Dryas and the Preboreal oscillation, with the intervening warming phase having had the effect of rapid downwasting of Egesen glaciers. At or slightly before 10.5 ka rapid shrinkage of glaciers to a size smaller than their late 20th century size reflects markedly warmer and possibly also drier climate. Between about 10.5 ka and 3.3 ka conditions in the Alps were not conducive to significant glacier expansion except possibly during rare brief intervals. Past tree-line data from Kaunertal (Tyrol, Austria) in concert with radiocarbon and dendrochronologically dated wood fragments found recently in the glacier forefields in both the Swiss and Austrian Alps points to long periods during the Holocene when glaciers were smaller than they were during the late 20th century. Equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) were about 200 m higher than they are today and about 300 m higher in comparison to Little Ice Age (LIA) ELAs. The Larstig rock glacier site we dated with 10Be is the type area for a postulated mid-Holocene cold period called the Larstig oscillation (presumed age about 7.0 ka). Our data point to final stabilization of those rock glaciers in the earliest Holocene and not in the middle Holocene. The combined data indicate there was no time window in the middle Holocene long enough for rock glaciers of the size and at the elevation of the Larstig site to have formed. During the short infrequent cold oscillations between 10.5 and 3.3 ka small glaciers (less than several km 2) may have advanced to close to their LIA dimensions. Overall, the cold periods were just too short for large glaciers to advance. After 3.3 ka, climate conditions became generally colder and warm periods were brief and less frequent. Large glaciers (for example Grosser Aletschgletscher) advanced markedly at 3.0-2.6 ka, around 600 AD and during the LIA. Glaciers in the Alps attained their LIA maximum extents in the 14th, 17th, and 19th centuries, with most reaching their greatest LIA extent in the final 1850/1860 AD advance.

Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kerschner, Hanns; Maisch, Max; Christl, Marcus; Kubik, Peter W.; Schlüchter, Christian

2009-10-01

49

Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

50

Little Ice Age climate reconstruction from ensemble reanalysis of Alpine glacier fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain glaciers sample a combination of climate fields - temperature, precipitation and radiation - by accumulation and melting of ice. Flow dynamics acts as a transfer function that maps volume changes to a length response of the glacier terminus. Long histories of terminus positions have been assembled for several glaciers in the Alps. Here I analyze terminus position histories from an ensemble of seven glaciers in the Alps with a macroscopic model of glacier dynamics to derive a history of glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for the time span 400-2010 C.E. The resulting climatic reconstruction depends only on records of glacier variations. The reconstructed ELA history is similar to recent reconstructions of Alpine summer temperature and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, but bears little resemblance to reconstructed precipitation variations. Most reconstructed low-ELA periods coincide with large explosive volcano eruptions, hinting at a direct effect of volcanic radiative cooling on mass balance. The glacier advances during the LIA, and the retreat after 1860, can thus be mainly attributed to temperature and volcanic radiative cooling.

Lüthi, M. P.

2014-04-01

51

Age and significance of former low-altitude corrie glaciers on Hoy, Orkney Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geomorphological mapping provides evidence for two former low-level corrie glaciers on Hoy, both defined by end moraines. Five 10Be exposure ages obtained from sandstone boulders on moraine crests fall within the range 12.4??1.5 ka to 10.4??1.7 ka (weighted mean 11.7??0.6 ka), confirming that these glaciers developed during the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) Stade (LLS) of 12.9-11.5 cal. ka BP, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach to establish the age of LLS glacier limits. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of one of the glaciers (99 m) is the lowest recorded for any LLS glacier, and the area-weighted mean ELA for both (141 m) is consistent with a general northward ELA decrease along the west coast of Britain. The size of moraines fronting these small (???0.75 km2) glaciers implies that glacier termini remained at or close to their limits for a prolonged period. The apparent restriction of LLS glaciers to only two sites on Hoy probably reflects topographic favourability, and particularly the extent of snow-contributing areas.

Ballantyne, C. K.; Hall, A. M.; Phillips, W.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P. W.

2007-01-01

52

Comaparison of late pleistocene glacier extensions along a meridian Himalaya transect by geomorphological and pedological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still a controverse discussion on Late Pleistocene glacier extensions for many parts of the Himalaya. Besides differing geomorphological results, more recent pedological relative datings of moraines delivered further inconsistent findings. For a meridian Himalaya transect along the Kali Gandaki a detailed field review of these different glaciogeomorphological reconstructions has been carried out, supplemented by new equilibrium line altitude

M. Wagner

2009-01-01

53

Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds III: Local Ionization Equilibrium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present time-dependent numerical hydrodynamic models of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems and calculate wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition with radiative heating and cooling processes, and includes local ionization equilibrium introducing time dependence and spatial dependence on the line radiation force parameters. The radiation field is assumed to originate in an optically thick accretion disk. Wind ion populations are calculated under the assumption that local ionization equilibrium is determined by photoionization and radiative recombination, similar to a photoionized nebula. We find a steady wind flowing from the accretion disk. Radiative heating tends to maintain the temperature in the higher density wind regions near the disk surface, rather than cooling adiabatically. For a disk luminosity L (sub disk) = solar luminosity, white dwarf mass M(sub wd) = 0.6 solar mass, and white dwarf radii R(sub wd) = 0.01 solar radius, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of M(sub wind) = 4 x 10(exp -12) solar mass yr(exp -1) and a terminal velocity of approximately 3000 km per second. These results confirm the general velocity and density structures found in our earlier constant ionization equilibrium adiabatic CV wind models. Further we establish here 2.5D numerical models that can be extended to QSO/AGN winds where the local ionization equilibrium will play a crucial role in the overall dynamics.

Pereyra, Nicolas Antonio; Kallman, Timothy R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

54

Glacier fluctuations in the Southern Alps of New Zealand determined from snowline elevations  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary analysis of 452 determinations of end-of-summer glacier snowline altitudes (ELAs) made over 17 yr on up to 47 glaciers show good correlation with major climatic events, and conform well with fluctuations of glacier termini when reaction times are taken into consideration. With snowline altitudes used as surrogates for annual mass balance values, there is a recent trend to increased mass balances, i.e. a climate {open_quotes}cooling,{close_quotes} which follows a long period of predominantly glacial recession. Snowline trend surfaces plotted for the Southern Alps of New Zealand show considerable warping with variable departures from the steady-state equilibrium-line altitude each year. The current resurgence of the more active glaciers should continue in the near future. 39 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Chinn, T.J.H. [Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Ltds., P.B. Dunedin (New Zealand)

1995-05-01

55

Fastest Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from a 2005 NOVA program features scientists who study how the Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier in western Greenland is shrinking and moving faster due to increased melting over the past ten years. The video includes footage of scientists in the field explaining methods and animation of ice sheet dynamics leading to faster glacier movement.

Sciencenow, Nova

56

Tropical Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.

Fountain, Andrew

57

NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS ON THE DENSITY LINE RATIO DIAGNOSTICS OF O IV  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic timescales in the solar atmosphere are shorter than the ionization and recombination times of many ions used for line ratio diagnostics of the transition region and corona. The long ionization and recombination times for these ions imply that they can be found far from their equilibrium temperatures, and spectroscopic investigations require more care before being trusted in giving correct information on local quantities, such as density and temperature. By solving the full time-dependent rate equations for an oxygen model atom in the three-dimensional numerical model of the solar atmosphere generated by the Bifrost code, we are able to construct synthetic intensity maps and study the emergent emission. We investigate the method of electron density diagnostics through line ratio analysis of the O IV 140.1 nm to the 140.4 nm ratio, the assumptions made in carrying out the diagnostics, and the different interpretations of the electron density. The results show big discrepancies between emission in statistical equilibrium and emission where non-equilibrium (NEQ) ionization is treated. Deduced electron densities are up to an order of magnitude higher when NEQ effects are accounted for. The inferred electron density is found to be a weighted mean average electron density along the line of sight and has no relation to the temperature of emission. This study shows that numerical modeling is essential for electron density diagnostics and is a valuable tool when the ions used for such studies are expected to be out of ionization equilibrium. Though this study has been performed on the O IV ion, similar results are also expected for other transition region ions.

Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H., E-mail: kosovare.olluri@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2013-04-10

58

Non-equilibrium Ionization Effects on the Density Line Ratio Diagnostics of O IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic timescales in the solar atmosphere are shorter than the ionization and recombination times of many ions used for line ratio diagnostics of the transition region and corona. The long ionization and recombination times for these ions imply that they can be found far from their equilibrium temperatures, and spectroscopic investigations require more care before being trusted in giving correct information on local quantities, such as density and temperature. By solving the full time-dependent rate equations for an oxygen model atom in the three-dimensional numerical model of the solar atmosphere generated by the Bifrost code, we are able to construct synthetic intensity maps and study the emergent emission. We investigate the method of electron density diagnostics through line ratio analysis of the O IV 140.1 nm to the 140.4 nm ratio, the assumptions made in carrying out the diagnostics, and the different interpretations of the electron density. The results show big discrepancies between emission in statistical equilibrium and emission where non-equilibrium (NEQ) ionization is treated. Deduced electron densities are up to an order of magnitude higher when NEQ effects are accounted for. The inferred electron density is found to be a weighted mean average electron density along the line of sight and has no relation to the temperature of emission. This study shows that numerical modeling is essential for electron density diagnostics and is a valuable tool when the ions used for such studies are expected to be out of ionization equilibrium. Though this study has been performed on the O IV ion, similar results are also expected for other transition region ions.

Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.

2013-04-01

59

Combined Ice and Water Balances of Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers, Alaska, and South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1965 and 1966 Hydrologic Years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glaciers occur in northwestern North America between lat 37 deg and 69 deg N. in two major mountain systems. The Pacific Mountain System, near the west coast, receives large amounts of precipitation, has very mild temperatures, and contains perhaps 90 percent of the glacier ice. The Rocky Mountain or Eastern System, on the other hand, receives nearly an order of magnitude less precipitation, has temperatures that range from subpolar to subtropic, and contains glaciers that are much smaller in both size and total area. As a contribution to the International Hydrological Decade program on combined balances at selected glaciers, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting studies of ice and water balance on four glaciers in the Pacific Mountain System: Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, South Cascade Glacier in Washington, and Maclure Glacier in California. Similar data are being collected by other organizations at five glaciers in western Canada, including two in the Rocky Mountain System, and at one glacier in the Rocky Mountain System in northern Alaska. Gulkana, Wolverine, South Cascade, and Maclure Glaciers have dissimilar mass balances, and each is fairly representative of the glaciers for its particular region. Gulkana Glacier (lat 63 deg 15' N., Alaska Range, Alaska) normally has an equilibrium line at an altitude of 1,800 m (meters), an activity index of about 6 mm/m (millimeters per meter), a winter balance of about 1.0 m, and an annual exchange of about 2.2 m. (Balance values are given in terms of water-equivalent measure; the winter balance of 1 m, for example, indicates a volume of ice equal in mass to a volume of water 1 m in depth covering the area of the glacier.) The normal approximate parameters for the other glaciers studied are as follows: Wolverine Glacier (lat 60 deg 24' N., Kenai Mountains, Alaska) - equilibrium-line altitude 1,200 m, activity index 9 mm/m, winter balance 2.5 m, and annual exchange 5.5 m; South Cascade Glacier (lat 48 deg 22' N., North Cascades, Wash.) - equilibrium-line altitude 1,900 m, activity index 17 mm/m, winter balance 3.1 m, and annual exchange 6.6 m; and Maclure Glacier (lat 37 deg 45' N., Sierra Nevada, Calif.) - equilibrium-line altitude 3,600 m, activity index 23 mm/m, winter balance 2.3 m, and annual exchange 4.6 m. Mass balances of these four glaciers and their drainage basins are measured annually by standard glaciological techniques. In addition, the hydrologic balance is calculated using streamflow and precipitation measurements. Combining these independent measurements results in fairly well defined values of water and ice balance for the glaciers and drainage basins. A revision of the standard International Hydrological Decade mass-balance system permits combination of annual and stratigraphic terms. The annual balance of South Cascade Glacier at the end of the 1965 hydrologic year was slightly positive (+0.07 m averaged over the glacier), but continued ablation and deficient accumulation in October 1965 resulted in slightly negative net balances for both the glacier and the drainage basin. Factors tending to produce this near-zero balance were the above-average late-winter balance (3.48 m) and the numerous summer snowfalls. Ice ablation averaged about 39 mm of water per day during the main melt season. Runoff during the summer ablation season was lower than the 1958-64 average. The South Cascade Glacier annual balance in 1966 (-0.94 m) was considerably more negative mainly owing to the deficient winter snowpack (the late-winter balance was only 2.52 m) and the warm dry summer. Ice ablation averaged about 44 mm of water per day during the melt season. The loss in storage of this and other glaciers in the North Cascades increased the runoff of many valley streams by approximately 50 percent during August and September. The 1966 Gulkana Glacier annual balance was slightly positive (+0.06 m); on the basis of past observations and the rapid terminus ret

Meier, Mark Frederick; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Mayo, Lawrence R.; Post, Austin

1971-01-01

60

Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972-2006, Himachal Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were mapped by interpretation of various glacio-morphological features using the Landsat and IRS images. The mapping of 224 glaciers during the period 1972-2006 reveals that the glacier cover reduced from 419 to 371 km2, witnessing approximately 11.6% deglaciation in the Beas basin. A higher rate of retreat of the glaciers was observed during 1989-2006 as compared to the retreat during 1972-1989. Also, the loss has been more prominent in the glaciers with an areal extent of 2-5 km2. The number of glaciers increased from 224 to 236 due to fragmentation in this period. The average elevation of the ablation zone basin showed an upward shift from 3898 m (1972) to 4171 m (2006) which may be a consequence of a shift in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reflecting imbalance.

Dutta, Shruti; Ramanathan, A. L.; Linda, Anurag

2012-10-01

61

Glacier changes since the Little Ice Age maximum in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, and consequences of glacier runoff for water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on aerial photographs, topographical maps and the Landsat-5 image data, we have analyzed fluctuations of glaciers in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) to 1990. The areas and volumes of glaciers in the whole considered region decreased 15% and 18%, respectively, from the LIA maximum to 1956.This trend of glacier shrinkage continued and accelerated between 1956 and 1990. These latest decreases in area and volume were about 10% in 34 years. The recent shrinkage may be due either to a combination of higher temperatures and lower precipitation during the period 1956-66, or to continuous warming in the high glacierized mountains from 1956 to 1990. As a consequence, glacier runoff from ice wastage between 1956 and 1990 has increased river runoff by 6.2 km3 in the four river basins under consideration. Besides, the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) rise estimated from the mean terminus retreat of small glaciers <1km long is 46 m, which corresponds to a 0.3°C increase of mean temperatures in warm seasons from the LIA to the 1950s.

Shiyin, Liu; Wenxin, Sun; Yongping, Shen; Gang, Li

62

Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and non-equilibrium SoHO/UVCS line emission of CME shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We provide a guideline to interpret the UltraViolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) emission lines (in particular O VI and Si XII) during shock wave propagation in the outer solar corona. Methods: We use a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model performing a set of simulations of shock waves generated in the corona and from the result we compute the plasma emission for the O VI and Si XII, including the effects of Non Equilibrium Ionization (NEI). We analyze the radiative and spectral properties of our model with the support of a detailed radiation model, including Doppler dimming and an analytical model for shocks, and, finally, we synthesize the expected O VI 1032 Å line profile. Results: We explain several spectral features of the observations like the absence of discontinuities in the O VI emission during the shock passage, the brightening of Si XII emission, and the width of the lines. We also use our model to give very simple and general predictions for the strength of the line wings due to the ions shock heating and on the line shape for Limb Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) or Halo CMEs. Conclusions: The emission coming from the post-shock region in the solar corona roughly agrees with the emission from a simple planar and adiabatic shock, but the effect of thermal conduction and the magnetic field may be important depending on the event parameters. Doppler dimming significantly influences the O VI emission while Si XII line brightens mainly because of the shock compression. Significant shock heating is responsible for the wide and faint component of the O VI line usually observed, which may be taken as a shock signature in the solar corona.

Pagano, P.; Raymond, J. C.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.

2008-04-01

63

Climatic controls of western U.S. glaciers at the last glacial maximum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use a nested atmospheric modeling strategy to simulate precipitation and temperature of the western United States 18,000 years ago (18 ka). The high resolution of the nested model allows us to isolate the regional structure of summer temperature and winter precipitation that is crucial to determination of the net mass balance of late-Pleistocene mountain glaciers in this region of diverse topography and climate. Modeling results suggest that climatic controls of these glaciers varied significantly over the western U.S. Glaciers in the northern Rocky Mountains existed under relatively cold July temperatures and low winter accumulation, reflecting anticyclonic, easterly wind flow off the Laurentide Ice Sheet. In contrast, glaciers that existed under relatively warmer and wetter conditions are located along the Pacific coast south of Oregon, where enhanced westerlies delivered higher precipitation than at present. Between these two groupings lie glaciers that were controlled by a mix of cold and wet conditions attributed to the convergence of cold air from the ice sheet and moisture derived from the westerlies. Sensitivity tests suggest that, for our simulated 18 ka climate, many of the glaciers exhibit a variable response to climate but were generally more sensitive to changes in temperature than to changes in precipitation, particularly those glaciers in central Idaho and the Yellowstone Plateau. Our results support arguments that temperature depression generally played a larger role in lowering equilibrium line altitudes in the western U.S. during the last glacial maximum than did increased precipitation, although the magnitude of temperature depression required for steady-state mass balance varied from 8-18??C. Only the Sierra Nevada glaciers required a substantial increase in precipitation to achieve steady-state mass balance, while glaciers in the Cascade Range existed with decreased precipitation.

Hostetler, S. W.; Clark, P. U.

1997-01-01

64

The influence of future glacier extents on hydrological flow regimes in the Ötztal Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing retreat of glaciers since 1850 and especially within the last 20 years already impacts the natural environment. Rising temperatures as projected by the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) will affect future glacier extents with the inherent consequences e.g. on runoff. This contribution presents a relative simple approach to analyze mostly temperature but also precipitation driven potential changes on the extent of glacierized areas and the resulting impact on runoff within the catchment of the Ötztaler Ache (Ötztal, Austria) until 2050. Changes of mean summer temperatures are derived from simulation results realized with three different regional climate models (ALADIN, REMO and REGCM3). The realizations are driven with the SRES A1B emission scenario of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Potential future glacier extents are calculated according to the approach of Paul et al. (2007). Thereby, the steady-state equilibrium line of altitude (ELA) is calculated and then shifted depending on temperature change. Future glacier extents are calculated under consideration of the 2:1 steady state accumulation area ratio (AARo) based on the Austrian Glacier Inventory 2006 and a digital elevation model (DEM). Impacts of potential future glacier extents but also of changes in temperature and precipitation are analyzed with the semi-distributed hydrological model HQsim. According to Paul et al. (2007), the ELA in the Swiss Alps rises with approx. 140 m per degree Celsius warming. The evaluation of the available regional climate change realizations for the study area shows a potential increase of the mean summer temperature of approx. 2.7 °C by 2050. Based on the considered approach ELA will increase by 370 m. The retreat of glacierized areas will be calculated incrementally by a temperature increase with 0.5 °C steps. The glacierized area (Austrian Glacier Inventory 2006) of glaciers > 500,000 m² in 2006 will be reduced by 82 % from 68 km² to 3.8 km² in 2050. Glaciers with an area smaller than 500,000 m² are not considered. Potential future runoffs based on changes in the cryosphere but also in temperature and precipitation indicates a change in future flow regimes. As the study area is of high priority for the further expansion of hydropower generation in the Alps such or more sophisticated studies are of strategic relevance. The introduced approach only considers the shift of the ELA with a constant 2:1 accumulation-ablation ratio. Further factors like volume, lateral melting, glacier-specific response times or a change of the AARo are neglected.

Zimmermann, Moritz; Huttenlau, Matthias; Schneider, Katrin; Stötter, Johann

2014-05-01

65

Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the Tien Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the Tien Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of Tien Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data (mass balance measurements) and on indirect data (aerial and satellite imagery, topographic maps). Latter can be plagued with high uncertainties and considerable errors. For instance, glaciated area has been partly overestimated in the Soviet Glacier catalogue (published in 1973, with data from the 1940s and 1950s), probably as a result of misinterpreted seasonal snowcover on aerial photographs. Studies using the Soviet Glacier catalogue as a reference are thus prone to over-emphasize glacier shrinkage. A valuable alternative is the use of continued in situ mass balance and ice thickness measurements, but they are currently conducted for only a few glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Efforts should therefore be encouraged to ensure the continuation and re-establishment of mass balance measurements on reference glaciers, as is currently the case at Karabatkak, Abramov and Golubin glaciers. Only on the basis of sound data, past glacier changes can be assessed with high precision and future glacier shrinkage can be estimated according to different climate scenarios. Moreover, the impact of snowcover changes, black carbon and debris cover on glacier degradation needs to be studied in more detail. Only with such model approaches, reflecting transient changes in climate, snowcover, glaciation and runoff, can appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies be developed within a realistic time horizon.

Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.

2012-12-01

66

Annual glacier mass balance reconstruction using optical remote-sensing for 11 glaciers of the Bolivian Cordillera Real over the 1996-2010 period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ measurements of glacial mass balance are scarce at the global scale. The World Glacier Monitoring Service compiles data from 110 of the 100,000 existing glaciers contained in the World Glacier Inventory. To better understand the climate-glacier relationship at a regional scale, and to study the influences of both morphological (exposure, slope, elevation) and meteorological parameters on glacial changes, a spatialization of measurements of glaciological parameters (mass balance, equilibrium line altitude) is necessary. For such an aim, remote-sensing techniques appear to be well adapted. This study presents a method to reconstruct annual glacier mass balance using optical remote-sensing images. This method, based on the indentification of the snow line on satellite images recorded at the end of the hydrological year, has been first developped and validated on French Alpine glaciers. On these glaciers, the snow line can be condisered as a good indicator of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) at this period of the year. In the inter-tropical zone, specific climate conditions (i.e. strong seasonality of precipitation, contrasting with the small seasonality of temperature) generate a sequence of accumulation and ablation processes all year round that differs from that of mid-latitude glaciers. Consequently, a first step consisted in assessing the representativity of the snow line as an indicator of the annual ELA. Landsat and SPOT satellites images recorded during the dry season (May to August) have been used to compute the snow line altitude (SLA). The snow line has been manually delineated on the images using the commom spectral bands combination 542(431) for Landsat(SPOT) images. Its average altitude has been calculated using ASTER GDEM. The Zongo Glacier (Cordillera Real, Bolivia), where in-situ measurements of mass balance and ELA have been performed since 1991, has been used as a reference to validate the results. The strong correlation between ELA and SLA (r2=0.87, p<0.01, n=15) demonstrates that the remote-sensing method applied in the Alps to compute annual mass balance from SLA variations can also be applied in the Bolivian Andes. In this way, the SLA has been measured for each year of the 1996-2010 period on 11 glaciers of the central part of the Cordillera Real, thus presenting a sufficient elevation range to allow the presence of the SLA for each year. For the Zongo Glacier, the annual mass balance derived from the remote-sensing method is in good agreement with the mass balance measured with the direct glaciological method (r2=0.80, p<0.01, n=15). At the scale of the 11 studied glaciers, annual mass balance time series show a common signal in their interannual variations, which appear to be primarily driven by ENSO events. The cumulative mass balance over the 15-year period ranges between -3,4 m w.e. and -21,30 m w.e. These significant variations between different glaciers are mainly related to different exposure and altitude.

Consoli, G.; Rabatel, A.; Bermejo, A.; sicart, J.; Soruco, A.; Vincent, C.

2011-12-01

67

Melting Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the potential disastrous consequences to the environment and to numerous societies, scientists, governments, and civilians are concerned with the growing trend of glacial melt. This topic-in-depth explores various geographic regions where this phenomenon has recently been observed. Providing background into the study of glaciology, this report begins with a Web site (1) discussing the unique features of glaciers. The US Army Corps of Engineers offers visitors an insight to glacial properties including their locations, movements, and influences; along with a series educational images. The second site (2) explains the exceptionality of the two hundred sixty six glaciers at Glacier National Park. Through a collection of images, animations, and pictures provided by the National Park Service, users can learn about ice dams, climatic impacts, and the erosive powers of ice and water. The rest of the topic-in-depth discusses findings of glacial melting from around the world. NASA (3) addresses the Artic warming's affects on glacier formations. This Web site provides a few animations displaying ice sheet extent and the cracking of icebergs. On a positive note, visitors can learn how the decrease in glaciers has opened up new habitat for some Artic species. The next Web site (4), also by NASA, discusses the findings of a twenty-five year study of Patagonia's glaciers. Educators and students can discover how NASA utilized the Space Shuttle Endeavor to study the entire 17,200 square kilometer region. The site also discusses potential causes of the melting in this region, which has contributed to almost ten percent of the global sea-level change from mountain glaciers. As reported by the BBC (5), Dr. Harrison at the University of Oxford has determined that the glaciers in parts of Kazakhstan have been decreasing annually by almost two cubic kilometers between 1955 and 2000. Visitors can learn how the melting of these four hundred sixteen glaciers will adversely affect the region's rivers and its water supply. The Taipei Times (6) reports that the Swiss Alpine glacial melting has probably intensified due to this summer's record-breaking heat wave. This Web site provides short, intriguing descriptions of consequences of the "rush of melt water streaming from the ice wall." Users can learn about predictions in the 1990s that the glaciers would shrink to ten percent of their 1850 size by the end of the twenty first century. In the next Web site (7), the BBC provides a captivating illustration of the effects the Peruvian glacial melts may have on tourism, the country's water supply, and more. Students and educators can learn about NASA studies showing cracks in the ice, which could lead to the flooding of large cities. Visitors can also find out how the recent glacier recessions have affected some ancient spiritual traditions. The last site, by the USGS, (8) features excerpts from Myrna Hall and Daniel Fagre's 2003 research paper in BioScience. Visitors can discover the melt rate and spatial distributions of glaciers for two possible future climate situations. Providing an amazing animation, users will be amazed by the changes predicted by the model.

Enright, Rachel

68

Shear viscosities away from the melting line: A comparison of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the validity of the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) methods of computing shear viscosity have persisted, partly because of the apparent disagreement (approx.25%) between NEMD and equilibrium Green--Kubo (GK) results for the Lennard-Jones system near its triple point. This region of the phase diagram near the melting line is the so-called ''molasses'' regime where the tail of the shear-stress autocorrelation function is quite large, deviating from ''exponential'' decay at a level of about 10%. In order to see whether the effects of the ''molasses tail'' might be obscuring a more profound difference between NEMD and GK results, we have carried out independent NEMD and GK calculations for a state in the LJ fluid far away from this troublesome molasses region, namely at a temperature twice critical and a density between the triple and critical points. We find the NEMD and GK results for the linear shear viscosity to be in good agreement.

Holian, B.L.; Evans, D.J.

1983-04-15

69

Spatial variation of glacial erosion rates in the St. Elias range, Alaska, inferred from a realistic model of glacier dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers have been principal erosional agents in many tectonically active orogens throughout much of the recent geological past. The St. Elias Mountains in southeastern Alaska are a surface expression of a highly convergent, complex orogen that was likely glaciated for much of its history. We examine the Seward-Malaspina Glacier system, part of one of the largest temperate glacier systems in the world, and focus on the Seward Throat, which is a narrow passage of the glacier through the St. Elias Mountains. It is within this region that we examine the pattern of erosion where ice velocities are exceptionally high. The glacier surface velocities and elevations, which are known, provide constraints for a numerical, full-stress flowband model that enables us to infer the glacier thickness, which is not easily measured on temperate glaciers, and the corresponding sliding velocity and other basal properties. This in turn allows us to produce one of the first studies of the current spatial distribution of erosion under an active glacier; erosion rates are inferred using the flow model guided by glaciological observations and several commonly invoked erosion laws that depend upon the sliding velocity and basal shear stress. The spatial variation of current erosion rates is strongly controlled by the geometry of the glacier and less influenced by other factors, such as the equilibrium line altitude or the choice of erosion law. Inferred erosion rates are highest within the narrow, central portion of the Seward Throat, consistent with both local and regional geological observations. The numerical model used in conjunction with surface glaciological measurements is a powerful tool for investigating ice thickness, basal properties, and the spatial variation of glacial erosion rates for many temperate glaciers, where little is known aside from surface properties. The glaciological data and model results have potential use for inferring local regions of active uplift in the vicinity of the Seward Throat and for investigating the role of glacial erosion within the broader tectonic setting of the St. Elias Mountains.

Headley, R. M.; Hallet, B.; Roe, G.; Waddington, E. D.

2011-12-01

70

Recent changes in freezing level heights in High Asia and their impact on glacier changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

heights of the atmospheric freezing level have increased over most glacierized areas of High Asia during 1971-2010, especially in the Altai Mountains, the eastern Tianshan Mountains, and the northeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau. The systematic increase of freezing level heights (FLHs) is evidenced from both radiosonde and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data. Eleven glaciers with long-term observations are selected in typical high-elevation mountain ranges to examine the relationship between changes in FLHs and cryospheric response. Long-term trends in glacier mass balance and equilibrium line altitude (ELA) show significant correlations with changes in FLHs. A rise of 10 m in summer FLH causes mass balance of reference glaciers in High Asia to decrease by between 7 and 38 mm (water equivalent) and ELA to increase by between 3.1 and 9.8 m, respectively, depending on location. Both relationships are statistically significant (p < 0.01) for most reference glaciers. Thus, rapid deglaciation in these high mountain ranges during recent decades is related to the increase in FLH. Similar relationships may exist in other high-elevation glaciers of High Asia with changes in FLHs having significant ecological and social consequences, especially in arid and semiarid regions.

Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Pepin, N. C.; Li, Zhongqin; Sun, Meiping; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qiong

2014-02-01

71

Geometry change between 1990 and 2003 at Finsterwalderbreen, a Svalbard surge-type glacier, from GPS profiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface mass-balance and geometry data are key to quantifying the climate response of glaciers, and confidence in data synthesis and model interpretations and forecasts requires data from as wide a range of locations and glacier types as possible. This paper presents measurements of surface elevation change at the Svalbard surge-type glacier Finsterwalderbreen, by comparing a 1990 digital elevation model (DEM) with a surface GPS profile from 2003. The pattern of elevation change is consistent with that previously noted between 1970 and 1990, and reflects the continued quiescent-phase evolution of the glacier, with mass loss in the down-glacier/receiving area of up to -1.25 m w.e.a-1, and mass gain in the up-glacier/reservoir area of up to 0.60 m w.e.a-1; the area-weighted, mean change for the whole glacier is 0.19 m w.e.a-1. The spatial pattern of elevation increase and decrease is complex, and the boundary between thickening and thinning determined by combining GPS and DEM data does not appear to correspond with the equilibrium-line altitude determined from surface mass-balance measurements. There is no evidence yet of a decrease in the rate of reservoir area build-up driven by mass-balance change resulting from the warmer winter air temperatures, and decreased proportion of snowfall in total precipitation, noted at meteorological stations in Svalbard.

Hodgkins, Richard; Fox, Adrian; Nuttall, Anne-Marie

2007-10-01

72

Tropical Glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ``tropical glacier'' calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how

Andrew Fountain

2002-01-01

73

Calculation and visualisation of future glacier extent in the Swiss Alps by means of hypsographic modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed rapid glacier wastage in the European Alps during the past 20 years already has strong impacts on the natural environment (rock fall, lake formation) as well as on human activities (tourism, hydro-power production, etc.) and poses several new challenges also for glacier monitoring. With a further increase of global mean temperature in the future, it is likely that Alpine glaciers and the high-mountain environment as an entire system will further develop into a state of imbalance. Hence, the assessment of future glacier geometries is a valuable prerequisite for various impact studies. In order to calculate and visualize in a consistent manner future glacier extent for a large number of individual glaciers (> 100) according to a given climate change scenario, we have developed an automated and simple but robust approach that is based on an empirical relationship between glacier size and the steady-state accumulation area ratio (AAR 0) in the Alps. The model requires digital glacier outlines and a digital elevation model (DEM) only and calculates new glacier geometries from a given shift of the steady-state equilibrium line altitude (ELA 0) by means of hypsographic modelling. We have calculated changes in number, area and volume for 3062 individual glacier units in Switzerland and applied six step changes in ELA 0 (from + 100 to + 600 m) combined with four different values of the AAR 0 (0.5, 0.6, 0.67, 0.75). For an AAR 0 of 0.6 and an ELA 0 rise of 200 m (400 m) we calculate a total area loss of - 54% (- 80%) and a corresponding volume loss of - 50% (- 78%) compared to the 1973 glacier extent. In combination with a geocoded satellite image, the future glacier outlines are also used for automated rendering of perspective visualisations. This is a very attractive tool for communicating research results to the general public. Our study is illustrated for a test site in the Upper Engadine (Switzerland), where landscape changes above timberline play an important role for the local economy. The model is seen as a first-step approach, where several parts can be (and should be) further developed.

Paul, F.; Maisch, M.; Rothenbühler, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Haeberli, W.

2007-02-01

74

Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on glacier extent from Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia give a detailed and unequivocal account of rapid shrinkage of tropical Andean glaciers since the Little Ice Age (LIA). This retreat however, was not continuous but interrupted by several periods of stagnant or even advancing glaciers, most recently around the end of the 20th century. New data from mass balance networks established on over a dozen glaciers allows comparison of the glacier behavior in the inner and outer tropics. It appears that glacier variations are quite coherent throughout the region, despite different sensitivities to climatic forcing such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc. In parallel with the glacier retreat, climate in the tropical Andes has changed significantly over the past 50-60 years. Temperature in the Andes has increased by approximately 0.1 °C/decade, with only two of the last 20 years being below the 1961-90 average. Precipitation has slightly increased in the second half of the 20th century in the inner tropics and decreased in the outer tropics. The general pattern of moistening in the inner tropics and drying in the subtropical Andes is dynamically consistent with observed changes in the large-scale circulation, suggesting a strengthening of the tropical atmospheric circulation. Model projections of future climate change in the tropical Andes indicate a continued warming of the tropical troposphere throughout the 21st century, with a temperature increase that is enhanced at higher elevations. By the end of the 21st century, following the SRES A2 emission scenario, the tropical Andes may experience a massive warming on the order of 4.5-5 °C. Predicted changes in precipitation include an increase in precipitation during the wet season and a decrease during the dry season, which would effectively enhance the seasonal hydrological cycle in the tropical Andes. These observed and predicted changes in climate affect the tropical glacier energy balance through its sensitivity to changes in atmospheric humidity (which governs sublimation), precipitation (whose variability induces a positive feedback on albedo) and cloudiness (which controls the incoming long-wave radiation). In the inner tropics air temperature also significantly influences the energy balance, albeit not through the sensible heat flux, but indirectly through fluctuations in the rain-snow line and hence changes in albedo and net radiation receipts. Given the projected changes in climate, based on different IPCC scenarios for 2050 and 2080, simulations with a tropical glacier-climate model indicate that glaciers will continue to retreat. Many smaller, low-lying glaciers are already completely out of equilibrium with current climate and will disappear within a few decades. But even in catchments where glaciers do not completely disappear, the change in streamflow seasonality, due to the reduction of the glacial buffer during the dry season, will significantly affect the water availability downstream. In the short-term, as glaciers retreat and lose mass, they add to a temporary increase in runoff to which downstream users will quickly adapt, thereby raising serious sustainability concerns.

Vuille, Mathias; Francou, Bernard; Wagnon, Patrick; Juen, Irmgard; Kaser, Georg; Mark, Bryan G.; Bradley, Raymond S.

2008-08-01

75

Catchment-scale reconstruction of glacier mass balance using observations and global climate data: Case study of the Hailuogou catchment, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryDebris-covered glaciers are common in the Tibetan Plateau, where ablation zones are mantled in a supraglacial debris cover that influences glacier mass balance, runoff, and response to climate change by affecting the melt rate of the underlying ice. The impact of debris cover has not yet been taken into account in regional- or global-scale assessments of glacier mass balances and freshwater resources by using physically based numerical models. Here, a surface energy-mass balance model that accounts for the significance of debris cover and its effect on the ice melt rate is applied to reconstruct the glacier mass balance of Hailuogou catchment, which is located in the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau and contains three debris-covered and four debris-free monsoonal maritime glaciers. According to our calculations, the glaciers in Hailuogou catchment show a mean annual balance of -0.42 m water equivalent (w.e.) per year, for a total mass loss of 24.3 m w.e. over the period 1952-2009. A comparison of summer temperature- and precipitation-mass balance/equilibrium line altitude (ELA) relations indicates that the glaciers in the catchment are much more sensitive to temperature change than to precipitation change. In the last 20 yrs, increasing summer temperature is the main cause of rapid wasting of the glacier mass in the catchment. Meanwhile, the presence of supraglacial debris markedly accelerates glacier mass loss, resulting in the unstable termini of debris-covered glaciers in Hailuogou catchment. This highlights the importance of debris cover for understanding glacier mass balance and hydrology in the Tibetan Plateau.

Zhang, Yong; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Liu, Shiyin

2012-06-01

76

Two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional helical equilibrium in the line-tied screw pinch  

SciTech Connect

The line-tying condition at a conducting anode is shown to provide a localized modification to the well-understood 1-D screw pinch equilibrium in the presence of bulk plasma diamagnetism. Diamagnetic currents cannot flow near the conducting anode and are measured to disappear in a localized boundary layer, causing a weak mirror configuration that breaks 1-D equilibrium and causes large parallel pressure gradients suggestive of significant radial outflows. For sufficiently large plasma currents, the paramagnetic nature of parallel current drives the equilibrium to paramagnetism and destroys the mirror effect. At a critical plasma current, the axisymmetric equilibrium is found to transition to a long-lived, rotating, helical 3-D equilibrium state. Internal measurements of this state via multi-point correlation analysis techniques illustrate that it preserves the flux surfaces and pressure profile of the axisymmetric equilibrium. Measurements indicate that despite the fact that the flux surfaces wander at the anode, the line-tied boundary conditions are not necessarily violated.

Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Clinch, A. J.; Hannum, D. A.; Forest, C. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-05-15

77

Recent changes detected on two glaciers at the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic Peninsula is one of the regions, which have been exposed to the most rapid warming of the Earth since 1950. Consequences of climate changes are clearly documented by recent disintegration of ice shelves on both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula as well as by the retreat of land-based glaciers. James Ross Island, located close to the northernmost tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, represents an excellent place to study changes in the glacier mass-balance and their sensitivity to a regional warming trend. Two different types of glaciers of the Ulu Peninsula, the Whisky Glacier and the Davies Dome have been studied. Multi-temporal remote sensing data (aerial photographs, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ and Aster satellite optical and thermal multispectral data) and field survey allowed detecting changes in extent (2-D) as well as calculating glacier mass-balance changes (3-D) for these two glaciers from 1977 to 2009. The Whisky Glacier is a well-delimited valley glacier located mostly below the local Equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The glacier with high-flow velocities is fed by an intensive snow accumulation caused by prevailing southwestern winds. The Whisky Glacier covers an area of 2.3 km2 and its altitude varies from 215 to 475 m a.s.l. The Davies Dome is a flat-bottom dome glacier. Significant parts of its surface are located above the ELA and limited flow velocities are characteristic for the most parts of its body. However, the Davies Dome has a single 500-700 m wide southwestern outlet flowing towards the Whisky Bay. The Davies Dome extends an area of 6.7 km2 and its altitude ranges from 0 to 514 m a.s.l. Both glaciers experienced massive extension of their ice tongues towards the Brandy Bay during the mid Holocene. Lateral moraines located in front of the both glaciers heading down to the left coast of the Brandy Bay document this event. According to the remote sensing data and field investigations both glaciers have retreated since 1977. Between 2006 and 2009 repeated mapping of the Davies Dome was carried out and the results showed that the largest retreat ranging from 10 to 20 m occurred in the NW flat part of the glacier. Digital elevation models calculated on bases of aerial stereo-photographs from 1979 and 2006 allowed us to define mass-balance changes of the studied glaciers. Ground Penetrating Radar measurements taken on both glaciers helped with mass-balance investigations, furthermore, made it possible to increase the accuracy of the 3-D models. Annual mass balance measurements on the Davies Dome indicated a mean ablation about 20 cm between 2006 and 2009. On the Whisky Glacier, a network of 20 ablation stakes was established just recently (February 2009). Therefore, another 3-year investigation is necessary to bring comparable results. Acknowledgments: This research has been undertaken within a framework of the project No. 205/09/1876 funded by the Czech Science Foundation and by the R & D project VaV SP II 1a9/23/07.

Nývlt, Daniel; Kopa?ková, Veronika; Láska, Kamil; Engel, Zbyn?k.

2010-05-01

78

Northeast Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference guide provides a brief review of glaciers in the Northeastern U.S. It then focuses on the glacial affects in four areas, an inland basin near the Finger Lakes area of New York, the Appalachian/Piedmont through New York and Pennsylvania, the coastal plain and the exotic terrane of New England. Topics covered include glacial scouring, glacial deposits and periglacial features.

2003-01-01

79

Glacier Photograph Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These repeat photographs (also known as glacier pairs) are of special interest to scientists studying glaciers and climate. Glacier photographs taken from the same vantage point, but years apart in time, can reveal dramatic changes in the glacier terminus position, as a glacier either advances or retreats. Most glaciers around the world have retreated at unprecedented rates over the last century. These pairs of photographs can provide striking visual evidence of climate change.

Center, National S.

80

X-ray Line Diagnostics and Non-equilibrium Ionization Applications based on AtomDB v3.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on newly updated AtomDB v3.0, we will present our theoretical investigations of X-ray line Diagnostics and a couple of applications for some typical non-equilibrium ionization(NEI) plasmas in massive star binaries, stellar cluster winds and supernova remnants.

Ji, Li; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Zhang, Shuinai; Zhou, Xin; Cheng, Yu; Ji, Zhiyuan

2014-08-01

81

Glaciers in the Rupal Valley (Nanga Parbat)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widely discussed controversy about Himalayan glacier changes instigated a current boom in studies on a regional scale. In contrast to often simplified assumptions of general and mostly rapid glacier retreat, recent studies show a more complex pattern with stable, advancing and retreating glaciers. Furthermore, changes of debris covered glaciers are discussed controversial. Due to the great vertical span and steep relief, large ice streams in the Himalaya and Karakoram are often primarily fed by avalanches. Their impact on glacier mass balances is often unconsidered in present studies. However, Hewitt (2014) highlighted the crucial role of snow and ice re-distribution by avalanches for Karakoram glaciers. He used a concept of glacier typology based on different nourishment processes introduced at the beginning of the 20th century. By using this concept, Hewitt classified large glaciers in order to identify the effect of avalanches on the mass balance, because many Karakoram glaciers show low down-wasting or even thickening processes described as the "Karakoram anomaly" (Hewitt 2005). Also in the Nanga Parbat region, the western corner of the High Himalaya, the topography is characterized by steep rock walls with vertical distances up to 4700 m. The debris covered glaciers reach down to 2920 m a.s.l. and are regularly fed by small and large avalanches. Our field based investigations show that the glaciers are characterized by small retreating rates since 1857, when Adolph Schlagintweit has mapped them for the first time; others such as the Raikot Glacier are fluctuating since 1934. Furthermore, the extent of down-wasting varies between different glaciers. By using multi-temporal satellite data, topographical maps, sketches and terrestrial photographs changes of glacier lengths were measured. In order to calculate the down-wasting rates, a digital elevation model (DEM) with a spatial resolution of 30x30 m² was derived from the digitized contour lines of the topographic map of 1934 and compared to the SRTM-DEM. Furthermore, based on topographical parameters derived from the SRTM-DEM, the glaciers were classified, using Hewitt's concept. The area of steep rock walls and the ratio between accumulation and ablation zones were calculated for each glacier basin. References: Hewitt, K. 2005: The Karakoram anomaly? Glacier expansion and the 'elevation effect', Karakoram Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development 25 (4), S. 332-340 Hewitt, K. 2014: Glaciers of the Karakoram Himalaya: Glacial Environments, Processes, Hazards and Resources. Springer. Dordrecht.

Schmidt, Susanne; Nüsser, Marcus

2014-05-01

82

Union Glacier: a new exploration gateway for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Union Glacier (79°46' S/83°24' W) in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), has been used by the private company Antarctic Logistic and Expeditions (ALE) since 2007 for their landing and commercial operations, providing a unique logistic opportunity to perform glaciological research in a vast region, including the Ice divide between Institute and Pine Island glaciers and the Subglacial Lake Ellsworth. Union glacier is flowing into the Ronne Ice Shelf, where future migrations of the grounding line zone (GLZ) in response to continuing climate and oceanographic changes have been modelled. In order to analyse the potential impacts on Union glacier of this scenario, we installed an array of stakes, where ice elevation, mass balance and ice velocities have been measured since 2007, resulting in near equilibrium conditions with horizontal displacements between 10 and 33 m yr-1. GPS receivers and three radar systems have been also used to map the subglacial topography, the internal structure of the ice and the presence of crevasses along surveyed tracks. The resulting radar data showed a subglacial topography with a minimum of 858 m below sea level, much deeper than estimated before. The below sea level subglacial topography confirms the potential instability of the glacier in foreseen scenarios of GLZ upstream migration during the second half of the XXI century.

Rivera, A.; Zamora, R.; Uribe, J. A.; Jaña, R.; Oberreuter, J.

2014-02-01

83

Columbia Glacier Terminus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View of Columbia Glacier's terminus as it enters the waters of Prince William Sound. Columbia Glacier is one of Alaska's many tidewater glaciers, and it has been the focus of numerous studies due to its unusually high rate of retreat. The glacier has retreated nearly 20 km (12.43 mi) since 1980. In ...

2010-07-14

84

SAR investigations of glaciers in northwestern North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to investigate the utility of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery for measurement of geophysical parameters on Alaskan glaciers relevant to their mass balance and dynamics, including: (1) the positions of firn lines (late-summer snow lines); (2) surface velocities on fast-flowing (surging) glaciers, and also on slower steady-flow glaciers; and (3) the positions and changes in the positions of glacier termini. Preliminary studies of topography and glacier surface velocity with SAR interferometry have also been carried out. This project was motivated by the relationships of multi-year to decadal changes in glacier geometry to changing climate, and the probable significant contribution of Alaskan glaciers to rising sea level.

Lingle, Craig S.; Harrison, William D.

1995-01-01

85

The plateau glacier in the Sierra de Béjar (Iberian Central System) during its maximum extent. Reconstruction and chronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the glacial morphology in the Sierra de Béjar (Iberian Central System) provided a data set of geomorphic indicators to reconstruct the paleoglaciers developed in this mountain area during the last glacial cycle (Late Pleistocene). Applying a physical-based glacier model and using the geomorphic indicators, a three dimensional reconstruction of the ice mass during the maximum extent of the glaciers has been carried out. We used this reconstruction to project hypsometric curves over the former glaciers and to estimate the ELAs (Equilibrium Line Altitudes) of the paleoglaciers for their stage of maximum extent. At this stage the Sierra de Béjar hosted a plateau glacier, considered as a dome-shaped icecap around 57 km2 in area. According to our estimations, the maximum thickness of the ice was 211 m, the minimum elevation of paleoglaciers 1210 m asl, and the regional ELA was at 2010 m asl. During later stages, reduction in ice mass due to deglaciation caused the icecap to evolve into an icefield, and finally the main glacier was fragmented in valley and cirque glaciers. The geochronological data obtained with 10Be provides an age of ~ 27 ka for the maximum extent of the glaciers (GM), whereas the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) represents a younger stage of the Sierra de Béjar glacier evolution. Finally, the new data obtained in the Sierra de Béjar allow evaluating the influence of some factors such as the continentality and latitudinal location, in the development of glacial processes in these areas of the Iberian Central System.

Carrasco, R. M.; Pedraza, J.; Domínguez-Villar, D.; Villa, J.; Willenbring, J. K.

2013-08-01

86

Online Glacier Photograph Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image collection from the National Snow and Ice Data Center features 14 pairs of Alaskan glacier photographs. Each photographic pair consists of a late-19th or early-20th century photograph and a 21st century photograph taken from the same location. The comparative photographs clearly show substantial changes in glacier position and size and document significant landscape evolution and vegetative succession. The site also provides links to pairs of photographs of glaciers in Switzerland, a repeat photography project at Glacier National Park by the USGS, a glacier database which features satellite images and maps, and further information on glaciers.

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)

87

Glaciers: A water resource  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Americans have never seen a glacier, and most would say that glaciers are rare features found only in inaccessible, isolated wilderness mountains. Are they really so rare? Or are they really potentially important sources of water supply?

Meier, Mark; Post, Austin

1995-01-01

88

Widespread and Accelerated Glacier Thinning in the Svalbard Archipelago: a New Estimate of Sea-Level Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying glacier contribution to sea-level rise is difficult due largely to a scarcity of long-term mass balance observations. Of more than 160,000 glaciers worldwide only about 40 have mass balance records longer than 20 years. We have developed a new method that will significantly increase the distribution and spatial/temporal resolution of mass balance records by combining historical aerial photographs and contemporary, high resolution laser altimetry. Because of their sensitivity to changes in climate, we focused initially on the land-terminating glaciers of the Svalbard archipelago. Also, while small mountain glaciers like those in Svalbard constitute only about 3% of the glacierized area on Earth, of all the world’s ice masses, they are currently thought to be the greatest contributors to eustatic sea-level rise. We produced a high-quality (±0.25 m vertical), high-resolution (10 m grid) digital elevation time series for a distributed sample of Svalbard glaciers dating back to the early 1960s from historical stereo aerial photography. The archive, controlled with laser altimetry, provides the first long-term mass balance record for Svalbard of this quality, spatial resolution and areal distribution. Significant thinning was observed at all locations, with western Svalbard glaciers showing the highest acceleration of mass loss during the last 15 years. These changes were dominated not by accelerated thinning at the glacier termini but by changes at higher elevations in former accumulation zones that appear to be driven by changes in albedo. Given that most of the archipelago’s ice is already at or close to the current equilibrium line altitude, this high altitude acceleration in thinning will have significant consequences on the archipelago’s net balance. The high local and regional variability in mass change on individual glaciers and between adjacent glaciers raises doubt as to the validity of point and profile change data to represent glacier-wide changes and also poses serious difficulties for upscaling to archipelago-wide sea-level contributions. Our estimate of sea-level contributions from the Svalbard archipelago is higher than that suggested by previous studies but direct comparison is difficult because of variations in study parameters.

James, T. D.; Murray, T.; Barrand, N.; Fox, A.; Luckman, A. J.; Sykes, H. J.

2009-12-01

89

The complex behavior of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and mountain glaciers to abrupt climate change during the latest Pleistocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surficial mapping and more than 70 radiometric ages 10Be, 14C] constrain the evolution of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) and associated mountain glaciers in western Canada during the latest Pleistocene. Our data suggest that: i) there is widespread evidence for the Younger Dryas (YD) throughout the mountains of western Canada; ii) late Pleistocene climate reconstructions based solely on alpine moraines may be misleading in regions with decaying ice sheets; iii) extensive interfluves in some mountain regions were ice-free between 16 ka and 13 ka (kilo calibrated yrs BP). Initial decay of the CIS from its maximum extent around 16 ka was likely due to a combination of climatic (surface melting) and dynamical factors. Climate amelioration during the Bølling-Allerød Warm Period [14.7-12.9 ka], likely the cause for the major phase of CIS decay, resulted in ice sheet equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) ranging from 2500 m asl in southern BC to around 2000 m asl along the BC-Yukon border. Hence, before the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) Cold Period [12.9-11.7 ka], the ice sheet shrank and became a labyrinth of individual and coalescing valley glaciers fed by major accumulation zones centered on the Coast Mountains and other high ranges of NW Canada. The response of remnant ice and cirque glaciers to the YD climate deterioration was highly variable. In some cases, small glaciers (0.5-2 km2) built YD moraines that were only hundreds of meters beyond those constructed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) [0.30-0.15 ka]. Our dating also reveals that much larger glaciers persisted in nearby valleys that lie hundreds of meters below the cirques. Hence, we infer that many cirques were completely deglaciated prior the YD, in contrast to low-lying valleys where ice sheet remnants persisted. Glaciers also advanced in north-central British Columbia during the YD, but here glaciers constructed large terminal and lateral moraines. In the Cassiar and northern Coast mountains, for example, 25 10Be [13.10-12.00 ka] and four minimum-limiting 14C ages from lakes impounded by moraines show that glaciers existed up to 10 km beyond LIA glacier limits during the YD. These glaciers thus had ELAs that were 300-500 m lower than contemporary glaciers. We are currently performing high-resolution (

Menounos, Brian; Goehring, Brent; Osborn, Gerald; Clarke, Garry K. C.; Ward, Brent; Margold, Martin; Bond, Jeff; Clague, John J.; Lakeman, Tom; Schaefer, Joerg; Koch, Joe; Gosse, John; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Seguinot, Julien; Heyman, Jakob; Fulton, Robert

2014-05-01

90

Online Glacier Photograph Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NSIDC houses over 15,000 photographic prints of glaciers, taken both from the air and from the ground. These photographs constitute an important historical record, as well as a data collection of interest to those studying the response of glaciers to climate change. More than 3,000 glacier photos are online, and most of these glaciers are in the Rocky Mountains, the Pacific Northwest, and Alaska. In March 2006, a special collection, Long-Term Change Photograph Pairs, was added.

2006-01-01

91

World Glacier Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) provides the World Glacier Inventory data, which was collected by the World Glacier Monitoring Service. This inventory contains geographic location, area, length, orientation, elevation, and classification of morphological type and moraines of more than 67,000 glaciers throughout the world. The data may be downloaded via FTP or through form-based queries.

92

Satellite Observations of Mass Changes and Glacier Motions at the Patagonian Icefields, South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4000 km2 Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI), 13,000 km2 Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI) and the 2500 km2 Cordillera Darwin Icefields (CDI) form the main ice bodies of the Patagonian Icefields of South America. Analysis of satellite imagery, derived digital elevation models (DEMs) and spaceborne laser altimetry confirm that each of the icefields is currently losing mass. The NPI lost mass at a rate of 3.40±0.07 Gt/yr between 2001 and 2011, equivalent to 0.009±0.0002 mm/yr of sea level rise. This contribution is a lower bound as we do not include sub-aqueous mass loss or area changes in our calculations. About 80% of the mass loss occurred from thinning over the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers of the icefield while the remaining ˜20% occurred at higher elevation above the equilibrium line altitude. Mass loss is especially concentrated at the low elevation southwestern and mid-western parts of the icefield. There, ice in the ablation zone approximately doubled in speed between 2007 and 2011. Passive microwave observations indicate that the glacier surface in these regions was "wet" for almost the entire study period. We suggest that the acceleration is linked to the reduction of friction at the bed of the glaciers via water making its way to the glacier sole. The glaciers that accelerated make up only a small proportion of the NPI and we find no evidence of accelerating mass loss from the NPI over the period considered. The SPI lost an average of 13.1±0.2 km3/yr of ice between 2001 and 2011. This rate is almost identical to previous studies, but the masks observations of rapidly accelerating thinning occuring at several of the outlet glaciers. Previous studies find that the peak rate of thinning at the HPS12 Glacier was ˜28 m/yr between 1995 and 2000. We find this slowed to 21±3 m/yr between 2000 and 2006, before accelerating to a rate of 57±13 m/yr between 2005 and 2011. Between 2000 and 2011 the HPS12 Glacier continued its rapid retreat, with the front receding 4.2 km. Maximum thinning rates have also increased dramatically at the tidewater Jorge Montt Glacier, from 20±7 m/yr between 2000 and 2005 to 60±11 m/yr between 2005 and 2011 and at the Upsala Glacier, which thinned at a peak rate of 10.0±2.0 m/yr from 2000 to 2005, accelerating to 24.8±2.4 m/yr from 2005 to 2011. Ice near the front of the retreating Jorge Montt and HPS12 glaciers is moving rapidly, at more than 20 m/day. Large thinning rates and rapid motions imply that ice dynamics are an important component of the volume changes observed at these outlet glaciers. The CDI lost volume at a rate of 1.95±0.13 km3/yr between 2001 and 2011. The loss is concentrated at the ablation zones of the Marinelli, CDI-08 and Darwin glaciers. The volume loss at the CDI is large compared to the small size of the icefield. We do not have enough acquisitions to detect speed changes, but provide baseline measurement of glacier speeds for most of the icefield. We find a total volume loss of about 19.1 km3/yr from the Patagonian Icefields between 2000 and 2011. This estimate should be considered a lower bound as we do not take into account area changes.

Willis, M. J.; Melkonian, A. K.; Pritchard, M. E.; Ramage, J. M.

2011-12-01

93

Worthington Glacier Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Worthington Glacier Project is a collaboration between researchers at the University of Wyoming and the University of Colorado. The objective of this project is to understand glacier flow dynamics "by comparing detailed measurements of glacier motion with numerical models for glacier flow." Summaries and diagrams are provided of the discussed topics: Borehole Video Observations, Radio-Echo Sounding, Crevassing, Surface Flow Field, Englacial Flow Field, 3-D Flow Field, and In-Situ Stress. Images of the Worthington Glacier fieldwork, future research, and publications are also available at the site.

94

Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and non equilibrium SoHO/UVCS line emission of CME shocks  

E-print Network

We provide a guideline to interpret the UVCS emission lines (in particular O VI and Si XII) during shock wave propagation in the outer solar corona. We use a numerical MHD model performing a set of simulations of shock waves generated in the corona and from the result we compute the plasma emission for the O VI and Si XII including the effects of NEI. We analyze the radiative and spectral properties of our model with the support of a detailed radiation model including Doppler dimming and an analytical model for shocks, and, finally, we synthesize the expected O VI 1032A line profile. We explain several spectral features of the observations like the absence of discontinuities in the O VI emission during the shock passage, the brightening of Si XII emission and the width of the lines. We use our model also to give very simple and general predictions for the strength of the line wings due to the ions shock heating and on the line shape for Limb CMEs or Halo CMEs. The emission coming from post-shock region in the solar corona roughly agrees with the emission from a simple planar and adiabatic shock, but the effect of thermal conduction and the magnetic field may be important depending on the event parameters. Doppler dimming significantly influences the O VI emission while Si XII line brightens mainly because of the shock compression. Significant shock heating is responsible for the wide and faint component of the O VI line usually observed which may be taken as a shock signature in the solar corona.

P. Pagano; J. C. Raymond; F. Reale; S. Orlando

2008-01-17

95

Glacier dynamics after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retreat of Wordie Ice Shelf in the 1980s was the first recent episode in a series of ice-shelf collapse events which culminated in a substantial break-up of Wilkins Ice Shelf in April 2009. This widespread behaviour of ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula has been attributed to atmospheric and oceanic warming. While atmospheric warming leads to a prolonged melt season and increased melt ponding, oceanic warming increases bottom melting eroding ice shelves from below. Glaciers feeding into these ice shelves are known to accelerate because of the loss of the buttressing force the ice shelf exerted. Although the loss of the ice shelf itself does not contribute to sea level rise, the increased glacier outflow results in a surface lowering of the grounded glaciers associated with a mass loss and a positive contribution to sea level. Based on remote sensing, airborne and in-situ data collected during 3 recent field campaigns, we study the behaviour of glaciers flowing into Wordie Bay and its relationship to ice-shelf history and local meteorological conditions. Satellite images from different optical and radar sensors (ASTER, Landsat, ERS, and Envisat) were used to map the ice-shelf extent throughout recent years and show an almost complete disappearance of Wordie Ice Shelf. The comparison of surface elevations acquired by airborne laser scanning on Fleming Glacier in 2004 and 2008 reveals a surface elevation decrease of up to 4 m/yr at the grounding line. GPS measurements at sites first surveyed in the 1970s show that the glacier maintains higher ice flow velocities than before the retreat of Wordie Ice Shelf. A continuous GPS station deployed at the upper reaches of Fleming Glacier for one year allows studying changes in ice flow velocity throughout the year. In summary, high ice flow velocities together with the marked surface elevation at the grounding line indicate that the glaciers in Wordie Bay are still losing mass and have not attained a new equilibrium stage after ice shelf removal.

Wendt, Anja; Bown, Francisca; Rivera, Andrés.; Wendt, Jens; Zamora, Rodrigo; Bravo, Claudio; Zenteno, Pablo; Casassa, Gino; Carrasco, Jorge; Quintana, Juan

2010-05-01

96

Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and non equilibrium SoHO/UVCS line emission of CME shocks  

E-print Network

We provide a guideline to interpret the UVCS emission lines (in particular O VI and Si XII) during shock wave propagation in the outer solar corona. We use a numerical MHD model performing a set of simulations of shock waves generated in the corona and from the result we compute the plasma emission for the O VI and Si XII including the effects of NEI. We analyze the radiative and spectral properties of our model with the support of a detailed radiation model including Doppler dimming and an analytical model for shocks, and, finally, we synthesize the expected O VI 1032A line profile. We explain several spectral features of the observations like the absence of discontinuities in the O VI emission during the shock passage, the brightening of Si XII emission and the width of the lines. We use our model also to give very simple and general predictions for the strength of the line wings due to the ions shock heating and on the line shape for Limb CMEs or Halo CMEs. The emission coming from post-shock region in the...

Pagano, P; Reale, F; Orlando, S

2008-01-01

97

Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

98

Modelling Greenland Outlet Glaciers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to develop simple yet realistic models of Greenland outlet glaciers to better understand ongoing changes and to identify possible causes for these changes. Several approaches can be taken to evaluate the interaction between climate forcing and ice dynamics, and the consequent ice-sheet response, which may involve changes in flow style. To evaluate the icesheet response to mass-balance forcing, Van der Veen (Journal of Geophysical Research, in press) makes the assumption that this response can be considered a perturbation on the reference state and may be evaluated separately from how this reference state evolves over time. Mass-balance forcing has an immediate effect on the ice sheet. Initially, the rate of thickness change as compared to the reference state equals the perturbation in snowfall or ablation. If the forcing persists, the ice sheet responds dynamically, adjusting the rate at which ice is evacuated from the interior to the margins, to achieve a new equilibrium. For large ice sheets, this dynamic adjustment may last for thousands of years, with the magnitude of change decreasing steadily over time as a new equilibrium is approached. This response can be described using kinematic wave theory. This theory, modified to pertain to Greenland drainage basins, was used to evaluate possible ice-sheet responses to perturbations in surface mass balance. The reference state is defined based on measurements along the central flowline of Petermann Glacier in north-west Greenland, and perturbations on this state considered. The advantage of this approach is that the particulars of the dynamical flow regime need not be explicitly known but are incorporated through the parameterization of the reference ice flux or longitudinal velocity profile. The results of the kinematic wave model indicate that significant rates of thickness change can occur immediately after the prescribed change in surface mass balance but adjustments in flow rapidly diminish these rates to a few cm/yr at most. The time scale for adjustment is of the order of a thousand years or so.

vanderVeen, Cornelis; Abdalati, Waleed (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

99

Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C2 Swan system is fit to 2500 ± 100 K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with bi-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13 000 ± 400 K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional ne-Te diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM = FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine ne of (1.10 ± 0.08) × 1021 m-3, the reference reduced mass ?0 pair of (3.30 ± 0.82 and 1.65 ± 0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900 ± 1800 K.

Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

2014-04-01

100

Lateglacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations and climate variations in western Norway: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from terminal moraines, palynological data and tree limits suggests that considerable climatic changes occurred in western Norway from Lateglacial (about 14 ka BP) up to the present. The most significant climatic changes took place around the Younger Dryas (11-10 ka BP), the Erdalen event (9.1 ± 0.2 ka BP) and the Little Ice Age (mid 18th century). Lithostratigraphic and paleobotanical studies suggest that the Jostedalsbre ice cap, and possibly most of the west Norwegian glaciers, disappeared during the early Holocene Hypsithermal interval (ca. 8-6 ka BP) and was reformed about 5 ka BP. From about 2.5 ka BP the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) fluctuated around modern levels. The modern glaciers in western Norway reached their maximum Neoglacial extent during the Little Ice Age, when the ELA was depressed 100-150 m.

Nesje, Atle; Dahl, Svein Olaf

101

The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland  

SciTech Connect

In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y{sup -1}. The annual glacier loss for the two simulations was 50.7 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} and 64.4 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} for all glaciers - a difference of {approx}21%. The average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for all glaciers in the simulation domain was located at 875 m a.s.l. and at 900 m a.s.l. for simulations with or without inversion routines, respectively.

Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.

2009-01-01

102

Black carbon concentrations from a Tibetan Plateau ice core spanning 1843-1982: recent increases due to emissions and glacier melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) deposited on snow and glacier surfaces can reduce albedo and lead to accelerated melt. An ice core recovered from Guoqu glacier on Mt. Geladaindong and analyzed using a Single Particle Soot Photometer provides the first long-term (1843-1982) record of BC concentrations from the Central Tibetan Plateau. The highest concentrations are observed from 1975-1982, which corresponds to a 2.0-fold and 2.4-fold increase in average and median values, respectively, relative to 1843-1940. BC concentrations post-1940 are also elevated relative to the earlier portion of the record. Causes for the higher BC concentrations include increased regional BC emissions and subsequent deposition, and melt induced enrichment of BC, with the melt potentially accelerated due to the presence of BC at the glacier surface. A qualitative comparison of the BC and Fe (used as a dust proxy) records suggests that if changes in the concentrations of absorbing impurities at the glacier surface have influenced recent glacial melt, the melt may be due to the presence of BC rather than dust. Guoqu glacier has received no net ice accumulation since the 1980s, and is a potential example of a glacier where an increase in the equilibrium line altitude is exposing buried high impurity layers. That BC concentrations in the uppermost layers of the Geladaindong ice core are not substantially higher relative to deeper in the ice core suggests that some of the BC that must have been deposited on Guoqu glacier via wet or dry deposition between 1983 and 2005 has been removed from the surface of the glacier, potentially via supraglacial or englacial meltwater.

Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.

2013-10-01

103

Afghanistan Glacier Diminution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of melt water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with glacierized drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped glacier regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for glacier-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that glaciers, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many glaciers declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock glaciers, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of glacier location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest glaciers occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 glaciers from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 glacier-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated glacier forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent glacier-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and glacier retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary glaciers to their main trunk, the formation of high-altitude lakes, and an increased frequency and size of proglacial lakes that are, however, genrally unavailable for irrigation sources. Similar conditions of glacier diminution have occurred in almost all other high altitude parts of the country. Generally decreased precipitation in all seasons, coupled with decreased glacier storage of potential melt-water, augers continued severe problems for beleaguered Afghanistan agriculture, along with concomitant social problems as a result.

Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.

2008-12-01

104

In Brief: Melting glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in Patagonia and Alaska have been losing their mass, and for longer than glaciers elsewhere in the world, according to a 7 December report compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). “Climate change is causing significant mass loss of glaciers in high mountains worldwide,” notes the report, which calls for accelerated research, monitoring, and modeling of glaciers and snow and their role in water supplies. The report “also highlights the vulnerability and exposure of people dependent upon [glacier-fed] rivers to floods, droughts and eventually shortages as a result of changes in the melting and freezing cycles linked with climate change and other pollution impacts,” according to UNEP executive director Achim Steiner. For more information, visit http://www.grida.no/publications/high­mountain-glaciers/.

Showstack, Randy; Tretkoff, Ernie

2010-12-01

105

All about glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Snow and Ice Data Center created this website to educate everyone, from grade school students to glaciologists, about glaciers. At the Data and Science link, researchers can learn about glaciological organizations, publications, and research projects as well as how to obtain glacial data. Students and educators can find a glaciology glossary, answers to many of their questions, and amazing images of glaciers at the General Information link. The website also provides a detailed portrayal of the life of glaciers.

106

On Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Mag... http://flux.aps.org/meetings/YR9596/BAPSDPP96/abs/S660010.html 1 of 1 3/10/05 11:16 AM  

E-print Network

conditions. It follows that if such a static equilibrium is driven unstable by footpoint motionsOn Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Mag... http - Concourse Level, Adam's Mark [8S.10] On Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic

Ng, Chung-Sang

107

Glaciers: Teacher's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Glaciers Teacher's Guide Web site was created by Arizona educator Patti Greenleaf. The site provides everything needed to complete the online activity, which is geared to students in grades 4 to 5. Objectives of the lesson include having students define what a glacier is, correctly use some terminology related to glaciers, describe how they form and move, and finally be able to tell where glaciers are located today. These objectives are accomplished by having the students read the provided text as well as looking at various photographs and movies. The structure and material of the site are its highlight, both of which are simple but effective.

Nichols, Marilyn.

1969-12-31

108

Glaciers and Icebergs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan provides instruction to teachers for creating a glacier in the classroom to demonstrate how glaciation affects landforms. Learning objectives include student understanding that as glaciers move, they create a variety of patterns on landforms by a process called glacial scraping, that the scraping patterns left by a glacier depend on how the glacier moved over the landform, and that the evidence of glaciation left by glacial scraping provides clues to the climate in a particular place over a long period of time. The site also includes relevant vocabulary words with sound recordings for pronunciation. There are ideas presented for more advanced activities, discussion questions, and additional sources to consult.

Weisel, Frank

109

Mountain glaciers in the Mediterranean area and in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few glaciers or glacierets still exist in the Mediterranean area. The snow line between the Alps and the mountains of North Africa and the Near East must be reconstructed with the help of climatic data. The only glaciers in Africa are on Mt Kenya (covering an area of 0.8 km 2 ), on Kilimanjaro (5 km2) and in the Ruwenzori

B. Messerli

110

Recent glacier retreat and climate trends in Cordillera Huaytapallana, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We analyzed 19 annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1984 to 2011 to determine changes of the glaciated surface and snow line elevation in six mountain areas of the Cordillera Huaytapallana range in Peru. In contrast to other Peruvian mountains, glacier retreat in these mountains has been poorly documented, even though this is a heavily glaciated area. These glaciers

J. I. López-Moreno; S. Fontaneda; J. Bazo; J. Revuelto; C. Azorin-Molina; B. Valero-Garcés; E. Morán-Tejeda; S. M. Vicente-Serrano; R. Zubieta; J. Alejo-Cochachín

2013-01-01

111

Recent glacier retreat and climate trends in Cordillera Huaytapallana, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 19 annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1984 to 2011 to determine changes of the glaciated surface and snow line elevation in six mountain areas of the Cordillera Huaytapallana range in Peru. In contrast to other Peruvian mountains, glacier retreat in these mountains has been poorly documented, even though this is a heavily glaciated area. These glaciers are

2013-01-01

112

Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, Tien Shan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern Tien Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The weather station on the glacier measured an average temperature of 2.6 °C (at 2m height above surface). The lapse rate of air temperature is close to the standard free atmospheric lapse rate (0.6 °C per 100m), which shows the cold effect of glacier is not significant. The local mountain-valley winds is significant, the speed of which is 2.3 m s-1 (at 2m height). Glacier is dominated by the convectional precipitation, 75% of which occurs in day time. The ablation stakes indicate a specific mass balance of -2.5 m w.e. between 1 July and 13 September. The specific mass balance calculated from the surface energy balance, -2.6 m w.e., is in close correspondence to this. The thermal processes on the debris layer are quite different from those on bare ice or snow. The main physical characteristics of the debris layer are the thermal conductivity and albedo that control heat conduction to the ice-debris interface. Net radiation is the main melt energy whether the debris layer is taken into consideration or not, which is lager between July and the middle of August, and then decreases. This is coincides with the glacier ablation. On the debris-covered area, the sensible- and latent-heat fluxes contribute 19.6% of the melt energy, higher than that on the debris-free ice (4.1%). Hence, due to the existing debris layer, the ablation shows a significant spatial distribution.

Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.

2009-04-01

113

The Diagnostic O VI Absorption Line in Diffuse Plasmas: Comparison of Non-equilibrium Ionization Structure Simulations to FUSE Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the interstellar O VI in the Galactic disk is studied by means of a multi-fluid hydrodynamical approximation, tracing the detailed time-dependent evolution of the ionization structure of the plasma. Our focus is to explore the signature of any non-equilibrium ionization condition present in the interstellar medium using the diagnostic O VI ion. A detailed comparison between the simulations and FUSE data is carried out by taking lines of sight (LOS) measurements through the simulated Galactic disk, covering an extent of 4 kpc from different vantage points. The simulation results bear a striking resemblance with the observations: (1) the N(O VI) distribution with distance and angle fall within the minimum and maximum values of the FUSE data; (2) the column density dispersion with distance is constant for all the LOS, showing a mild decrease at large distances; (3) O VI has a clumpy distribution along the LOS; and (4) the time-averaged midplane density for distances >400 pc has a value of (1.3-1.4) × 10-8 cm-3. The highest concentration of O VI by mass occurs in the thermally stable (103.9 K < T <= 104.2 K; 20%) and unstable (104.2 K < T < 105 K; 50%) regimes, both well below its peak temperature in collisional ionization equilibrium, with the corresponding volume filling factors oscillating with time between 8%-20% and 4%-5%, respectively. These results may also be relevant for intergalactic metal absorption systems at high redshifts.

de Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

2012-12-01

114

Mendenhall Glacier Juneau, Alaska  

E-print Network

· · · · · · #12;V1 Mendenhall Glacier Juneau, Alaska 404 Alaskan Frontiers & Glaciers V1 PRSRTSTD U, rugged remote towns, amazing wildlife--this is Alaska, America's last frontier. Revel in its wild the Inside Passage along Canada's scenic western coast to Alaska and the small wilderness outpost

Raina, Ramesh

115

Columbia Glacier Calving  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A dramatic iceberg calving from Columbia Glacier in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The iceberg has just broken free from under the water and shot to the surface, spinning towards the ice face. The ice cliff here is about 70 m (229.7 ft) tall. Icebergs are calved as stress fractures in the glacier mer...

2010-07-14

116

Glaciers and Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This formative assessment item uncovers students' ideas about glacial erosion and how glaciers transport rocks and other sediment. The assessment is aligned with the National Science Education Standards. It contains instructional suggestions as well as links to other helpful resources dealing with glaciers and glacial movement.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

117

Photographer Overlooking Columbia Glacier  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Photographer Tad Pfeffer capturing images of Columbia Glacier in Prince William Sound, Alaska. He is looking down-glacier towards the ice front, which faces open water in the fjord. This open water is extremely rare, and has not happened again since 2005. The fjord is typically covered with iceberg ...

2010-07-14

118

Glacier Peak, Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to all aspects of Glacier Peak, a volcano in the Cascade Range, including its geographic setting, and geologic and eruptive history. Glacier Peak is not prominently visible from any major metropolitan centers, and thus its attractions, as well as its hazards, tend to be overlooked. Yet, Glacier Peak has produced larger and more explosive eruptions than any other Washington volcano except Mount St. Helens. Glacier Peak was not known by settlers to be a volcano until the 1850s, when Native Americans mentioned it to naturalist George Gibbs. Not until 1898 did Glacier Peak appear on a published map under its current name. Links labeled 'Special Items of Interest' include information about volcanic highlights and features, and points of interest. Other links lead to maps, graphics, images, publications, reports, and other items of interest involving this volcano and others.

119

Climates during Late Quaternary glacier advances: glacier-climate modeling in the Yingpu Valley, eastern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) featured a major cooling of Earth's climate, after which the climate evolved in the largest reconfiguration of the past 100 ka. Despite its significance, full understanding of the climate history during and since the LGM is still lacking on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Recent improvements in understanding glacial extents and chronologies in the Yingpu Valley, eastern Tibetan Plateau present an opportunity to estimate the glacial climatic conditions during and since the LGM. Using a relatively new glacier-climate model, this study reconstructs glacier advances in the Yingpu Valley and quantifies the related climate conditions during the LGM, Lateglacial, and Late Holocene glacial stages. The model results show that the Yingpu Valley contained ice volumes of ˜1.65 km3, 1.03 km3, and 0.29 km3 with equilibrium line altitude (ELA) lowering values of ˜500 m, ˜410 m, and ˜150 m in the three successive glacial stages, respectively. By examining other independent paleoclimatic reconstructions, it is concluded that the temperature decreased by 4.0-5.9 °C, 3.4-3.7 °C, 0.3-0.6 °C with the precipitation amounts being 40-80%, 80-100%, and 100-110% of modern values during the LGM, Lateglacial, and Late Holocene glacial stages, respectively. The climate estimates for the three glacial stages are generally in agreement with other climatic proxy records on the Tibetan Plateau and atmospheric circulation modeling results.

Xu, Xiangke

2014-10-01

120

Glaciological investigations beneath an active polar glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meserve Glacier, Antarctica, was used as a natural laboratory for research on the effective viscosity of subfreezing polycrystalline ice, and on the interaction of cold-based glaciers with their beds. A tunnel was excavated through basal layers of this glacier, which allowed sampling of ice for subsequent measurements of physical and chemical properties and allowed in-situ measurements of ice deformation and glacier sliding. Analyses of deformation reveal a direct dependence of strain rate on crystal size, which reflects an important role for grain-size-sensitive deformation mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding. The sensitivity of strain rate to chemical impurity content and rock particle content is found to be very low. Variations of crystal size probably are an important control on shear enhancement in the ice sheets. The enhanced shear strain rate inferred from tilt of the Dye 3 borehole can be explained as a result of combined fabric and crystal size variations. I infer that interactions between Meserve glacier and its bed are influenced by the presence of liquid water films at ice-rock interfaces despite the low temperature of -17°C. Such films allow slip at ice-rock interfaces and cause in-situ segregation of ice into clean lenses amidst dirty layers. Using slip rate and bed surface roughness measurements I infer la liquid film thickness of at least tens of nanometers. Such films should generally be present in polar glaciers, and will have a thickness controlled by soluble impurities and temperature. Analyses of gas and isotopic composition of basal ices reveal that entrainment of bed material into this glacier actively occurs without bulk freeze-on and conventional regelation. Cold-based glaciers have the capacity to striate and erode their beds, and to create glacial landforms. I reinterpret the clear and persistent relationship between d18O and dD of polar precipitation, which allows isotopic composition to be an important tool for studying glacier-bed interactions and deuterium excess measurements on ice cores to reveal subtropical paleoclimate. I argue that the isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by water-vapor equilibrium to temperatures as low as -35°C. This implies deuterium excess is not sensitive to cloud supersaturation.

Cuffey, Kurt Marshall

121

Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02/baps/abs/S670004.html 1 of 1 3/10/05 10:26 AM  

E-print Network

, for a system periodic in the transverse directions. It follows that if such a static equilibrium is drivenNon-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02 and Dynamics III. ORAL session, Tuesday morning, November 12 Salon 5-6, Rosen Centre Hotel [FM1.004] Non-Equilibrium

Ng, Chung-Sang

122

Bathymetric Controls On Observed Tidewater Glacier Retreat In Northwest Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many of the largest glaciers in Greenland are losing mass, the large variability in observed mass wastage of the remaining glaciers clouds interpretation of the proposed external forcings, such as warming of the ocean or atmosphere. Some glaciers are accelerating and thinning while other nearby glaciers advance and gain mass. Recent efforts suggest that increased ocean temperatures may be responsible for the observed glacial retreat in Greenland and Antarctica through increased basal melting beneath floating ice tongues and vertical ice faces of tidewater glaciers. Basal melting may contribute significantly to calving and thinning, and to an eventual speeding up of the glacier, resulting in thinning further inland. Knowledge of fjord geometry is crucial for ice-ocean interaction because the availability of ocean heat to the ice will be restricted by narrow sills and shallow grounding lines. We investigate whether the variability in observed changes among Greenland glaciers can be partially explained by variation in fjord geometry. Some features of a fjord that could influence the ice-ocean system include the depth of the grounding line, the presence of sills, sloping bed, and the water cavity shape beneath floating ice. New estimates of fjord bathymetries in northwest Greenland, using airborne gravimetry measurements from NASA Operation IceBridge flights, are compared to estimates of ice acceleration and mass wastage of neighboring glaciers. We investigate the correlation between fjord geometry features and several glacier parameters, such as surface velocity and elevation changes. We determine that the geometry of glacial fjords play a large role in determining the stability of outlet glaciers. Deep sills and deep terminus grounding lines will allow greater interaction with the deep and warm Atlantic water off the shelf break. For two neighboring glaciers in northwest Greenland, we find that the glacier with a deeper grounding line, and presumably in contact with more warm water, is flowing faster and experiencing larger mass loss over the past decade. Such broad correlations between grounding line depths and mass wastage are a starting point in an effort to understand the variability of observed retreat of outlet glaciers in northern Greenland.

Porter, D. F.; Tinto, K. J.; Boghosian, A.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.

2013-12-01

123

Mapping the Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earth systems field lab begins with an in-class guided inquiry experience which uses Minnesota Geological Survey 3-D maps of the upper Midwest to determine where they believe glaciers may have had an influence. They will determine this by looking at landscapes and compiling their own evidence from the maps. They will also offer evidence for a hypothesis they generate which involves the direction that the glacier was traveling. The two-day lesson ends (after student presentations on their findings about glaciers) with a field investigation of one of our parking lot snow banks. Students will compare and contrast what they know about glaciers, with one of our parking lot snow banks, determining any similarities with how the landscape may have appeared during the Pleistocene.

124

Glossary of Glacier Terminology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary provides definitions of terms necessary to understand the modern glacier environment. Terms are listed in alphabetical order and are accompanied by photographs. A separate section provides definitions of each type, accompanied by a photograph of an example.

125

Geological Field Trips: Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will utilize the Internet to take a virtual field trip to visit a glacier and discover what physical effects glaciers have on the land. They will also have the opportunity to virtually visit Vermont and trace the pictorial history of how a whale's fossils were found there. The site also contains a student worksheet for their visual field trip. The site also provides an explanation of the formation of fossils.

Zvanut, Patti

2000-03-23

126

Bruggen Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station caught a rare glimpse of the massive ice fields and glaciers of Patagonia early in the afternoon on September 25, 2001. This part of the South American coast sees frequent storms and is often obscured from view by cloud cover. Bruggen Glacier in southern Chile is the largest western outflow from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and, unlike most glaciers worldwide, advanced significantly since 1945. From 1945 to 1976, Bruggen surged 5 km across the Eyre Fjord, reaching the western shore by 1962 and cutting off Lake Greve from the sea. The glacier continued advancing both northward and southward in the fjord to near its present position before stabilizing. The growth covers a distance of more than 10 km north to south, adding nearly 60 square km of ice. Additional information on this and other Patagonian glaciers may be found at the following link: USGS - Historic Fluctuations of Outlet Glaciers from the Patagonian Ice Fields. Image ISS003-E-6061 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

127

Botanical Evidence of the Modern History of Nisqually Glacier, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A knowledge of the areas once occupied by mountain glaciers reveals at least part of the past behavior of these glaciers. From this behavior, inferences of past climate can be drawn. The maximum advance of Nisqually Glacier in the last thousand years was located, and retreat from this point is believed to have started about 1840. The maximum downvalley position of the glacier is marked by either a prominent moraine or by a line of difference between stands of trees of strikingly different size and significantly different age. The thousand-year age of the forest beyond the moraine or line between abutting stands represents the minimum time since the surface was glaciated. This age is based on the age of the oldest trees, plus an estimated interval required for the formation of humus, plus evidence of an ancient fire, plus an interval of deposition of pyroclastics. The estimate of the date when Nisqually Glacier began to retreat from its maximum advance is based upon the ages of the oldest trees plus an interval of 5 years estimated as the time required for the establishment of trees on stable moraines. This interval was derived from a study of the ages of trees growing at locations of known past positions of the glacier. Reconnaissance studies were made on moraines formed by Emmons and Tahoma Glaciers. Preliminary analyses of these data suggest that Emmons Glacier started to recede from its maximum advance in about 1745. Two other upvalley moraines mark positions from which recession started about 1849 and 1896. Ages of trees near Tahoma Glacier indicate that it started to recede from its position of maximum advance in about 1635. About 1835 Tahoma Glacier started to recede again from another moraine formed by a readvance that ter minated near the 1635 position.

Sigafoos, Robert S.; Hendricks, E.L.

1961-01-01

128

The GLIMS Glacier Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), MapInfo, GML (Geography Markup Language) and GMT (Generic Mapping Tools). This "clip-and-ship" function allows users to download only the data they are interested in. Our flexible web interfaces to the database, which includes various support layers (e.g. a layer to help collaborators identify satellite imagery over their region of expertise) will facilitate enhanced analysis to be undertaken on glacier systems, their distribution, and their impacts on other Earth systems.

Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

2007-12-01

129

Greenland Glacier Albedo Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a NASA-funded project with the prime goal of addressing the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Since the formal initiation of the program in 1995, there has been a significant improvement in the estimates of the mass balance of the ice sheet. Results from this program reveal that the high-elevation regions of the ice sheet are approximately in balance, but the margins are thinning. Laser surveys reveal significant thinning along 70 percent of the ice sheet periphery below 2000 m elevations, and in at least one outlet glacier, Kangerdlugssuaq in southeast Greenland, thinning has been as much as 10 m/yr. This study examines the albedo variability in four outlet glaciers to help separate out the relative contributions of surface melting versus ice dynamics to the recent mass balance changes. Analysis of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder albedo shows that at the Petermann and Jakobshavn glaciers, there has been a negative trend in albedo at the glacier terminus from 1981 to 2000, whereas the Stor+strommen and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers show slightly positive trends in albedo. These findings are consistent with recent observations of melt extent from passive microwave data which show more melt on the western side of Greenland and slightly less on the eastern side. Significance of albedo trends will depend on where and when the albedo changes occur. Since the majority of surface melt occurs in the shallow sloping western margin of the ice sheet where the shortwave radiation dominates the energy balance in summer (e.g. Jakobshavn region) this region will be more sensitive to changes in albedo than in regions where this is not the case. Near the Jakobshavn glacier, even larger changes in albedo have been observed, with decreases as much as 20 percent per decade.

2004-01-01

130

Svalbard surging glacier landsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The percentage of Svalbard glaciers thought to be of surge-type is somewhere between 13-90% according to different sources variously based on statistical analysis and observations of diagnostic glaciological and geomorphological features, e.g. looped moraines. Developing a better understanding of which of these figures, if either, is most realistic is important in the context of glacier dynamics and related contributions of small glaciers and ice caps to sea level change in the immediate future. We present detailed geomorphological assessments of the margins of several known surge-type glaciers in Svalbard in order to update and improve the existing framework by which they are identified, and to provide a foundation for future reassessments of the surge-type glacier population based on distinct landform-sediment assemblages. Three landsystems are proposed: (1) Surges of small valley glaciers produce a prominent ice-cored latero-frontal moraine at their surge maximum and are characterised by an inner zone of ice stagnation terrain (hummocky topography, kettle lakes, debris flows) with no or only very few poorly-defined bedforms (crevasse squeeze ridges, eskers and flutes) and no recessional moraines. Many of these glaciers may have surged in the past but show no signs that they have the capability to do so again in the future. (2) Larger land-terminating glaciers, often with several tributaries, typically produce a push moraine complex which contains evidence for multiple advances, as identified from ridge-meltwater channel relationships. The inner zone often contains a large lagoon, partly dammed by the push moraine complex, and widespread ice stagnation terrain. Crevasse squeeze ridges, eskers and flutes are well-defined but small and limited in number and distribution. (3) Surges of large tidewater glaciers produce distinctive, often multi-generational, landform assemblages both in submarine and lateral terrestrial positions. The well-preserved submarine record is characterised by large cross-fjord push moraines of fjord floor sediments with lobe-shaped debris flows on their distal slope, glacial lineations, dense rhombohedral networks of crevasse squeeze ridges, and eskers. Annual push moraines associated with the quiescent phase are also observed and are unique to the submarine record. The terrestrial record consists of large lateral moraine systems alongside the fjord which contain outer push ridges composed of shallow marine sediments and an inner zone of ice stagnation terrain. Eskers, flutes and large, sharp-crested crevasse fill ridges in dense networks are superimposed on this inner zone; the latter are similar in character to their submarine counterparts but typically higher. We suggest that these three landsystems broadly characterise the geomorphology of the vast majority of known Svalbard surge-type glaciers and may allow previously unknown surge-type glaciers to be identified, both in the field and from aerial photographs and sea floor imagery.

Lovell, Harold; Benn, Douglas; Lukas, Sven; Flink, Anne

2014-05-01

131

Influences of Climate Warming and Facility Management on Continuous Permafrost at Matterhorn Glacier Paradise, Zermatt, Swiss Alps.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many parts of the Alps, hazardous bedrock instabilities occur more often during the past 30 years. In many cases, permafrost degradation played a central role for instability (e.g. in 1987 the Val Pola rockslide, Italy). At other events, the role of permafrost degradation is more complex or unpredictable (e.g. in 1991 the Randa rockfall, Wallis, Swiss Alps). However, instabilities in perennially frozen bedrock may also be provoked by human influence. This is exemplarily shown at touristic facilities in the Alps. Human impact on permafrost is often underestimated, or even carelessly taken into account. The tourist resort Zermatt with more than 1.8 million overnight stays per year is located at 1600 m a.s.l. and is surrounded by high mountain ranges that often reach above 4000 m. The dry and sunny climate results in a high glacier equilibrium line thus leaving space for vast non-glaciated permafrost terrain. Numerous tourist facilities provide excellent logistics and easy access to permafrost sites, and the region is thus especially suitable for permafrost research. The infrastructure erected on permafrost consists of hotels, restaurants and mountain huts, station buildings of railways, funiculars, ski lifts and installations for artificial snowing the ski-runs. Some problems at these constructions due to permafrost degradation are shown. At the Matterhorn Glacier Paradise station at an altitude of 3820 meters, todays MAAT ranges between -6 °C and -8°C. During the construction of a tunnel in 1981 bedrock temperatures were at -12°C. Over the past 30 years, these bedrock temperatures have risen to -3 to -2°C, due to the heat brought into the tunnel by facilities and more than 490,000 visitors per year. In an elevator shaft, the temperature temporarily even rose above freezing point. Several new construction sites in continuous permafrost are described and new research data is presented. Another interesting site for permafrost and ice studies at Matterhorn Glacier Paradise is the glacier palace. Since summer 2011 this tourist attraction can be accessed via two elevators leading to an ice tunnel about 12 meters below the glaciers surface. Interesting thermal interactions exist between the permafrost bedrock that is in direct contact to the glacier ice. Great care has to be taken that there is no heat transfer from buildings to the glacier ice. Degradation of permafrost due to climatic change and human interference may become a serious threat to many installations of high mountain tourist centers. These facilities need appropriate management. Permafrost scientists may provide the necessary expertise for a proper hazard management.

King, Lorenz; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Imbery, Stephan

2014-05-01

132

Exploring similarities between tidewater and ice sheet outlet glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidewater and outlet glaciers pose a serious challenge to glaciologists because of their complicated behavior. Yet, they exhibit some of the largest changes observed in glacial systems, often defying regional trends of nearby land-terminating ice masses. For example the Chugach Range of Alaska, while generally losing ice mass, contains one growing tidewater glacier. Also, about 50% of the current mass loss there is due to the rapidly retreating Columbia Glacier. In Glacier Bay, several tidewater glaciers are advancing while land terminating and lake calving glaciers are rapidly wasting away. We will explore some of the common features found between temperate tidewater glaciers and the cold or polythermal outlet glaciers of the big ice sheets. These commonalities include patterns of ice draw-down, particularly far upstream, and acceleration of ice flow during the retreat phase that propagates much farther upstream than suggested by effects of longitudinal coupling. Rapid retreats are initiated at the glacier terminus and we suggest that they are linked to warming ocean temperatures and glacial freshwater runoff. We will also outline the modeling challenges for the upstream propagation of a drawdown event. These require a full treatment of the three dimensional Stokes equations. However, it is not clear how to treat the basal boundary condition and the possibility of temporal changes at the ice base. A particular challenge for outlet glacier systems is posed by free surfaces, such as the grounding line or the cold-temperate-surface (CTS). One striking feature of tidewater glaciers is their evolution through a tidewater glacier cycle of rapid retreat and slow advance as proposed by Austin Post. This cycle is well documented for Alaska's tidewater systems, and we suggest that the possibility of such a cycle should be explored for ice sheet outlet glaciers. The often asynchronous behavior of these systems poses a challenge for the assessment of regional or global ice volume changes. Similarly, ice sheet mass balance can be dominated by a few rapidly changing outlet systems. Such systems must be carefully examined for their disproportionate effects on volume change and sea level studies.

Truffer, M.; Motyka, R.; Echelmeyer, K.

2005-12-01

133

Melting Glaciers Threaten Peru  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thousands of people in the Andes mountains of Peru are having their lives affected in both a practical and cultural way by climate change, which is causing the region's glaciers to melt. This document explores the causes of the glacial melt and its impacts on the local cultures.

2003-10-09

134

Gifts of the Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website highlights the glacial formation of the Great Lakes: - Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. This site provides photos and descriptions of the lakes and how they formed by the glaciers thousands of years ago.

Wittman, Stephen

1998-04-01

135

Alaska Glaciers and Rivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

2007-01-01

136

Glaciers and Glaciation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains lecture notes to accompany one chapter/lecture of a physical geology course using the text, The Dynamic Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology, 4th Edition, by Brian J. Skinner and Stephen C. Porter. Subtopics include glaciers, glacial deposits, glacial features, glaciation, and glacial ages.

Nelson, Stephen

137

Taking a Glacier's Pulse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Dr. Leigh Stearns, a research scientist with the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) and Assistant Professor in Geology at the University of Kansas who studies glaciers in Greenland.

Landis, Carol

138

Glacier Recession Prepared by Joni L. Kincaid  

E-print Network

North America Australia South America Africa #12;Some Existing Glacier Records Although researchers have and Social Science Program (AGSSS) Department of Geography, Texas A&M University Contact info: Joni Kincaid://glaciers.pdx.edu/GlacierTimeline/GlacierTimeline.html, 2006 #12;South Cascade Glacier North Cascades Range, Washington �Western aspect (faces west) �Median

139

Quarternary History of Northern Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, N. W. T., Canada: Part IV: Maps of the Present Glaciation Limits and Lowest Equilibrium Line Altitude for North and South Baffin Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maps of the glaciation limit and lowest equilibrium line altitude (ELA) are presented for southern and northern Baffin Island. The glaciation limit was determined by the 'summit method'; the ELAs were determined by assuming a steady state accumulation are...

G. H. Miller, J. T. Andrews

1971-01-01

140

Degree-day melt models for paleoclimate reconstruction from tropical glaciers: calibration from mass balance and meteorological data of the Zongo glacier (Bolivia, 16° S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes several simple positive degree-day models (hereafter referred as "PDD models") designed to provide past climatic reconstruction from tropical glacier paleo-equilibrium altitude lines (paleo-ELA). Several ablation laws were tested and calibrated using the monthly ablation and meteorological data recorded from 1997 to 2006 on the Zongo glacier (Cordillera Real, Bolivia, 16° S). The performed inversion analyses indicate that the model provides a better reconstruction of the mass balance if the ablation is modeled with different melting factors for snow and ice. The inclusion of short-wave solar radiations does not induce a substantial improvement. However, this type of model may be very useful to quantify the effects of local topographic (orientation, shading) and to take into account incoming solar radiation changes at geological timescale. The performed sensitivity test indicates that, in spite of the uncertainty in the calibrated snow-ice ablation factors, all models are able to provide paleotemperatures with ~1 °C uncertainty for a given paleoprecipitation. This error includes a 50 m uncertainty in the estimate of the paleoELA. Finally, the models are characterized by different precipitation-temperature sensitivities: if a similar warming is applied, model including different ablation factors for snow and ice requires a lower precipitation increase (by ∼15 %) than others to maintain the ELA.

Blard, P.-H.; Wagnon, P.; Lavé, J.; Soruco, A.; Sicart, J.-E.; Francou, B.

2011-06-01

141

How Key GEOSS Datasets Contribute to the Global Monitoring and Assessment of Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An early and dramatic indicator of global climate change has been the recession of mountain glaciers. The potential impacts on water resources and global sea level rise has led to an increased interest in accurate monitoring and assessment of glaciers worldwide. Past glacier inventories recorded scalar information such as area and terminus location for glaciers in easily accessible regions of the Earth. A modern glacier inventory must be truly global, attempting to assess all of the Earth's estimated 160,000 glaciers, and contain actual glacier extents with area distribution by elevation. These data are required in order to begin modeling the response of this portion of the cryosphere to future climate change. Fortunately, the two key data sets required to produce this global inventory of glaciers were recently made available as contributions to GEOSS by GEO Member nations. These are the multispectral imagery in the Landsat archive, contributed by the U.S.A., and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) jointly contributed by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This talk will describe how the Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project is utilizing these GEOSS resources by enabling GLIMS collaborators to derive detailed glacier outlines, transient snow lines, area-elevation distributions, and other pertinent information that will enhance our understanding of the current state, recent evolution, and future fate of the glaciers worldwide.

Khalsa, S. S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Armstrong, R. L.

2009-12-01

142

Mt. Kilimanjaro's Receding Glaciers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), the highest point in all Africa, was photographed by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-97 on December 2, 2000 (STS097-701-17). Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili) is capped by glaciers on its southern and southwestern flanks. The glaciers and snow cap covered a far greater area ten years prior to the view above. Compare the photograph above with a photograph of Kilimanjaro taken in November 1990 by the Space Shuttle mission STS-38 crew. Shuttle photograph provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Additional photographs taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed via the NASA - JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

143

Life Cycle of a Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show follows a snowflake through its life in a glacier. The path of the ice crystal is traced from its incorporation in the zone of accumulation, through the zone of ablation to its final departure, whether being calved as an iceberg or melting or sublimated. There is also information on the speed of the glacier and the difference between a cold and a warm glacier.

144

Glacier National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of Glacier National Park. Users can access materials on the park's ecology and environment (plants and animals, biodiversity and air quality, geology, and fires), the culture and history of the park, park activities, and publications on naturalist activities. There are also video clips of park wildlife and scenery, a photo gallery, and live webcams. Links are provided to additional information, such as research activities on bear DNA and global climate change.

145

New climate change scenarios reveal uncertain future for Central Asian glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asian water resources largely depend on (glacier) melt water generated in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges, located in the basins of the Amu and Syr Darya rivers, important life lines in Central Asia and the prominent water source of the Aral Sea. To estimate future water availability in the region, it is thus necessary to project the future glacier extent and volume in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of uncertainty in climate change projections on the future glacier extent in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. The latest climate change projections provided by the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) generated for the upcoming fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are used to model future glacier extent in the Central Asian region for the two large river basins. The outcomes are compared to model results obtained with the climate change projections used for the fourth IPCC assessment (CMIP3). We use a regionalized glacier mass balance model to estimate changes in glacier extent as a function of glacier size and projections of temperature and precipitation. The model is developed for implementation in (large scale) hydrological models, when the spatial model resolution does not allow for modelling of individual glaciers and data scarcity is an issue. Both CMIP3 and CMIP5 model simulations point towards a strong decline in glacier extent in Central Asia. However, compared to the CMIP3 projections, the CMIP5 projections of future glacier extent in Central Asia provide a wider range of outcomes, mostly owing to greater variability in precipitation projections among the latest suite of climate models. These findings have great impact on projections of the timing and quantity of water availability in glacier melt dominated rivers in the region. Uncertainty about the size of the decline in glacier extent remains large, making estimates of future Central Asian glacier extent and downstream water availability uncertain.

Lutz, A. F.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Gobiet, A.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2012-11-01

146

Insights into the Thwaites Glacier grounding zone from Operation IceBridge aerogravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation IceBridge acquired 1500 km of geophysical data, at 10 km spacing, in front of the Thwaites Glacier grounding line during the 2009 season. The gravity anomalies recorded by the survey have been used to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the glacier, an area inaccessible to previous surveys. The resulting map reveals previously unseen detail

K. J. Tinto; R. E. Bell; J. R. Cochran; S. Elieff; N. Frearson

2010-01-01

147

A new inventory of local glaciers for a part of West Greenland: Methods, challenges and changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local glacier and icecaps on Greenland (outside the icesheet) might already strongly contribute to global sea level rise but their contribution is difficult to calculate as detailed glacier inventory data are only available for West Greenland south of 71°N. This previous inventory includes a digitally available compilation of glacier characteristics and printed maps for glacier identification. However, these data are difficult to use, because the year of data acquisition is not recorded and spans more than two decades. On the other hand, glacier outlines (contiguous ice masses) have been compiled around 1984 for the same region and are available in a digital vector format. Additionally, 100 m elevation contour lines and further digital data sets are available and were used to reconstruct a digital elevation model (DEM). Combined with the outlines, the DEM has been used to separate individual glacier units and to derive topographic glacier inventory parameters. It is planned to complete the inventory of local glaciers and icecaps on Greenland within the framework of the GLIMS initiative using Landsat satellite data. In this study we present results from the new Landsat-derived glacier inventory (scenes 13-9, 10 and 11 from 2001) for a part of West Greenland (from 69 to 73°N). We report on the specific challenges of the input data and of the region (e.g. surging glaciers, rock glaciers, seasonal snow) and present the applied solutions. Apart from a statistical analysis of the inventory data, we also present an assessment of glacier changes since the little ice age (LIA) maximum extent, including an extrapolation for the entire region with lower and upper bounds. While the lower bound assumes that all glaciers without LIA extent measurements have not changed at all, the upper bound assumes that all glaciers have changed in the same way as the observed sample. The entire sample includes 1172 entities with area changes derived for 659 of them. Overall area loss for the entire region since the LIA is -20% with lower and upper bounds of -16% and -24%. Excluding known surge-type glaciers on Disko Island, the relative changes increase by a few percent in this region. As area changes depend on glacier area, the mean change for a specific region is also governed by the specific size class distribution. Length changes since the LIA are extreme in particular on Disko Island (up to 7 km), but for surge-type glaciers they are somewhat lower when glaciers of the same length are compared. Changes since 1985 are small, but average retreat rates before 1984 (up to 100 m per year) by far exceed those in the European Alps.

Paul, F.; Citterio, M.; Ahlstrom, A.; Jepsen, H. F.; Weidick, A.

2009-04-01

148

Glacier-specific elevation changes in western Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deriving glacier-specific elevation changes from DEM differencing and digital glacier outlines is rather straight-forward if the required datasets are available. Calculating such changes over large regions and including glaciers selected for mass balance measurements in the field, provides a possibility to determine the representativeness of the changes observed at these glaciers for the entire region. The related comparison of DEM-derived values for these glaciers with the overall mean avoids the rather error-prone conversion of volume to mass changes (e.g. due to unknown densities) and gives unit-less correction factors for upscaling the field measurements to a larger region. However, several issues have to be carefully considered, such as proper co-registration of the two DEMs, date and accuracy of the datasets compared, as well as source data used for DEM creation and potential artefacts (e.g. voids). In this contribution we present an assessment of the representativeness of the two mass balance glaciers Gulkana and Wolverine for the overall changes of nearly 3200 glaciers in western Alaska over a ca. 50-year time period. We use an elevation change dataset from a study by Berthier et al. (2010) that was derived from the USGS DEM of the 1960s (NED) and a more recent DEM derived from SPOT5 data for the SPIRIT project. Additionally, the ASTER GDEM was used as a more recent DEM. Historic glacier outlines were taken from the USGS digital line graph (DLG) dataset, corrected with the digital raster graph (DRG) maps from USGS. Mean glacier specific elevation changes were derived based on drainage divides from a recently created inventory. Land-terminating, lake-calving and tidewater glaciers were marked in the attribute table to determine their changes separately. We also investigated the impact of handling potential DEM artifacts in three different ways and compared elevation changes with altitude. The mean elevation changes of Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers (about -0.65 m / year) are very similar to the mean of the lake-calving and tidewater glaciers (about -0.6 m / year), but much more negative than for the land-terminating glaciers (about -0.24 m / year). The two mass balance glaciers are thus well representative for the entire region, but not for their own class. The different ways of considering positive elevation changes (e.g. setting them to zero or no data) influence the total values, but has otherwise little impact on the results (e.g. the correction factors are similar). The massive elevation loss of Columbia Glacier (-2.8 m / year) is exceptional and strongly influences the statistics when area-weighting is used to determine the regional mean. For the entire region this method yields more negative values for land-terminating and tidewater glaciers than the arithmetically averaged values, but for the lake-calving glaciers both are about the same.

Paul, Frank; Le Bris, Raymond

2013-04-01

149

Muir Glacier in Glacier Bay National Monument 1950  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This August 1950 photo documents the significant changes that occurred during the 9 years between photographs A and B. Muir Glacier has retreated more than 2 miles, exposing Muir Inlet, and thinned 340 feet or more. However, it still is connected with tributary Riggs Glacier....

150

Pine Island Glacier - basal properties and sliding laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet can be well seen and studied on the behavior of Pine Island Glacier. Despite the long time believe in a slow response of the ice sheet to changing atmospheric and oceanic forcing, Pine Island has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat in the past decades. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope below the glacier. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modeling studies. Plenty of working groups have conducted modeling studies of Pine Island Glacier with varying model complexity and diverse focuses. We want to add to this by conducting model experiments with a diagnostic 3D full-stokes model of Pine Island Glacier. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. The focus of our work lies on the basal properties below the glacier and the connection to sliding behavior. We believe that this is a crucial part, as different basal conditions might cause different responses to ongoing changes in the area. Recent studies presented evidence for the existence of a water saturated sediment basin below the main trunk of the glacier. We conduct a variety a numerical experiments with which we test different approaches of combining information about the basal properties with sliding laws.

Wilkens, Nina; Humbert, Angelika

2013-04-01

151

Historic Glacier Change using a GIS: Progress and problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are exploring the potential wealth of information on glacier extent and topography contained in historic maps. If successful, we can examine the spatial and temporal patterns of historic glacier change where glaciological studies are typically absent. Our project is focused on the American West and data on glacier extent and topography is derived from aerial and ground-based photographs, paper maps, and digital maps. Our initial conception was that digital maps would provide a reliable base on which new data can be added. However, we encountered many errors when compiling the glacier outlines from the 100K scale USGS digital line graph (DLG) coverage. We resorted to overlaying the DLG coverage over the scanned and geo-registered paper maps (digital raster graphics) to error check the DLG coverage. At the time of this writing we are working on the 24K scale coverage, which we obtained from the US Forest Service that uses a different approach to digital map presentation. One important challenge is to define the date of the mapping. Because glaciers change in time, we need to know the date of photography used to make the USGS map. However the data accompanying the maps do not specify what part of the map was updated at the time of last printing. Experience shows that the glacier features are not updated and their outline dates to the original photography from which the first map was made. Although our immediate goal is to assess changes in area, changes in volume are important as well. We found that that historic evaluations of topography (prior to aerial photography) appear reasonable low on glaciers in the ablation zone, higher on the glaciers the topography can be way off and suggests caution in relying on such data sources. While we have found fairly good results in using historic maps, one must carefully examine every map to evaluate its reliability.

Granshaw, F.; Fountain, A. G.; Percy, D.; Ebnet, A.

2004-12-01

152

Glaciers and the Changing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate how glaciers affect the landscape in the context of wondering how the rocks used in the stone walls first got into the ground. Following a directed reading and discussion, they will perform an activity in which they use ice cubes and a bucket of sand to simulate the effects of a glacier.

153

Patagonia Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

154

Glacier monitoring at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico: glacier shrinkage and possible causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacier monitoring at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico: glacier shrinkage and possible causes Glaciers in combination with volcanoes may represent an important hazard for human settlements. As Popocatépetl volcano is located in the vicinity of highly populated areas monitoring its glaciers is a vital part of the surveillance system of the volcano. Popocatépetl hosts two small glaciers that are monitored mainly by

Christian Huggel; Hugo Delgado

155

Temporal variations in flow velocity at Finsterwalderbreen, a Svalbard surge-type glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and intra-annual velocity variations are well known on alpine glaciers, but their importance for Arctic glaciers has only been recognized more recently. This paper presents flow velocity data from Finsterwalderbreen, a 35 km2 polythermal surge-type glacier in southern Svalbard that is presently ˜100 years into its quiescent phase. Field measurements of glacier surface velocities are available from 1950-52 and 1994-97, and mean velocities for the last decade are estimated for the lower glacier using cables drilled to the glacier bed. These velocities show substantial seasonal variations indicating that basal sliding is an important component of surface velocities and interannual fluctuations of up to 75%, possibly indicating variations in subglacial water storage. Several lines of evidence indicate that this glacier has an extensive subglacial hydrological system, generally considered to be a prerequisite for surge-type glaciers, which is at least partly pressurized. Information on surface morphology from 1898 onwards shows that the glacier has experienced continuous retreat since the last surge in about 1910, and has now retreated ˜1.5 km further back than its previous pre-surge position in 1898. Tracking of moraine loops on terrestrial and aerial photographs acquired over a 100 year period indicates that the surge period of Finsterwalderbreen may be lengthening in response to climate changes.

Nuttall, Anne-Marie; Hodgkins, Richard

156

Glacier and Ice Shelves Studies Using Satellite SAR Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite radar interferometry is a powerful technique to measure the surface velocity and topography of glacier ice. On ice shelves, a quadruple difference technique separates tidal motion from the steady creep flow deformation of ice. The results provide a wealth of information about glacier grounding lines , mass fluxes, stability, elastic properties of ice, and tidal regime. The grounding line, which is where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat, is detected with a precision of a few tens of meters. Combining this information with satellite radar altimetry makes it possible to measure glacier discharge into the ocean and state of mass balance with greater precision than ever before, and in turn provide a significant revision of past estimates of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Analysis of creep rates on floating ice permits an estimation of basal melting at the ice shelf underside. The results reveal that the action of ocean water in sub-ice-shelf cavities has been largely underestimated by oceanographic models and is the dominant mode of mass release to the ocean from an ice shelf. Precise mapping of grounding line positions also permits the detection of grounding line migration, which is a fine indicator of glacier change, independent of our knowledge of snow accumulation and ice melting. This technique has been successfully used to detect the rapid retreat of Pine Island Glacier, the largest ice stream in West Antarctica. Finally, tidal motion of ice shelves measured interferometrically provides a modern, synoptic view of the physical processes which govern the formation of tabular icebergs in the Antarctic.

Rignot, Eric

1999-01-01

157

Contribution of SAR interferometry (InSAR) to the study of alpine glaciers. The example of Forni Glacier (Central Alps, Italy): preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at reconstructing superficial velocity and volumetric variations of alpine glaciers, SAR interferometry (InSAR) technique is, for the first time in Italy, applied jointly with the glaciological classic field methods. This methodology with its quantitative results provides, together with other space geodesy techniques like GPS, some fundamental elements for the estimation of the climate forcing and the evaluation of the future glacier trend. InSAR is usually applied to antarctic glaciers and to other wide extralpine glaciers, detectable by the SAR orbits; in the Italian Alps, the limited surface area of the glaciers and the deformation of radar images due to strong relief effect, reduce the applicability of this tecnique. The chosen glacier is suitable for this kind of study both for its large size and for the many field data collected and available for the interferometric results validation. Forni Glacier is the largest valley glacier in the Italian Alps and represents a good example of long term monitoring of a valley glacier in the Central Alps. It is a north facing valley glacier formed by 3 ice streams, located in Italian Lombardy Alps (46 23 50 N, 10 35 00 E). In 2002 its area was approximately 13 km2, extending from 2500 to 3684 m a.s.l., with a maximum width of approximately 7500 m and a maximum length of about 5000 m. Available data include mass-balance measurements on the glacier tongue (from the hydrological year 1992-1993 up to now), frontal variations data from 1925 up to now, topographical profiling by means of GPS techniques and profiles of the glacier bed by geoelectrical surveys (VES) (Guglielmin et alii, 1995) and by seismic surveys (Merlanti et alii, 2001). In order to apply radar interferometry on this glacier eight ERS SAR RAW images have been purchased, in addition to the Digital Elevation Model from IGM (Geographic Military Institute), and repeat pass interferometry used. Combining the different passes, differential interferograms are computed and velocity map obtained. The validation of interferometric data was possible comparing them with the field glaciological data obtained by GPS velocity surveys in the years 1992-1993 (Vittuari and Smiraglia, unpublished) and 1996-1997, which resulted of about 20m/y. The InSAR results give further contributions in the estimation of the velocity field of Forni Glacier for a deeper understanding of the different flow lines of the glacier. Problems related to relief effect, loss of coherence, geometry of satellite imagery and geocoding, are also discussed.

Sterzai, P.; Mancini, F.; Corazzato, C.; D Agata, C.; Diolaiuti, G.

2003-04-01

158

Recent behaviour of Slovenian glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just two glaciers, below the peaks of Triglav (2864 m) and Skuta (2532 m), are persisting in Slovenian Alps, both on a relatively very low elevation. Their present surfaces do not exceed one hectare, thus we can speak only about two glacierets or very small glaciers. The Anton Melik Geographical Institute of the Scientific Research Centre at the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts has regularly performed measurements since 1946. The size of the Triglav glacier, measured in 1946, was 14.4 hectares, and by the year 2012 the glacier had shrunk to a half of a hectare. The direct vicinity of the meteorological station on Mt. Kredarica makes possible an analysis of the dependency of the glacier's fluctuation on weather changes. Several methods of measuring have been applied. Since 1999 we have regularly performed photogrammetric measurements of the glacier, which render possible exact calculations of changes in the glacier's area and volume by individual years. In addition, we also performed georadar measurements in 2000 and 2013. Besides regular annual measurements performed at the end of melting seasons, the Triglav glacier has also been photographed monthly since 1976, from two fixed positions on Mt. Kredarica. In 2012, we performed aerial laser scanning (LIDAR) of the Triglav glacier. While for the last decade of the 20th century we reported that the Triglav glacier has not only retreated but literally disintegrated, in the first decade of the 21st century we can observe its stagnation. Due to the present concave form of the glacier's surface, snow remains on it late into summer, and since the year 2007, the ice of the lower part of the glacier has not been revealed even at the end of the melting season but has remained covered with the firn and snow of previous winters. Should such weather conditions continue and the amount of winter precipitation further increase, the remainder of the Triglav glacier will, though very small in size, continue to exist for next ten years or even more.

Gabrovec, Matej; Ferk, Mateja; Ortar, Jaka

2014-05-01

159

Latitudinal variation of sedimentation and erosion rates from Patagonia and Antarctic Peninsula tidewater glaciers (46°-65° S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the study of tidewater glacier depositional basins, across a broad latitudinal transect from central Patagonia (46°S) to the Antarctic Peninsula (65°S). Based on sediment cores and seismic records, we estimate accumulation rates at several timescales as well as sediment-volume derived erosion rates (Er) for millennial time scales. In the Antarctic Peninsula, accumulation rates are ~100 mm/yr for centennial and millennial timescales. In Patagonia, proximal basins are in general well isolated and have short timescale (decadal-centennial) sedimentary records and high accumulation rates, whereas medial (more distal) basins have millennial scale sedimentary records and low accumulation rates. We hypothesize that the "Saddler effect" in the accumulation rates of the Patagonian study areas exists because Neoglacial advance and recent post-Little Ice Age retreat has left well isolated proximal basins that effectively trap sediments. This, along with high sediment yields, produces high decadal accumulation rates. There is no such organization of basins in the Antarctic Peninsula fjords and bays and no such clear manifestation of Neoglacial advances or morphologies. Erosion rates span two orders of magnitude from 0.03 mm/yr for Lapeyrère Bay at Anvers Island, Antarctica (~64.5°S), to 1.09 mm/yr for San Rafael Glacier in northern Patagonia (~46.5°S). Rates for Antarctic Peninsula glaciers are in general lower than those of temperate Patagonian glaciers. A good correlation of erosion rates and modern sea level annual temperature was found. A latitudinal decrease in millennial erosion rates is interpreted as a result of decreasing annual temperature although decreasing annual precipitation may also be a factor. However, local variability within each region might be influenced by differences in bedrock geology (e.g. Herbert Sound versus Lapeyrère and Andvord bays ) and drainage basin morphology (hypsometry, number of glaciers and length of overall calving front, topography). Particularly, the interplay between equilibrium line altitude and glacier hypsometry, which influences mass balance and glacier dynamics, seems to have a strong effect on the erosion capability of glaciers (e.g. Europa versus San Rafael and Marinelli glaciers). Erosion rates on the Antarctic Peninsula, based on the volumes of sediments delivered to the continental shelf and rise, are, for the last 9.5 Myr, between 0.07 and 0.12 mm/yr and did not vary significantly between 2.9-9.5 Ma. These values are similar to those obtained for millennial scale (Holocene) erosion rates at Andvord and Lapeyrère bays, suggesting that long-term erosion rates have not varied significantly in this region through geologic time. In addition, old (Miocene and older) thermochronology ages have been obtained for the Antarctic Peninsula. Thus, we suggest that long-term glacial cover in cold regions hinders erosion, preserving morphological features and allowing mountain growth through tectonic processes.

Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Anderson, J. B.; Wellner, J. S.; Minzoni, R. L.

2012-12-01

160

Evidence for soft-bedded, marine-terminating outlet glaciers in East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica, has been considerd less dynamic than many other areas in Antarctica. Here, we present evidence that questions this view. We report results of a radar survey carried out on the West Ragnhild Glacier (WRG): the longest and widest glacier in DML. It reveals that the glacier bed is smooth and low (~600 m b.s.l.) in its seaward 65 km becoming even lower toward in a deep valley further upstream. The grounding line lies well below sea level, which characterizes WRG as a marine terminating glacier. Moreover, across-flow radar profiles of the basin show little topographic controls on the glacier-outlet position. In the seaward part of the glacier (< 65 km away of the grounding line), very low roughness occurs at the bed-ice interface in both direction (across and along). Our interpretation indicates that this flat basin is continuously covered with sediments. Analysis of the radar power returned from the bed shows that the bed is smoother and water richer within ~40 km of the grounding line, so we conclude that most of the sediment basin is water-saturated and, therefore, acts as a soft bed and enhances the ice flow. We verified this hypothesis using a higher-order ice flow model. We modeled the ice deformation along the flow line and pointed out an increasing discrepancy between modeled and observed (by interferometry) surface velocities toward the grounding line. It shows that basal motion occurs only over the sediment basin, with magnitude increasing further downstream up to 75% of the total surface speed. These geographic settings make the glacier's grounding-line position unstable. As other outlet glaciers in DML have similar geographical settings, the inter-connected system of outlet glaciers and ice shelves in DML may be much more likely subject to a sudden change than previously thought.

Callens, Denis; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Steinhage, Daniel; Smith, Ben; Pattyn, Frank

2013-04-01

161

Physical sediment properties utilized to portray Holocene glacier activity from the distal glacier-fed lake Sørsendalsvatna, Western Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a Holocene record of glacier activity as documented in physical sediment properties from the distal glacier-fed lake Sørsendalsvatna (918m asl), located 35 km inland from the coast in Western Norway. The up-valley cirque glacier Blåbreen has an altitudinal extent from 1420 to 960m asl, with a present mean equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) close to 1050m asl. Three cores were collected from Sørsendalsvatna in 2005 using a piston corer from a raft. Standard sedimentological and geochemical parameters such as loss-on-ignition (LOI), dry bulk density (DBD), magnetic susceptibility (MS), grain-size distribution (GS) and scanning x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were measured in all three cores. The amount of detrital input was further determined by means of visible reflectance spectroscopy (VIS-RS). Multivariate data sets were compared with each other by calculating the multivariate correlation coefficient (RV-coefficient), and the common signals of multivariate data sets were extracted by means of principle component analysis (PCA). The age-depth model is based on twelve 14C dates and was constructed by smoothing spline interpolation using the 'classical' age-modelling algorithm available in Clam.R. Uncertainties of the age-model are moderate (100 years) back to 8300 cal BP and increase to 400 years before 9500 cal BP. The geochemical elements Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe and Sr have significant count rates as measured by an ITRAX core scanner. Count rates of different geochemical elements are in accordance with each other, and the only significant PC-axis explains 89% of the variance. Further LOI, DBD, MS and VIS-RS are highly correlated among each other and with the XRF data (RV= 0.95). Applying PCA to the combined data sets, we find one significant axis that explains 92% of the variance. Grain-size data, however, do not show any accordance with other sedimentological parameters (RV=0.28). LOI, DBD, MS, XRF and VIS-RS are interpreted as indicative of increased deposition of sediments derived from glacial abrasion. The common signal of these data sets was extracted by means of PCA and is interpreted to vary in concert with the changing glacier ELA. The ELA increased sharply between 9500 and 9300 cal BP. This increase is marked by a change in the sediments, from gray silty-clay to brown gyttja. Values remained constant between 9300 and 8300 cal BP followed by a pronounced decrease lasting until 7800 cal BP, with minimum values recorded around 8000 cal BP. This ELA lowering is most probably associated with the 8.2k Event recorded in Greenland ice cores, in Norway termed the Finse Event. The highest ELA during the Holocene was recorded between 7800 and 6000 cal BP followed by a decrease between 6000 and 5500 cal BP. The ELA was rather stable between 5500 and 3500 cal BP followed by a steady decrease lasting until 1500 cal BP where the sediment is again composed of gray silty-clay. During the last 1500 years the ELA seems rather stable again, showing the lowest values since the end of the early Holocene deglaciation. In Sørsendalsvatna, no clear signal of the 'Little Ice Age' is detectable, possibly due to a hiatus in the upper part of the cores.

Trachsel, M.; Bakke, J.; Nesje, A.

2011-12-01

162

Ice-proximal sediment dynamics and their effect on the stability of Muir Glacier, Alaska: A case study of non-climatic glacier response  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have shown that water depth at tidewater termini affect calving rates and, therefore, glacier mass balance and terminus stability. Grounding-line water depths are themselves governed by glacial and marine processes that interact during the formation of morainal bank depocenters. These morainal banks can fluctuate 10s of meters in height within an interval of a few weeks. Recent investigations in Glacier Bay have focused on quantitatively assessing sediment budgets in the ice-proximal environment. The monitoring of morainal banks in upper Muir Inlet has included repeated bathymetric mapping, sediment trap studies, bottom grab sampling, glacier and iceberg sampling, and submersible ROV investigations within 1 km of the terminus. Such relationships are important in interpreting recent changes in the dynamics of Muir Glacier where a century of retreat has been succeeded by quasi stability. The new glacier regime has accompanied basin infilling from approximately 100 m depth to a maximum of 52 m at the grounding line. Two large grounding-line fans have aggraded to deltas and reduced the length of the calving margin from 900 m to 290 m wide. These effects have reduced the ice flow velocities by 45%. Annual morainal bank growth ranged from 10[sup 6] to 10[sup 7] m[sup 3] and is the result of glacifluvial dumping, suspension settling from turbid overflow plumes, debris dumping from ice-cliff and iceberg melting, glacier squeezing and pushing of morainal bank sediment, and sediment gravity flow processes. Each of these processes are an integral facet of the morainal bank dynamics and glacier response. These studies of Muir Glacier indicate that glacier response to sediment dynamics need to be addresses before climatic implications are made.

Hunter, L.E.; Powell, R.D. (Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

163

Formation condition of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris-covered glaciers are widely distributed along the Himalayas. It is well known that insulation effect of debris mantle and heterogeneous topography make the response of the debris-covered glaciers to climate change complex. Furthermore, glacial lakes, which have often caused outburst floods and thus threatened Himalayan countries, are formed at the termini of debris-covered glaciers. It is little understood, however, what kinds of geomorphological and climatic environments determine the glacier termini as debris-covered or debris-free. In this study, we analyze remotely sensed satellite data to describe formation condition of debris-covered glaciers. We first delineated glaciers, debris-covered areas, and surrounding slopes using ALOS AVNIR-2, visible ortho-rectified images. We analyzed inclinations and aspects of the surrounding slopes using ASTER-GDEM by assuming that the debris mantle was supplies from the slope steeper than 40 degrees.We also estimated surface temperature distribution using thermal infrared data of ASTER because freeze-thaw activity on the bedrock should produce debris mantle. More than 1,200 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya including north-facing glaciers on the Tibetan side were delineated. Spatial analysis shows that the debris-covered glaciers have ten times larger area of steep slopes than the debris-free glaciers. Spatial distribution of surface temperature obtained from the nighttime ASTER TIR data shows a significant negative correlation with the altitude whereas daytime data shows no dependency on altitude. The surface exceeding 0 degrees Celsius is found on the south-facing steep slopes even in a winter season. It suggests that the more south-facing steep slope should have more active freeze-melt cycles and provide more debris onto glaciers. We also find a significant positive correlation among the areas of south-facing steep slopes and of debris-covered surface. In addition, the ablation areas of the south-facing debris-covered glaciers are fully covered by debris mantle, which seems to be supplied from the widely distributed south-facing steep slopes. On the other hand, the north-facing glaciers have elongated debris-covered areas along the flow lines of the glaciers, on which debris mantle seems to be supplied from very limited south-facing steep slopes within the glacier catchment. Our analysis suggest that the spatial distribution of south-facing steep slopes determines the extent and the shape of a debris-covered area of glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya.

Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.

2011-12-01

164

East Greenland Glacier Dynamics: An Interdisciplinary Study of Helheim Glacier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study of Helheim glacier was initiated in 2006 primarily to investigate the source of glacial earthquakes. Glacial earthquakes appear to be sensitive to climate parameters and could potentially serve as an \\

T. B. Larsen; M. Nettles; P. Elosegui; M. L. Andersen; A. P. Ahlstrøm; J. L. Davis; J. D. Juan; G. Ekström; R. Forsberg; G. S. Hamilton; S. A. Khan; L. A. Stearns; L. Stenseng

2008-01-01

165

An update on surge-type glaciers and spatial constraint of surge behavior in the Alaska Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Range is host to many surge-type glaciers as originally identified by Post in the 1960s. A reanalysis of Post's Alaska Range surge-type glacier inventory and updates by Wilbur and Clarke has been compiled from the literature, USGS maps, nadir and oblique aerial photographs and satellite imagery with a combined time span of 1949 to 2011. Glaciers in the Alaska Range show a spectrum of surge behavior, from episodic "pulsing" (or acceleration) of a tributary glacier into a major glacier trunk, to full glacier participation resulting in kilometers of displacement. To address this spectrum a classification scheme was developed and applied to show both magnitude of surge behavior and provide a confidence index of surge-type glacier identification. Of the 356 glaciers in the Alaska Range with a surface area greater than 1 km2, 28 glaciers comprising 38% of the total glacier surface area show some degree of surge behavior. 19 major surge events have been observed or temporally constrained with imagery. To better spatially constrain surge behavior, tributary branches of surge-type glaciers were assessed individually for surge participation. The extent of displacement from the most recent surge was identified from surface expressions where possible. Pre- and post-surge moraine structures for glaciers known to have major surges since the 1990s were mapped, illustrating ice displacement and the evolution of glacier geometry during the quiescent phase. Moraine geometries of Black Rapids and Susitna glaciers were also mapped. Both are well studied glaciers whose predicted surges have not occurred. Elevation data collected along a centerline of Yanert Glacier before and after a surge in 2000-01 show a mass transfer of (6.2 ± 0.3) x 10^8 m3. These data also show the location of the hinge line or boundary between reservoir and receiving areas. Using these data as well as additional direct hinge line measurements made in the Alaska Range and elsewhere in Alaska, a 70/30 surface area ratio between the reservoir and receiving areas was derived. This ratio was applied to surge-type glaciers in the Alaska Range lacking direct hinge line measurements. We propose that knowing the location of the hinge line can aid surge forecasting.

Herreid, S. J.; Truffer, M.; Harrison, W. D.; Hock, R. M.

2011-12-01

166

Dynamic behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley icefield system during a surge, and other measurements of Alaskan glaciers with ERS SAR imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was employed for the measurement of the dynamics of the Bagley icefield during a major surge in 1993-1994, the measurement of ice velocities on the Malaspina piedmont glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for mapping the snow lines and the position of the terminus of Nabesna glacier on Mount Wrangell (a 4317 m andesitic shield volcano) in the heavily glacierized Saint Elias and Wrangell Mountains of Alaska. An overview and summary of results is given. The methods used include interferometry, cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR imagery.

Lingle, Craig S.; Fatland, Dennis R.; Voronina, Vera A.; Ahlnaes, Kristina; Troshina, Elena N.

1997-01-01

167

Middle Sister and Hayden Glacier  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The North face of Middle Sister and Hayden Glacier, in Three Sisters Wilderness, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. This Picture was taken while climbing Middle Sister. Middle Sister is also known as "Hope" and is an extinct stratovolcano....

2009-12-08

168

Life Cycle of a Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information on this site indicates that the life cycle of a glacier is more eventful than it appears. The site allows students to follow the journey of a single snowflake as it takes a ride through a glacier, a process that can take as much as 30,000 years to complete. It can be viewed as an interactive slide show or a single page of text and illustrations.

169

Velocities of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers, West Antarctica, from ERS-1 SAR images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Average velocities of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers were measured for the time periods between 1992 and 1994 by tracking ice-surface patterns. Velocities of the central flow of the Pine Island Glacier range from 1.5 km/yr above the grounding line (separating the grounded from the floating parts of a glacier) to 2.8 km/yr near the terminus; velocities of the central Thwaites Glacier range from 2.2 km/yr above the grounding line to 3.4 km/yr at the limit of measurements on the tongue. Both glaciers show an increase in velocity of about 1 km/yr where they cross their grounding lines. The velocities derived from ERS-1 images are higher than those previously derived from Landsat images, perhaps reflecting acceleration of the glaciers. Both glaciers are exceptionally fast. The high velocities may be due to high precipitation rates over West Antarctica and the lack of a major buttressing ice shelf.

Lucchitta, B.K.; Rosanova, C.E.

1997-01-01

170

Velocities of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica, from ERS-1 SAR images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Average velocities of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers (West Antarctica) were measured for the time periods between 1992 and 1994 by tracking ice-surface patterns. Velocities of the central flow of the Pine Island glacier range from 1.5 km/yr above the grounding line (separating the grounded from the floating parts of a glacier) to 2.8 km/yr near the terminus; velocities of the central Thwaites glacier range from 2.2 km/yr above the grounding line to 3.4 km/yr at the limit of measurements on the tongue. Both glaciers show an increase in velocity of about 1 km/yr where they cross their grounding lines. The velocities derived from ERS-1 images are higher than those previously derived from Landsat images, perhaps reflecting acceleration of the glaciers. Both glaciers are exceptionally fast. The high velocities may be due to high precipitation rates over West Antarctica and the lack of a major buttressing ice shelf.

Lucchita, Baerbel K.; Rosanova, Christine E.

1997-01-01

171

Mapping of subaqueous glacier topography in Greenland with multibeam sonars to document ice-ocean interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few attempts have been made to map the submerged calving face of tidewater glaciers in the past. Here, we present results from the August 2012 and 2013 campaigns in West Greenland where we visited several glaciers in Atasund, Torssukataq, Uummannaq and Upernavik Fjords. We employ a low frequency multibeam sonar tilted to the side to image the side walls of the glacial fjords, including the submerged calving faces. The results reveal the true depth of the grounding line of these glaciers, which is typically unknown - or known with enormous uncertainties - from traditional ship soundings or from the mapping of glacier thickness, the general shape and slope of the submerged calving fronts, and the presence and spatial distribution of channels of subglacial water discharge that fuel high rates of ice face melting. By repeating the mapping over time on a few glaciers and compensating the data for ice motion, we are able to calculate calving rates and ice melt rates over periods of a few days and compare the ice melt production results with estimates derived from hydrographic surveys. In most examples, knowledge of the sea floor topography is the principal information retrieved from these surveys because it determines whether subsurface warm waters can access the glacier face, but the spatial imaging of the submerged calving face reveals spatial details about ice-ocean interactions that are fundamental to the process of ice melt and complex. Such mappings should be extended to other glaciers and eventually to all tidewater glaciers in Greenland.

Rignot, E. J.; Fenty, I. G.; Xu, Y.; Cai, C.; Aykutlug, E.; Dupont, T. K.

2013-12-01

172

Imbalance and accelerated melting of glaciers and ice caps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most glaciers and ice caps (GIC) are out of balance with the current climate. In order to return to equilibrium, these GIC must retreat to higher elevations, losing mass and making a 21st-century sea-level contribution comparable to that of ice sheets. Here, we present data for 140 GIC from 1970-2009 and show that most glaciers and ice caps are farther from balance than previously believed. For the first decade of the 21st century (2000-2009), GIC in this data set have a mean accumulation-area ratio (AAR, the fractional glacier area where accumulation exceeds ablation) of 35%, far below the mean equilibrium value of 56%. If these AARs are assumed to be representative, the Earth's GIC are committed to the future loss of ~40% of their volume, simply to be in balance with the climate of the past decade. Accounting for geographic sampling biases, estimated volume losses are somewhat reduced, but are still substantially larger than previous published values. Extrapolation of recent trends suggests that if recent climate trends continue for the next several decades, the Earth's GIC will ultimately lose more than half their volume.

Mernild, S. H.; Lipscomb, W. H.

2012-04-01

173

Holocene glacier history of Bjørnbreen and climatic reconstruction in central Jotunheimen, Norway, based on proximal glaciofluvial stream-bank mires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holocene variations of Bjørnbreen, Smørstabbtinden massif, west-central Jotunheimen are reconstructed from the lithostratigraphy of two alpine stream-bank mires flooded episodically by meltwater. The approach uses multiple sedimentological indicators (weight loss-on-ignition, mean grain size, grain-size fractions, bulk density, moisture content and magnetic susceptibility), an a priori model of overbank deposition of suspended glaciofluvial sediments, a detailed chronology based on 56 radiocarbon dates, and a Little Ice Age sedimentological analogue. Rapid, late-Preboreal deglaciation was indicated by immigration of Betula pubescens by 9700 cal. BP. An interval of at least 3000 years in the early Holocene when glaciers were absent was interrupted by two abrupt episodes of glacier expansion around the time of the Finse Event, the first at ca 8270-7900 cal. BP (Bjørnbreen I Event) and the second at ca 7770-7540 cal. BP (Bjørnbreen II Event). Neoglaciation began shortly before ca 5730 cal. BP with gradual build-up to the maximum of the Bjørnbreen III Event at ca 4420 cal. BP. Later maxima occurred at ca 2750 cal. BP (Bjørnbreen IV Event) and at 1300, 1260, 1060 and 790 cal. BP (all within the Bjørnbreen V Event). Glaciers were smaller than today and possibly melted away on several occasions in the late Holocene (ca 3950, 1410 and 750 cal. BP). Minor maxima also occurred at ca 660 and 540 cal. BP, within the late Mediaeval Warm Period and the early Little Ice Age, respectively. The Little Ice Age maximum was dated to 213±25 BP (ca 205 cal. BP). The relative magnitudes of the main glacier maxima were determined: Erdalen Event>Little Ice Age Event (Bjørnbreen VI)>Bjørnbreen I (Finse Event) ? Bjørnbreen II>Bjørnbreen V?Bjørnbreen IV>Bjørnbreen III. These episodic events of varying magnitude and abruptness were used in conjunction with an independent summer-temperature proxy to reconstruct variations in equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) and a Holocene record of winter precipitation. Since the Preboreal, ELA varied within a range of about 390 m, and winter precipitation ranged between 40 and 160% of modern values. Winter precipitation variations appear to have been the main cause of these century- to millennial-scale Holocene glacier variations.

Matthews, John A.; Berrisford, Mark S.; Quentin Dresser, P.; Nesje, Atle; Olaf Dahl, Svein; Elisabeth Bjune, Anne; Bakke, Jostein; John, H.; Birks, B.; Lie, Øyvind; Dumayne-Peaty, Lisa; Barnett, Catherine

2005-01-01

174

Glacier Shrinkage and Effects on Alpine Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine glaciers cover an area of about 553 km2 in seven western states of the American West. With few exceptions, all glaciers have been shrinking over the past century and the rate of shrinkage has accelerated over the past few decades. Overall, smaller glaciers exhibit greatest shrinkage, relative to their size, compared to larger glaciers. Preliminary results from studies of glacier change in several national parks reveal the spatial pattern of glacier change. Glacier shrinkage, while contributing to global sea level change, has two important local effects. First, the net release of water from its storage in the frozen state enhances overall stream discharge. Second, the shrinking area of glaciers reduces their moderating effect on stream flow, particularly during late-summer and drought periods, and shifts peak runoff towards early summer. Consequently these alpine basins become more susceptible to future drought. In addition to these "clean" glaciers, debris-covered glaciers are probably important as well. Debris-covered glaciers melt at much slower rates than adjacent "clean" glaciers, with reduced daily variations in melt because of the insulation provided by the surface debris layer. The number and extent of debris-covered glaciers in the American west is not well known therefore their hydrological contribution is uncertain. However, if the number of debris-covered glaciers can be scaled from an inventory of those in the Rocky Mountain National Park (Achuff, 2003), the volume of debris-covered ice may be considerable. From an ecological perspective, the greatest effects are in the high alpine regions where glacier recession opens new areas for biological expansion, and where the hydrological dependence on glaciers is greatest. Lesser effects, related to suspended sediment loads, are felt well downstream (10's km) from glaciers.

Basagic, H.; Fountain, A. G.; Clark, D. H.

2004-12-01

175

High Altitude Glaciers in the Tropics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While it may seem like a contradiction, glaciers do exist in the tropical latitudes. In this video produced by ThinkTV, learn about tropical glaciers and why scientists are studying them to better understand global climate change.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

176

Where Have All the Glaciers Gone?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine images of alpine glaciers to develop an understanding of how glaciers respond to climate change. They record, discuss, and interpret their observations. They consider explanations for changes in the size and position of glaciers from around the world. They develop an understanding that the melting (retreat) of glaciers is occurring simultaneously on different continents around the world, and, thus, they represent evidence of global climate change.

Research, National C.

177

Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal surface structures ("flowstripes") are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems; the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, the Taylor and Ferrar Glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, Crane and Jorum Glaciers (ice-shelf tributary glaciers) on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

2012-03-01

178

Muir Glacier and Muir Inlet 1980  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This ship-deck-based August 1980 photograph of Muir Glacier and Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, St. Elias Mountains, Alaska, shows the nearly 200-ft-high retreating tidewater end of Muir Glacier with part of its face capped by a few angular pinnacles of ice, called séracs....

179

Google Earth Tours of Glacier Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A detailed Google Earth tour of glacier change over the last 50 years is given in class as an introduction. Students are then asked to select from a group of glaciers and create their own Google Earth tour exploring key characteristics and evident changes in that glacier.

Pelto, Mauri; Collection, Serc -.

180

Primer on glacier flows Christian Heining  

E-print Network

/drop of the seawater level - Glaciers are the biggest reservoir of fresh water on earth (74%) groundwater 20%, lakes (glacier surges) or to use the water of glaciers in power plants or for water supply for agriculture. 2 scales suggest a shallow water (thin film) approximation #12;

Sainudiin, Raazesh

181

Warm Oceans, Fast Glaciers: the connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade many outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet have accelerated and thinned, and in a number of cases their termini have retreated. There is much in common from glacier to glacier that emerges as these changes are studied, yet the actual physical mechanisms remain unclear. One can show that the spatial patterns and timing of outlet

M. Truffer; M. A. Fahnestock; J. M. Amundson

2009-01-01

182

Get Close to Glaciers with Satellite Imagery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of remote sensing from satellites to monitor glaciers. Discusses efforts to use remote sensing satellites of the Landsat series for examining the global distribution, mass, balance, movements, and dynamics of the world's glaciers. Includes several Landsat images of various glaciers. (TW)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1986-01-01

183

Recent Changes in Arctic Glaciers, Ice Caps, and the Greenland Ice Sheet: Cold Facts About Warm Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major manifestations of Arctic change can be observed in the state of balance of Arctic glaciers and ice caps and the Greenland ice sheet. These ice masses are estimated to contain nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of ice, which is more than six times greater than all the water stored in the Earth's lakes, rivers, and snow combined and is the equivalent of over 7 meters of sea level. Most of these ice masses have been shrinking in recent in years, but their mass balance is highly variable on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. On the Greenland ice sheet most of the coastal regions have thinned substantially as melt has increased and some of its outlet glaciers have accelerated. Near the equilibrium line in West Greenland, we have seen evidence of summer acceleration that is linked to surface meltwater production, suggesting a relatively rapid response mechanism of the ice sheet change to a warming climate. At the same time, however, the vast interior regions of the Greenland ice sheet have shown little change or slight growth, as accumulation in these areas may have increased. Throughout much of the rest of the Arctic, many glaciers and ice caps have been shrinking in the past few decades, and in Canada and Alaska, the rate of ice loss seems to have accelerated during the late 1990s. These recent observations offer only a snapshot in time of the long-term behavior, but they are providing crucial information about the current state of ice mass balance and the mechanisms that control it in one of the most climatically sensitive regions on Earth. As we continue to learn more through a combination of remote sensing observations, in situ measurements and improved modeling capabilities, it is important that we coordinate and integrate these approaches effectively in order to predict future changes and their impact on sea level, freshwater discharge, and ocean circulation.

Abdalati, W.

2005-12-01

184

Mountain glaciers caught on camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many glaciers around the world are melting, and new research is showing some of the dramatic details. Ulyana Horodyskyj, a graduate student at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado at Boulder, set up cameras to take time-lapse photographs of three lakes on a glacier in Nepal. This allowed her and her colleagues to see the supraglacial lake drain in real time for the first time, making it possible to estimate how much water was involved and how long it took for the lake to drain and refill. Horodyskyj said in a press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting that such observations of supraglacial lakes are valuable because in a warming climate, melting glaciers can lead to formation of supraglacial lakes.

Balcerak, Ernie

2011-12-01

185

Flow velocities of Alaskan glaciers.  

PubMed

Our poor understanding of tidewater glacier dynamics remains the primary source of uncertainty in sea level rise projections. On the ice sheets, mass lost from tidewater calving exceeds the amount lost from surface melting. In Alaska, the magnitude of calving mass loss remains unconstrained, yet immense calving losses have been observed. With 20% of the global new-water sea level rise coming from Alaska, partitioning of mass loss sources in Alaska is needed to improve sea level rise projections. Here we present the first regionally comprehensive map of glacier flow velocities in Central Alaska. These data reveal that the majority of the regional downstream flux is constrained to only a few coastal glaciers. We find regional calving losses are 17.1?Gt?a(-1), which is equivalent to 36% of the total annual mass change throughout Central Alaska. PMID:23857302

Burgess, Evan W; Forster, Richard R; Larsen, Christopher F

2013-01-01

186

Glacier sensitivity to climate change in the Nepalese Himalaya quantified using higher-order modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of glaciers in the eastern Himalaya have identified rapid changes in ice volume with small changes in climate indicating that these glaciers are highly sensitive to primary climate variables (e.g. daily variations in air temperature and monsoon precipitation). However, quantifying Himalayan glacier sensitivity to climate change is challenging due to: (1) a lack of information about how glaciological and geomorphological factors influence the balance of large debris-covered glaciers; (2) the local modification of meteorological variables by the interaction of high topography with regional atmospheric circulation systems; and (3) the simple representation of ice dynamics in many numerical glacier models which limits their usefulness in regions with steep terrain. To quantify the sensitivity of Himalayan glaciers to climate change we apply the integrated second-order shallow ice approximation (iSOSIA) [Egholm et al. 2011, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface] to large debris-covered glaciers on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. iSOSIA considers both the longitudinal and transverse stresses that drive mountain glacier flow in regions with steep terrain--a more suitable approach for Himalayan glaciers than those models based on approximations developed for shallow ice sheets. We apply iSOSIA at a 100-m resolution on a regular grid using a daily timestep to Nepalese glaciers including Khumbu, Ngozumpa and Lhotse. Our mass balance model development has focused on the dynamic representation of snow avalanching onto the glacier surfaces as this accounts for up to 75% of accumulation. We investigate Himalayan glacier sensitivities to primary climatological, glaciological and geological variables including air temperature, supraglacial debris cover, and catchment hypsometry. Furthermore, we aim to improve the representation of climate in glacier models for the Himalaya by testing a range of methods to describe these variables: (1) simple elevation-dependent rates for accumulation and ablation with empirical values for melt along a flow line beneath supraglacial debris; (2) climate-elevation relationships derived from local automatic weather stations in the Khumbu valley; and (3) 3-D surface energy balance calculations using regional meteorological data. Once we have described glacier-climate sensitivities in the Khumbu Himal, we will use these results to predict the likely magnitude and timescales of glacier mass loss under IPCC future climate change scenarios, and quantify the uncertainties associated with these predictions. Future work will consider: how glacier hydrology modifies variations in ice dynamics; how the spatial distribution of supraglacial debris modifies glacier balance sensitivity; how rock debris is transported within and on these glaciers; and how rates of rock debris delivery from hillslopes affects glacier balance and dynamics. Fieldwork in Nepal is planned for 2014 to collect data from debris-covered Khumbu Glacier with which to validate our numerical model.

Rowan, A. V.; Egholm, D. L.; Glasser, N. F.; Quincey, D. J.

2013-12-01

187

The Gregoriev Ice Cap length changes derived by 2-D ice flow line model for harmonic climate histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different ice thickness distributions along the flow line and the flow line length changes of the Gregoriev Ice Cap, Terskey Ala-Tau, Central Asia, were obtained for some surface mass balance histories which can be considered as possible surface mass balances in the future. The ice cap modeling was performed by solving of steady state hydrodynamic equations in the case of low Reynolds number in the form of the mechanical equilibrium equation in terms of stress deviator components coupled with the continuity equation for incompressible fluid. The numerical solution was obtained by the finite difference method. A compound approximation of the ice surface boundary condition based on the extending of the mechanical equilibrium equation to ice surface points was applied. The approximation is considered as a way to overcome the problem of diagnostic equations numerical solution stability in the full model. The basal sliding can arise in the glacier tongue at certain climatic conditions and was introduced both through linear and through non-linear friction laws. A possible glacier length history, that corresponds to the regional climate changes derived from the tree-rings data, was obtained by the model. The correlations between the glacier length changes and annual air temperature histories were investigated within the simplified equation introduced by J. Oerlemans in the form of linear dependence of annual air temperature versus glacier length and time derivative of the length. The parameters of the dependence were derived from modeled glacier length histories that correspond to harmonic climate histories. The parameters variations were investigated for different periodicities of harmonic climate histories and appropriate dependences are presented in the paper. The results of the modeling are in a good agreement with the J. Oerlemans climatic model.

Konovalov, Y. V.; Nagornov, O. V.

2009-12-01

188

Stagnant air temperature and receding glaciers - a puzzling question in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical Andes have been recognized as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change. Recent research shows that climatic changes in the region are not uniform. However, in many sites, critical information on observed trends are missing and unclear, representing barriers to design and implement appropriate climate change adaptation measures. Here, we analysed air temperature trends in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Long temperature data series between 1964 and 2011 are available for five meteorological stations at elevations of over 3000 m asl. in the area of the Cordillera Blanca, the Cordillera Huayash and the Cordillera Central and for three additional stations near the coast, at the foothills of the Cordillera Negra. We found that - after a strong positive trend between 1965 and 1980 of about 0.5°C per decade - mean annual air temperature in the area of the Cordillera Blanca did not show any significant increase during the last about 30 years, what could be confirmed by even more stations. Additionally, also four stations situated between approx. 4000 and 4800 m asl. do not show a trend in the last decade. These findings are consistent with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the 500 hPa pressure level, but are not confirmed by the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. The stagnant temperature in the studied area stands in contrast to the temperature trends e.g. in the Peruvian Altiplano, where no break in the increasing trend of air temperature is observed. At some stations of the Cordillera Blanca, there was even a decreasing trend observed since 1980, at least for minimum air temperature. We argue here that this might be linked with a decadal mode of the ocean-atmosphere-land climate system counteracting to the anthropogenic warming of the atmosphere during the last about 30 years. These findings are in sharp contrast to the general pattern of the tropics characterized by an increasing freezing level height during the last few decades. Astonishingly enough, glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca were all the same receding heavily within the last 30 years. Considering that the response time of these quite small mountain glaciers are in the order of a few years, this glacier wastage seems to be contra-intuitive. One reason for this might be that equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) are - already today - quite high in relation to a steady state ELA. If this decadal mode turns temperature forcing from negative to positive and comes in-line with anthropogenic warming in the Cordillera Blanca region, glacier wastage may accelerate dramatically, and peak water may be delayed for the next one or two decades. Diminishing of water resources coming from glaciers may be thereafter even more abrupt than solely estimated based on CMIP5 climate model scenarios, with important consequences on climate change adaptation.

Schauwecker, Simone; Rohrer, Mario; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Acuña, Delia; Giráldez, Claudia; Jacques, Martín; Vuille, Mathias; Gómez, Jesús; Cochachin, Alejo

2013-04-01

189

Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

1992-01-01

190

A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from area- and slope-dependent approaches reveals large deviations both from the observations and between different estimation approaches. For glaciers and ice caps all estimation approaches show a tendency to overestimation. For glaciers the median relative absolute deviation lies around 30% when analyzing the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution.

Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.; Knecht, T.; Machguth, H.; Zemp, M.

2014-11-01

191

Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'') are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area). Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

2011-11-01

192

GLIMS Glacier Database: Status and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is an international initiative to map the world's glaciers and to build a GIS database that is usable via the World Wide Web. The GLIMS programme includes 70 institutions, and 25 Regional Centers (RCs), who analyze satellite imagery to map glaciers in their regions of expertise. The analysis results are collected at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and ingested into the GLIMS Glacier Database. The database contains approximately 80 000 glacier outlines, half the estimated total on Earth. In addition, the database contains metadata on approximately 200 000 ASTER images acquired over glacierized terrain. Glacier data and the ASTER metadata can be viewed and searched via interactive maps at http://glims.org/. As glacier mapping with GLIMS has progressed, various hurdles have arisen that have required solutions. For example, the GLIMS community has formulated definitions for how to delineate glaciers with different complicated morphologies and how to deal with debris cover. Experiments have been carried out to assess the consistency of the database, and protocols have been defined for the RCs to follow in their mapping. Hurdles still remain. In June 2008, a workshop was convened in Boulder, Colorado to address issues such as mapping debris-covered glaciers, mapping ice divides, and performing change analysis using two different glacier inventories. This contribution summarizes the status of the GLIMS Glacier Database and steps taken to ensure high data quality.

Raup, B. H.; Racoviteanu, A.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

2008-12-01

193

Spatially heterogeneous wastage of Himalayan glaciers  

PubMed Central

We describe volumetric changes in three benchmark glaciers in the Nepal Himalayas on which observations have been made since the 1970s. Compared with the global mean of glacier mass balance, the Himalayan glaciers showed rapid wastage in the 1970s–1990s, but similar wastage in the last decade. In the last decade, a glacier in an arid climate showed negative but suppressed mass balance compared with the period 1970s–1990s, whereas two glaciers in a humid climate showed accelerated wastage. A mass balance model with downscaled gridded datasets depicts the fate of the observed glaciers. We also show a spatially heterogeneous distribution of glacier wastage in the Asian highlands, even under the present-day climate warming. PMID:21808042

Fujita, Koji; Nuimura, Takayuki

2011-01-01

194

Spatially heterogeneous wastage of Himalayan glaciers.  

PubMed

We describe volumetric changes in three benchmark glaciers in the Nepal Himalayas on which observations have been made since the 1970s. Compared with the global mean of glacier mass balance, the Himalayan glaciers showed rapid wastage in the 1970s-1990s, but similar wastage in the last decade. In the last decade, a glacier in an arid climate showed negative but suppressed mass balance compared with the period 1970s-1990s, whereas two glaciers in a humid climate showed accelerated wastage. A mass balance model with downscaled gridded datasets depicts the fate of the observed glaciers. We also show a spatially heterogeneous distribution of glacier wastage in the Asian highlands, even under the present-day climate warming. PMID:21808042

Fujita, Koji; Nuimura, Takayuki

2011-08-23

195

The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-09-13

196

Accelerating Ice Loss from the Fastest Greenland and Antarctic Glaciers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ice discharge from the fastest glaciers draining the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets . Jakobshavn Isbrae (JI) and Pine Island Glacier (PIG). continues to increase, and is now more than double that needed to balance snowfall in their catchment basins. Velocity increase probably resulted from decreased buttressing from thinning (and, for JI, breakup) of their floating ice tongues, and from reduced basal drag as grounding lines on both glaciers retreat. JI flows directly into the ocean as it becomes afloat, and here creep rates are proportional to the cube of bed depth. Rapid thinning of the PIG ice shelf increases the likelihood of its breakup, and subsequent rapid increase in discharge velocity. Results from a simple model indicate that JI velocities should almost double to >20 km/a by 2015, with velocities on PIG increasing to >10 km/a after breakup of its ice shelf. These high velocities would probably be sustained over many decades as the glaciers retreat within their long, very deep troughs. Resulting sea ]level rise would average about 1.5 mm/a.

Thomas, R.; Frederick, E.; Li, J.; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S.; Paden, J.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Yungel, J.

2011-01-01

197

UV - GLACIER NATIONAL PARK MT  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 134 is located in Glacier NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of ...

198

MOVEMENT OF WATER IN GLACIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network of passages situated along three-grain intersections enables water to percolate through temperate glacier ice. The deformability of the ice allows the passages to expand and contract in response to changes in pressure, and melting of the passage walls by heat generated by viscous dissipation and carried by above-freezing water causes the larger passages gradually to increase in size

R. L. SHREVE

1972-01-01

199

Slow Surge of Trapridge Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapridge Glacier, Yukon, Canada, is a polythermal, soft-bedded surge-type glacier. As revealed by a 1951 aerial photograph, an important surge occurred in the 1940s, leaving the glacier heavily crevassed and at least 1 km downstream from the 1941 position. It is our conclusion that another surge, albeit far less dramatic, has been taking place over the last three decades and is now terminated. To quantify the changes in ice geometry, ground survey measurements were coupled with aerial photogrammetry to yield digital elevation models of the glacier from 1951 to present. For 1951, 1970, 1972, 1977 and 1981, years for which ground data are scarce or unavailable, DEMs were generated from stereographic analysis of aerial photographs. For the subsequent years, DEMs are obtained from ground survey data using our implementation of a Bayesian Kriging algorithm. For each year, the topography of the previous year is used as a background model and updated by the available survey data. This chain is initiated by the 1981 DEM obtained from aerial photogrammetry. Using exposed sections of the bed from the 1981 DEM and radar data, a map of the bed topography is obtained. Changes in the flow patterns are also investigated using an extended but variable array of flow markers. The results of this work indicate that the period from the previous surge to the present was characterized by two processes: 1) the deglaciation of the 1940s surge `receiving area' and 2) the slow advance of a mass wave from the upper reaches of the glacier. While it was previously believed that this mass reorganization was to precede a fast surge, it is now obvious that such a surge is not to happen. Ice velocity peaked at nearly 40 m/yr in the mid 1980s, fluctuated for the next 15 years and then dropped ca 2000 to reach ~10 m/yr in 2005. The bulge that formed in the 1980s at the transition between warm- and cold-based ice continued to propagate beyond the limits of the 1981 glacier. The glacier snout is currently ~200 m downstream from the 1981 terminus and not advancing. Together the DEMs and bed topography map enable us to characterize changes in the distribution and volume of ice, hydrological potential, and basal stress that accompanied the slow surge.

Frappe-Seneclauze, T.; Clarke, G. K.

2005-12-01

200

Stars equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes the fusion reaction in a star's core? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to processes inside a star. Students read about the equilibrium process in a star, in which outward gas pressure equals inward gravitational pressure. Then, an interactive lab activity offers students the opportunity to predict temperature, pressure, and gravity changes that occur during equilibrium. The chemical reactions of the fusion process are presented, and more specific detailed reactions are available in a pop-up box. Student practice quizzes about the equilibrium process and pressure and gravity interactions inside the star are included, as are answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

201

Quantifying Global Warming from the Retreat of Glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure: one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last

Johannes Oerlemans

1994-01-01

202

Columbia Glacier in 1984: disintegration underway  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Glacier is a large, iceberg-calving glacier near Valdez, Alaska. The terminus of this glacier was relatively stable from the time of the first scientific studies in 1899 until 1978. During this period the glacier terminated partly on Heather Island and partly on a submerged moraine shoal. In December, 1978, the glacier terminus retreated from Heather Island, and retreat has accelerated each year since then, except during a period of anomalously low calving in 1980. Although the glacier has not terminated on Heather Island since 1978, a portion of the terminus remained on the crest of the moraine shoal until the fall of 1983. By December 8, 1983, that feature had receded more than 300 m from the crest of the shoal, and by December 14, 1984, had disappeared completely, leaving most of the terminus more than 2000 meters behind the crest of the shoal. Recession of the glacier from the shoal has placed the terminus in deeper water, although the glacier does not float. The active calving face of the glacier now terminates in seawater that is about 300 meters deep at the glacier centerline. Rapid calving appears to be associated with buoyancy effects due to deep water at the terminus and subglacial runoff. 12 refs., 10 figs.

Meier, M.F.; Rasmussen, L.A.; Miller, D.S.

1985-01-01

203

Glacier Change Detection in the Hindu Kush of Afghanistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A half century of intermittently collected cryospheric and hydrologic data in Afghanistan has involved diverse field surveys, aerial photography, and satellite imagery that enable change detection in the war-torn, drought-stricken region. Afghanistan relies heavily upon snow-and ice-melt for vital irrigation and ground-water recharge, yet the past two decades of war have only exacerbated the originally already deficient information collection and analysis of such data. Glacier field studies and base-line inventory work initiated in the pre-war 1960-1970 period are now providing limited change detection information for the vital physical analysis necessary in the reconstruction of the country. Five case study areas were selected for renewed assessment over the intervening half century, from the western-most ice masses of the Koh-i-Foladi region in central Afghanistan, through the Mir Samir and Sakhi regions of the central Hindu Kush, to the Keshnikhan and Pamir areas of the Wakhan Corridor. Certain incompatibilities or ambiguities exist between Soviet-era and Western-derived data sets. In general, however, glaciers of Afghanistan are continuing to downwaste and retreat, with smaller ice masses disappearing altogether, presumably as the climatic snowline continues to rise above the peaks, a trend first noticed in the 1960s. Glacier survival in the lower central areas is now in part determined by topographic shielding from solar radiation high in shadowed cirques, or being preserved beneath increasing debris covers, whereas in the higher regions to the northeast, fewer changes to the larger, higher altitude glaciers are apparent. Renewed assessment of all Afghanistan glaciers is now underway as a part of the USGS- and NASA-supported GLIMS (Global Land-Ice Measurements from Space) project, and is viewed as an important element in the primary geodata collection and hazard assessment necessary for aiding in rebuilding the infrastructure of the beleaguered nation.

Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M. P.

2004-12-01

204

Recent acceleration of Thwaites Glacier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first velocity measurements for Thwaites Glacier were made by R. J. Allen in 1977. He compared features of Thwaites Glacier and Iceberg Tongue on aerial photography from 1947 and 1967 with 1972 Landsat images, and measured average annual displacements of 3.7 and 2.3 km/a. Using his photogrammetric experience and taking into consideration the lack of definable features and the poor control in the area, he estimated an average velocity of 2.0 to 2.9 km/a to be more accurate. In 1985, Lindstrom and Tyler also made velocity estimates for Thwaites Glacier. Using Landsat imagery from 1972 and 1983, their estimates of the velocities of 33 points ranged from 2.99 to 4.02 km/a, with an average of 3.6 km/a. The accuracy of their estimates is uncertain, however, because in the absence of fixed control points, they assumed that the velocities of icebergs in the fast ice were uniform. Using additional Landsat imagery in 1984 and 1990, accurate coregistration with the 1972 image was achieved based on fixed rock points. For the period 1972 to 1984, 25 points on the glacier surface ranged in average velocity from 2.47 to 2.76 km/a, with an overall average velocity of 2.62 +/- 0.02 km/a. For the period 1984 to 1990, 101 points ranged in velocity from 2.54 to 3.15 km/a, with an overall average of 2.84 km/a. During both time periods, the velocity pattern showed the same spatial relationship for three longitudinal paths. The 8-percent acceleration in a decade is significant. This recent acceleration may be associated with changes observed in this region since 1986. Fast ice melted and several icebergs calved from the base of the Iceberg Tongue and the terminus of Thwaites Glacier. However, as early as 1972, the Iceberg Tongue had very little contact with the glacier.

Ferrigno, J. G.

1993-01-01

205

Southern Alaska as an Example of the Long-Term Consequences of Mountain Building Under the Influence of Glaciers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Southern Alaska is a continent-scale region of ongoing crustal deformation within the Pacific-North American plate boundary zone. Glaciers and glacial erosion have dictated patterns of denudation in the orogen over the last approx. 5 My. The orogen comprises three discrete topographic domains from south to north, respectively: (1) the Chugach/St. Elias Range; (2) the Wrangell Mountains; and (3) the eastern Alaska Range. Although present deformation is distributed across the orogen, much of the shortening and uplift are concentrated in the Chugach/St. Elias Range. A systematic increase in topographic wavelength of the range from east to west reflects east-to-west increases in the width of a shallowly-dipping segment of the plate interface, separation of major upper plate structures, and a decrease in the obliquity of plate motion relative to the plate boundary. Mean elevation decays exponentially from approx. 2500 m to approx. 1100 m from east to west, respectively. Topographic control on the present and past distribution of glaciers is indicated by close correspondence along the range between mean elevation and the modern equilibrium line altitude of glaciers (ELA) and differences in the modern ELA, mean annual precipitation and temperature across the range between the windward, southern and leeward, northern flanks. Net, range- scale erosion is the sum of: (1) primary bedrock erosion by glaciers and (2) erosion in areas of the landscape that are ice-marginal and are deglaciated at glacial minima. Oscillations between glacial and interglacial climates controls ice height and distribution, which, in turn, modulates the locus and mode of erosion in the landscape. Mean topography and the mean position of the ELA are coupled because of the competition between rock uplift, which tends to raise the ELA, and enhanced orographic precipitation accompanying mountain building, which tends to lower the ELA. Mean topography is controlled both by the 60 deg latitude and maritime setting of active deformation and by the feedback between shortening and uplift, glacial erosion, and orographic effects on climate accompanying mountain building.

Meigs, Andrew; Sauber, Jeanne

2000-01-01

206

Recent Observations and Structural Analysis of Surge-Type Glaciers in the Glacier Bay Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chugach-St.-Elias Mountains in North America hold the largest non-polar connected glaciated area of the world. Most of its larger glaciers are surge-type glaciers. In the summer of 2003, we collected aerial photographic and GPS data over numerous glaciers in the eastern St. Elias Mountains, including the Glacier Bay area. Observed glaciers include Davidson, Casement, McBride, Riggs, Cushing, Carroll, Rendu, Tsirku, Grand Pacific, Melbern, Ferris, Margerie, Johns Hopkins, Lamplugh, Reid, Burroughs, Morse, Muir and Willard Glaciers, of which Carroll, Rendu, Ferris, Grand Pacific, Johns Hopkins and Margerie Glaciers are surge-type glaciers. Our approach utilizes a quantitative analysis of surface patterns, following the principles of structural geology for the analysis of brittle-deformation patterns (manifested in crevasses) and ductile deformation patterns (visible in folded moraines). First results will be presented.

Mayer, H.; Herzfeld, U. C.

2003-12-01

207

Mapping Svalbard Glaciers with the Cryowing Uas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remoteness of most Svalbard glaciers makes it difficult to perform regular in situ monitoring, especially in the melting season. Terminus areas (into the sea) and crevassed areas are in practice only accessible from the air. In this paper, first investigations on the feasibility of UAS based 3D measurements of glacier elevation is performed. The results show that UAS can be a valuable tool for glacier measurements in remote areas like Svalbard, where the only real alternative to measure glacier elevation in the ablation zone during the melt season is by manned aircraft. Imagery from repeated observations within a few days can be used to estimate dynamic mass loss rates when coupled to 3D modeling and feature tracking. Retrieval of these data is valuable, especially for glaciers terminating in the sea and surging glaciers.

Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

2013-08-01

208

HIGH ICE, Continuation Some glacier image analysis capabilities  

E-print Network

, 20002000 lake outlines from Benn and others, 2000 #12;ASTER Level 2 relative DEM over western Axel Heiberg Island glaciers ASTER 3NASTER 3N #12;View from top ofView from top of Llewellyn GlacierLlewellyn Glacier

209

Rotational Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of rotational equilibrium. Learners work in teams to estimate and determine the force within a mobile design. Learners solve algebraic equations, apply graphing techniques, compare results and discuss findings. Designing the mobile requires learners to solve a set of two linear algebraic equations. Learners solve the equations using three different methods: by substitution, by graphing the equations and finding the intersection, and by using determinants.

Ieee

2014-05-22

210

Glacier Surge Mechanism: 1982-1983 Surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hundredfold speedup in glacier motion in a surge of the kind that took place in Variegated Glacier in 1982-1983 is caused by the buildup of high water pressure in the basal passageway system, which is made possible by a fundamental and pervasive change in the geometry and water-transport characteristics of this system. The behavior of the glacier in surge

Barclay Kamb; C. F. Raymond; W. D. Harrison; Hermann Engelhardt; K. A. Echelmeyer; N. Humphrey; M. M. Brugman; T. Pfeffer

1985-01-01

211

Glacier Inventory Update at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico by Digital Photogrammetry: Documentation of Glacier Extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of glaciers at volcanoes at inter-tropical latitudes is very important for several reasons. Glacier fluctuations provide insights to the climate change in these latitudes. Also, inventory of glaciers at volcanoes allows evaluation of hazards during eruptive periods. However, glaciological work is a difficult task during eruptions and becomes hazardous to researchers. In this context, a tool such as digital

P. Julio-Miranda; H. Delgado-Granados; S. Ortega-del-Valle; C. Huggel

2001-01-01

212

The triggering of subglacial lake drainage during rapid glacier drawdown: Crane Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula  

E-print Network

The triggering of subglacial lake drainage during rapid glacier drawdown: Crane Glacier, Antarctic ICESat-1 and NASA aircraft altimeter overflights spanning 2002­ 09 indicate that a region of lower Crane is not seen. Bathymetry in Crane Glacier fjord reveals a series of flat-lying, formerly subglacial deeps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

The GAMDAM Glacier Inventory: a quality controlled inventory of Asian glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new glacier inventory for the high mountain Asia named "Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge from the Asian Mountains" (GAMDAM). Glacier outlines were delineated manually using more than 226 Landsat ETM+ scenes from the period 1999-2003, in conjunction with a digital elevation model (DEM) and high-resolution Google Earth imagery. Geolocations are consistent between the Landsat imagery and DEM due to systematic radiometric and geometric corrections made by the United States Geological Survey. We performed repeated delineation tests and rigorous peer review of all scenes used in order to maintain the consistency and quality of the inventory. Our GAMDAM Glacier Inventory (GGI) includes 82776 glaciers covering a total area of 87507 ± 13126 km2 in the high mountain Asia. Thus, our inventory represents a greater number (+4%) of glaciers but significantly less surface area (-31%) than a recent global glacier inventory (Randolph Glacier Inventory, RGI). The employed definition of the upper boundaries of glaciers, glacier recession since the 1970s, and misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover are likely causes of discrepancies between the inventories, though it is difficult to evaluate these effects quantitatively. The GGI will help improve the temporal consistency of the RGI, which incorporated glacier outlines from the 1970s for the Tibetan Plateau, and will provide new opportunities to study Asian glaciers.

Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.; Taniguchi, K.; Nagai, H.; Lamsal, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Kozawa, A.; Hoshina, Y.; Takenaka, S.; Omiya, S.; Tsunematsu, K.; Tshering, P.; Fujita, K.

2014-06-01

214

Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

Mires, Peter B.

2006-01-01

215

Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images  

SciTech Connect

Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

1986-11-28

216

Antarctica: Measuring glacier velocity from satellite images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

Lucchitta, B. K.; Ferguson, H. M.

1986-01-01

217

Application of Control Method on a West Antarctic Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use surface velocity inferred with Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar and a control method to estimate unknown basal characteristics of a fast-moving glacier in West Antarctica, Pine Island Glacier. Previous modelling experiments on Pine Island Glacier have shown that using a coupled ice-stream/ice-shelf flow model in a forward approach (trial and error method) we were able to reproduce fairly well the surface velocity. Some discrepancies remained, however, that are partly due to uncertainties in the thickness map and incertainty in our chosen basal stress distribution (because of the non-unicity of the solution). The control method allow us to take the basal stress (or basal friction, since they are related through the velocity), as an unknown parameter. Results given by the control method should provide better reliable inputs for further modelling experiments. We investigate the results' sensitivity to the initial value of the basal stress. The inferred ratio basal drag/driving stress seems to be always low upstream, 60 to 80 km upstream of the grounding line, as if the ice stream was behaving like an ice shelf, and also reveals the presence of a snake shape channel of low ratio basal drag/driving stress, surrounded by a higher ratio, in the main flow of increasing velocity, from 20 to 40 km upstream of the grounding line.

Schmeltz, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Macayeal, D. R.

2002-12-01

218

Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and (c) the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI), a new and globally complete digital dataset of outlines from about 180,000 glaciers with some meta-information, which has been used for many applications relating to the IPCC AR5 report. Concerning glacier changes, a database (Fluctuations of Glaciers) exists containing information about mass balance, front variations including past reconstructed time series, geodetic changes and special events. Annual mass balance reporting contains information for about 125 glaciers with a subset of 37 glaciers with continuous observational series since 1980 or earlier. Front variation observations of around 1800 glaciers are available from most of the mountain ranges world-wide. This database was recently updated with 26 glaciers having an unprecedented dataset of length changes from from reconstructions of well-dated historical evidence going back as far as the 16th century. Geodetic observations of about 430 glaciers are available. The database is completed by a dataset containing information on special events including glacier surges, glacier lake outbursts, ice avalanches, eruptions of ice-clad volcanoes, etc. related to about 200 glaciers. A special database of glacier photographs contains 13,000 pictures from around 500 glaciers, some of them dating back to the 19th century. A key challenge is to combine and extend the traditional observations with fast evolving datasets from new technologies.

Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael

2014-05-01

219

Subglacial drainage processes at a High Arctic polythermal valley glacier  

E-print Network

, polythermal valley glacier situated in eastern Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada (Fig. 1). The specific Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada, were designed to investigate the character of the subglacial drainage

220

Integration of glacier databases within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change and have impacts on global sea level fluctuations, regional hydrological cycles and local natural hazard situations. Internationally coordinated collection and distribution of standardized information about glaciers and ice caps was initiated in 1894 and is today coordinated within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G). A recently established GTN-G Steering Committee coordinates, supports and advices the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. In this presentation, we provide an overview of (i) the integration of the various operational databases, (ii) the development of a one-stop web-interface to these databases, and (iii) the available datasets. By joint efforts consistency and interoperability of the different glacier databases is elaborated. Thereby, the lack of a complete worldwide, detailed glacier inventory as well as different historical developments and methodological contexts of the datasets are major challenges for linking individual glaciers throughout the databases. A map-based web-interface, implemented based on OpenLayer 2.0 and Web Map/Feature Services, is elaborated to spatially link the available data and to provide data users a fast overview of all available data. With this new online service, GTN-G provides fast access to information on glacier inventory data from 100,000 glaciers mainly based on aerial photographs and from 80,000 glaciers mainly based on satellite images, length change series from 1,800 glaciers, mass balance series from 230 glaciers, special events (e.g., hazards, surges, calving instabilities) from 130 glaciers, as well as 10,000 photographs from some 470 glaciers.

Zemp, M.; Raup, B. H.; Armstrong, R.; Ballagh, L.; Gärtner-Roer, I.; Haeberli, W.; Hoelzle, M.; Kääb, A.; Kargel, J.; Paul, F.

2009-04-01

221

Global analysis of glacier mass balance - how important are firn pack changes? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern satellite systems like ICESat and GRACE have made it possible to estimate glacier mass balance in remote regions where field measurements are sparse. In a recent global study we showed that all major glacier regions of the world have lost mass between 2003 and 2009, contributing significantly to sea level rise. This implies that the vast majority of glaciers are out of equilibrium with the present climate, putting into question the commonly used assumption that the firn pack remains unchanged between altimetric surveys that are used to determine glacier volume change. Comparisons with gravimetric estimates from GRACE could give insights to whether there are any biases from such volume-to-mass conversions, but GRACE has its own issues with contamination of other mass change signals. In this presentation, we discuss the suitability of different approaches to convert measured volume changes into mass balances. We provide practical examples of (1) applying a constant density conversion factor to the total volume change, (2) using zonal densities that account for variable elevation changes over areas of firn and glacier ice, and (3) applying models of surface mass balance and/or firn compaction to account for density-related changes. All techniques have severe limitations, so investigators should be encouraged to assess the suitability of their conversion in each individual case. Improved models and multi-sensor remote sensing techniques are likely the only ways to reduce current uncertainties.

Moholdt, G.; Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.; Wouters, B.; Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M. R.

2013-12-01

222

The MHD equilibrium problem in nonaxisymmetric toroidal  

E-print Network

order to have a static (3D) equilibrium, p'() must be zero in thThe MHD equilibrium problem in nonaxisymmetric toroidal plasma confinement systems (as a novel KAM. Introduction: 3D MHD toroidal equilibrium problem, coordinates & field-line Hamiltonian 2. Problems (chaos

Hudson, Stuart

223

Phase equilibria in the system Ne-Xe at high pressures I. Gas-gas equilibrium and the critical line up to 20 kbar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behaviour of the system neon-xenon has been studied in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 20kbar. By visual observation of the mixtures, the phase transition of the homogeneous gas phase to fluid-fluid equilibrium has been detected as a function of pressure and temperature, with an overall composition ranging from 14% to 53% xenon. The measurements reveal

L. C. van den Bergh; J. A. Schouten; N. J. Trappeniers

1985-01-01

224

Glaciers. Attribution of global glacier mass loss to anthropogenic and natural causes.  

PubMed

The ongoing global glacier retreat is affecting human societies by causing sea-level rise, changing seasonal water availability, and increasing geohazards. Melting glaciers are an icon of anthropogenic climate change. However, glacier response times are typically decades or longer, which implies that the present-day glacier retreat is a mixed response to past and current natural climate variability and current anthropogenic forcing. Here we show that only 25 ± 35% of the global glacier mass loss during the period from 1851 to 2010 is attributable to anthropogenic causes. Nevertheless, the anthropogenic signal is detectable with high confidence in glacier mass balance observations during 1991 to 2010, and the anthropogenic fraction of global glacier mass loss during that period has increased to 69 ± 24%. PMID:25123485

Marzeion, Ben; Cogley, J Graham; Richter, Kristin; Parkes, David

2014-08-22

225

Stability of the Grounding Zone of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry of Thwaites Glacier (TG) epitomizes the class of overdeepened, ocean-terminating glaciers that would be at risk under a marine ice sheet retreat scenario, where grounding line retreat of a marine glacier is hypothesized to lead to thickening of ice at the grounding line and result in greater ice flux to the ocean from the higher driving stress creating additional grounding line retreat, and thus a positive feedback. Furthermore, in addition to the intrinsic, geometric instability of TG, recent satellite data show that the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), especially the Pine Island Glacier and TG, dominate the accelerating sea level rise from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Although some of this mass imbalance is likely due to the loss of large buttressing ice shelves in the last several centuries, recent ice-sheet scale modeling indicates that current sub-ice ocean melt rates in ASE are likely sufficient to not only accelerate the mass loss in ASE but also possibly initiate a rapid collapse of WAIS. As a result of this geometric instability and modeled vulnerability to current sub-ice ocean melt rates, several field campaigns have focused on gathering data in ASE. Here we present airborne ice-penetrating radar and laser altimetry observations of a broad sill (wavelength ~10 km, amplitude ~300 m) ~10-20 km inland from the current grounding line of TG which may stabilize the future position of the grounding line on decadal to centennial time scales dependent upon basal melt rates. We also construct a suite of coupled ice-ocean flowband models to predict the behavior of TG on centennial time scales. Our model results, in addition to indicating possible rapid, episodic grounding line retreat on the scale of ~10 km over a decade, also show that grounding line stabilization on bedrock sills can halt retreat. These results illustrate the dramatic effect of local topography in ice sheet grounding zones and emphasize the need for a more complex treatment of grounding zones, including incorporation of stochastic processes which would allow more complete treatment of the effects of local changes in sea level, storm surges, and tides.

Christianson, K. A.; Parizek, B. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Walker, R. T.; Edwards, R. A.; Wolfe, D. S.; Bertini, G. T.

2011-12-01

226

Himalayan glacier retreat delayed by debris cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable retreat rates and paucity of mass-balance data complicate a coherent picture of the current state and future fate of Himalayan glaciers. We report frontal changes and remotely-sensed surface velocities from >250 glaciers in the greater Himalayan realm (Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Himalaya, West Kunlun Shan) between 2000 and 2008 that provide evidence for widespread meltdown, which is obscured by debris

D. Scherler; B. Bookhagen; M. R. Strecker

2010-01-01

227

Recent wastage of Bering Glacier, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciers on the south coast of Alaska are melting rapidly with local, regional and global impacts. A five year record of the annual wastage of Bering Glacier, from 2004 to 2008, shows that as much as 30 km3 of glacial melt water flows into the Gulf of Alaska. These estimates were obtained by combining in situ melt measurements carried out from near sea level to 1400 m, glacier coverage derived from Landsat-7 and ASTER observations, and a digital elevation model derived from ASTER stereo observations. The total freshwater flux from the Bering Glacier System into the Gulf of Alaska is as much as 5% of the total estimated annual flux from the coastal region of Alaska. For this period, Bering glacier has retreated at an average rate of 0.5 km per year, as the ice in the terminus region thins and calving and disarticulation increases. However, terminus retreat only accounts for 5 to 10% of the total wastage. The wastage of Bering glacier showed a strong correlation with the cumulative positive degree days measured both on the glacier and at the Yakutat Airport 220 km to the east. This correlation allows these results to be used to simulate anticipated impacts of climate warming on the glaciers of this region. For example, the summer of 2004 was one of the warmest on record, equivalent to a 2 C temperature increase in the daily average temperature at Yakutat.

Josberger, E. G.; Shuchman, R. A.

2009-12-01

228

Muir Glacier and Muir Inlet 2003  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo was taken in September 2003; in the 23 years between photographs, Muir Glacier has retreated more than a mile and ceased to have a tidewater terminus. Since 1980, Muir Glacier has thinned by more than 600 ft, permitting a view of a mountain with a summit elevation of greater than 4000 ft,...

229

Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists…

Felzmann, Dirk

2014-01-01

230

GLACIER PEAK ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey outlined areas of mineral-resource potential in the Glacier Peak Roadless Area, Washington. Substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals has been identified in four mining districts included in whole or in part within the boundary of the roadless area. Several million tons of demonstrated base- and precious-metal resources occur in numerous mines in these districts. Probable resource potential for precious metals exists along a belt of fractured and locally mineralized rock extending northeast from Monte Cristo to the northeast edge of the roadless area.

Church, S.E.; Johnson, F.L.

1984-01-01

231

Radio-echo sounding of Caucasus glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate glacier volume and ice-thickness estimations are highly important for many glaciological applications. Recent glacier reduction is affecting local river discharge and contributes to the global sea level rise. However, direct measurements of ice thickness are very sparse due to its high cost and laboriousness. One of the glacierized mountain regions with a lack of direct ice-thickness measurements is Caucasus. So far data for several seismic and GPR profiles have been reported for only 3 glaciers from more than 1.7 thousands located in Caucasus. In 2010-2012 a number of ground base and airborne radio-echo sounding surveys have been accomplished in Caucasus Mountains using 20 MHz monopulse radar VIRL-6. Special aerial version of this ground penetrating radar was designed for helicopter-born measurements. The radar has a relatively long (10 m) receiving and transmitting antennas, which together with receiving, recording and transmitting devices can be mounted on a special girder, being suspended from a helicopter. VIRL-6 radar is light weight and can be quickly transformed into ground version. Equipment has been used on 16 glaciers including biggest glacier in Caucasus - Bezengi (36 km2) most of which have a highly crevassed surfaces and heterogeneous internal structure. Independent data were obtained also for two glaciers using ground version of the same VIRL-6 radar. In total more than 120 km of radar profiles were obtained. Results showed good agreement between ground and aerial measurements. Ice-thickness values exceeded 420 m for some of the Central Caucasus glaciers. Successful use of VIRL-6 radar in Caucasus opens up the possibility of using such equipment on different types of glaciers in polar and mountain regions, including temperate, polythermal and surging glaciers.

Lavrentiev, Ivan; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Vasilenko, Evgeny; Macheret, Yuri

2013-04-01

232

Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

Li, Xujing; Zakharov, Leonid E.; Drozdov, Vladimir V.

2014-01-01

233

Mapping Glacier Data and Photographs via GeoServer and Virtual Globes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two extensively used glacier data sets include the World Glacier Inventory and the Glacier Photograph Collection. Both data sets are hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado. The World Glacier Inventory encompasses over 100,000 records of glacier data and the Glacier Photograph Collection houses approximately 9,000 digitized photographs. The online Glacier Photograph Collection has doubled

L. M. Ballagh; I. Wang; A. Wallace

2008-01-01

234

Title: Climate-glacier Relationship of Retreating Alaskan Glaciers Author: Elliott Mazur and Umesh K. Haritashya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portage, Whittier, Eklutna, as well as many other well-known "tourism glaciers" in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska are known to have retreated in the past 20 years. This begs the question, "what of the other lesser-known glaciers? Do they follow the same patterns and minimal glacier models?" Glaciers such as Byron, Leonard, Matanuska, Raven and Spencer may fit a minimal model. Information on Byron and Leonard is sparse, as both have become hanging glaciers. Other glaciers, such as Raven, are small enough to be deemed insignificant, yet may have information to give. Consequently our objective is to study five Alaskan glaciers and determine wide-ranging variability to changing regional climate. To do this we obtained field geo-location data and characterized glaciers based on the satellite imagery and climate reevaluation. Our result shows that glaciers are retreating and thinning irrespective of their aspects, location and altitudinal variability. Moreover, our presentation establishes the strong climate-glacier relationship and defines retreating snowline patterns over the last few decades.

Mazur, E. M.

2012-12-01

235

Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in ? 14C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, ? 13C-DOC, ? 14C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the ? 14C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (-181.7 to -355.3‰) was comparable to the ? 14C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (-207.2 to -390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century.

Spencer, Robert G. M.; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle; Hood, Eran

2014-05-01

236

Glacier Change in the Rwenzori Mountains, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In East Africa glaciers currently exist on Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya, and in the Rwenzori Mountains. While the Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya glaciers have been the subject of many recent studies, the glaciers in the Rwenzori Range are less thoroughly studied. This study reexamines the satellite record of retreat of these glaciers, as well as the climatic factors

J. L. Kincaid; A. G. Klein

2007-01-01

237

A conceptual model of cyclical glacier flow in overdeepenings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly four-decade, satellite-based velocity survey of the largest glaciers in the Alaska Range, Chugach Mountains, and the Wrangell Mountains of southern Alaska, spanning the early- to mid-1970s through the 2000s, reveals nine pulsing glaciers: Capps, Copper, Eldridge, Kahiltna, Matanuska, Nabesna, Nizina, Ruth, and Sanford glaciers. The pulses increase velocity by up to 2449% (Capps Glacier) or as little as 77% (Nabesna Glacier), with velocity increases for the other glaciers in the range of 100-250%. The pulses may last from between six years (Copper Glacier) to 12 years (Nizina Glacier) and consist of a multi-year acceleration phase followed by a multi-year deceleration phase during which significant portions of each glacier move en masse. The segments of each glacier affected by the pulses may be anywhere from 14 km (Sanford Glacier) to 36 km (Nabesna Glacier) in length and occur where the glaciers are either laterally constricted or joined by a major tributary, and the surface slopes at these locations are very shallow, 1-2°, suggesting the pulses occur where the glaciers are overdeepened. A conceptual model to explain the cyclical behavior of these pulsing glaciers is presented that incorporates the effects of glaciohydraulic supercooling, glacier dynamics, surface ablation, and subglacial sediment erosion, deposition, and deformation in overdeepenings.

Turrin, J. B.; Forster, R. R.

2014-08-01

238

Motion of David Glacier in East Antarctica Observed by COSMO-SkyMed Differential SAR Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

David glacier, located in Victoria Land, East Antarctica (75°20'S, 161°15'E), is an outlet glacier of 13 km width near the grounding line and 50 km long from the source to the grounding line. David glacier flows into Ross Sea forming Drygalski Ice Tongue, 100 km long and 23 km wide. In this study, we extracted a surface displacement map of David by applying differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) to one-day tandem pairs obtained from COSMO-SkyMed satellites on April 28-29 (descending orbit) and May 5-6 (ascending orbit), 2011, respectively. Terra ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) is used to remove the topographic effect from the COSMO-SkyMed interferograms. David glacier showed maximum displacement of 35 cm during April 28-29 and 20 cm during May 5-6 in the direction of radar line of sight. The glacier can be divided into several blocks by the disparities of displacement between the different sliding zone. Surface displacement map contains errors originated from orbit data, atmospheric conditions, DEM error. GDEM is generated from the ASTER optical images acquired from 2000 to 2008. It has the vertical accuracy of about 20 m at 95% confidence with the 30 m of horizontal posting. The accuracy of GDEM reduces when cloud cover is included in the ASTER image. Particularly in the snow and ice area, GDEM is inaccurate due to whiteout effect during stereo matching. The inaccuracy of GDEM could be a reason of the observed glacier motion in the opposite direction of gravity. This problem can be solved by using TanDEM-X DEM. Bistatic acquisition of SAR images from the constellation of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X will generate a global DEM with the vertical accuracy better than 2 m and the horizontal posting of 12 m. We plan to perform DInSAR of COSMO-SkyMed one-day tandem pairs again when the high-accuracy TanDEM-X DEM is available in the near future. As a conclusion, we could analyze the displacement of David glacier in East Antarctica. The glacier showed very fast motion forming a block of streamlines with different flow velocity. For more accurate analysis, we will use TanDEM-X DEM to perform the DInSAR. The flow characteristics, ice mass balance, ice discharge rate of David glacier remains as an ongoing research.

Han, H.; Lee, H.

2011-12-01

239

Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes and major iceberg calving events. No coseismic offset in the position of the glacier surface is observed; instead, modest tsunamis associated with

M. Nettles; T. B. Larsen; P. Elósegui; G. S. Hamilton; L. A. Stearns; A. P. Ahlstrøm; J. L. Davis; M. L. Andersen; J. de Juan; S. A. Khan; L. Stenseng; G. Ekström; R. Forsberg

2008-01-01

240

Sensitivity of glaciers and small ice caps to greenhouse warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field programs on glaciers have supplied information that makes simulation of glacier mass balance with meteorological models meaningful. An estimate of world-wide glacier sensitivity based on a modeling study of 12 selected glaciers situated in widely differing climatic regimes shows that for a uniform 1 K warming the area-weighted glacier mass balance will decrease by 0.40 meter per year.

J. Oerlemans; J. P. F. Fortuin

1992-01-01

241

Interaction between glacier and glacial lake in the Bhutan, Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recession of mountain glaciers in the Himalayas has been reported in the context of global warming. Associated with the glacier retreat, supraglacial lakes have been formed on the termini of debris-covered glaciers. Although it has been said that lake-terminating glaciers flow faster than land-terminating glaciers, observational evidence was scarce. We observationally investigated the influence of the presence/absence of glacial lakes on changes in surface elevation through glacier dynamics in two debris-covered glaciers, Thorthormi Glacier (land-terminating) and Lugge Glacier (lake-terminating), in the Lunana region, the Bhutan Himalaya. We surveyed the surface elevation of debris-covered areas of the two glaciers in 2004 and 2011 by a differential GPS. Change in surface elevation of the lake-terminating Lugge Glacier was much more negative than that of the land-terminating Thorthormi Glacier. Considering almost flat slope and location at lower elevation, however, larger ice thinning rate of the Thorthormi Glacier should have been expected than the Lugge Glacier. We measured surface flow speed of the two glaciers during 2009-2010 by multitemporal orthorectified The Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) images of ALOS. Surface flow speed of the Thorthormi Glacier was faster in the upper reaches and reduced toward the downstream. In contrast, the flow speed at the Lugge Glacier measured in the same periods was greatest at the lower most part. Observed spatial distribution of surface flow speed at both glaciers are evaluated by a two-dimensional numerical flow model. The model shows that contribution of basal sliding to surface flow velocity is large in the lower part of both glaciers. Particularly in the Thorthormi Glacier, approximately 100% of surface flow velocity attribute to basal sliding. Calculated emergence velocity at the Thorthormi Glacier is larger than that at the Lugge Glacier. This result suggests that decreasing in flow velocity towards the terminus in the Thorthormi Glacier causes compressive flow and thus counterbalances surface melting, resulting in inhibition of the surface lowering. In contrast, the extensional flow of the Lugge Glacier accelerated the surface lowering. In this study we show the observational evidences, in which the glacier lake formation makes contrast the thinning rates of glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. If the supraglacial lake on Thorthormi Glacier expands, the surface lowering will be accelerated in the future.

Tsutaki, S.; Fujita, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Komori, J.; Takenaka, S.; Tshering, P.

2012-12-01

242

Research Team Discovers First Evidence of Microbes Living in a Rock Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NSF press release reports that scientists have discovered evidence of microbial activity in a rock glacier high above tree line in the Rocky Mountains, a barren environment previously thought to be devoid of life. Included in this NSF press release are links to all NSF affiliated pages.

The National Science Foundation (NSF)

243

Alaska PaleoGlacier Atlas: A Geospatial Compilation of Pleistocene Glacier Extents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska PaleoGlacier (APG) Atlas is a recently released, web-based summary of Pleistocene glaciation across Alaska. Students can access a gallery of maps depicting the extent of glaciers during the late Wisconsin glaciation in Alaska as well as the maximum extent reached during the last 3 million years by valley glaciers, ice caps, and the northwestern Cordilleran Ice Sheet. a set of links is also provided to sites on galcial geology and glacial geospatial data.

Manley, William

244

Timing of recent accelerations of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and sequential Landsat imagery to identify and temporally constrain two acceleration events on Pine Island Glacier (PIG). These two events are separated by a period of at least seven years (1987 - 1994). The change in discharge between two flux gates indicates that the majority of the increase in discharge associated with the second acceleration originates well inland (>80 km) from the grounding line. An analysis indicates that changes in driving stress consistent with observed thinning rates are sufficient in magnitude to explain much of the acceleration.

Joughin, I.; Rignot, E.; Rosanova, C. E.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Bohlander, J.

2003-01-01

245

Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850--2100  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the glacier change in Glacier National park. The glaciers in the Blackfoot--Jackson Glacier Basin of Glacier National Park, Montana, decreased in area from 21.6 square kilometers (km2) in 1850 to 7.4 km2 in 1979. Over this same period global temperatures increased by 0.45 degrees C (+/- 0.15 degrees C). We analyzed the climatic causes and ecological consequences of glacier retreat by creating spatially explicit models of the creation and ablation of glaciers and of the response of vegetation to climate change. We determined the melt rate and spatial distribution of glaciers under two possible future climate scenarios, one based on carbon dioxide--induced global warming and the other on a linear temperature extrapolation. Under the former scenario, all glaciers in the basin will disappear by the year 2030, despite predicted increases in precipitation; under the latter, melting is slower. Using a second model, we analyzed vegetation responses to variations in soil moisture and increasing temperature in a complex alpine landscape and predicted where plant communities are likely to be located as conditions change.

MYRNA H. P. HALL and DANIEL B. FAGRE (;)

2002-02-01

246

Erosion and transport by Byrd Glacier, Antarctica during the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial till samples from seven, modern-Holocene Byrd Glacier moraines were characterized using particle size analysis, sand petrography and detrital zircon geochronology and compared to Ross Sea tills deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum. The goal was to identify the paleoflow path for Byrd Glacier and assess the use of multiple provenance techniques. The coarse sand fraction of Byrd Glacier tills is dominated by lithic fragments of adjacent bedrock outcrops, except samples from the Lonewolf Nunataks, which have a higher proportion of mineral to lithic fragments, as well as a recognizable exotic component. Cluster analysis shows that Byrd Glacier tills, with the exception of the two Lonewolf Nunataks sites, do not cluster strongly with Ross Sea samples because they have a higher proportion of lithic fragments. This indicates that comminution must be an active subglacial process beneath East Antarctic outlet glaciers. Byrd Glacier tills are also typically coarser grained that Ross Sea tills and their maturity is a reflection of both glacial processes and rock type. Measured U/Pb ages of detrital zircons from Byrd Glacier tills range from Triassic to Archean (240-3540 Ma) with a dominance of grains 530-600 Ma. Ross Sea till samples show spatial variability in U/Pb age distributions, with the core sites west of the 180° longitude line showing similarity to most Byrd Glacier tills, whereas core NBP9407-39, east of 180° long., is dominated by ˜100 Ma grains. Ross Sea tills also contain a recognizable detrital zircon fraction eroded inland of the Transantarctic Mountains. Both provenance methods indicate that the ice flow line for Byrd Glacier during the LGM was to the east of Ross Island and extended on either side of Ross Bank, with the majority of ice flowing to the Ross Sea's Central Basin. Our analysis shows that sand petrography and detrital zircon U/Pb age spectra provide complementary datasets that produce similar ice flow reconstructions and reveal valuable information about glacial processes and ice covered bedrock.

Licht, K. J.; Palmer, E. F.

2013-02-01

247

Common Misconceptions about Icebergs and Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes some common misconceptions that elementary students may have about icebergs and glaciers (including density and buoyancy). It also includes suggestions for formative assessment and teaching for conceptual change.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

248

Liss M. Andreassen Glacier variations in  

E-print Network

by The University Foundation for Student Life (SiO) #12;"Jeg hilser dig land i det luftige blå, forklaret av ....................................................................................................................... 15 1.1 Motivation........................................................................................... 21 2.3 Glacier survey using remote sensing methods

Andreassen, Liss Marie

249

What Are the Physical Effects of Glaciers?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text explains how glaciers scour and grind the Earth's surface, and about the sorts of deposits they leave behind. Emphasis is on glaciation in the mountains and valleys of Vermont. Links to related topics are included.

250

Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Perspective with Landsat Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

This perspective view was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat views both visible and infrared light, which have been combined here into a color composite that generally shows glacial ice in light blue, snow in white, vegetation in green, bare rock in grays and tans, and the ocean (foreground) in dark blue. The back (northern) edge of the data set forms a false horizon that meets a false sky.

Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

Glaciers are sensitive indicators of climatic change. They can grow and thicken with increasing snowfall and/or decreased melting. Conversely, they can retreat and thin if snowfall decreases and/or atmospheric temperatures rise and cause increased melting. Landsat imaging has been an excellent tool for mapping the changing geographic extent of glaciers since 1972. The elevation measurements taken by SRTM in February 2000 now provide a near-global baseline against which future non-polar region glacial thinning or thickening can be assessed.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 55 kilometers wide x 55 kilometers distance (34 x 34 miles) Location: 60 deg N latitude, 140 deg W longitude Orientation: View North, 2X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Thematic Mapper false-color image Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 31 August 2000 (Landsat)

2003-01-01

251

Towards a complete World Glacier Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for an inventory of the world's glaciers evolved during the International Hydrological Decade (1965-74). As a result, guidelines were established in the mid 1970s to compile a worldwide detailed inventory of existing perennial snow and ice masses. Following these international guidelines, several countries started compiling national glacier inventories based primarily on aerial photographs and maps. In the 1980s, the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) database was launched together with a status report about global and regional glacierised surface areas for the second half of the 20th century. These estimates were based on the detailed inventory data together with preliminary estimates of the remaining glacierised regions derived from early satellite imagery. In the late 1990s, the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database was initiated to continue the inventory task with space-borne sensors. In the WGI, glaciers are represented by geographical point coordinates. The GLIMS database includes digital outlines. Both include exact time stamps and tabular information on glacier classifications, length, area, orientation, and altitude range. Both are regularly updated with newly available data: the WGI stores point information for the second half of the 20th century whereas the GLIMS includes digital outlines for the 21st century. Since these detailed glacier inventories are not (yet) globally complete, there have been several efforts towards preliminary estimates of the overall global glacier coverage. A first, well elaborated one was included in the original status report of the WGI, published in 1989, and was refined in 2005 with information from other sources by Dyurgerov and Meier. Other studies used the detailed WGI, or an extended format by Cogley, for regional or global up-scaling of glacier extents. In 2003, Cogley published a global map of percentage glacier coverage per 1°x1° grid box (GGHydro) that is widely used for modeling at global scale. A first globally and almost complete map with (generalized) digital outlines of all ice covered regions (incl. Greenland but excluding Antarctica) was derived from ESRI's Digital Chart of the World (DCW) and other sources by Raup and colleagues in 2000. Most recently, Arendt and colleagues produced the Randolph dataset which combines available outlines from the GLIMS, DCW, and WGI datasets as well as from many other (often unpublished) sources by using the highest quality version in each region. However, while having the advantage of being almost complete, these global estimates lack time stamps and attributes for individual glaciers. The present work provides a brief review of the various efforts, its methodological differences, and findings towards the completion of a World Glacier Inventory.

Zemp, Michael

2013-04-01

252

Glacier Inventory: A Case in Semiarid Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glaciers are the most important water reservoirs found in the Andes. While the scientific community has conducted more extensive\\u000a glaciological studies in southern Chile, it is only recently that attention has been focused on northern Chile. In the Chilean\\u000a “Norte Chico” region, where glaciation is restricted to the highest summits, the sparse glacier network provides the majority\\u000a of water to

Jorge Marín; José Araos

253

Impacts of Change in Glacier Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a five-activity module that explores the evidence for and impacts of melting glacial ice, with resources from major institutions and scientists who study glaciers -- primarily in Arctic areas. The suite of activities includes both glaciers and melting ice, as well as the impact of melt water downstream. Each activity follows the 5E model of Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, and Evaluation.

Grant, Alaska S.

254

The concept of glacier storage: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacier storage is a widely used term, applied to different processes and time-scales by different disciplines in hydrology and glaciology. We identify that storage occurs as ice, snow, and water associated with three time-scales. Long-term storage concerns storage of ice and firn as glaciers on time-scales of years to centuries and longer. This storage affects global sea level and long-term

Peter Jansson; Regine Hock; Thomas Schneider

2003-01-01

255

USGS Repeat Photography Project: Glacier National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project, conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), documents changes over time in the landscape of Glacier National Park, particularly the retreat of the park's glaciers. The project involves pairing historic photos from the park's archives with recent photos to illustrate how the landscape has changed. Users can view and download the photos in pairs with dates and a caption describing the scene and the changes that have taken place.

2010-11-22

256

International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryospheric Sciences Program "International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow" (PI, C. Lingle) provided partial support for publication of Annals of Glaciology 36 by the International Glaciological Society. Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed journal. Annals 36, which was published in 2003, contains 39 peer-reviewed and edited papers from the International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow, which was held in Yakutat, Alaska, 10-14 June 2002.

Lingle, Craig S.

1990-01-01

257

Insights into the Thwaites Glacier grounding zone from Operation IceBridge aerogravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operation IceBridge acquired 1500 km of geophysical data, at 10 km spacing, in front of the Thwaites Glacier grounding line during the 2009 season. The gravity anomalies recorded by the survey have been used to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the glacier, an area inaccessible to previous surveys. The resulting map reveals previously unseen detail of the Thwaites grounding zone, as well as the spatial extent of features that were formerly only known as points affecting the ice surface. The modeled bathymetry in front of Thwaites Glacier is marked by an undulating ridge running sub-parallel to the grounding line, 40 km seaward. The highest peak on the ridge is in contact with the overlying ice shelf, hindering its flow. Ridge elevation decreases to the west, with a maximum ridge depth of 850 m and an average relief of 350 m. This is comparable in scale to the recently identified ridge crossing the channel of nearby Pine Island Glacier (Jenkins et al., 2010). The present-day grounding line of Thwaites appears to be marked by a more subdued ridge, in which we have identified a 20 km wide hollow, to a water depth of 1200 m. Our model shows that this hollow corresponds to a landward bight in the grounding line, in the region through which the fast ice flow of Thwaites Glacier is focused. This correlation was not visible on previous, coarser scale maps of the grounding line, and shows a clear relationship between the bathymetry and ice flow. Gravity inversions have been constrained by nearby marine surveys, satellite images of the ice rise at the peak of the ridge and radar and laser data from the IceBridge survey to constrain ice thickness. The absolute values of predicted bathymetry are dependent on the density of the rocks in the subsurface, for example the presence or absence of volcanic material or loose sediments. Some models of the geology of the survey area are also proposed. Uncertainty of underlying geology may account for ~100 m errors in the modeled bathymetry. A good understanding of the bathymetry at and around the grounding line of the major outlet glaciers of West Antarctica is essential to the understanding of their grounding history, the access of sea water to the grounding zone and the distribution of the flow of the ice. These data also provide vital constraints for models of the future of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Jenkins, A, Dutrieux, P, Jacobs, SS, McPhail, SD, Perrett, JR, Webb, AT and White, D (2010). Observations beneath Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica and implications for its retreat. Nature Geoscience, 3, 468-472.

Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Cochran, J. R.; Elieff, S.; Frearson, N.

2010-12-01

258

Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+-derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900) based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 and 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central, and northern. The results show a decrease in the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50 to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (total 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reductions as general patterns, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost subregions show the highest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several factors such as glacier geometry, elevation, and continentality, especially in southern Norway.

Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

2014-10-01

259

A data set of worldwide glacier length fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier fluctuations contribute to variations in sea level and historical glacier length fluctuations are natural indicators of past climate change. To study these subjects, long-term information of glacier change is needed. In this paper we present a data set of global long-term glacier length fluctuations. The data set is a compilation of available information on changes in glacier length worldwide, including both measured and reconstructed glacier length fluctuations. All 471 length series start before 1950 and cover at least four decades. The longest record starts in 1535, but the majority of time series start after 1850. The number of available records decreases again after 1962. The data set has global coverage including records from all continents. However, the Canadian Arctic is not represented in the data set. The available glacier length series show relatively small fluctuations until the mid-19th century, followed by a global retreat. The retreat was strongest in the first half of the 20th century, although large variability in the length change of the different glaciers is observed. During the 20th century, calving glaciers retreated more than land-terminating glaciers, but their relative length change was approximately equal. Besides calving, the glacier slope is the most important glacier property determining length change: steep glaciers have retreated less than glaciers with a gentle slope.

Leclercq, P. W.; Oerlemans, J.; Basagic, H. J.; Bushueva, I.; Cook, A. J.; Le Bris, R.

2014-04-01

260

Glaciers in the Earth's Hydrological Cycle: Assessments of Glacier Mass and Runoff Changes on Global and Regional Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea-level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier meltwater is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In light of strongly accelerated worldwide glacier retreat, the associated glacier mass losses raise concerns over the sustainability of water supplies in many parts of the world. Here, we review recent attempts to quantify glacier mass changes and their effect on river runoff on regional and global scales. We find that glacier runoff is defined ambiguously in the literature, hampering direct comparison of findings on the importance of glacier contribution to runoff. Despite consensus on the hydrological implications to be expected from projected future warming, there is a pressing need for quantifying the associated regional-scale changes in glacier runoff and responses in different climate regimes.

Radi?, Valentina; Hock, Regine

2014-05-01

261

What Influences Climate and Glacier Change in the Southwestern China?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject of climate change in the areas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of available water resources from their mountain glaciers. Many of these glaciers over the region have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable. Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration on their shrinkage. However, the causes of the glacier meltings are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. However, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable the future prediction on glacier changes.

Yasunari, Teppei J.

2012-01-01

262

Decay of a long-term monitored glacier: Careser Glacier (Ortles-Cevedale, European Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuation of valuable, long-term glacier observation series is threatened by the accelerated mass loss which currently affects a large portion of so-called "benchmark" glaciers. In this work we present the evolution of the Careser Glacier, from the beginning of systematic observation at the end of the 19th century to its current condition in 2012. In addition to having one of the longest and richest observation records among the Italian glaciers, Careser is unique in the Italian Alps for its 46 yr mass balance series that started in 1967. In the present study, variations in the length, area and volume of the glacier since 1897 are examined, updating and validating the series of direct mass balance observations and adding to the mass balance record into the past using the geodetic method. The glacier is currently strongly out of balance and in rapid decay; its average mass loss rate over the last 3 decades was 1.5 m water equivalent per year, increasing to 2.0 m water equivalent per year in the last decade. Although these rates are not representative at a regional scale, year-to-year variations in mass balance show an unexpected increase in correlation with other glaciers in the Alps, during the last 3 decades. If mass loss continues at this pace, the glacier will disappear within a few decades, putting an end to this unique observation series.

Carturan, L.; Baroni, C.; Becker, M.; Bellin, A.; Cainelli, O.; Carton, A.; Casarotto, C.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Godio, A.; Martinelli, T.; Salvatore, M. C.; Seppi, R.

2013-12-01

263

Glacier acceleration, glacial earthquakes, and ice loss at Helheim Glacier, Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite observations during the last decade have shown dramatic changes in flow speed at Greenland's outlet glaciers, often accompanied by retreats of several km in calving-front location and increasing numbers of glacial earthquakes. Geodetic, seismological, and oceanographic data collected as part of a multidisciplinary field experiment at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, over three summer seasons (2006--2008), together with satellite imagery,

M. Nettles; T. B. Larsen; P. Elósegui; G. S. Hamilton; L. A. Stearns; A. P. Ahlstrøm; J. L. Davis; M. L. Andersen; J. de Juan; S. A. Khan; L. Stenseng; G. Ekström; R. Forsberg; K. M. Schild

2008-01-01

264

Impacts of climate warming on alpine glacier tourism and adaptive measures: A case study of Baishui Glacier No. 1 in Yulong Snow Mountain, Southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine glaciers usually feature with best hydrothermal condition in mountain climate, and present beautiful glacier scenery,\\u000a various glacier landforms, rich biodiversity, and easier accessibility, compared with continental glaciers or ice sheets.\\u000a Nevertheless, Alpine glaciers are more sensitive to climate warming, and climate warming has seriously affected Alpine glaciers\\u000a and surrounding environment. The quality and attractiveness of Alpine glaciers to tourism

Shijin Wang; Yuanqing He; Xiaodong Song

2010-01-01

265

Evaluating the performance of a glacier erosion model applied to Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers are effective agents of erosion for many mountainous regions, but primary rates of erosion are difficult to quantify due to unknown conditions at the glacier bed. We develop a numerical model of subglacial erosion and passively couple it to a vertically integrated ice flow model (UBC regional glaciation model). The model accounts for seasonal changes in water pressure at the glacier bed which affect rates of abrasion and quarrying. We apply our erosion model to Peyto Glacier, and compare estimates of glacier erosion to the mass of fine sediment contained in a lake immediately down valley from the glacier. A series of experiments with our model and ones based on subglacial sliding rates are run to explore model sensitivity to bedrock hardness, seasonal hydrology, changes in mass balance, and longer-term dimensional changes of the glacier. Our experiments show that, as expected, erosion rates are most sensitive to bedrock hardness and changes in glacier mass balance. Silt and clay contained in Peyto Lake primarily originate from the glacier, and represent sediments derived from abrasion and comminution of material produced by quarrying. Average specific sediment yield during the period AD1917-1970 from the lake is 467×190 Mg km-2yr-1 and reaches a maximum of 928 Mg km-2yr-1 in AD1941. Converting to a specific sediment yield, modelled average abrasion and quarrying rates during the comparative period are 142×44 Mg km-2yr-1 and 1167×213 Mg km-2yr-1 respectively. Modelled quarrying accounts for approximately 85-95% of the erosion occurring beneath the glacier. The basal sliding model estimates combined abrasion and quarrying. During the comparative period, estimated yields average 427×136 Mg km-2yr-1, lower than the combined abrasion and quarrying models. Both models predict maximum sediment yield when Peyto Glacier reached its maximum extent. The simplistic erosion model shows higher sensitivity to climate, as seen by accentuated sediment yield peaks during the Little Ice Age. In all of our experiments to date, modelled sediment yield closely follow maximum ice cover. In contrast, sediment yields obtained from the lake indicate that maximum sediment delivery to the lake lagged maximum ice cover and occurred during a period of rapid glacier retreat. We interpret this lag to indicate removal of stored sediments beneath the glacier and subaerial erosion from recently exposed sediments in the glacier forefield rather than an increase in primary erosion of bedrock.

Vogt, R.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Menounos, B.

2013-12-01

266

Towards a comprehensive geophysical coverage of a test Glacier; example from various surveys during field campaigns over the Astrolabe outlet Glacier, East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss various field observations that have been (and will still be) carried out during the last two field seasons over a test glacier in East Antarctica under the framework of the DACOTA program (supported by both the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche, and the French Polar Institute). We will use various techniques so as to provide a better characterization of the dynamics of an outlet glacier as well as the required data sets for running and constraining an ice flow model. These outlet glaciers play a crucial role by draining ice situated inland, thereby controlling the overall mass balance of large parts of the ice sheet. As a small, simple, and accessible glacier, Astrolabe Glacier is an ideal test case. Data of the kinds being collected provide a reference against which later measurements will be compared to infer significant trends (velocity and thickness changes). As an example, surface elevation has been measured at various places on the glacier. The order of magnitude of thickness changes expected compared to the measurement techniques accuracy should allow for significant trends after a couple of years. A permanent deformation rate network consisting of autonomous GPS stations has been started last year and should be completed next winter. By being located close to the grounding line, the deformation rate network will yield constraining data for the model by providing the surface velocity changes induced by the mobility of the grounding line. With regard to modelling input data, bedrock topography represents the most important data set but also the most difficult to access. Radar techniques have been used with first a ground-based penetrating radar later completed by two larger scale airborne surveys allowing for full coverage of the entire drainage basin (8000 km2). This airborne campaign has been possible under the frame of a collaboration between the University of Texas (60 MHz airborne radar), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2.5 MHz airborne radar) and the French Polar Institute IPEV (fuel and ground logistics). Some first results are presented as well as the flight plans for the forthcoming season (2009/1010) where an airborne Basler-DC-3 platform (fielded as part of the University of Texas ICECAP project) will simultaneously fly a large panel of geophysical instruments (both previously flown radars, a scanning lidar, a gravity meter, magnetometer and accurate GPS positioning). Through collaborations between institutes from different countries and from the use of the most sophisticated geophysical techniques, the Astrolabe Glacier will benefit from comprehensive geophysical coverage, becoming an "observatory" that allows for realistic dynamical and /or modelling studies to be undertaken.

Le Meur, E.; Berthier, E.; Blankenship, D.; Drouet, A.; Durand, G.; de Fleurian, B.; Gagliardini, O.; Garambois, S.; Gim, Y.; Holt, J. W.; Kirchner, D. L.; Legresy, B.; Mouginot, J.; Safaeinili, A.; Siegert, M. J.; Rignot, E.; Young, D.

2009-12-01

267

The History of the Glacier Facies Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of glacier facies developed as a result of physical measurements made in Greenland on repeated traverses that went inland from the west coast at two latitudes (77 N and 70 N) and north to south along the crest of the ice sheet. Snow pits and shallow cores showed discontinuities in physical characteristics that defined the facies boundaries. Some refinement have resulted from research in Antarctica and on Alaskan mountain glaciers. Thirty years after the facies were defined, based on field measurements, it was found that radar data (SAR) from satellites show the boundary between the percolation and dry snow facies in Greenland. They also show the percolation facies of the Greenland ice sheet to be the brightest radar reflector on earth. The dry snow facies is rare except on the major ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica), but it is present on mountains that exceed 4000 m in Alaska and the Yukon. In particular, Mt. Wrangell, Alaska was selected for continued study of glacier facies because it has a large and accessible area above 4000 m. Mt. Wrangell has proven to have the full spectrum of glacier facies, and these can be seen on the SAR map of Alaska. Refinements in the definition of the lower end of the wet snow facies, to deal with a slush zone and a superimposed ice zone, resulted from Fritz Mueller's research on Axel Heiberg Island and from studies on the McCall Glacier of Alaska. Minor refinements in defining the dry snow facies resulted from comparing Antarctica and Greenland in places where mean annual temperature and accumulation rates were essentially equal. The glacier facies concept also provides a way of comparing the two polar regions and of speculating on the glacier facies that existed on the Pleistocene continental ice sheets.

Benson, C. S.

2001-12-01

268

Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.  

PubMed

Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7?kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13?kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas. PMID:20829791

Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M

2010-09-01

269

Mathematical challenges in glacier modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of Earth's glaciers are currently shrinking and it is expected that this trend will continue as global warming progresses. To virtually reproduce the evolution of glaciers and finally to predict their future, one needs to couple models of different disciplines and scales. Indeed, the slow motion of ice is described by fluid mechanics equations while the daily snow precipitations and melting are described by hydrological and climatic models. Less visible, applied mathematics are essential to run such a coupling at two different levels: by solving numerically the underlying equations and by seeking parameters using optimisation methods. This talk aims to make visible the role of mathematics in this area. I will first present a short educational film I have made for the "Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013", which is an introduction to the topic. To go further, solving the mechanical model of ice poses several mathematical challenges due to the complexity of the equations and geometries of glaciers. Then, I will describe some strategies to deal with such difficulties and design robust simulation tools. Finally, I will present some simulations of the largest glacier of the European Alps, the Aletsch glacier. As a less unexpected application, I will show how these results allowed us to make a major advance in a police investigation started in 1926.

jouvet, G.

2013-12-01

270

Exploration of Uncertainty in Glacier Modelling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are procedures and methods for verification of coding algebra and for validations of models and calculations that are in use in the aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community. These methods would be efficacious if used by the glacier dynamics modelling community. This paper is a presentation of some of those methods, and how they might be applied to uncertainty management supporting code verification and model validation for glacier dynamics. The similarities and differences between their use in CFD analysis and the proposed application of these methods to glacier modelling are discussed. After establishing sources of uncertainty and methods for code verification, the paper looks at a representative sampling of verification and validation efforts that are underway in the glacier modelling community, and establishes a context for these within overall solution quality assessment. Finally, an information architecture and interactive interface is introduced and advocated. This Integrated Cryospheric Exploration (ICE) Environment is proposed for exploring and managing sources of uncertainty in glacier modelling codes and methods, and for supporting scientific numerical exploration and verification. The details and functionality of this Environment are described based on modifications of a system already developed for CFD modelling and analysis.

Thompson, David E.

1999-01-01

271

ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

2003-01-01

272

Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The world's glaciers react to and interact with changes in global and regional climates. Most mountain glaciers worldwide have been retreating since the latter part of the 19th century; global sea level has risen about 10 centimeters during the past century. Glaciers vary in size as a result of several factors, of which climate variation is probably the most important. The reasons we are interested in glacier variation include its connection to climate change and to global sea level.

U.S. Geological Survey

1994-01-01

273

Glacier Bay, Alaska, from the Ground, Air and Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video contains a mix of live action video, stills, and computer animations of the Glacier Bay National Park in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Satellite mapping and imagery are used to show changes in the Glacier Bay area over a period of several years. Specific image processing techniques are discussed in relation to determining the evolution of glacier terminus points and in obtaining elevation data and how it is used to create fly-by visualizations of the area.

Starr, Cindy; Strong, Jim; Oneil, Pamela; Acuna, Andy; Hall, Dorothy; Benson, Carl

1996-02-23

274

Antarctic glaciers shrinking due to ice shelf collapse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass and velocity measurements taken from satellites and airplanes between 1995 and 2004 were studied to determine if glaciers on the West Antarctic Peninsula were growing or shrinking. It was found that loss of glacier mass from melting and movement into the ocean exceeded snowfall accumulation for several glaciers on the peninsula. The authors propose that as the region continues to warm, the Wordie Bay glaciers will melt more quickly, causing sea level to rise.

Al., Rignot E.; Agu

275

Columbia Glacier, Alaska: changes in velocity 1977-1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Columbia Glacier, a grounded, iceberg-calving tidewater glacier near Valdez, Alaska, began to retreat about 1977. Drastic retreat occurred in 1984, and by early 1986, retreat amounted to 2km. The glacier has thinned more than 100m since 1974 at a point 4km behind the 1974 terminus position. Between 1977 and 1985 the lower glacier ice velocity increased from 3-8m/d to 10-15m/d. -from Authors

Krimmel, R. M.; Vaughn, B. H.

1987-01-01

276

Logistic regression modeling of rock glacier and glacier distribution: Topographic and climatic controls in the semi-arid Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistic regression is applied to a random sample of surface points in the semi-arid Andes of Santiago and Mendoza (Chile/Argentina, 32° 45'-34° 30' S, 12 000 km 2 above 3000 m a.s.l.) to identify local and regional controls on rock glacier and glacier distribution. The study area is among the areas with the greatest abundance of rock glaciers worldwide. The explanatory variables used for model selection are related to local and regional morphometric and climatic characteristics. The models achieve a very good fit (area under the ROC curve 0.84 for rock glaciers and 0.95 for glaciers) and are able to reproduce the regional distribution pattern. Model results are used to determine the optimal morphographic and climatic niche of rock glaciers and glaciers in the study area, and help explain the presence of low-elevation rock glaciers under favorable topoclimatic conditions.

Brenning, Alexander; Trombotto, Dario

2006-11-01

277

Subglacial melting of glaciers by catchment streams is a missing link in temperate glacier mass balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of snowmelt and rain water on subglacial hydrology and glacier mass balance of temperate valley glaciers is poorly understood. We present a thermo-hydraulic melt model to improve understanding of the potential influence that streams sourced from snowmelt and rain have on the subglacial hydrology and melting of the high-precipitation Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand. The model simulates conduit expansion due to melting caused by heat advection and contraction to due ice deformation at an hourly time-step to obtain an annual melt rate along the length of individual subglacial conduits fed from terrestrial streams that enter the glacier from the ice-free sub-catchments surrounding it. These streams are fed by snowmelt and rainfall that enter the glacier well above 0°C (up to ~10°C at low altitudes). Our model is calibrated using terrestrial stream temperature data and is validated with field measurements of surface and proglacial meltwater temperatures, as well as internal water flow velocities. Modelled outputs based on the best available data from measurements and observations indicate that streams entering the Franz Josef Glacier contribute an estimated 7% to the total glacier melt. This is the equivalent of more than twice the surface rainfall heat flux, which shows that rain and snowmelt may melt significant quantities of ice within a glacier. Not accounting for this melting mechanism in glaciological models where streams enter glaciers may lead to: 1) an incorrect characterisation of the subglacial hydrological drainage system; and 2) a potentially serious bias error in mass balance estimations. The second implication is fundamentally important for model robustness given that glaciological models are increasingly being used to predict the effects of future climate change.

Alexander, David; Shulmeister, James; Davies, Tim; Callow, Nik

2013-04-01

278

Losing a Legacy: A photographic story of disappearing glaciers  

E-print Network

Losing a Legacy: A photographic story of disappearing glaciers W.C. Alden photo, GNP Archives B and into the existing forest, bulldozing down trees and creating a "trimline". During the drought between 1917 and 1941 of the earliest photographs repeated from Glacier Park that shows the disappearance of glacier ice and helped

279

Widespread Alaska glacier retreat likely not due to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska's Columbia Glacier, which has shed half its mass since 1957, is a dramatic example of how quickly glaciers can shrink. Yet while Columbia has shown a huge decline, a new analysis by McNabb and Hock has found that other glaciers in the region have retreated far less, or even advanced, over the past 6 decades.

Schultz, Colin

2014-06-01

280

WATER FLOW THROUGH TEMPERATE GLACIERS Andrew G. Fountain1  

E-print Network

WATER FLOW THROUGH TEMPERATE GLACIERS Andrew G. Fountain1 Department of Geology Portland State, Washington Abstract. Understanding water movement through a glacier is fundamental to several critical issues glacierized drainage basins. To this end we have synthesized a conceptual model of water movement through

Fountain, Andrew G.

281

Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS  

E-print Network

Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS: Case study at Dirru glacier, Mattertal Dr. Philippe, Switzerland 05.11.2009 #12;2Goal Description of GPS test network for rock glacier monitoring Data processing & preliminary results - accuracy ? Conclusions & outlook Contents Investigate the potential of low-cost GPS

282

The Role of Glaciers in the Hydrology of Nepal (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers are a component of the hydrologic regime of many large mountain ranges of the world, including the Himalaya. However, the hydrologic regime of Himalayan catchment basins and the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of this region are not well understood. Current concern regarding the impact of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on water supplies poses an urgent

R. L. Armstrong; A. Racoviteanu; D. Alford

2010-01-01

283

Subpolar glaciers network as natural sensors of global warming evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the expeditions carried out both to temperate and subpolar glaciers in both hemispheres, we have observed the existence of endoglacier and subglacier flows and drainages also in subpolar glaciers. Our main work hypothesis is centred on investigating the role played by subpolar glacier discharge in global warming, as we consider this discharge may represent that unknown third of sea

Adolfo Eraso

284

Streamflow response of partially glacierized river basins to glacier recession using a coupled glacio-hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the well publicized risk posed by declining glaciers to water supply in partially glacierized high mountain river systems, our ability to accurately predict the sensitivity of the runoff contribution from glaciers in these basins is limited. Modeling the effect of glacier changes on streamflow in such river basins is complicated by limited meteorological and glaciological data, and by the fact that areas subject to glacier retreat often transition to seasonally ephemeral snow cover. To represent these effects accurately, glacier dynamics must be represented explicitly in hydrological models. Here, we describe the integration of the physically based spatially distributed University of British Columbia glacier dynamics model into the widely used Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) in order to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow dynamics. The integrated model was used to simulate glacier and streamflow dynamics in five test river basins globally where the effects of declining glacier extent on water supply is of concern: the Upper Bow River basin in the Western Canada, the Llanganuco Basin in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, the Zongo glacier basin in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia, the Dongkemadi River Basin in the Tibetan Plateau region and the Astore River basin in the Western Himalayas. We tested the coupled glacio-hydrologic model performance through comparison of predicted variations in glacier extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge, using satellite-derived glacier/snow cover and measured discharge and snow data. Evaluation of our model predictions confirms that representation of glacier cover changes as result of glacier dynamics reduces errors in streamflow simulations in these basins. Subsequently, we evaluate the effects of changing glacier extent on seasonal low flows (to which water supply is most sensitive) in each of the river basins.

Naz, B. S.; Frans, C. D.; Burns, P. J.; Cuo, L.; Duan, K.; Clarke, G. K.; Nolin, A. W.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-12-01

285

ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

286

Melting Himalayan Glaciers May Doom Towns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article describes how mountain lakes in Nepal and Bhutan have become so overfilled by water from melting glaciers that they are in danger of overflowing. Scientists from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), along with remote-sensing experts from the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), predict that in the next half decade or so, the Himalayas could experience intense flooding as mountain lakes overflow with water from glaciers and snowfields which are melting as a result of gradually rising global temperatures.

287

The application of glacier inventory data for estimating past climate change effects on mountain glaciers: A comparison between the  

E-print Network

. Introduction The last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001) stated that glaciersThe application of glacier inventory data for estimating past climate change effects on mountain are the best natural indicators of climate. Hence, glacier changes are observed world wide within the framework

288

Exploring the links between transient water inputs and glacier velocity in a small temperate glacier in southeastern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska are thinning and retreating rapidly. An important control on the rate at which ice is being lost is basal motion because higher glacier velocities increase the rate at which ice is delivered to ablation zones. Recent research has focused on understanding the effects of sub-glacial water storage on glacier basal motion. In this study,

M. Heavner; M. Habermann; E. W. Hood; D. R. Fatland

2009-01-01

289

Glacier volume response time and its links to climate and topography based on a conceptual model of glacier hypsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier volume response time is a measure of the time taken for a glacier to adjust its geometry to a climate change. It is currently believed that the volume response time is given approximately by the ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the glacier terminus. We propose a new conceptual model of glacier hypsometry (area-altitude relation) and derive the volume response time where climatic and topographic parameters are separated. The former is expressed by mass balance gradients which we derive from glacier-climate modelling and the latter are quantified with data from the World Glacier Inventory. Aside from the well-known scaling relation between glacier volume and area, we establish a new scaling relation between glacier altitude range and area, and evaluate it for seven regions. The presence of this scaling parameter in our response time formula accounts for the mass balance elevation feedback and leads to longer response times than given by the simple ratio of glacier thickness to ablation. Volume response times range from decades to thousands of years for glaciers in maritime (wet-warm) and continental (dry-cold) climates, respectively. The combined effect of volume-area and altitude-area scaling relations is such that volume response time can increase with glacier area (Axel Heiberg Island and Svalbard), hardly change (Northern Scandinavia, Southern Norway and the Alps) or even get smaller (The Caucasus and New Zealand).

Raper, S. C. B.; Braithwaite, R. J.

2009-03-01

290

Glacier volume response time and its links to climate and topography based on a conceptual model of glacier hypsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier volume response time is a measure of the time taken for a glacier to adjust its geometry to a climate change. It has been previously proposed that the volume response time is given approximately by the ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the glacier terminus. We propose a new conceptual model of glacier hypsometry (area-altitude relation) and derive the volume response time where climatic and topographic parameters are separated. The former is expressed by mass balance gradients which we derive from glacier-climate modelling and the latter are quantified with data from the World Glacier Inventory. Aside from the well-known scaling relation between glacier volume and area, we establish a new scaling relation between glacier altitude range and area, and evaluate it for seven regions. The presence of this scaling parameter in our response time formula accounts for the mass balance elevation feedback and leads to longer response times than given by the simple ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the terminus. Volume response times range from decades to thousands of years for glaciers in maritime (wet-warm) and continental (dry-cold) climates respectively. The combined effect of volume-area and altitude-area scaling relations is such that volume response time can increase with glacier area (Axel Heiberg Island and Svalbard), hardly change (Northern Scandinavia, Southern Norway and the Alps) or even get smaller (The Caucasus and New Zealand).

Raper, S. C. B.; Braithwaite, R. J.

2009-08-01

291

Geodetic observations of short-time-scale changes in glacier flow at Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, East Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence obtained by several workers during the past few years has shown that the major outlet glaciers in Greenland can both accelerate and decelerate more rapidly than previously appreciated. Some abrupt accelerations at the largest outlet glaciers, including Jakobshavn Isbrae and Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, have been linked to large-scale calving events and glacial earthquakes (Nettles et al., 2008; Amundson

M. Nettles; P. Elosegui; T. Larsen; J. L. Davis; G. S. Hamilton; L. A. Stearns; M. L. Andersen; J. de Juan; E. Malikowski; I. Gonzalez; M. Okal; B. Johns; G. Ekstrom; A. Ahlstrøm; L. Stenseng; S. A. Khan; K. M. Schild; R. Forsberg; S. A. Veitch

2009-01-01

292

An ALOS-derived glacier inventory of the Bhutan Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier inventory provides fundamental information of glacier settings such as number, area, and horizontal/altitudinal distribution, which make possible to study management of water resources, glacial response to climate change, and glacier-related hazards. In the Bhutan Himalaya, heavily debris-covered surface and seasonal snow cover under the humid climate hamper automated mapping of glaciers. We present a novel glacier inventory manually delineated from high resolution (2.5 m) ALOS-PRISM images along the Bhutan Himalaya including Tibetan side. We delineated 1273 glaciers with area of 1408.3 km2, in which 210 debris-covered glaciers with area of 951.2 km2 were identified. Scatter plot of top and terminus altitudes of these glaciers shows that the termini of debris-covered glaciers tend to be located at lower altitude than those of debris-free glaciers. Classifying surface aspect into eight directions, surface of the debris-free glaciers tends to be exposed northward (16.7%) while the southwestward surface is minimum (9.2%). No remarkable aspect tendency is found for the debris-covered glaciers. We compare the locations of debris-free glaciers with annual precipitation of TRMM 3B43 data. Median altitude, at which glacier surface is divided into two equal areas obviously increases northward (toward Tibet) along latitude. Additionally the median altitude averaged over basin scale (~2500 km2) shows a significant negative correlation against the annual precipitation (r= -0.48, p< 0.05). Our results suggest that the high latitudinal gradient of annual precipitation crossing the Bhutan Himalaya contrasts the glacier altitudinal distribution within a scale of 100 km.

Nagai, Hiroto; Fujita, Koji; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sakai, Akiko

2013-04-01

293

Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from within three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900), based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 to 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, for 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central and northern Norway. The results show a decrease of the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50, to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (totally 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. This is equivalent to an average change rate of -11 km2 a-1 over the past 30 years. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m, corresponding to an average length change rate of -8 m a-1. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reduction as a general pattern, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost glacier regions show the strongest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several geographical factors like glacier geometry and elevation, and other climatic aspects, such as continentality and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

2014-06-01

294

Contrasting response of South Greenland glaciers to recent climatic change  

SciTech Connect

A unique geographical configuration of glaciers exists in the Narsarsuaq district of South Greenland. Two large outlet glaciers divide into seven distributaries, such that each glacier system has land-terminating, tidewater-calving, and fresh-water-calving termini. Despite a similar climatic regime, these seven glaciers have exhibited strongly contrasting terminal behavior in historical time, as shown by historical records, aerial photographs, and fieldwork in 1989. The behavior of the calving glaciers cannot be accounted for with reference solely to climatic parameters. The combination of iceberg calving dynamics and topographic control has partially decoupled them from climatic forcing such that their oscillations relate more closely to glaciodynamic than glacioclimatic factors.

Warren, C.R.; Glasser, N.F. (Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom))

1992-05-01

295

Prairies in the Prairie State : How Glaciers Shape the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity demonstrates the abrasive power of glaciers carrying rocks and sand. Its purpose is to illustrate the concept that glaciers change the Earth's surface through the processes of erosion and deposition. Students construct model glaciers by freezing water with sand and pebbles at the bottom to represent the rock fragments carried by a real glacier. They then rub their 'glacier' across rocks of varying hardness to see what happens. Afterwards, they place the ice where it can melt and observe what happens to the sand and pebbles trapped in it. A materials list, procedures, and background information are supplied.

296

Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure  

SciTech Connect

Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.

Cheng, C.Z.

1991-07-01

297

Evidence for a water system transition beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica  

PubMed Central

Thwaites Glacier is one of the largest, most rapidly changing glaciers on Earth, and its landward-sloping bed reaches the interior of the marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which impounds enough ice to yield meters of sea-level rise. Marine ice sheets with landward-sloping beds have a potentially unstable configuration in which acceleration can initiate or modulate grounding-line retreat and ice loss. Subglacial water has been observed and theorized to accelerate the flow of overlying ice dependent on whether it is hydrologically distributed or concentrated. However, the subglacial water systems of Thwaites Glacier and their control on ice flow have not been characterized by geophysical analysis. The only practical means of observing these water systems is airborne ice-penetrating radar, but existing radar analysis approaches cannot discriminate between their dynamically critical states. We use the angular distribution of energy in radar bed echoes to characterize both the extent and hydrologic state of subglacial water systems across Thwaites Glacier. We validate this approach with radar imaging, showing that substantial water volumes are ponding in a system of distributed canals upstream of a bedrock ridge that is breached and bordered by a system of concentrated channels. The transition between these systems occurs with increasing surface slope, melt-water flux, and basal shear stress. This indicates a feedback between the subglacial water system and overlying ice dynamics, which raises the possibility that subglacial water could trigger or facilitate a grounding-line retreat in Thwaites Glacier capable of spreading into the interior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:23836631

Schroeder, Dustin M.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.

2013-01-01

298

Evidence for a water system transition beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.  

PubMed

Thwaites Glacier is one of the largest, most rapidly changing glaciers on Earth, and its landward-sloping bed reaches the interior of the marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which impounds enough ice to yield meters of sea-level rise. Marine ice sheets with landward-sloping beds have a potentially unstable configuration in which acceleration can initiate or modulate grounding-line retreat and ice loss. Subglacial water has been observed and theorized to accelerate the flow of overlying ice dependent on whether it is hydrologically distributed or concentrated. However, the subglacial water systems of Thwaites Glacier and their control on ice flow have not been characterized by geophysical analysis. The only practical means of observing these water systems is airborne ice-penetrating radar, but existing radar analysis approaches cannot discriminate between their dynamically critical states. We use the angular distribution of energy in radar bed echoes to characterize both the extent and hydrologic state of subglacial water systems across Thwaites Glacier. We validate this approach with radar imaging, showing that substantial water volumes are ponding in a system of distributed canals upstream of a bedrock ridge that is breached and bordered by a system of concentrated channels. The transition between these systems occurs with increasing surface slope, melt-water flux, and basal shear stress. This indicates a feedback between the subglacial water system and overlying ice dynamics, which raises the possibility that subglacial water could trigger or facilitate a grounding-line retreat in Thwaites Glacier capable of spreading into the interior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:23836631

Schroeder, Dustin M; Blankenship, Donald D; Young, Duncan A

2013-07-23

299

Surface change detection in glacier regions using ALOS PALSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountainous glaciers are important water resources in the high mountainous region. The glaciers not only supply water for drinking and agriculture, but also produce energy in hydroelectric power plants to local communities. The recent rapid glacier retreat is at high risk for severe water shortage in the near future. And the melting water of glacier sometimes leads to landslide disaster or glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). Actually, the debris flow happened and damaged the buildings at the valley of Pacuni glacier in Bolivia in December 2007. Consequently, the monitoring of the glacier regions is very important both to manage water resources and to mitigate the damage from landslide disaster. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite “DAICHI” (ALOS) has three sensors, two visible imagers and one L-band polarimetric SAR, and has been observing the land surface since 2006. This study discusses the availability of the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) of ALOS for surface change detection in glacier regions in Bolivia. The observation by PALSAR is unaffected by weather. And this characteristic is the most important for the glacier monitoring. Some glaciers and their surrounding mountainous regions are selected as a test sites for this study and many landslides near Pacuni glacier were detected by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using PALSAR data of ALOS.

Tomiyama, N.; Ono, M.

2010-12-01

300

Monitoring surging glaciers of the Pamirs, central Asia, from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of surging glaciers of the Pamirs, central Asia, has been studied using repeat remote-sensing surveys in the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, since the early 1970s. We use images obtained from national Resurs-F satellites (1972-91), as well as Landsat 7 and Terra (1999-2006), to provide a basis for monitoring of surging glaciers, aimed at developing their inventory, studying the causes and mechanisms of surges and examining the timing and extent of glacial catastrophes. The inventory from the early 1990s allows identification of 215 glaciers with a dynamically unstable regime. We discovered 51 surging glaciers. Up until 2006, 10 more surges had occurred. We use stereoscopic deciphering and photogrammetric processing of consecutive satellite images to study the morphology and ice-velocity changes of several compound surging glaciers. We analyze the results of monitoring of Bivachny and Oktyabr'sky glaciers from 1972 to 1991 and Sugran glacier from 1972 to 2006. Two surges of Sugran glacier occurred during this time: an internal surge in 1976-80, and a surge with glacier tongue advance as far as 4.5 km in 2000-05. The role of damming in compound glacier systems is examined. Satellite-based monitoring is now the only method for obtaining initial information about the state and fluctuations of such glaciers.

Kotlyakov, V. M.; Osipova, G. B.; Tsvetkov, D. G.

301

A complex relationship between calving glaciers and climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many terrestrial glaciers are sensitive indicators of past and present climate change as atmospheric temperature and snowfall modulate glacier volume. However, climate interpretations based on glacier behavior require careful selection of representative glaciers, as was recently pointed out for surging and debris-covered glaciers, whose behavior often defies regional glacier response to climate [Yde and Paasche, 2010]. Tidewater calving glaciers (TWGs)mountain glaciers whose termini reach the sea and are generally grounded on the seaflooralso fall into the category of non-representative glaciers because the regional-scale asynchronous behavior of these glaciers clouds their complex relationship with climate. TWGs span the globe; they can be found both fringing ice sheets and in high-latitude regions of each hemisphere. TWGs are known to exhibit cyclic behavior, characterized by slow advance and rapid, unstable retreat, largely independent of short-term climate forcing. This so-called TWG cycle, first described by Post [1975], provides a solid foundation upon which modern investigations of TWG stability are built. Scientific understanding has developed rapidly as a result of the initial recognition of their asynchronous cyclicity, rendering greater insight into the hierarchy of processes controlling regional behavior. This has improved the descriptions of the strong dynamic feedbacks present during retreat, the role of the ocean in TWG dynamics, and the similarities and differences between TWG and ice sheet outlet glaciers that can often support floating tongues.

Post, A.; O'Neel, S.; Motyka, R. J.; Streveler, G.

2011-01-01

302

Malaspina Glacier: a modern analog to the Laurentide Glacier in New England  

SciTech Connect

The land-based temperate Malaspina Glacier is a partial analog to the late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet that occupied New England and adjacent areas. The Malaspina occupies a bedrock basin similar to basins occupied by the margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Ice lobes of the Malaspina are similar in size to end moraine lobes in southern New England and Long Island,New York. Estimated ice temperature, ablation rates, surface slopes and meltwater discharge per unit of surface area for the Laurentide Ice Sheet are similar to those for the Malaspina Glacier. In a simple hydrologic-fluvial model for the Malaspina Glacier meltwater moves towards the glacier bed and down-glacier along intercrystalline pathways, crevasses and moulins, and a series of tunnels. Regolith and bedrock at the glacier floor, which are eroded and transported by subglacial and englacial streams, are the sources of essentially all fluvio-lacustrine sediment on the Malaspina Foreland. Supraglacial eskers containing coarse gravels occur as much as 100 m above the glacier bed and are evidence that bedload can be lifted hydraulically. Subordinant amounts of sediment are contributed to outwash by small surface streams draining the ice margin. By analogy a similar hydrologic-fluvial system existed along the southeastern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Subglacial regolith and bedrock eroded from beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet by meltwater was also the source of most glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits in southern New England, not sediment carried to the surface of the ice sheet along shear planes and washed off the glacier by meltwater.

Gustavson, T.C.; Boothroyd, J.C.

1985-01-01

303

Mass budget of the grounded ice in the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used remote-sensing and in situ measurements of surface accumulation rate, ice surface velocity, thickness and elevation to evaluate the mass budgets of grounded ice-flow regimes that form the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf system. Three distinct drainage regimes are considered: the western and eastern margins of the ice shelf, and the southern grounding line at the major outlet glacier confluence, which can be identified with drainage zones 9, 11 and 10 respectively of Giovinetto and Zwally (2000). Our findings show the entire grounded portion of the basin is approximately in balance, with a mass budget of -4.2±9.8 Gta-1. Drainages 9, 10 and 11 are within balance to the level of our measurement uncertainty, with mass budgets of -2.5±2.8 Gta-1, -2.6±7.8 Gta-1 and 0.9±2.3 Gta-1, respectively. The region upstream of the Australian Lambert Glacier basin (LGB) traverse has a net mass budget of 4.4±6.3 Gta-1, while the downstream region has -8.9±9.9 Gta-1. These results indicate that glacier drainages 9, 10 and 11, upstream and downstream of the Australian LGB traverse, are in balance to within our measurement error.

Jiahong, Wen; Yafeng, Wang; Jiying, Liu; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Huybrechts, Philippe; Csathó, Beata M.; Farness, Katy L.; Bo, Sun

304

Modelling bed overdeepenings for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region using GlabTop2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculating ice thickness distribution and bed topographies for large glacier samples is an essential task to estimate stored ice volumes with their potential for sea level rise and to model possible future retreat scenarios of glacier evolution under conditions of continued warming. Modelling such bed topographies to become exposed in the near future by continued glacier retreat also enables modelling of future landscapes with their landforms, processes and interactions. As the erosive power of glaciers can form numerous and sometimes large closed topographic bed depressions, many overdeepenings are commonly found in formerly glaciated mountain ranges. Where such overdeepend parts are becoming exposed and filled with water rather than sediments new lakes can come into existence. GlabTop (Glacier bed Topography) has been used to model ice thickness distribution and bed topographies of large glacier samples. It is an ice dynamical approach, based on the assumption of perfect plasticity of ice, which relates glacier thickness to its local surface slope via the basal shear stress estimated for each glacier based on an empirical relation between shear stress and elevation range as a governing factor of mass turnover. From comparison with radio-echo soundings in the Swiss Alps, the uncertainty range of local ice thicknesses calculated with GlabTop is estimated at about ±30%. The spatial variability of ice depths, i.e. the glacier-bed topography, primarily depends on surface slope as provided by DEMs and is quite robust. For the entire Swiss Alps, GlabTop revealed a considerable number (more than 500) of (partly large) overdeepenings in the modelled glacier beds with a total area of about 50-60 km2 and a total volume of about 1.5-2.5 km3. A number of lakes have formed in such modelled overdeepenings during the past years and decades. To calculate bed topographies with their overdeepenings for the 28'100 glaciers of the Himalaya-Karakoram region the GlabTop-approach was modified and named GlabTop2. While the original approach relied on so called glacier branch lines that had to be digitized manually, GlabTop2 is fully automated and requires only a DEM and glacier outlines as an input. The result is the same: ice thickness distribution and bed topographies, which can be used for volume calculations and for model simulations concerning glacier retreat scenarios and future landscapes. According to the model output there are about 15'000 overdeepenings covering an area of about 2000 km2 and having a total volume of about 120 km3 (3-4% of the now existing glacier volume) in the Himalaya-Karakoram region. In a statistical analysis concerning the morphological characteristics of these overdeepenings, mean and maximum values of the parameters surface area, length, width, depth, volume, frontal/adverse slope and their statistical interrelations are determined with their corresponding uncertainty ranges and compared with a corresponding analysis for the Swiss Alps. While the modelled overdeepenings based on model runs with different data input differ in shape, the locations of the overdeepenings are robust and the values for the extracted parameters are comparable.

Linsbauer, Andreas; Frey, Holger; Haeberli, Wilfried; Machguth, Horst

2014-05-01

305

Glaciers and Ice Sheets Mapping Orbiter concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a concept for a spaceborne radar system designed to measure the surface and basal topography of terrestrial ice sheets and to determine the physical properties of the glacier bed. Our primary objective is to develop this new technology for obtaining spaceborne estimates of the thickness of the polar ice sheets with an ultimate goal of providing essential information

Kenneth Jezek; Ernesto Rodríguez; Prasad Gogineni; Anthony Freeman; John Curlander; Xiaoqing Wu; John Paden; Chris Allen

2006-01-01

306

Stream temperature response to glacier retreat (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream temperature is a fundamental aspect of aquatic habitat, and there has been increasing concern in recent years that climatic change and glacier retreat will result in increased water temperatures, with potentially negative influences on cold and cool water species such as salmonids. A statistical model was developed to predict the maximum weekly average stream temperature based on data from 418 sites located throughout British Columbia, Canada. Catchment-scale glacier coverage was a significant predictor in the model, and example calculations indicate that plausible decreases in glacier coverage over the next few decades have the potential to result in warming that would be sufficient to cause shifts in fish species assemblages. However, this space-for-time substitution rests on assumptions that may not be valid, especially in the context of a changing climate, leading to a need to develop and apply physically based models. Reach-scale energy budget analyses indicate that parameterizations of energy fluxes used in current stream temperature models are not appropriate for steep channels with cascading flow. In particular, the sensible and latent heat fluxes are more efficient than in lower-gradient channels, and the albedo is enhanced by aeration. Over longer time scales, development of riparian forest has the potential to mitigate the effect of glacier retreat in alpine areas by shading the stream, but it may take centuries for functional riparian forest to develop at higher elevation sites.

Moore, R. D.

2013-12-01

307

Hasty retreat of glaciers in the Palena province of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping glacier extent from optical satellite data has become a most efficient tool to create or update glacier inventories and determine glacier changes over time. A most valuable archive in this regard is the nearly 30-year time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data that is freely available (already orthorectified) for most regions in the world from the USGS. One region with a most dramatic glacier shrinkage and a missing systematic assessment of changes, is the Palena province in Chile, south of Puerto Montt. A major bottleneck for accurate determination of glacier changes in this region is related to the huge amounts of snow falling in this very maritime region, hiding the perimeter of glaciers throughout the year. Consequently, we found only three years with Landsat scenes that can be used to map glacier extent through time. We here present the results of a glacier change analysis from six Landsat scenes (path-rows 232-89/90) acquired in 1985, 2000 and 2011 covering the Palena district in Chile. Clean glacier ice was mapped automatically with a standard technique (TM3/TM band ratio) and manual editing was applied to remove wrongly classified lakes and to add debris-covered glacier parts. The digital elevation model (DEM) from SRTM was used to derive drainage divides, determine glacier specific topographic parameters, and analyse the area changes in regard to topography. The scene from 2000 has the best snow conditions and was used to eliminate seasonal snow in the other two scenes by digital combination of the binary glacier masks. The observed changes show a huge spatial variability with a strong dependence on elevation and glacier hypsometry. While small mountain glaciers at high elevations and steep slopes show virtually no change over the 26-year period, ice at low elevations from large valley glaciers shows a dramatic decline (area and thickness loss). Some glaciers retreated more than 3 km over this time period or even disappeared completely. Typically, these glaciers lost contact to the accumulation areas of tributaries and now consist of an ablation area only. Furthermore, numerous pro-glacial lakes formed or expanded rapidly, increasing the local hazard potential. On the other hand, some glaciers located on or near to (still active) volcanoes have also advanced in the same time period. Observed trends in temperature (decreasing) are in contrast to the observed strong glacier shrinkage.

Paul, F.; Mölg, N.; Bolch, T.

2013-12-01

308

Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies, their volume and changes The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. There is information about 23796 glaciers with area of 78222.3 km2 in the Inventory. It covers 23 glacier systems on Northern Eurasia. In the 80th the USSR Glacier Inventory has been transformed in the digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory. Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Syntar-Khayata, Cherskogo Range, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions. There is, however, a rather large variability in degree of reduction very much depending on special local conditions and this was particularly notable with regard to smaller glaciers.

Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.

2012-12-01

309

Meltwater Induced Glacier Landslides - Waxell Ridge, AK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the past year, two large landslides have originated from south-facing peaks on Waxell Ridge, the bedrock massif that separates the Bagley Icefield from Bering Glacier, Alaska. Each involves a near-summit hanging glacier. In each instance, the presence of meltwater appears to be a triggering factor. The largest of the two, which occurred on September 14, 2005, originated from just below the summit of 3,236-m-high Mt Steller and landed on the surface of Bering Glacier, nearly 2,500 m below. The Alaska Volcano Observatory estimated the volume of this landslide, which consisted of rock, glacier ice, and snow, to be approximately 50 million cubic meters. Unlike most large Alaskan glacier-related landslides, this one was not triggered by an earthquake. However, the energy that the slide released was intense enough to generate a seismic signal that was recorded around the world with magnitudes of 3.8 to greater than 5. The slide extended ~10 km down the Bering Glacier from the point of impact. Much of the surface on which the slide occurred had a slope >50 degrees. The second landslide, located ~6 km to the west of Mt Steller, originated from a secondary summit of a 2,500- m-high unnamed peak. The date of its occurrence is unknown, but its toe sits on winter 2005-2006 snow. Both slides have been examined from helicopter and fixed-wing overflights, and with a variety of vertical and oblique aerial photographs. Oblique aerial photographs obtained of the Mt Steller slide on September 15, 2005 depict a 10-15-m-diameter moulin or englacial stream channel in the truncated 30-m-thick glacier ice that comprises the east wall of the landslide scarp. The presence of this unusual glacial-hydrologic feature at an elevation above 3,000 m, suggests that a large volume of water had recently been flowing on Mt Steller's east ridge and that the water might have had a role in triggering the landslide. Similarly, there is evidence of an englacial channel on the west flank of the summit scarp of the second slide. The presence of large volumes of meltwater close to the crest of Waxell Ridge raises questions about regional climate change and its role in the future generation of landslides at higher elevations. This presentation summarizes the findings produced from the analysis of aerial photography and field observations made between September 2005 and September 2006.

Molnia, B. F.; Angeli, K. M.; Bratton, D. A.; Keeler, R. H.; Noyles, C.

2006-12-01

310

Surge of a Complex Glacier System - The Current Surge of the Bering-Bagley Glacier System, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding fast glacier flow and glacial accelerations is important for understanding changes in the cryosphere and ultimately in sea level. Surge-type glaciers are one of four types of fast-flowing glaciers --- the other three being continuously fast-flowing glaciers, fjord glaciers and ice streams --- and the one that has seen the least amount of research. The Bering-Bagley Glacier System, Alaska, the largest glacier system in North America, surged in 2011 and 2012. Velocities decreased towards the end of 2011, while the surge kinematics continued to expand. A new surge phase started in summer and fall 2012. In this paper, we report results from airborne observations collected in September 2011, June/July and September/October 2012 and in 2013. Airborne observations include simultaneously collected laser altimeter data, videographic data, GPS data and photographic data and are complemented by satellite data analysis. Methods range from classic interpretation of imagery to analysis and classification of laser altimeter data and connectionist (neural-net) geostatistical classification of concurrent airborne imagery. Results focus on the characteristics of surge progression in a large and complex glacier system (as opposed to a small glacier with relatively simple geometry). We evaluate changes in surface elevations including mass transfer and sudden drawdowns, crevasse types, accelerations and changes in the supra-glacial and englacial hydrologic system. Supraglacial water in Bering Glacier during Surge, July 2012 Airborne laser altimeter profile across major rift in central Bering Glacier, Sept 2011

Herzfeld, U. C.; McDonald, B.; Trantow, T.; Hale, G.; Stachura, M.; Weltman, A.; Sears, T.

2013-12-01

311

Tides, Rifting and Calving of the Mertz Glacier B. Legrsy(1), L. Lescarmontier(1), R. Coleman(2), P. Lacroix(1), L.Testut(1), N.W. Young(2) and F.  

E-print Network

cedex 9, France. (2) Uni. Of Tasmania, Ace-CRC, Hobart, Australia The CRAC-ICE project aims astrolabe voyage, we deployed a network of year round GPS beacons along a flow line of the glacier including

312

Overtaking while approaching equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system initially far from equilibrium is expected to take more time to reach equilibrium than a system that was initially closer to equilibrium. The old puzzling observation (also called Mpemba effect) that when a sample of hot water and another sample of cold water are put in a freezer to equilibrate, the hot water sometimes overtakes as they cool,

P. Chaddah; S. Dash; Kranti Kumar; A. Banerjee

2010-01-01

313

Conditions for thrust faulting in a glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipping, arcuate bands of debris-rich ice outcropping near the margins of glaciers are often interpreted as thrust faults, assumed to originate in zones of longitudinal compression. Identification of thrusts is typically based either on the geometry and sedimentology of the debris bands or on the crystal fabric of surrounding ice, but the physical processes necessary to generate thrusts are rarely evaluated. Herein, we combine a numerical model of compressive ice flow near a glacier margin with theoretical stress and strain rate criteria for ice fracture and stress criteria for frictional slip to determine the conditions necessary for thrust faulting in glaciers. This model is applied to two different glaciological settings where longitudinal compression has been documented: (1) the transition between warm-based and cold-based ice near the terminus of Storglaciären, Sweden, and (2) the downglacier extent of the 1983 surge front of Variegated Glacier where surging ice encountered stagnant ice. Simulations representing the margin of Storglaciären indicate that peak compressive strain rates are six orders of magnitude too small to induce fracture, whereas at Variegated Glacier, strain rates were an order of magnitude too small for compressive fracture. In both groups of simulations, preexisting fractures governed by Coulomb friction are susceptible to slip if they span the ice thickness, are oriented close to the optimal fracture angle, and, in the case of Storglaciären, are subject to water pressures that are a large fraction of ice overburden pressure. Variations about the optimal fracture orientation, low or zero water pressure, high sliding friction coefficient, and limited vertical or lateral fracture extent each tend to suppress thrusting.

Moore, Peter L.; Iverson, Neal R.; Cohen, Denis

2010-06-01

314

Can the recent thinning and acceleration of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica be explained by changes in its ice shelf?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a wealth of evidence implying that Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (PIG) is presently undergoing rapid change. Much of this evidence is associated with PIG's ice shelf and ice plain. This includes a retreat of the grounding line by 5 km from 1992 to 1994; a contemporaneous acceleration of flow in the same area by 18%; as well

A. J. Payne; A. Vieli

2003-01-01

315

Spatially distributed reconstruction of the surface mass balance of Pasterze glacier, Austria, employing a full Stokes model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pasterze glacier is the largest Austrian glacier (17.7 km², 2003) based in the 'Hohe Tauern' region of the Eastern Alps. In the period from 1980 to 1997, surface mass balance (SMB) measurements were carried out by the Verbund-Austrian Hydro Power (AHP) Company. Since 2004 SMB measurements of the Pasterze glacier were reinstalled by the ZAMG using the glaciological method (stakes, snow pits,…). Current specific SMB rates correspond to a mean surface ice loss of ~1.5 m per balance year. Since 2005 kinematics of the ablation stakes have been determined through regular differential GPS surveys. Based on the high spatial sampling by the installed ablation stake network (~50-60 stakes), a high quality ablation and flow velocity data set has been gathered for the ablation area of the Pasterze glacier. As a next step we deployed a full stress computational model (http://elmerice.elmerfem.org) to investigate the dynamics of Pasterze glacier. We employed a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the bedrock and high quality DEM's of the surface taken at different times (1969, 1998, 2012) as input for diagnostic simulations. After tuning the model parameters (e.g. sliding) to the in-situ determined dynamics, we reconstructed the spatial SMB distribution of the glacier and compared it to the measurements. The reconstruction of the SMB from diagnostic simulations can be an effective technique in order to - on top of measurements that usually are confined to centre-lines of glaciers - get additional information on the spatial SMB distribution by utilizing easier accessible surface DEM's as well as for SMB homogenization approaches.

Binder, Daniel; Zwinger, Thomas; Hauser, Beate; Hynek, Bernhard; Schöner, Wolfgang; Weyss, Gernot

2014-05-01

316

A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Nyainqentanglha Range is located in the south-eastern centre of the Tibetan Plateau. Its north-western slopes drain into Lake Nam Co. The region is of special interest for glacio-climatological research as it is influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system, and situated at the transition zone between temperate and subcontinental glaciers. A glacier inventory for the whole mountain range was generated for the year around 2001 using automated remote sensing and GIS techniques based on Landsat ETM+ and SRTM3 DEM data. Glacier change analysis was based on data from Hexagon KH-9 and Landsat MSS (both 1976), Metric Camera (1984), and Landsat TM/ETM+ (1991, 2001, 2005, 2009). Manual adjustment was especially necessary for delineating the debris-covered glaciers and the glaciers on the panchromatic Hexagon data. In the years around 2001 the whole mountain range contained about 960 glaciers covering an area of 795.6 ± 22.3 km2 while the ice in the drainage basin of Nam Co covered 198.1 ± 5.6 km2. The median elevation of the glaciers was about 5800 m with the majority terminating around 5600 m. Five glaciers with debris-covered tongues terminated lower than 5200 m. The glacier area decreased by -6.1 ± 3% between 1976 and 2001. This is less than reported in previous studies based on the 1970s topographic maps and Landsat data from 2000. Glaciers continued to shrink during the period 2001-2009. No advancing glaciers were detected. Detailed length measurements for five glaciers indicated a retreat of around 10 m per year (1976-2009). Ice cover is higher south-east of the mountain ridge which reflects the windward direction to the monsoon. The temperature increase during the ablation period was probably the main driver of glacier wastage, but the complex glacier-climate interactions need further investigation.

Bolch, T.; Yao, T.; Kang, S.; Buchroithner, M. F.; Scherer, D.; Maussion, F.; Huintjes, E.; Schneider, C.

2010-09-01

317

Retreat of Pine Island Glacier controlled by marine ice-sheet instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 40 years Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica has thinned at an accelerating rate, so that it is currently the largest single contributor to sea-level rise in Antarctica. In recent years, the grounding line, which separates the grounded ice sheet from the floating ice shelf, has retreated by tens of kilometres. At present, the grounding line is crossing a retrograde bedrock slope that lies well below sea level, raising the possibility that the glacier is susceptible to the marine ice sheet instability mechanism. Here, using three state-of-the-art ice flow models, we show that Pine Island Glacier's grounding line is likely engaged in an unstable 40 kilometre retreat. The associated mass loss increases substantially over the course of our simulations from the average value of 20 Gt a-1 observed for the 1992-2011 period , up to and above 100 Gt a-1 equivalent to 3.5-10 mm eustatic sea-level rise over the following 20 years. Mass loss remains elevated from then on, ranging from 60 to 120 Gt a-1.

Durand, Gael; Favier, Lionel; Cornford, Stephen; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Zwinger, Thomas; Payne, Anthony; Le Brocq, Anne

2014-05-01

318

Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock glaciers are found in the peripheral regions of Antarctica particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Study of these features is relevant for the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of maritime Antarctica because they are indicators of permafrost and periglacial conditions. This paper reports and analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. Nine rock glaciers and eleven protalus lobes have been identified. All of them are located in recently deglaciated zones between 300 m a.s.l. and sea level and they cover an area of 497×103 m 2. Tongue-shaped rock glaciers are more common than lobate types, being in general of medium and small sizes. They are talus rock glaciers (55%) and debris rock glaciers (45%), according to the genetic classification. The lack of a preferred orientation suggests that there is no significant microclimate control on their distribution. They are related to particular morphodynamic situations. Estimated annual velocities, based on relationships with raised beaches and transported debris volumes, range between 2.4 and 97 cm year -1, within the ranges reported for other rock glaciers. Three groups of rock glaciers can be recognised: (a) those immediate postdating the last major ice recession, (b) rock glaciers younger than 2000 years BP but pre-dating the Little Ice Age (LIA), and (c) rock glaciers formed during the LIA.

Serrano, Enrique; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

2000-10-01

319

Glacier Changes in the Bhutanese Himalaya - Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. The most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values (1980-2000), almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. New mapping of glacierized area from 2000-2010 shows a significant change in glacierized area of 4-6%. Thus the conservative steady-state area changes predicted by the model are already being realized. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, glacier retreat is predicted to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.

Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Burgener, L. K.; Maurer, J.; Smith, R.; Cook, E.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Tsering, K.; Koenig, L.

2012-12-01

320

Assessing streamflow sensitivity to variations in glacier mass balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine long-term streamflow and mass balance data from two Alaskan glaciers located in climatically distinct basins: Gulkana Glacier, a continental glacier located in the Alaska Range, and Wolverine Glacier, a maritime glacier located in the Kenai Mountains. Both glaciers lost mass, primarily as a result of summer warming, and both basins exhibit increasing streamflow over the 1966-2011 study interval. We estimated total glacier runoff via summer mass balance, and separated the fraction related to annual mass imbalances. In both climates, the fraction of streamflow related to annual mass balance averages less than 20%, substantially smaller than the fraction related to total summer mass loss (>50%), which occurs even in years of glacier growth. The streamflow fraction related to changes in annual mass balance has increased only in the continental environment. In the maritime climate, where deep winter snowpacks and frequent rain events drive consistently high runoff, the magnitude of this streamflow fraction is small and highly variable, precluding detection of any existing trend. Changes in streamflow related to annual balance are often masked by interannual variability of maritime glacier mass balance, such that predicted scenarios of continued glacier recession are more likely to impact the quality and timing of runoff than the total basin water yield.

Oneel, S.; Hood, E. W.; Arendt, A. A.; Sass, L. C.; March, R. S.

2013-12-01

321

When glaciers were carried away with themselves: Iceland's cataclysmic jokulhlaups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unprecedented scenes of floodwater bursting from Skeidararjokull, Iceland in 1996 have prompted a revised understanding of dynamic glacier response to sudden, massive influxes of floodwater. Using evidence from the 1996 jokulhlaup, we present an overview of glacier response and jokulhlaup characteristics resulting from igneous activity beneath the Myrdalsjokull and Oræfajokull ice caps, Iceland. The need to improve understanding of cataclysmic jokulhlaup processes is motivated by findings from recent geophysical surveys at Myrdalsjokull, which reveal that magma is accumulating at depth beneath the ice cap. Specifically, we seek to explain: (i) glaciohydraulic processes responsible for rapid, unstable floodwater release; (ii) consequent sub-glacier hydrodynamics; (iii) glacier response to the kinematic movement of basal floodwater; (iv) the propensity for intraglacial floodwater routing; (v) hydromechanical processes at the glacier terminus; and (vi) resulting ice-proximal to ice-distal sedimentary and glacier ice deposits. Glaciological and sedimentological evidence is presented from jokulhlaups that accompanied volcanic eruptions beneath Myrdalsjokull in 1721 and 1918, and Oraefajokull in 1362 and 1727. In summary, phreato-magmatic eruptions within the ice-filled calderas of both ice caps caused tremendous ice-melt that generated hydraulic pressures much greater than glacier yield strength, thereby facilitating unstable cavity growth and localised glacier flotation. Imposition of negative effective-pressure inhibited the formation of classical tunnelled drainage, despite ice-melt-widening effects due to thermal advection. Instead, floodwater moved swiftly both down-glacier and laterally as an unregulated kinematic wave. The hydrodynamic effects of this wave caused supraglacial outbursts of basal floodwater, widespread upheaval of the glacier surface and attendant ice shearing, and enhanced (albeit localised) glacier sliding. Massive sections of glacier ice were fractured and incorporated simultaneously in flows laden with juvenile eruptives, which on reaching the North Atlantic, perpetuated as hyperpycnal flows. Glacier ice removed during these jokulhlaups lay stranded in ice-proximal locations for up to 200 years.

Roberts, M. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Russell, A. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Stefansson, R.; Knudsen, O.

2003-04-01

322

The GLIMS Glacier Database: Status and Future Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative has built a database of glacier outlines and related attributes, derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each snapshot of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. The database continues to expand both spatially and temporally: the number of glaciers represented, as well as the number of outlines from different times per glacier, are both increasing. As of August 2011, the database, located at NSIDC, contains outlines for approximately 95 000 glaciers, covering 290 000 km2. More datasets are expected soon, such as from GlobGlacier (e.g. all European Alps, western Greenland, Sweden, Baffin Island), and the Regional Centers for Svalbard, Argentina, Nepal, China, and others. Though the database does not yet cover the world's glaciers completely, approximately 670 glaciers have outlines from more than one time. This database increasingly enables analysis of global and regional glacier area and its distribution, glacier change, distribution of glaciers by different properties (e.g. morphology, debris-cover),and other yet-to-be imagined possibilities. In spite of steady progress, there remain some geographic areas that are not yet covered, including southernmost South America, Arctic Russia, the the periphery of most of Greenland and Antarctica. For applications such as sea level change studies that require complete global coverage of glaciers with at least moderate resolution, it is imperative that these gaps be filled soon. This will be addressed through adapting existing datasets to the GLIMS data model, using new satellite data and methods as they develop, and building analysis capacity worldwide to get more researchers involved in high accuracy glacier mapping.

Armstrong, R. L.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.

2011-12-01

323

Recent changes of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present knowledge about Alpine glaciers is not representative in terms of glacier size distribution. More than 80% of all Swiss glaciers are smaller than 0.5 km2 and hence belong to the class of very small glaciers. In the context of fast glacier wastage in the European Alps, the near-future development of the size class distribution will most probably be in favour of very small glaciers which will comparably increase in number. However, there has been little research carried out about very small glaciers so far. It is not clear whether findings and theoretical concepts elaborated for medium and large valley glaciers (> 3 km2) can be directly transferred to very small glaciers, whose accumulation patterns are, for instance, characteristically exceptional because winter precipitation is multiplied by wind drift and avalanching. The extent of glaciers in the European Alps has recently been mapped and inventoried spatio-temporally consistently. Nevertheless, such glacier outlines derived by satellite remote-sensing techniques are not accurate enough for the special case of investigating changes in very small glaciers. Therefore, glacier outlines are digitized manually using high-resolution (25 cm) orthophotographs covering the entire Swiss Alps acquired twice for every scene (both in the early and late noughties). In contrast to the known shortcomings of satellite remote-sensing based approaches, the margins of very small glaciers are (with few exceptions) clearly distinguishable on these orthophotos, even in shaded, snow- or debris-covered areas. For the eastern Swiss Alps (east of the rivers Reuss and Ticino), about one third of all glaciers has vanished since 1973. The total area presently still glacierized amounts to 140 km2, whereof very small glaciers cover only 25% but account for almost 90% of the total number of glaciers. Retreat rates are highest for very small glaciers but seem to be stabilizing or even decreasing since the early noughties, implying that many of them have retreated far back into shaded cirques and below headwalls. Downwasting and disintegration into different ice patches has become the dominant process of mass loss. Furthermore, we evaluate changes in ice volume over the last three decades for a large set of Swiss glaciers by combining the glacier outlines for the late noughties with a new precision DEM (swissALTI3D) for the same date with outlines and elevation information from around 1980. Ice volume changes are compared to measured and estimated total glacier ice volume in order to quantify relative volume losses over the last decades. Moreover, annual surface mass balance was determined for three very small glaciers complementing the analysis of recent changes in this glacier size class. Very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps show fast mass loss but the picture is not uniform both in space and time.

Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias; Hoelzle, Martin

2013-04-01

324

Recent Changes in Canada's Arctic Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's Arctic islands contain over 110,000 km2 of ice caps and glaciers, the largest area of land ice in the world outside Antarctica and Greenland. This region is projected to experience summer warming of 1-4°C over the next century due to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The small ice masses in this region are likely to respond more rapidly to this warming than the larger Greenland ice sheet, and they may contribute appreciably to sea level changes over the next century. Glacier mass balance in the region has been persistently negative over the past 40 years. On Devon ice cap, the mass balance of the accumulation zone has become progressively more positive over that period, while that of the ablation zone has become progressively more negative. This suggests that the hydrological cycle in this part of the Arctic has become more vigorous over time. Balance fluxes computed for Devon ice cap were compared with observed fluxes (determined from ice thickness and surface velocity measurements derived from airborne radio echo sounding and SAR interferometry respectively). This comparison suggests that, over most of the ice cap, accumulation areas are thickening at rates of up to 0.15 m a-1, while ablation areas are thinning at rates of up to 0.8 m a-1. The exception is the southeast sector of the ice cap where accumulation areas appear to be thinning at up to 0.3 m a-1. Since 1960, the extent of land ice cover in the Arctic islands has decreased by around 1.8%. Rates of change are largest along the northern and southern coastal fringes of the Arctic Archipelago and lowest in interior regions. The margins of larger ice caps and glaciers terminating on land show little change. Small ice caps and tidewater-terminating outlet glaciers are most strongly affected. This suggests that iceberg calving may have contributed significantly to mass loss in some regions. For Devon ice cap, the calving contribution may be as large as 35%. Volume-area scaling techniques have been used to make a preliminary estimate of the ice volume loss associated with the reduction in ice-covered area. The potential contribution to global sea level is on the order of 1.5mm for the period 1960-2000. A significant number of glaciers show evidence of changes in flow regime, and such changes have resulted in both advances and retreats of glacier margins. Whether these flow regime changes represent normal surge-type behaviour or a response to climate forcing is not yet clear.

Sharp, M.; Burgess, D. O.; Copland, L.; Filbert, K.; Williamson, S.

2004-05-01

325

Seabed corrugations beneath an Antarctic ice shelf revealed by autonomous underwater vehicle survey: Origin and implications for the history of Pine Island Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice shelves are critical features in the debate about West Antarctic ice sheet change and sea level rise, both because they limit ice discharge and because they are sensitive to change in the surrounding ocean. The Pine Island Glacier ice shelf has been thinning rapidly since at least the early 1990s, which has caused its trunk to accelerate and retreat. Although the ice shelf front has remained stable for the past six decades, past periods of ice shelf collapse have been inferred from relict seabed "corrugations" (corrugated ridges), preserved 340 km from the glacier in Pine Island Trough. Here we present high-resolution bathymetry gathered by an autonomous underwater vehicle operating beneath an Antarctic ice shelf, which provides evidence of long-term change in Pine Island Glacier. Corrugations and ploughmarks on a sub-ice shelf ridge that was a former grounding line closely resemble those observed offshore, interpreted previously as the result of iceberg grounding. The same interpretation here would indicate a significantly reduced ice shelf extent within the last 11 kyr, implying Holocene glacier retreat beyond present limits, or a past tidewater glacier regime different from today. The alternative, that corrugations were not formed in open water, would question ice shelf collapse events interpreted from the geological record, revealing detail of another bed-shaping process occurring at glacier margins. We assess hypotheses for corrugation formation and suggest periodic grounding of ice shelf keels during glacier unpinning as a viable origin. This interpretation requires neither loss of the ice shelf nor glacier retreat and is consistent with a "stable" grounding-line configuration throughout the Holocene.

Graham, Alastair G. C.; Dutrieux, Pierre; Vaughan, David G.; Nitsche, Frank O.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Larter, Robert D.; Jenkins, Adrian

2013-09-01

326

Snow glacier melt estimation in tropical Andean glaciers using artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow and glacier melt (SGM) estimation plays an important role in water resources management. Although melting process can be modelled by energy balance methods, such studies require detailed data, which is rarely available. Hence, new and simpler approaches are needed for SGM estimations. The present study aims at developing an artificial neural networks (ANN) based technique for estimating the energy available for melt (EAM) and SGM rates using available and easy to obtain data such as temperature, short-wave radiation and relative humidity. Several ANN and multiple linear regression models (MLR) were developed to represent the energy fluxes and estimate the EAM. The models were trained using measured data from the Zongo glacier located in the outer tropics and validated against measured data from the Antizana glacier located in the inner tropics. It was found that ANN models provide a better generalisation when applied to other data sets. The performance of the models was improved by including Antizana data into the training set, as it was proved to provide better results than other techniques like the use of a prior logarithmic transformation. The final model was validated against measured data from the Alpine glaciers Argentière and Saint-Sorlin. Then, the models were applied for the estimation of SGM at Condoriri glacier. The estimated SGM was compared with SGM estimated by an enhanced temperature method and proved to have the same behaviour considering temperature sensibility. Moreover, the ANN models have the advantage of direct application, while the temperature method requires calibration of empirical coefficients.

Moya Quiroga, V.; Mano, A.; Asaoka, Y.; Kure, S.; Udo, K.; Mendoza, J.

2013-04-01

327

Bathymetry and ocean properties beneath Pine Island Glacier revealed by Autosub3 and implications for recent ice stream evolution (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic ice sheet, which represents the largest of all potential contributors to sea level rise, appears to be losing mass at a rate that has accelerated over recent decades. Ice loss is focussed in a number of key drainage basins where dynamical changes in the outlet glaciers have led to increased discharge. The synchronous response of several independent glaciers, coupled with the observation that thinning is most rapid over their floating termini, is generally taken as an indicator that the changes have been driven from the ocean. Some of the most significant changes have been observed on Pine Island Glacier, where thinning, acceleration and grounding line retreat have all been observed, primarily through satellite remote sensing. Even during the relatively short satellite record, rates of change have been observed to increase. Between 20th and 30th January 2009 the Autosub3 autonomous underwater vehicle was deployed from host ship RVIB Nathaniel B Palmer on six sorties into the ocean cavity beneath Pine Island Glacier. Total track length was 887 km (taking 167 hours) of which 510 km (taking 94 hours) were beneath the glacier. Some of the main aims were to map both the seabed beneath and the underside of the glacier and to investigate how warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flows beneath Pine Island Glacier and determines its melt rate. Among the instruments carried by Autosub-3 were a Seabird CTD, with dual conductivity and temperature sensors plus a dissolved oxygen sensor and a transmissometer, a multi-beam echosounder that could be configured to look up or down, and two Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs): an upward-looking 300 kHz instrument and a downward-looking 150 kHz instrument, providing a record of ice draft and seabed depth along the vehicle track. The ADCP data reveal an apparently continuous ridge with an undulating crest that extends across the cavity about 30km in from the current ice front. This topographic feature blocks CDW inflow from the inner cavity and impacts the degree to which it mixes with the cooler melt water outflow. Swath soundings indicate that this ridge was a former grounding line, while satellite imagery from the early 1970’s hints that Pine Island Glacier might still have been in contact with the ridge at that time. These findings suggest that the changes observed by satellite over the past two decades are the continuation of a longer period of grounding line retreat.

Jenkins, A.; Dutrieux, P.; McPhail, S.; Perrett, J.; Webb, A.; White, D.; Jacobs, S. S.

2009-12-01

328

An Analysis of Mass Balance of Chilean Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in Chile range from very small glacierets found on the isolated volcanoes of northern Chile to the 13,000 sq.km Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Regular monitoring of these glaciers is very important as they are considered as sensitive indicators of climate change. Millions of people's lives are dependent on these glaciers for fresh water and irrigation purpose. In this study, mass balances of several Chilean glaciers were estimated using Aster satellite images between 2007 and 2012. Highly accurate DEMs were created with supplementary information from IceSat data. The result indicated a negative mass balance for many glaciers indicating the need for further monitoring of glaciers in the Andes.

Ambinakudige, S.; Tetteh, L.

2013-12-01

329

36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier...

2011-07-01

330

36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier...

2013-07-01

331

36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier...

2012-07-01

332

36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier...

2010-07-01

333

BASINWIDE SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES AT GLACIER-DAMMED ICEBERG LAKE, SOUTHCENTRAL ALASKA  

E-print Network

BASINWIDE SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES AT GLACIER-DAMMED ICEBERG LAKE, SOUTHCENTRAL 2012 BASINWIDE SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES AT GLACIER-DAMMED ICEBERG LAKE, SOUTHCENTRAL ALASKA by Katie E examining sedimentation rates and varve thickness at Iceberg Lake, a glacier-dammed proglacial lake

Loso, Michael G.

334

Basaltic micrometeorites from the Novaya Zemlya glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of micrometeorites (MMs) was recovered from glacier deposits located at the north-eastern passive margin of the Novaya Zemlya glacier sheet. Melted, scoriaceous, and unmelted micrometeorites (UMMs) are present. Unmelted micrometeorites are dominated mostly by chondritic matter, but also a few achondritic MMs are present. Here we report the discovery of four UMMs that, according to their texture, mineralogy, and chemistry, are identified as basaltic breccias. Mineral chemistry and Fe/Mn ratios of two basaltic micrometeorites indicate a possible relationship with eucrites and/or mesosiderites, whereas two others seem to have parents, which appear not to be present in our meteorite collections. The basaltic breccia UMMs constitute 0.5% of the total population of the Novaya Zemlya MM suite. This content should be lowered to 0.25% because the Novaya Zemlya MM collection appears to be biased with carbonaceous UMMs being underrepresented.

Badjukov, Dmitry D.; Brandstätter, Franz; Raitala, Jouko; Kurat, Gero

2010-09-01

335

Changing Lake Bathymetry with Deglaciation: The Mendenhall Glacier System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing rapid ice ablation and glacier thinning has continued the buoyancy-driven, large-scale calving events and ice terminus collapse of the Mendenhall Glacier. New bathymetric data collected from Mendenhall Lake between 2004 and 2008 reveal lake shallowing adjacent to the 2008 glacier terminus. Since 2000, the lake has expanded beyond its former 3.4 km2 footprint to 4.02 km2 and enlarged its

C. Connor; N. Korzen; E. Knuth; D. Sauer; M. Heavner

2008-01-01

336

Microbial Life beneath a High Arctic Glacier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debris-rich basal ice layers of a high Arctic glacier were shown to contain metabolically diverse microbes that could be cultured oligotrophically at low temperatures (0.3 to 4°C). These organisms included aerobic chemoheterotrophs and anaerobic nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, and methanogens. Colonies purified from subglacial samples at 4°C appeared to be predominantly psychrophilic. Aerobic chemoheterotrophs were metabolically active in unfrozen

MARK L. SKIDMORE; JULIA M. FOGHT; MARTIN J. SHARP

2000-01-01

337

A macroscopic approach to glacier dynamics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple approach to glacier dynamics is explored in which there is postulated to be a relationship between area and volume with three parameters: the time for area to respond to changes in volume, a thickness scale, and an area characterizing the condition of the initial state. This approach gives a good fit to the measurements of cumulative balance and area on South Cascade Glacier from 1970-97; the area time-scale is roughly 8 years, the thickness scale about 123 m, and the 1970 area roughly 4% larger than required for adjustment with volume. Combining this relationship with a version of mass continuity expressed in terms of area and volume produces a theory of glacier area and volume response to climate in which another time constant, the volume time-scale, appears. Area and volume both respond like a damped spring and mass system. The damping of the South Cascade response is approximately critical, and the volume time-scale is roughly 48 years, six times the area time-scale. The critically damped spring and mass analogy reproduces the time dependence predicted by the more complicated traditional theory of Nye.

Harrison, W. D.; Raymond, C. F.; Echelmeyer, K. A.; Krimmel, R. M.

2003-01-01

338

GLACIER PEAK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, gravity, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect surveys were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Glacier Peak Wilderness study area and proposed additions in Washington. In the study area, six areas containing several base and precious metals have been identified that have substantiated mineral-resource potential, two of which are in areas recommended for wilderness addition. An additional 10 areas have probable mineral-resource potential. The most important demonstrated resource identified is the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Glacier Peak mine near the center of the wilderness study area, where a deposit totaling 1. 9 billion tons of mineralized rock has been delineated by drilling. A possible geothermal potential exists on the east side of the Glacier Peak volcano, and a possible 24-million-cu-yd cinder resource is identified at the White Chuck Cinder Cone in the wilderness study area, but both are remote and no resources were identified. No other energy resource potential was identified in this study.

Church, S.E.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

1984-01-01

339

Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers: Databases and Web interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) is an umbrella organization with links to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), and UNESCO (all organizations under the United Nations), for the curation of several glacier-related databases. It is composed of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. The glacier databases include the World Glacier Inventory (WGI), the GLIMS Glacier Database, the Glacier Photograph Collection at NSIDC, and the Fluctuations of Glaciers (FoG) and Mass Balance databases at WGMS. We are working toward increased interoperability between these related databases. For example, the Web interface to the GLIMS Glacier Database has also included queryable layers for the WGI and FoG databases since 2008. To improve this further, we have produced a new GTN-G web portal (http://www.gtn-g.org/), which includes a glacier metadata browsing application. This web application allows the browsing of the metadata behind the main GTN-G databases, as well as querying the metadata in order to get to the source, no matter which database holds the data in question. A new glacier inventory, called the Randolph Glacier Inventory 1.0, has recently been compiled. This compilation, which includes glacier outlines that do not have the attributes or IDs or links to other data like the GLIMS data do, was motivated by the tight deadline schedule of the sea level chapter of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Now served from the GLIMS website (http://glims.org/), it is designed to serve that narrowly focused research goal in the near term, and in the longer term will be incorporated into the multi-temporal glacier database of GLIMS. For the required merging of large sets of glacier outlines and association of proper IDs that tie together outlines that pertain to the same glacier (perhaps at different points in time), we at NSIDC have written software to examine geospatial relationships between the sets of outlines and assign attributes and linkages accordingly.

Raup, B.; Armstrong, R.; Fetterer, F.; Gartner-Roer, I.; Haeberli, W.; Hoelzle, M.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Nussbaumer, S.; Weaver, R.; Zemp, M.

2012-04-01

340

Inventory of Glaciers in the North Cascades, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perennial bodies of ice in the North Cascades having areas of at least 0.1 km2 (square kilometer) are tabulated and classified. The inventory, a contribution to the International Hydrological Decade, includes 756 glaciers, covering 267 km2, about half of the glacier area in the United States south of Alaska. Listings include each glacier's location, drainage basin, area, length, orientation, altitude, and classification as to form, source, surface, nature of terminus, and activity. These glaciers contribute annually about 800 million cubic meters of water to streamflow in the State of Washington.

Post, Austin; Richardson, Don; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rosselot, F. L.

1971-01-01

341

Glacier ice-volume modeling and glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessment of ice volumes and hydrologic hazards on Redoubt Volcano began four months before the 1989-90 eruptions removed 0.29 cubic kilometer of perennial snow and ice from Drift glacier. A volume model was developed for evaluating glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano. The volume model is based on third-order polynomial simulations of valley cross sections. The third-order polynomial is an interpolation from the valley walls exposed above glacier surfaces and takes advantage of ice-thickness measurements. The fortuitous 1989-90 eruptions removed the ice from a 4.5-kilometer length of Drift glacier, providing a unique opportunity for verification of the volume model. A 2.5-kilometer length was chosen in the denuded glacier valley and the ice volume was measured by digitally comparing two new maps: one derived from the most recent pre-eruption 1979 aerial photographs and the other from post-eruption 1990 aerial photographs. The measured volume in the reference reach was 99 x 106 cubic meters, about 1 percent less than was estimated by the volume model. The volume estimate produced by this volume model was much closer to the measured volume than was the volume estimated by other techniques. The verified volume model was used to evaluate the total volume of perennial snow and glacier ice on Redoubt Volcano, which was estimated to be 4.1?0.8 cubic kilometers. Substantial snow and ice covers on volcanoes exacerbate the hydrologic hazards associated with eruptions. The volume on Redoubt Volcano is about 23 times the volume that was present on Mount St. Helens before its 1980 eruption, which generated lahars and floods.

Trabant, Dennis C.; Hawkins, Daniel B.

1997-01-01

342

Response of glaciers in northwestern North America to future climate change: an atmosphere/glacier hierarchical modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of glaciers to changing climate is explored with an atmosphere/glacier hierarchical modeling approach, in which global simulations are downscaled with an Arctic MM5 regional model which provides temperature and precipitation inputs to a glacier mass-balance model. The mass balances of Hubbard and Bering Glaciers, south-central Alaska, USA, are simulated for October 1994-September 2004. The comparisons of the mass-balance simulations using dynamically-downscaled vs observed temperature and precipitation data are in reasonably good agreement, when calibration is used to minimize systematic biases in the MM5 downscalings. The responses of the Hubbard (a large tidewater glacier) and Bering (a large surge-type glacier) mass balances to the future climate scenario CCSM3 A1B, a 'middle-of-the-road' future climate in which fossil and non-fossil fuels are assumed to be used in balance, are also investigated for the period October 2010-September 2018. Hubbard and Bering Glaciers are projected to have increased accumulation, particularly on the upper glaciers, and greater ablation, particularly on the lower glaciers. The annual net balance for the entire Bering Glacier is projected to be significantly more negative, on average (-2.0 m a-1 w.e., compared to -1.3 m a-1 w.e. during the hindcast), and for the entire Hubbard Glacier somewhat less positive (0.3 m a-1 w.e. compared to 0.4 m a-1 w.e. during the hindcast). The Hubbard Glacier mass balances include an estimated iceberg calving flux of 6.5 km3 a-1, which is assumed to remain constant.

Zhang, Jing; Bhatt, Uma S.; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Lingle, Craig S.

2007-10-01

343

Global response of glacier runoff to twenty-first century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of glaciers in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of glacier runoff to climate change, where glacier runoff is defined as all melt and rain water that runs off the glacierized area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model, we project monthly glacier runoff for all mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 glacierized regions. Despite continuous glacier net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual glacier runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased glacier melt and reduction in glacier storage as glaciers shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual glacier runoff is dominated by melt in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net glacier mass loss dominates total glacier melt especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal melt is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of glacier runoff responses to climate change and the need to include glacier net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.

Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radi?, Valentina

2014-04-01

344

Glaciohydraulic Supercooling and Basal Ice Formation at Outlet Glaciers of Vatnajökull and Oraefajokull, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of glaciers is affected by the subglacial environment and in particular overdeepenings that may result in supercooling of subglacial waters and the entrainment of debris into basal ice. Warm-based outlet glaciers of Vatnajökull and Oraefajökull, Iceland, are often characterized by overdeepenings in their terminal regions and up to 100-m long exposures of meters-thick, debris-laden (4 to 35% by vol.) basal zones. During the period 2002 to 2005, we collected bulk samples (300g) of the basal ice, englacial ice, melt water and frazil ice from a number of these outlet glaciers to evaluate probable origins of the basal zone and thus the role of basal topography and hydrology in its generation. Analyses of the 18O and D content show delta 18O and D values for the basal ice generally plot below the meteoric water line and are less negative then values for englacial ice. The difference between the mean delta 18O values of the basal and englacial ice is approximately 2.41 per mil, while the mean delta D values differ by about 11.12 per mil. The delta 18O and delta D values of frazil ice also generally plot below the meteoric water line and overlap those of the basal ice. Mean delta 18O values of frazil ice and meltwater differ by approximately 1.93 per mil, while the mean deuterium values differ by about 13.16 per mil. Little difference exists between the mean delta 18O and D values of meltwater and englacial ice. Tritium measured in basal ice ranges from 1.9 to 6.1 TU and averages 2.9 TU, whereas in englacial ice it is essentially 0. Both the physical properties and isotopic composition of the basal zone ice and debris in the outlet glaciers sampled is consistent with a glaciohydraulic supercooling origin resulting from subglacial discharge out of overdeepenings.

Lawson, D. E.; Larson, G. J.; Evenson, E. B.; Knudsen, O.

2007-12-01

345

Climate Change and Glacier Retreat: Scientific Fact and Artistic Opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain glaciers continue to retreat rapidly over most of the globe. In North America, at Glacier National Park, Montana, recent research results from Sperry Glacier (2005-2007) indicate negative mass balances are now 3-4 times greater than in the 1950s. A geospatial model of glacier retreat in the Blackfoot-Jackson basin suggested all glaciers would be gone by 2030 but has proved too conservative. Accelerated glacier shrinkage since the model was developed has mirrored an increase in actual annual temperature that is almost twice the rate used in the model. The glaciers in Glacier National Park are likely to be gone well before 2030. A variety of media, curricula, and educational strategies have been employed to communicate the disappearance of the glaciers as a consequence of global warming. These have included everything from print media and television coverage to podcasts and wayside exhibits along roads in the park. However, a new thrust is to partner with artists to communicate climate change issues to new audiences and through different channels. A scientist-artist retreat was convened to explore the tension between keeping artistic products grounded in factually-based reality while providing for freedom to express artistic creativity. Individual artists and scientists have worked to create aesthetic and emotional images, using painting, poetry, music and photography, to convey core messages from research on mountain ecosystems. Finally, a traveling art exhibit was developed to highlight the photography that systematically documents glacier change through time. The aim was to select photographs that provide the most compelling visual experience for an art-oriented viewer and also accurately reflect the research on glacier retreat. The exhibit opens on January 11, 2009

Fagre, D. B.

2008-12-01

346

Climatic Controls on the Distribution of Surging Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surge-type glaciers are scattered in a non-random fashion, gathered in clusters in some glaciated regions. One group of clusters forms an Arctic and Sub-Arctic 'crescent', spanning from Alaska-Yukon, through Arctic Canada, West and East Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya. Another cluster occurs in western High Asia, including the Karakoram Mountains. Although several studies have assessed the influence of environmental controls on surging, so far none has provided a satisfactory explanation for the geographical location of these clusters. The distribution of such glaciers undoubtedly holds the keys of a better understanding on the controls on surging behaviour. For this study, two glacier populations are considered. First, a global inventory of glacier surges has been compiled, based on published observations, field reports and remote sensing studies. This digital database is structured in three tables, respectively providing information on the location and geometry of each surge-type glacier, surge dates and magnitude, and methodology employed at the time of observation. This global dataset is compared to the population of "non-surge-type glaciers" based on the Randolph Glacier Inventory version 2.0 excluding the inventoried surging glaciers. In both populations, glaciers are classified depending on their geometry and thermal regime. Downscaled climatic datasets are used to identify climatic envelopes associated with clusters of surging glaciers. We identified which environments are most prone to be associated to glacier surging, and examined the influence of these parameters on the surge cycle duration and character. These results emphasize the importance of external controls on surging (as against individual surges), and promote the need to study this behaviour in the frame of an energy-balance budget.

Sevestre, H.; Benn, D.

2012-12-01

347

Sensitivity of the dynamics of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, to climate forcing for the next 50 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pine Island Glacier, a major contributor to sea level rise in West Antarctica, has been undergoing significant changes over the last few decades. Here, we employ a three-dimensional, higher-order model to simulate its evolution over the next 50 yr in response to changes in its surface mass balance, the position of its calving front and ocean-induced ice shelf melting. Simulations show that the largest climatic impact on ice dynamics is the rate of ice shelf melting, which rapidly affects the glacier speed over several hundreds of kilometers upstream of the grounding line. Our simulations show that the speedup observed in the 1990s and 2000s is consistent with an increase in sub-ice-shelf melting. According to our modeling results, even if the grounding line stabilizes for a few decades, we find that the glacier reaction can continue for several decades longer. Furthermore, Pine Island Glacier will continue to change rapidly over the coming decades and remain a major contributor to sea level rise, even if ocean-induced melting is reduced.

Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Larour, E.; Schodlok, M.; Khazendar, A.

2014-09-01

348

How relevant are glaciers for water and sediment fluxes in alpine basins? A new monitoring site in the Eastern Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and existing thermochronological data are used to model glacial erosion and topographic evolution of the central Patagonian Andes (~47S) over the last 6 Ma. The modern Andes are cut by large valleys and fjords with local valley relief of at least 2.5 km. It is currently thought that a formerly uniformly high Andes was 'buzzed' down to the elevation of the equilibrium line altitude, presumably in the last 2 Ma concurrent with late Cenozoic global cooling. However, studies of glacial debris show that glaciers were present in Patagonia as early as 6 Ma. The extent of these early glaciations is unclear, but recent work suggests that glacial valleys in the central Patagonian Andes were carved at a steady rate beginning at 6 Ma, implying that valley incision may be an important process in the topographic evolution of glaciated mountain ranges, rather than cirque retreat. To understand how valley relief has formed in the Andes, we dated 30 samples from Steffen Fjord in Chile using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. We use this new data and existing thermochronological data in the region to estimate the topographic form of the central Andes at 6 Ma and model how the valley relief has evolved since the initiation of glaciation using Pecube.

Christeleit, E. C.; Laemel, R.; De Wolf, W. E.; Shuster, D. L.; Brandon, M. T.

2011-12-01

349

Monitoring Tidewater Glacier Processes Using A Long-Range Terrestrial LiDAR Scanner; Comparative Results From Helheim Glacier Southeast Greenland and Hubbard Glacier Southeast Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidewater glaciers exhibit dynamic behaviors across a range of spatial and temporal scales, posing a challenge to both in situ and remote sensing observations. In situ measurements capture variability over very short time intervals, but with limited spatial coverage and significant cost and risk to employ. Conversely, airborne and satellite remote sensing is capable of measuring changes over large spatial extents but at limited temporal sampling. Terrestrial LiDAR Scanning (TLS) combines rapid acquisition capabilities of in situ measurements with the broad spatial coverage of traditional remote sensing. This paper describes efforts to develop and field a new long-range (6-10 km) terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR scanner that is optimized for glaciated environments. Our work seeks to gain insights into the processes of glacier flow and terminus dynamics on two of the world's most active tidewater glaciers. Helheim Glacier, a large East Greenland outlet glacier is known to move at speeds >25 m/d near its terminus; rapid readjustments in speed are also know to occur following terminus retreat. Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska an outlet glacier flowing 90Km out of the St Elias mountains is ~13km across at its terminus, exhibits flow rates up to 5m/d and is advancing and thickening. These two glacial systems have similar characteristics yet represent inverse phases of tidewater glacier activity. Our understanding of these processes is limited by incomplete observational datasets. Most TLS instruments operate in the near-infrared spectrum (1550 nm), which greatly limits range (<150 m) and its application as a tool for long-range standoff glaciology. High spatial and temporal resolution surveys were conducted at Helheim Glacier during the summer of 2012 and 2013 and surveys were conducted at Hubbard Glacier in the spring of 2013. Both were conducted over multi-day periods ranging from 3-7 days. Preliminary results from these surveys have allowed us to quantify short-term horizontal displacement rates and terminus activities at temporal and spatial resolutions previously not possible. Furthermore, these results allow for a comparative analysis of two similar yet different tidewater glacier systems representing altering phases of dynamic activity. Identifying the operational limitations of these sensors in our work is a key guide to the optimal design characteristics for new, improved LiDAR instruments for campaign deployments in glacierized environments.

Finnegan, D. C.; Hamilton, G. S.; Stearns, L. A.; LeWinter, A.; Fowler, A.

2013-12-01

350

“Our vanishing glaciers”: One hundred years of glacier retreat in Three Sisters Area, Oregon Cascade Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In August 1910, thirty-nine members of the Mazamas Mountaineering Club ascended the peaks of the Three Sisters in central Oregon. While climbing, geologist Ira A. Williams photographed the surrounding scenery, including images of Collier Glacier. One hundred years later, U.S. Geological Survey research hydrologist Jim E. O’Connor matched those documented photographs with present day images — the result of which is a stunning lapse of glacial change in the Three Sister region. O’Connor asserts that “glaciers exist by the grace of climate,” and through a close examination of the history of the region’s glaciers, he provides an intriguing glimpse into the history of geological surveys and glacial studies in the Pacific Northwest, including their connection to significant scientific advances of the nineteenth century. The work of scientists and mountaineers who have monitored and recorded glacier changes for over a century allows us to see dramatic changes in a landscape that is especially sensitive to ongoing climate change.

O'Connor, James E.

2014-01-01

351

Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lewis Glacier on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical glaciers, but full understanding of the interaction of the glacier mass balance and its climatic drivers has been hampered by a lack of long-term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the glacier surface from October 2009 to February 2012. The location of measurements is in the upper portion of Lewis Glacier, but this location experiences negative annual mass balance, and the conditions are comparable to those experienced in the lower ablation zones of South American glaciers in the inner tropics. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial East Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris, where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle, and Kilimanjaro, where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical glaciers, and melt rate was high throughout the year, with the glacier surface reaching the melting point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear-sky conditions, and thus the frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the glacier surface. The analyses shown here form the basis for future glacier-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the glaciers of Mt Kenya.

Nicholson, L. I.; Prinz, R.; Mölg, T.; Kaser, G.

2013-08-01

352

Glacier-sea floor interactions during advance-retreat cycles of surge-type glaciers in Svalbard (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Svalbard, many fjord-terminating glaciers are surge-type, and surges profoundly influence fjord-floor landsystems and sediment architecture. Conversely, moraines and other glacigenic landforms influence glacier terminus stability by acting as pinning points and barriers to glacier flow. We use a combination of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite imagery and detailed bathymetric surveys to investigate the evolution of several fjord-terminating glaciers during recent surges, and their relationship with sea floor topography and landforming processes. During surges, glaciers transport large quantities of fjord floor sediment in the form of mobile push moraines, which can form substantial barriers across fjords. These moraines suppress calving during surge advances by acting as pinning points, and encourage glacier stability during early quiescence. Consequently, calving rates do not vary systematically over the course of a surge cycle, despite large variations in glacier flow speeds. Geomorphological and sedimentological data show that many Svalbard surge moraines are multi-generational, and that repeated surges terminated at similar points in the fjord. Unlike land-terminating surge-type glaciers, fjord-terminating glaciers can build sequences of annual push moraines during their quiescent phases. These recessional moraines can form even in front of stagnant glaciers, when their frontal zones undergo stretching in response to longitudinal stress gradients. In conjunction with surge moraines, these provide an important record of advance-retreat dynamics of surge-type glaciers, in some cases over multiple surge cycles. When combined with dating techniques, this landform assemblage can provide important information about the frequency and magnitude of Svalbard surges well beyond the observational record.

Benn, D.; Flink, A.; Lovell, H.; Luckman, A. J.; Noormets, R.; Sevestre, H.

2013-12-01

353

Glacier Change in the Rwenzori Mountains, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In East Africa glaciers currently exist on Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya, and in the Rwenzori Mountains. While the Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya glaciers have been the subject of many recent studies, the glaciers in the Rwenzori Range are less thoroughly studied. This study reexamines the satellite record of retreat of these glaciers, as well as the climatic factors most responsible for the change. A recent study of the retreat of the Rwenzori glaciers using Landsat images acquired between 1987 and 2003 has been questioned. Using visual mapping and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) to analyze Landsat, ASTER and SPOT images, we have re-evaluated the ice areas for the period 1987 to 2006. After identifying sources for possible error, our mapping indicates that the glaciers in the Rwenzori have shrunk from an area of 2.55 km2 in 1987 to 1.31 km2 in 2006. Glacier retreat in the Rwenzori from 1906 to 1990 showed a strong spatial correlation with potential increase in shortwave radiation due to decreased cloud cover as a consequence of a shift to drier conditions in the region. Whether or not recent glacier retreat shows a similar spatial correlation is under investigation.

Kincaid, J. L.; Klein, A. G.

2007-12-01

354

Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock glaciers are found in the peripheral regions of Antarctica particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Study of these features is relevant for the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of maritime Antarctica because they are indicators of permafrost and periglacial conditions. This paper reports and analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. Nine

Enrique Serrano; Jerónimo López-Mart??nez

2000-01-01

355

Sensitivity and response of Bhutanese glaciers to atmospheric warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. However, the most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values, almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, glacier retreat is going to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.

Rupper, Summer; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Burgener, Landon K.; Koenig, Lora S.; Tsering, Karma; Cook, Edward R.

2012-10-01

356

What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that

Teppei J. Yasunari

2011-01-01

357

Nanoparticulate bioavailable iron minerals in icebergs and glaciers R. RAISWELL  

E-print Network

Nanoparticulate bioavailable iron minerals in icebergs and glaciers R. RAISWELL 1 , L. G. BENNING 1, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1SS, UK ABSTRACT Ice-hosted sediments in glaciers and icebergs from by icebergs to the Southern Ocean is comparable to the flux of soluble, bioavailable Fe from aeolian dust

Benning, Liane G.

358

GLACIER HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN MOUNTAINS USING SATELLITE OPTICAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process interactions and chain reactions, the shift of cryospheric hazard zones due to climate change, and the far reach of glacier disasters make it necessary to apply modern remote sensing techniques for the assessment of glacier hazards. In the present contribution we provide an over- view of spaceborne optical methods suitable for glacial hazard assessment and disaster manage- ment. Digital

Andreas Kääb; Christian Huggel; Samuel Guex; Frank Paul; Nadine Salzmann; Kostia Schmutz; Demian Schneider; Yvo Weidmann

2005-01-01

359

Tropical climate and glacier hydrology: a case study in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff from intertropical glaciers is highly variable, indicating that they are greatly affected by climatic changes peculiar to tropical climates. The 3 km2 basin presented in this case study lies in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia and is 77% covered by glacier ice, ranging in elevation from 6000 to 4830 m a.s.l. A comparison of 2 years of study demonstrates

P. Ribstein; E. Tiriau; B. Francou; R. Saravia

1995-01-01

360

The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database  

E-print Network

The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database implemented using Open Source tools Bruce countries #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;System components PostgreSQL (relational database) PostGIS (geospatial) GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library) Perl, PHP, Shapelib, ... #12;GLIMS Glacier Database System

Raup, Bruce H.

361

AK-03 ALASKA: AK-03 Columbia Glacier "Cliff" (Narrated)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video from the Extreme Ice Survey in which Dr. Tad Pfeffer and photographer Jim Balog discuss the dynamics of the Columbia glacier's retreat in recent years through this time-lapse movie. Key point: glacier size is being reduced not just by glacial melting but due to a shift in glacial dynamics brought on by climate change.

Balog, James; Pfeffer, Tad; Survey, Extreme I.

362

Mapping the World's glaciers from space: Results from the ESA project GlobGlacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA project GlobGlacier aims at making a substantial contribution to current efforts of mapping the World's glaciers from satellite data using (semi-)automated techniques. For this purpose a number of key regions have been identified in close cooperation with the user group of the project and based on a set of criteria (e.g. filling the gaps in current inventories, or their potential contribution to sea-level rise). Apart from glacier outlines and terminus positions, a couple of further data products are created by the project: late summer snowlines (LSSL), topographic information, elevation changes and velocity fields. While most of the products are created from optical sensors like Landsat TM/ETM+ as available from the glovis.usgs.gov website, some of them will also utilize radar sensors and LIDAR data. The inventory data are mainly created for the year 2000 (+/- a few years) to have a good temporal match with the SRTM DEM. In selected regions, multi-temporal data sets will be used for change assessment. The new data sets will be integrated in the existing databases of GLIMS and WGMS. With this contribution we provide an overview of the current status of the project as well as its major achievements. Outlines for several thousand glaciers have already been created in many of the key regions. This includes parts of Alaska (Chigmit Mts., Kenai Peninsula, Chugach Mts.), Arctic Canada (Devon, Bylot, Baffin Island), West Greenland (Disko Island, Nuussuaq, Svartenhuk), Norway (Svartisen, Jostedalsbreen), India (Kashmir) and the European Alps. The products LSSL, topography and elevation changes were also produced for several hundred glaciers and surface velocity fields have been derived for more than 50 glaciers from radar and optical sensors. Topographic information for each glacier is obtained from freely available DEMs (e.g. SRTM, ASTER GDEM) and elevation changes are derived from DEM differencing as well as repeat track altimetry using the GLAS and RA-2 instruments. Some of the key regions act as integration sites where more than one product is created.

Paul, Frank

2010-05-01

363

Re-establishing seasonal mass balance observation at Abramov Glacier, Kyrgyzstan, from 1968 - 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abramov Glacier, located in the Pamir Alay in Kyrgyzstan, was subject to intense studies in the frame of various scientific programs under the former USSR. With the breakdown of the Soviet Union, the monitoring was abruptly abandoned in the late nineties. Well documented and continuous seasonal mass balance observations are available for 1968-1994. However, some inconsistencies between different publications lead to in-homogeneous data sets. Recently, the project CATCOS (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) was launched, aiming among other goals to re-establish mass balance observation on selected glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. At Abramov Glacier, a new stake network, an automatic weather station (AWS) and two automatic terrestrial cameras with instantaneous data transfer over satellite were installed in 2011. Measurements were repeated and intensified in 2012 and will be subject of a third field campaign in summer 2013. A complete re-analysis of the long-term mass balance series from 1968 to 1994 delivers corrected mass balance data for Abramov Glacier. To homogenize in-situ mass balance records, a spatially distributed mass balance model driven with local daily temperature and precipitation data was calibrated to each seasonal mass balance survey. The model resolves seasonal mass-balance measurements to a daily timescale and performs spatial inter- and extrapolation of data points based on a consistent algorithm, taking into account the principal factors of mass balance distribution. Summarizing the annually optimized parameters over the entire study period provides a robust model parameter set for years with less extensive direct measurements. From 1994 to 2011, neither direct point measurements nor meteorological data are available. In order to run the calibrated model developed for the 1960's to 90's, climate input variables were taken from bias corrected Re-analysis data (NCEP/NCAR and JRA). Evaluation of the model results was achieved through observations of snow-lines on Landsat images throughout each mass balance year. Automatic cameras, installed in August 2011 took repeated oblique photographs of the glacier on a daily basis. Snow-line evolution was analysed on the orthorectified and georeferenced images and complementary on Landsat imagery. Meteorological variables collected in 2012 from the newly installed AWS were used to run the calibrated mass balance model for the hydrological year 2011/2012. All available mass balance point measurements were used for optimization. Evaluation against snow-line observations on terrestrial photographs and satellite images are promising.

Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Hoelzle, Martin; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Salzmann, Nadine; Usubaliev, Ryskul

2013-04-01

364

Mass balance modelling of a debris cover glacier: the case study of Miage Glacier, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing interest in the response of glaciers to a changing climate has put large attention on the development of models of glaciers response, and mass balance models in particular, and efforts are been made to improve their accuracy and predictive skills. A key component that is receiving increasing attention is the role played by debris cover on the response of glaciers. Thin layers of debris enhance melt by increasing absorption of shortwave radiation, while thicker covers reduce melt by insulating it. This has an effect on the surface energy balance, melt rates under debris, runoff production, mass balance and ultimately glacier flow. An accurate representation of the effect of debris seems therefore important, also in view of the significant increase of the debris cover extent over glaciers associated to a warming climate. Distributed debris energy-balance (EB) models have been recently developed to account for the melt rate enhancing/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. Application of EB models at the glacier and regional scale however is associated with an increase of computational efforts and large uncertainties related to the spatial changes in the debris cover properties (thickness and conductivity) as well as extrapolation of the input meteorological data such as wind, temperature and radiative fluxes. In this paper we present a model for simulations of past and future mass balance of debris covered glaciers that relies on more limited input data than required by a full EB model. The model is tested against simulations from an EB model. The new debris enhanced temperature-index model (DETI) accounts for the debris thickness feedback (Ostrem curve) through a parameterisation that includes variable debris thickness. The model is developed and then used for continuous simulations on the extensively debris-covered Miage Glacier, Italy. First, we run the distributed debris energy balance model for the ablation season 2005, when all the meteorological variables required as input to the physically based approach are available. To evaluate the performance of the empirical approach, we then compare the energy balance model outputs against the simulations of the new DETI model. The model outputs are also validated against ablation stake readings at 22 locations. Second, the empirical approach is run for the period 2005-2011 and continuous time series of glacier mass balance are compared to those obtained with the same empirical approach with simple reduction coefficients. Accumulation is modelled by spatially distributing precipitation with a gradient and accounting for redistribution of snow by gravity. Our main result is that an empirical approach accounting for the warming/insulating effect as a function of the debris thickness, as the DETI model, is able to simulate the glacier melt rate similarly to the more complex energy-balance model. We also show a clear difference with respect to the model with simple reduction parameters that does not take into account the variable effect of debris thickness.

Carenzo, Marco; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Mabillard, Johan; Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben; Burlando, Paolo

2013-04-01

365

Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from upper fremont glacier and Galena Creek rock glacier, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meltwater runoff from glaciers can result from various sources, including recent precipitation and melted glacial ice. Determining the origin of the meltwater from glaciers through isotopic analysis can provide information about such things as the character and distribution of ablation on glaciers. A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock glacier in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl), tritium (3H), sulphur-35 (35S), and delta oxygen-18 (??18O) were compared to similar measurements from an ice core taken from the Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of Wyoming collected in 1991-95. Meltwater samples from three sites on the rock glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations that ranged from 2.1 ?? 1.0 X 106 to 5.8??0.3 X 106 atoms/l. The ice-core 36Cl concentrations from Galena Creek ranged from 3.4??0.3 X 105 to 1.0??0.1 X 106 atoms/l. Analysis of an ice core from the Upper Fremont Glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations of 1.2??0.2 X 106 and 5.2??0.2 X 106 atoms/l for pre- 1940 ice and between 2 X 106 and 3 X 106 atoms/l for post-1980 ice. Purdue's PRIME Lab analyzed the ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier. The highest concentration of 36Cl in the ice was 77 ?? 2 X 106 atoms/l and was deposited during the peak of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest measured concentration from both the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core that was not affected by weapons testing fallout and the ice core collected from the Galena Creek rock glacier. Tritium concentrations from the rock glacier ranged from 9.2??0.6 to 13.2??0.8 tritium units (TU) in the meltwater to -1.3??1.3 TU in the ice core. Concentrations of 3H in the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core ranged from 0 TU in the ice older than 50 years to 6-12 TU in the ice deposited in the last 10 years. The maximum 3H concentration in ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier deposited in the early 1960s during peak weapons testing fallout for this isotope was 360 TU. One meltwater sample from the rock glacier was analyzed for 35S with a measured concentration of 5.4??1.0 millibecquerel per liter (mBeq/l). Modern precipitation in the Rocky Mountains contains 35S from 10 to 40 mBeq/L. The ??18O results in meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier (-17.40??0.1 to -17.98??0.1 per mil) are similar to results for modern precipitation in the Rocky Mountains. Comparison of these isotopic concentrations from the two glaciers suggest that the meltwater at the Galena Creek site is composed mostly of melted snow and rain that percolates through the rock debris that covers the glacier. Additionally, this water from the rock debris is much younger (less than two years) than the reported age of about 2000 years for the subsurface ice at the mid-glacier coring site. Thus the meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier is composed primarily of melted surface snow and rain water rather than melted glacier ice, supporting previous estimates of slow ablation rates beneath the surface debris of the rock glacier.

DeWayne, Cecil L.; Green, J.R.; Vogt, S.; Michel, R.; Cottrell, G.

1998-01-01

366

Exploring tidewater glacier retreat using past and current observations at Columbia Glacier, Alaska. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since fulfilling Austin Post’s prediction of impending retreat in the late 1970s, Columbia Glacier has repeatedly surprised both casual and careful observers with its ability for rapid change. Over the last three decades, Columbia Glacier has lost approximately 18 km of its original 66 km length, while thinning by approximately 50% at the present terminus. The total ice volume lost to the Gulf of Alaska Estimates upwards of 120 km3 constrain the total ice volume lost to the Gulf of Alaska. Recently, the terminus supported a ~1.5 km long floating tongue for over than a year, contradicting the common assumption that the mechanical properties of temperate ice prohibit flotation over sustained time intervals. The rich history of study offers an opportunity to better understand tidewater glacier retreat, and a valuable analog to the dynamic instability underway at several ice sheet outlet glaciers. Current research aims to improve processing resolution of existing aerial photographic data, while complimenting the 30-year photogrammetric record with a suite of field observations. Recent instrumentation includes: oblique time lapse and still imagery, semi-permanent GPS, airborne radar, mass balance, passive seismology and LiDAR. This presentation will focus on innovative methods developed in recent field seasons, sharing insight each has provided into the retreat process . 1The Columbia Glacier Consortium consists of: Fabian Walter (SIO), Kenichi Matsuoka (NPI), Ben Smith (UW), Ethan Welty (CU-Boulder), Chris Larsen (UAF), Dave Finnegan (CRREL), Dan McNamara (USGS), Yushin Ahn (OSU), Julie Markus (OSU), Adam LeWinter (EIS).

O'Neel, S.; Pfeffer, W. T.; Howat, I. M.; Conway, H.; Columbia Glacier Consortium

2010-12-01

367

The physical basis of glacier volume-area scaling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ice volumes are known for only a few of the roughly 160,000 glaciers worldwide but are important components of many climate and sea level studies which require water flux estimates. A scaling analysis of the mass and momentum conservation equations shows that glacier volumes can be related by a power law to more easily observed glacier surface areas. The relationship requires four closure choices for the scaling behavior of glacier widths, slopes, side drag and mass balance. Reasonable closures predict a volume-area scaling exponent which is consistent with observations, giving a physical and practical basis for estimating ice volumes. Glacier volume is insensitive to perturbations in the mass balance scaling, but changes in average accumulation area ratios reflect significant changes in the scaling of both mass balance and ice volume. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Bahr, D.B.; Meier, M.F.; Peckham, S.D.

1997-01-01

368

Microbial Life beneath a High Arctic Glacier  

PubMed Central

The debris-rich basal ice layers of a high Arctic glacier were shown to contain metabolically diverse microbes that could be cultured oligotrophically at low temperatures (0.3 to 4°C). These organisms included aerobic chemoheterotrophs and anaerobic nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, and methanogens. Colonies purified from subglacial samples at 4°C appeared to be predominantly psychrophilic. Aerobic chemoheterotrophs were metabolically active in unfrozen basal sediments when they were cultured at 0.3°C in the dark (to simulate nearly in situ conditions), producing 14CO2 from radiolabeled sodium acetate with minimal organic amendment (?38 ?M C). In contrast, no activity was observed when samples were cultured at subfreezing temperatures (??1.8°C) for 66 days. Electron microscopy of thawed basal ice samples revealed various cell morphologies, including dividing cells. This suggests that the subglacial environment beneath a polythermal glacier provides a viable habitat for life and that microbes may be widespread where the basal ice is temperate and water is present at the base of the glacier and where organic carbon from glacially overridden soils is present. Our observations raise the possibility that in situ microbial production of CO2 and CH4 beneath ice masses (e.g., the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets) is an important factor in carbon cycling during glacial periods. Moreover, this terrestrial environment may provide a model for viable habitats for life on Mars, since similar conditions may exist or may have existed in the basal sediments beneath the Martian north polar ice cap. PMID:10919772