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Sample records for glare survey ii

  1. Anti-Glare Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Glare from CRT screens has been blamed for blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, etc. Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI) manufactures a coating to reduce glare which was used to coat the windows on the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft. In addition, OCLI offers anti-glare filters (Glare Guard) utilizing the same thin film coating technology. The coating minimizes brightness, provides enhanced contrast and improves readability. The filters are OCLI's first consumer product.

  2. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts ofmore » the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.« less

  3. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts of the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.

  4. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford K.; Sims, Cianan; Christian, Joshua Mark

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  5. Discomfort glare measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaszczak, Urszula J.

    2009-06-01

    In the paper some results of research on discomfort glare measurement are described. The idea of practical realization of this measurement in interiors on the basis of the analysis of the investigated room image is presented. To obtain the necessary geometric quantities the coordinates of proper pixels in the image and some parameters of the imaging system should be known. The luminance values are extracted after the analysis of the brightness distribution of calibrated image, which is registered by the pinhole digital camera. The most important properties of the camera, such as spectral sensitivity, linearity, noise and the influence of exposition parameters on the pixel brightness were investigated. After correcting the spectral sensitivity experiments in the laboratory and in the didactic room were conducted. In the laboratory test the error of the UGR measurement was lower - it reached 6,9%. Some possibilities of improving the accuracy of measurement are indicated.

  6. Rainbow glare by retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Han-Ying; Chiang, Yao-Ting; Yeh, Shang-Min; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Horng, Chi-Ting; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine whether IntraLase surgery can cause rainbow glare. Monte-Carlo ray tracing method is used to study visual conditions of an ordered microstructure array on the cornea. A corneal flap in the simulated eye model can generate numerous microbubbles caused by IntraLase surgery. Moreover, this study evaluates the visual performance under different conditions such as the size and interval of the microbubble structure on the cornea with vary incident angles and diameters of light. The results of this study can help elucidate the real cause of rainbow glare as a side effect of IntraLase.

  7. Discomfort Glare: What Do We Actually Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert D.

    2012-04-19

    We reviewed glare models with an eye for missing conditions or inconsistencies. We found ambiguities as to when to use small source versus large source models, and as to what constitutes a glare source in a complex scene. We also found surprisingly little information validating the assumed independence of the factors driving glare. A barrier to progress in glare research is the lack of a standardized dependent measure of glare. We inverted the glare models to predict luminance, and compared model predictions against the 1949 Luckiesh and Guth data that form the basis of many of them. The models perform surprisingly poorly, particularly with regards to the luminance-size relationship and additivity. Evaluating glare in complex scenes may require fundamental changes to form of the glare models.

  8. Multifocal intraocular lenses and glare.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, H; Legge, G E; Luebker, A; Lindstrom, R L; Zabel, R W; Kirby, V M

    1993-06-01

    In a previous paper, we reported finding deficits in the contrast sensitivity functions of patients with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOL's). The results were consistent with optical measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the IOL. When this MTF is treated as a linear spatial frequency filter, it predicts the existence of a glare effect; contrast threshold for the recognition of target letters should be elevated by a bright, adjacent stimulus. We tested this prediction by measuring contrast thresholds for recognizing 0.2 degrees Sloan letters on a background luminance of 11.2 cd/m2. The letters were presented inside bright (300 cd/m2) annular rings with inner diameters ranging from 0.42 to 1.22 degrees. Thresholds were measured for seven multifocal subjects, age-matched groups of monofocal subjects and phakic-control subjects, and a young group. Multifocal subjects exhibited a greater glare effect than monofocal subjects, and they in turn exhibited a greater effect than phakic-control subjects. The observed glare effect for multifocal subjects was about twice that expected from the spatial filtering property of the multifocal IOL. PMID:8336911

  9. Mitigating the Impacts of Glint and Glare

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, Michael; Kandt, Alicen; Phillips, Steven

    2015-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, supporting the Department of the Navy Renewable Energy Program Office, has developed an innovative glint/glare analysis and visualization methodology to understand and mitigate the possible impacts of light reflecting off solar photovoltaic arrays.

  10. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M. J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Ho, P.; Lee, T.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Yen, W.-L.; Reyes Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Granados, A. P.; Torres, S.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J. C.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2012-05-01

    TAOS II is a successor survey to TAOS. TAOS II will measure the size distribution of KBOs by detecting and characterizing their occultations of distant stars. TAOS II will operate 3 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Obsevatory in Mexico.

  11. Controlling Glare Problems in the VDT Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Lawrence M.; Sauter, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and characteristics (light measurement, direct and indirect or reflected glare) of glare problems in the video display terminal work environment are described. Glare control measures, including the location and design of lighting systems, managing outdoor light and using screen filters and hoods, are reviewed. Five sources are given.…

  12. Manufacturing of GLARE Parts and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2003-07-01

    GLARE is a hybrid material consisting of alternating layers of metal sheets and composite layers, requiring special attention when manufacturing of parts and structures is concerned. On one hand the applicable manufacturing processes for GLARE are limited, on the other hand, due to the constituents and composition of the laminate, it offers new opportunities for production. One of the opportunities is the manufacture of very large skin panels by lay-up techniques. Lay-up techniques are common for full composites, but uncommon for metallic structures. Nevertheless, large GLARE skin panels are made by lay-up processes. In addition, the sequences of forming and laminating processes, that can be selected, offer manufacturing options that are not applicable to metals or full composites. With respect to conventional manufacturing processes, the possibilities for Fibre Metal Laminates in general, are limited. The limits are partly due to the different failure modes, partly due to the properties of the constituents in the laminate. For machining processes: the wear of the cutting tools during machining operations of GLARE stems from the abrasive nature of the glass fibres. For the forming processes: the limited formability, expressed by a small failure strain, is related to the glass fibres. However, although these manufacturing issues may restrict the use of manufacturing processes for FMLs, application of these laminates in aircraft is not hindered.

  13. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  14. Full scale GLARE fuselage panel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercammen, Roland W. A.; Ottens, Harold H.

    1996-01-01

    A GLARE fuselage panel, representative of the crown section of the Fokker 100 fuselage in front of the wing, was tested. The panels were loaded by air pressure resulting in tangential stress in the panel by axial loading, representative of both the cabin pressure and the fuselage bending due to taxiing and gust loading. A fatigue test, simulating 180000 flights, followed by static tests were performed. The panel was loaded to failure at 1.32 ultimate load. The test set-up, the uniform strain distribution of the panel, and the fatigue loads applied at high test frequency are described. The use of GLARE leads to a substantial weight reduction without affecting the fatigue static strength.

  15. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, S.; Alcock, C. A.; Cook, K. H.; Furesz, G.; Geary, J. C.; Hiriart, D.; Ho, P. T.; Norton, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Yen, W.; Zhang, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small ( 1 km diameter) objects in the Solar System and beyond. Such events are very rare (<0.001 events per star per year) and short in duration ( 200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz.

  16. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles A.; Cook, Kem H.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Hiriart, David; Ho, Paul T.; Lee, William; Melsheimer, Frank; Norton, Timothy; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Richer, Michael; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2012-09-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small ( 1 km diameter) objects in the Solar System and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration ( 200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astrońomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz.

  17. Veiling glare reduction methods compared for ophthalmic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Veiling glare in ocular viewing was simulated by viewing the retina of an eye model through a sheet of light-scattering material lit from the front. Four methods of glare reduction were compared, namely, optical scanning, polarized light, viewing and illumination paths either coaxial or intersecting at the object, and closed circuit TV. Photographs show the effect of these methods on visibility. Polarized light was required to eliminate light specularly reflected from the instrument optics. The greatest glare reduction was obtained when the first three methods were utilized together. Glare reduction using TV was limited by nonuniform distribution of scattered light over the image.

  18. THE ARECIBO H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of radio recombination line (RRL) emission using the Arecibo Observatory at X band (9 GHz, 3 cm) from 37 previously unknown H II regions in the Galactic zone 66 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 31 Degree-Sign and | b | {<=} 1 Degree-Sign . This Arecibo H II Region Discovery Survey (Arecibo HRDS) is a continuation of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) HRDS. The targets for the Arecibo HRDS have spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 20 cm emission of a similar angular morphology and extent. To take advantage of Arecibo's sensitivity and small beam size, sources in this sample are fainter, smaller in angle, or in more crowded fields compared to those of the GBT HRDS. These Arecibo nebulae are some of the faintest H II regions ever detected in RRL emission. Our detection rate is 58%, which is low compared to the 95% detection rate for GBT HRDS targets. We derive kinematic distances to 23 of the Arecibo HRDS detections. Four nebulae have negative local standard of rest velocities and are thus unambiguously in the outer Galaxy. The remaining sources are at the tangent-point distance or farther. We identify a large, diffuse H II region complex that has an associated H I and {sup 13}CO shell. The {approx}90 pc diameter of the G52L nebula in this complex may be the largest Galactic H II region known, and yet it has escaped previous detection.

  19. Maintenance of Glare Structures and Glare as Riveted or Bonded Repair Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woerden, H. J. M.; Sinke, J.; Hooijmeijer, P. A.

    2003-07-01

    Aircraft structures constructed from new and advanced materials will become more common in the near future, starting with the use of the Fibre Metal Laminate Glare in large parts of the Airbus A-380 fuselage. These materials are primarily used because of their excellent damage tolerance properties. However, questions about maintenance and repair of such structures need to be answered before such new materials can be used. These questions include whether new and advanced materials can be repaired in a conventional way, which would not only be preferable from the operator's point of view (no change in tools, maintenance procedures, and personnel training), but also from the manufacturer's point of view (Structural Repair Manuals similar to aluminium structures). A Glare demonstrator panel has been designed and applied to an Airbus A-310 and research into the repairability of Glare has been performed to answer these questions. Apart from looking into the repairability of Glare structures, the material itself is also investigated as material for bonded repair patches. Bonded repair many times proves to be a more viable solution than conventional riveted repair due to its more efficient load transfer. Important aspects of bonded (Glare) repair are under investigation to show that bonded patch repair is not only working for the ageing aircraft of several Air Forces around the world, but is also a promising candidate for safe and cost-effective repairs to ageing and new (incidental damage) aircraft of commercial operators. This research is conducted cooperatively by Delft University of Technology and the United States Air Force Academy and has led to two real-life repairs on a C-5A ``Galaxy''.

  20. An experimental investigation of glare and restructured fiber metal laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Adelina Vanessa

    Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) are a group of materials fabricated by bonding glass/epoxy layers within metal layers. This class of materials can provide good mechanical properties, as well as weight savings. An FML known as Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE) was studied. An experimental investigation comprising of microscopy and tensile testing was carried out using different grades of GLARE. Microscopy revealed the construction details of GLARE, while tensile testing provided means of measuring and analyzing its stress-strain responses. Next, different metal surface pretreatment methods were explored. These included sandblasting, Phosphoric Acid Anodizing (PAA), and AC-130 Sol-Gel treatment. Woven S-2 glass, an epoxy adhesive, and aluminum alloy sheet metal were used to fabricate restructured FMLs using time and cost effective procedures. Additional microscopy and tensile testing allowed for comparisons with GLARE and aircraft grade aluminum alloys. The restructured FMLs showed similar behaviors to GLARE with potential significant improvements in fabrication efficiency.

  1. Glare measurements from bright and satin chromium curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, J F

    1969-09-01

    Three methods are described for measurement of glare from automotive chromium surfaces. The first is a performance measure: a glare illumination technique that measures at the driver's eye location the amount of light reflected to that location. The other two methods measure a surface property rather than performance. One is the standard glossmeter method of measuring gloss on flat surfaces. The other is a substitute gloss image method that measures gloss on both flat and curved surfaces. Results when using the glare illumination technique on flat and curved surfaces, with both bright and satin chromium finishes, indicated that glare decreased as surface curvature was increased. The effect of the satin finish was a reduction in glare from flat surfaces but not from curved surfaces. PMID:20072523

  2. Macular pigment spatial distribution effects on glare disability

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Christopher M.; Bassi, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This project explored the relationship of the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial profile with measures of glare disability (GD) across the macula. Methods A novel device was used to measure MPOD across the central 16° of retina along four radii using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP)at eccentricities of 0°, 2°, 4°, 6° and 8°. MPOD was measured as discrete and integrated values at all measured retinal loci. GD was calculated as a difference in contrast sensitivity (CS) between no glare and glare conditions using identical stimuli presented at the same eccentricities. GD was defined as [(CSNo Glare − CSGlare)/CSNo Glare] in order to isolate the glare attenuation effects of MPOD by controlling for CS variability among the subject sample. Correlations of the discrete and integrated MPOD with GD were compared. Results The cHFP identified reliable MPOD spatial distribution maps demonstrating a 1st-order exponential decay as a function of increasing eccentricity. There was a significant negative correlation between both measures of foveal MPOD and GD using 6 cycles per degree (cpd) and 9 cpd stimuli. Significant correlations were found between corresponding parafoveal MPOD measures and GD at 2 and 4° of eccentricity using 9 cpd stimuli with greater MPOD associated with less glare disability. Conclusions These results are consistent with the glare attenuation effects of MP at higher spatial frequencies and support the hypothesis that discrete and integrated measures of MPOD have similar correlations with glare attenuation effects across the macula. Additionally, peak foveal MPOD appears to influence GD across the macula. PMID:25697374

  3. Solar glare hazard analysis tool on account of determined points of time

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K; Sims, Cianan Alexander

    2014-09-23

    Technologies pertaining to determining when glare will be perceived by a hypothetical observer from a glare source and the intensity of glare that will be perceived by the hypothetical observer from the glare source are described herein. A first location of a potential source of solar glare is received, and a second location of the hypothetical observer is received. Based upon such locations, including respective elevations, and known positions of the sun over time, a determination as to when the hypothetical observer will perceive glare from the potential source of solar glare is made. Subsequently, an amount of irradiance entering the eye of the hypothetical observer is calculated to assess potential ocular hazards.

  4. A practical approach to glare assessment for train cabs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Daniel P; Baker, Lisa M; Harvey, Carl

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of glare is a key consideration in the design of a railway driver's cab. However, unlike assessment of other factors, such as forward visibility, there are no standardised approaches for performing assessments of glare. This paper describes an approach for assessing the impact of glare in a full size mock-up of a railway cab. While it is unrealistic to evaluate every possible lighting condition that may potentially occur in the vehicle cab in service, a pragmatic and practical approach is taken to provide a good level of indicative information about the cab design's likely glare performance. This involves assessing internal light sources, such as internal lights and illuminated controls, and simulating external light sources (e.g. the sun, other trains' headlights) by illuminating the cab mock up windscreen, side and door windows with a single light source manually located in a sequence of discrete positions and orientations and assessing the resulting glare impacts. The paper describes a structured process for assessing and recording the impact of glare and recommending mitigations. PMID:25479986

  5. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  6. Glare-free optical system for fundus visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salakhutdinov, Viktor K.; Smetanin, Yuriy G.; Doroshenko, Jasser; Sivachenko, Eugene A.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes results of development of fundus-camera with non-glare optical scheme. The scheme is based on multiple lenses with a light gathering power (D/F <= 1) substantially less than one. Illumination of fundus can be provided through eye's pupil less than 3 mm. And much attention was directed to method of calculation of the no-glare optical scheme. The key idea is that geometry of optic elements of the system provides that glare in the form of ghost reflection from optical surface of one element focuses on a small-size absorbing screen located on another optical surface. Shows the possibility of implementation and the experimental results. During experiments with B/W camera we got Full HD color image of fundus having the eye's pupil diameter of 1.5 mm and illumination of fundus tissue in accordance with sanitary rules.

  7. A real-time monitoring system for night glare protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang

    2010-11-01

    When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.

  8. Optical design of low glare luminaire applied for tunnel light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. S.; Lee, X. H.; Lo, Y. C.; Sun, C. C.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a low glare and high-efficient tunnel lighting design which consists of a cluster light-emitting diode and a free-form lens is presented. Most of the energy emitted from the proposed luminaire is transmitted onto the surface of the road in front of drivers, and the probability that the energy is emitted directly into drivers' eyes is low. Compared with traditional fluorescent lamps, the proposed luminaire, of which the optical utilization factor, optical efficiency, and uniformity are, respectively, 44%, 92.5%, and 0.72, performs favorably in traffic safety, energy saving, and glare reduction.

  9. Computation of glint, glare, and solar irradiance distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Khalsa, Siri Sahib Singh

    2015-08-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. At least one camera captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed.

  10. DETECTION OF DISBONDING IN GLARE COMPOSITES USING LAMB WAVE APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Qiaojian; Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Yang Ningli; Regez, Brad; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2010-02-22

    Lamb-waves can be used to detect disbonds in composite plates. In this work, a photoacoustic technique was first applied to measure the dispersive property of a GLAss-REinforced (GLARE) composite panel. The measured phase velocity dispersion curves are consistent with the theoretical calculation using the classical transfer matrix method for layered media. Based on the obtained properties, a finite element method (FEM) model was constructed to study the influence of a disbond void on the Lamb wave propagation in the GLARE plate. It is found that the displacement amplitudes of the A{sub o} mode Lamb wave decrease while its travel time increases as the disbond size increases.

  11. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2)more » and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.« less

  12. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2) and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.

  13. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang Yu; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Chu, You Hua; Lee, William; Zhang, Zhi Wei; Cook, Kem H.; Norton, Timothy; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Alcock, Charles

    2015-11-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a nominal readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013. We present here an update on the status of the TAOS II survey, including the site development, camera fabrication, and project schedule.

  14. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  15. NATIONAL SURFACE WATER SURVEY: EASTERN LAKE SURVEY PHASE II NORTHEASTERN LAKES, DATABASE DICTIONARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this data dictionary is to provide information pertaining to the contents and structure of the Eastern Lakes Survey-Phase II (ELS-II) chemistry database. he data dictionary does not describe the design, protocols, or findings of the study, which are described in He...

  16. SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

  17. Ca II absorbers in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardane, Gendith M.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of a survey for Ca II λλ3934, 3969 absorption-line systems culled from ˜95 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 and Data Release 9 quasar spectra. With 435 doublets identified in the catalogue, this list is the largest Ca II catalogue compiled to date, spanning redshifts z < 1.34, which corresponds to the most recent ˜8.9 Gyr of the history of the Universe. We derive statistics on the Ca II rest equivalent width distribution and incidence. We find that the λ3934 rest equivalent width (W0^{λ 3934}) distribution cannot be described by a single exponential function. A double exponential function is required to produce a satisfactory description. The function can be written as a sum of weak and strong components: {partial n}/{partial W0^{λ 3934}}= ({N_{wk}^{ast }}/{W_{wk}^{ast }}) exp ({ -{W0^{λ 3934}}/{W_{wk}^{ast } } }) + ({N_{str}^{ast }}/{W_{str}^{ast }}) exp ({ -{W0^{λ 3934}}/{W_{str}^{ast } } }). A maximum likelihood fit to the unbinned data indicates N_{wk}^{ast }=0.140± 0.029, W_{wk}^{ast }=0.165± 0.020 \\unicode{197}, N_{str}^{ast }=0.024± 0.020, and W_{str}^{ast }=0.427± 0.101 Å. This suggests that the Ca II absorbers are composed of at least two distinct populations. The incidence of the overall Ca II absorber population does not show evidence for evolution in the standard cosmology. The normalization of the no-evolution curve, i.e. the value of the Ca II incidence extrapolated to redshift z = 0, for W0^{λ 3934} ≥ 0.3 Å, is n0 = 0.017 ± 0.001. In comparison to Mg II surveys, we found that only 3 per cent of Mg II systems in the SDSS have Ca II, confirming that Ca II systems are rare. We also report on some preliminary investigations of the nature of the two populations of Ca II absorbers, and show that they can likely be distinguished using their Mg II properties.

  18. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ho, P.; Yen, W.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Richer, M.; Cook, K.; Hsu, S.; Chen, H.; Chang, Y.; Hiriart, D.; Ricci, D.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Norton, T.; Geary, J.; Furesz, G.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (˜1 km diameter) objects in the Transneptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10^{-3} events per star per year) and short in duration (˜200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and high-speed cameras comprising arrays of custom CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. The survey will begin operation in 2016. This poster presents an update on the status of the site preparation and the technical development.

  19. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wang, S.; Ho, P.; Zhang, Z.; Cook, K.; Yen, W.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Richer, M.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small 1 km diameter) objects in the Transneptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (˜200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and high speed cameras comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. In this presentation, we will describe the project in detail and discuss the progress on the development of the survey infrastructure.

  20. Pupil Light Reflex Produced by Glare under Mesopic Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Elisa; Comastri, Silvia Ana; Issolio, Luis; Echarri, Rodolfo

    The amount of light captured by the eye depends on pupil size. Moreover, one of the factors determining the steady-state pupil size is ambient illumination and sudden increments of light reaching the retina cause a brisk and transient pupil constriction described as the dynamic Pupil Light Reflex response. In experiments where a glare source acts as transient conditioning field, a methodology to measure pupil diameter is required. In the present paper pupil diameter, in steady (0.5 cd/m2) and dynamic adaptation conditions, is measured. The dynamic state is originated by a transient peripheral glare source with three different illuminance levels (15, 30 and 60 lx). Ten eyes of 5 subjects (19, 36, 50, 53 and 52 years old) are considered. The measurements are made by means of a video of the pupil captured with a CCD while the sight is fixated in a chart. In the steady condition, the average pupil diameter for each subject varies between 4.8 and 7.2 mm from one subject to another. In the dynamic condition, latency time results to be independent both of the subject and of the glare level, adding evidence to the robustness of this parameter when radiation is not incident centrally.

  1. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. II. THE SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2011-06-01

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) H II Region Discovery Survey has doubled the number of known H II regions in the Galactic zone 343{sup 0} {<=} l {<=} 67{sup 0} with | b | {<=} 1{sup 0}. We detected 603 discrete hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) components at 9 GHz (3 cm) from 448 targets. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident mid-infrared and 20 cm radio continuum emission. Such sources are almost invariably H II regions; we detected hydrogen RRL emission from 95% of our target sample. The sensitivity of the GBT and the power of its spectrometer together made this survey possible. Here, we provide a catalog of the measured properties of the RRL and continuum emission from the survey nebulae. The derived survey completeness limit, 180 mJy at 9 GHz, is sufficient to detect all H II regions ionized by single O-stars to a distance of 12 kpc. These recently discovered nebulae share the same distribution on the sky as does the previously known census of Galactic H II regions. On average, however, the new nebulae have fainter continuum fluxes, smaller continuum angular sizes, fainter RRL intensities, and smaller RRL line widths. Though small in angular size, many of our new nebulae show little spatial correlation with tracers associated with extremely young H II regions, implying that our sample spans a range of evolutionary states. We discovered 34 first quadrant negative-velocity H II regions, which lie at extreme distances from the Sun and appear to be part of the Outer Arm. We found RRL emission from 208 Spitzer GLIMPSE 8.0 {mu}m 'bubble' sources, 65 of which have been cataloged previously. It thus appears that nearly all GLIMPSE bubbles are H II regions and that {approx}50% of all Galactic H II regions have a bubble morphology at 8.0 {mu}m.

  2. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE GALACTIC H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, R. T.

    2010-08-01

    We discovered a large population of previously unknown Galactic H II regions by using the Green Bank Telescope to detect their hydrogen radio recombination line emission. Since recombination lines are optically thin at 3 cm wavelength, we can detect H II regions across the entire Galactic disk. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 21 cm continuum emission. For the Galactic zone -16 {sup 0} {<=} l {<=} 67{sup 0} and |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}, we detected 602 discrete recombination line components from 448 lines of sight, 95% of the sample targets, which more than doubles the number of known H II regions in this part of the Milky Way. We found 25 new first quadrant nebulae with negative LSR velocities, placing them beyond the solar orbit. Because we can detect all nebulae inside the solar orbit that are ionized by O-stars, the Discovery Survey targets, when combined with existing H II region catalogs, give a more accurate census of Galactic H II regions and their properties. The distribution of H II regions across the Galactic disk shows strong, narrow ({approx}1 kpc wide) peaks at Galactic radii of 4.3 and 6.0 kpc. The longitude-velocity distribution of H II regions now gives unambiguous evidence for Galactic structure, including the kinematic signatures of the radial peaks in the spatial distribution, a concentration of nebulae at the end of the Galactic Bar, and nebulae located on the kinematic locus of the 3 Kpc Arm.

  3. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles A.; Cook, Kem H.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Hiriart, David; Ho, Paul T.; Lee, William H.; Melsheimer, Frank; Norton, Timothy; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Richer, Michael; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013.

  4. Spectral Confusion for Cosmological Surveys of Redshifted C II Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, A.; Dwek, E.; Moseley, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    Far-infrared cooling lines are ubiquitous features in the spectra of star-forming galaxies. Surveys of redshifted fine-structure lines provide a promising new tool to study structure formation and galactic evolution at redshifts including the epoch of reionization as well as the peak of star formation. Unlike neutral hydrogen surveys, where the 21 cm line is the only bright line, surveys of redshifted fine-structure lines suffer from confusion generated by line broadening, spectral overlap of different lines, and the crowding of sources with redshift. We use simulations to investigate the resulting spectral confusion and derive observing parameters to minimize these effects in pencil-beam surveys of redshifted far-IR line emission. We generate simulated spectra of the 17 brightest far-IR lines in galaxies, covering the 150–1300 μm wavelength region corresponding to redshifts 0 < z < 7, and develop a simple iterative algorithm that successfully identifies the 158 μm [C ii] line and other lines. Although the [C ii] line is a principal coolant for the interstellar medium, the assumption that the brightest observed lines in a given line of sight are always [C ii] lines is a poor approximation to the simulated spectra once other lines are included. Blind line identification requires detection of fainter companion lines from the same host galaxies, driving survey sensitivity requirements. The observations require moderate spectral resolution 700 < R < 4000 with angular resolution between 20″ and 10‧, sufficiently narrow to minimize confusion yet sufficiently large to include a statistically meaningful number of sources.

  5. Loading-unloading response of circular GLARE fiber-metal laminates under lateral indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamasphyros, George J.; Bikakis, George S.

    2015-01-01

    GLARE is a Fiber-Metal laminated material used in aerospace structures which are frequently subjected to various impact damages. Hence, the response of GLARE plates subjected to lateral indentation is very important. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived and a non-linear finite element modeling procedure is proposed in order to predict the static load-indentation curves of circular GLARE plates during loading and unloading by a hemispherical indentor. We have recently published analytical formulas and a finite element procedure for the static indentation of circular GLARE plates which are now used during the loading stage. Here, considering that aluminum layers are in a state of membrane yield and employing energy balance during unloading, the unloading path is determined. Using this unloading path, an algebraic equation is derived for calculating the permanent dent depth of the GLARE plate after the indentor's withdrawal. Furthermore, our finite element procedure is modified in order to simulate the unloading stage as well. The derived formulas and the proposed finite element modeling procedure are applied successfully to GLARE 2-2/1-0.3 and to GLARE 3-3/2-0.4 circular plates. The analytical results are compared with corresponding FEM results and a good agreement is found. The analytically calculated permanent dent depth is within 6 % for the GLARE 2 plate, and within 7 % for the GLARE 3 plate, of the corresponding numerically calculated result. No other solution of this problem is known to the authors.

  6. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    TAOS II is a next generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small objects (diameters between 0.5 and 30 km) in the Kuiper Belt. The project is a collaboration between the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The survey will operate three 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom camera comprising a focal plane array of CMOS imagers. Each camera will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. All telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation events while minimizing the false positive rate. This poster describes the project and reports on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.

  7. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Data Release 7, including the Legacy Survey

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The seventh data release (DR7) from the SDSS represents a completion of the overall, original project, though SDSS-III began in 2008 and will build upon the knowledge gained already. The SDSS Legacy Survey provided a uniform, well-calibrated map of more than 7,500 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap, and three stripes in the South Galactic Cap totaling 740 square degrees. The central stripe in the South Galactic Gap, Stripe 82, was scanned multiple times to enable a deep co-addition of the data and to enable discovery of variable objects. Legacy data supported studies ranging from asteroids and nearby stars to the large-scale structure of the universe. All of the imaging data have been processed to yield calibrated astrometric and photometric parameters and classifications. These parameters are available in one or more tables in a database accessible via the Catalog Archive Server (CAS) at http://cas.sdss.org/astro. [taken and edited from the Legacy page at http://www.sdss.org/legacy/index.html] All three surveys summarized are: 1) Legacy: an imaging survey in five bands over a contiguous 7646 deg2 high-latitude elliptical region in the Northern Galactic Cap, plus an additional 750 deg2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with spectroscopy of complete samples of galaxies and quasars covering about 8200 square degrees. The total imaging area in the Legacy survey is 8423 square degrees; 2) SEGUE: (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration): additional imaging of 3240 deg2 of sky at lower Galactic latitudes, together with spectroscopy of 240,000 stars towards 200 sight lines covering 1400 square degrees (spread throughout the Legacy and SEGUE imaging footprints), to study the structure of the Milky Way; 3

  8. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey: Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Don Frederic; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Marshall, Jennifer L.; McGinnis, David; Miknaitis, Gajus; Nichol, Robert C.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Pennsylvania U. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Portsmouth U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Fermilab /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Fermilab /Bristol U. /Apache Point Observ. /Liverpool John Moores U., ARI /Columbia U., CBA /Apache Point Observ. /Ohio State U. /Durham U. /Portsmouth U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Naval Academy, Annapolis /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Ohio State U. /Stockholm U. /New Mexico State U. /Princeton U. Observ. /Tokyo U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Jefferson Lab /Apache Point Observ. /Gottingen U. /Chicago U. /San Francisco State U. /DARK Cosmology Ctr. /Fermilab /Apache Point Observ. /Durham U. /Princeton U. Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Barcelona U. /Stockholm U. /Apache Point Observ. /Lick Observ. /Sussex U. /Barcelona U. /Apache Point Observ. /Ohio State U. /Apache Point Observ. /Fermilab /DARK Cosmology Ctr. /Chicago U. /Fermilab /South African Astron. Observ. /Ohio State U. /Apache Point Observ. /Texas U., McDonald Observ. /Fermilab

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5 degrees wide centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between 1 September and 30 November of 2005-7. During the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during the first two seasons of operation.

  9. Pattern glare: the effects of contrast and color

    PubMed Central

    Monger, Laura J.; Wilkins, Arnold J.; Allen, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To test a theory of visual stress by investigating the inter-relationships between (1) the threshold contrast/saturation at which individuals first report discomfort when viewing colored gratings of progressively increasing contrast and decreasing saturation; (2) the choice of a colored overlay for reading; (3) any increase in reading speed when the overlay is used. Method: Ninety-five young adults, with normal color vision, reported illusions from square-wave gratings (Pattern Glare Test), chose any colored overlays that improved clarity (Intuitive Color Overlays) and read aloud randomly ordered common words (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test). This was followed by an automated choice of tints for text using various screen colors on a tablet, and a test of discomfort from patterns of progressively increasing contrast and decreasing saturation, using software developed for this study. All participants wore their optimal refractive correction throughout the procedure. Results: Fifty-eight participants chose a colored overlay and reported that it made text easier and more comfortable to read. On average, these individuals had a greater improvement in reading speed with their overlays (p = 0.003), a lower contrast threshold at which discomfort from achromatic gratings was first reported (p = 0.015), and a tendency to report more pattern glare (p = 0.052), compared to the other participants. Participants who chose both a most and least preferred tint for text using the automated procedure reported discomfort from colored gratings at a significantly higher contrast with their most preferred color compared to their least preferred color (p = 0.003). The choice of a colored tint was moderately consistent across tests. The most and least preferred colors tended to be complementary. Conclusion: Colored tints that improved reading speed reduced pattern glare both in terms of the illusion susceptibility and in terms of discomfort contrast threshold, supporting a theory of

  10. Second Epoch VLBA Calibrator Survey Observations: VCS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, David; Jacobs, Christopher; Beasley, Anthony; Peck, Alison; Gaume, Ralph; Charlot, Patrick; Fey, Alan; Ma, Chopo; Titov, Oleg; Boboltz, David

    2016-06-01

    Six very successful Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) calibrator survey campaigns were run between 1994 and 2007 to build up a large list of compact radio sources with positions precise enough for use as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) phase reference calibrators. We report on the results of a second epoch VLBA Calibrator Survey campaign (VCS-II) in which 2400 VCS sources were re-observed in the X and S bands in order to improve the upcoming third realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3) as well as to improve their usefulness as VLBI phase reference calibrators. In this survey, some 2062 previously detected sources and 324 previously undetected sources were detected and revised positions are presented. Average position uncertainties for the re-observed sources were reduced from 1.14 and 1.98 mas to 0.24 and 0.41 mas in R.A. and decl., respectively, or by nearly a factor of 5. Minimum detected flux values were approximately 15 and 28 mJy in the X and S bands, respectively, and median total fluxes are approximately 230 and 280 mJy. The vast majority of these sources are flat-spectrum sources, with ∼82% having spectral indices greater than ‑0.5.

  11. THE PITTSBURGH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY Mg II QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SURVEY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Monier, Eric M.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-04-15

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 {<=} z {<=} 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains {approx}17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the {approx}44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  12. The Pittsburgh Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mg II Quasar Absorption-line Survey Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Monier, Eric M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-04-01

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 <= z <= 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains ~17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the ~44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  13. Southern Hemisphere SETI Survey - Five years of project META II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Colomb, Fernando R.; Hurrell, E. E.; Olalde, Juan C.

    1997-01-01

    Project META II, a full-sky survey for artificial narrowband signals, has been conducted from one of the two 30-m radiotelescopes of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). The search was performed near the 1420-MHz line of neutral hydrogen, using a 8.4 million channels Fourier spectrometer of 0.05-Hz resolution and 400-kHz instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of the Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing signature for narrowband signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 2 x 10 exp 13 spectral channels analyzed, 29 extra statistical narrowband events exceeding the average threshold of 1.7 x 10 exp -23 W/sq m were found. The strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the galactic plane. A description of the project META II observing scheme and results is made, as well as a possible interpretation of the results using the Cordes Lazio-Sagan model based on interstellar scattering theory.

  14. Descartes glare points in scattering by icicles: color photographs and a tilted dielectric cylinder model of caustic and glare-point evolution.

    PubMed

    Marston, P L

    1998-03-20

    Glare points associated with the Airy caustics of once and twice internally reflected rays are visible in the scattering by sunlit icicles. Supporting color photographs include an image of the far-field scattering. Relevant rays are analogous to the Descartes rays of primary and secondary rainbows of drops; however, the caustic conditions for the icicle are predicted to be affected by tilt of the illumination relative to the axis of the icicle. A model for the caustic evolution, given for a circular dielectric cylinder, manifests a transition in which the Airy caustic (and associated glare points) merge in the meridional plane at a critical tilt. At this critical tilt the merged glare point is predicted to be very bright. The calculations use the Bravais effective refractive index and generalized ray tracing. PMID:18268747

  15. ColorChecker at the beach: dangers of sunburn and glare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John

    2014-01-01

    In High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) imaging, optical veiling glare sets the limits of accurate scene information recorded by a camera. But, what happens at the beach? Here we have a Low-Dynamic-Range (LDR) scene with maximal glare. Can we calibrate a camera at the beach and not be burnt? We know that we need sunscreen and sunglasses, but what about our cameras? The effect of veiling glare is scene-dependent. When we compare RAW camera digits with spotmeter measurements we find significant differences. As well, these differences vary, depending on where we aim the camera. When we calibrate our camera at the beach we get data that is valid for only that part of that scene. Camera veiling glare is an issue in LDR scenes in uniform illumination with a shaded lens.

  16. Spatial Mapping of Macular Pigment Optical Density and Its Relationship to Contrast Sensitivity and Glare Disability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Christopher

    This dissertation explored the relationship of the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial profile with measures of contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability (GD), relative glare disability (RGD) and intraocular light scatter. A novel device capable of measuring MPOD across the central 160 of retina along 8 principle meridians using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) at eccentricities of 00, 20, 40, 60 and 80 was built. MPOD was calculated as both discrete and integrated values at all measured retinal loci. CS was measured using vertical grating stimuli of 3, 6 and 9 cycles per degree (cpd) also presented at 00, 20, 4 0, 60 and 80 eccentricity. GD was calculated as a difference in CS between glare and no glare conditions (CSNo Glare - CSGlare) using the same vertical grating stimuli presented at the same eccentricities. RGD [(CSNo Glare - CSGlare) / CSNo Glare] was calculated to isolate the glare attenuation effects of MPOD by controlling for CS variability among the subject sample. Intraocular scatter was assessed through a direct compensation method using a commercially available device. Statistical analyses of the discrete and integrated MPOD associations with CS, GD, RGD and intraocular scatter were evaluated. The cHFP identified reliable MPOD spatial distribution maps demonstrating a 1 st order exponential decay curve as a function of increasing eccentricity. Foveal MPOD revealed the highest correlation coefficients with RGD using 9cpd stimuli. These results are consistent with the glare attenuation effects of MP at higher spatial frequencies. Further support may be seen from the significant correlations found between corresponding parafoveal MPOD measures and both GD and RGD at 20 and 40 of eccentricity using 9cpd stimuli with greater MPOD being associated with less glare disability. All calculated measures of foveal MPOD shared similar significant correlation coefficients with both GD and RGD using 6cpd and 9cpd stimuli. Discrete

  17. The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Thomas; Wollert, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms.

  18. 77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a 420-foot radius safety zone on the navigable waters of James River in Richmond, VA in support of the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks event. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners and spectators from......

  19. Polarized task lighting to reduce reflective glare in open-plan office cubicles.

    PubMed

    Japuntich, D A

    2001-10-01

    This ergonomic study deals with the common situation where a glossy document is placed between a viewer and an under-shelf task light source in a common open-plan office cubicle workstation. With a task lamp in front, when looking at a document a viewer sees two images, the document itself and specular glare, which is the reflected image of the light source. Specular glare or veiling reflection causes eye discomfort, makes it difficult to read a document and has been thought to contribute to eyestrain. This paper analyzes the application of polarized lighting for this specific situation. The use of a linear polarized light source helps to minimize specular glare by darkening the reflected image of the light source on the document. The performance and predictive optimization of the use of polarized lighting in this situation is investigated according to female and male viewer height demographics. Theoretical predictions and light measurement analysis of specular glare reduction are compared with empirical results from testing on a panel of humans on semi-gloss finish and matte finish papers. This study shows that with the right alteration of a polarized light source position, specular glare may be significantly reduced, and correlations exist between the theory, empirical measurements and the human response to specular glare reduction. PMID:11534794

  20. A portable inspection system to estimate direct glare of various LED modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Li; Liao, Chun-Hsiang; Li, Hung-Chung; Jou, Shyh-Jye; Chen, Han-Ting; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tang, Yu-Hsiang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Sun, Pei-Li; Lee, Tsung-Xian

    2015-07-01

    Glare is caused by both direct and indirect light sources and discomfort glare produces visual discomfort, annoyance, or loss in visual performance and visibility. Direct glare is caused by light sources in the field of view whereas reflected glare is caused by bright reflections from polished or glossy surfaces that are reflected toward an individual. To improve visual comfort of our living environment, a portable inspection system to estimate direct glare of various commercial LED modules with the range of color temperature from 3100 K to 5300 K was developed in this study. The system utilized HDR images to obtain the illumination distribution of LED modules and was first calibrated for brightness and chromaticity and corrected with flat field, dark-corner and curvature by the installed algorithm. The index of direct glare was then automatically estimated after image capturing, and the operator can recognize the performance of LED modules and the possible effects on human being once the index was out of expecting range. In the future, we expect that the quick-response smart inspection system can be applied in several new fields and market, such as home energy diagnostics, environmental lighting and UGR monitoring and popularize it in several new fields.

  1. Development of a Headlight Glare Simulator for a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Alex D.; Peli, Eli

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a headlight glare simulator to be used with a driving simulator. The system combines a modified programmable off–the-shelf LED display board and a beamsplitter so that the LED lights, representing the headlights of oncoming cars, are superimposed over the driving simulator headlights image. Ideal spatial arrangement of optical components to avoid misalignments of the superimposed images is hard to achieve in practice and variations inevitably introduce some parallax. Furthermore, the driver’s viewing position varies with driver’s height and seating position preferences exacerbate such misalignment. We reduce the parallax errors using an intuitive calibration procedure (simple drag-and-drop alignment of nine LED positions with calibration dots on the screen). To simulate the dynamics of headlight brightness changes when two vehicles are approaching, LED intensity control algorithms based on both headlight and LED beam shapes were developed. The simulation errors were estimated and compared to real-world headlight brightness variability. PMID:24443633

  2. Psychophysical investigations of discomfort and disability glare from underground coal mine illumination systems. Open File Report, May 1980-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, K.L.; Lindahl, P.; Vincent, R.; Crouch, C.

    1983-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify current light-control technology and hardware that may be applicable on underground lighting systems to minimize disability and discomfort glare. No research dealing specifically with mine lighting was found, but abstracts on research considered potentially applicable are included in the report. Information on several commercial light-control products for use in controlling glare are also included. Vision tests conducted on 137 mine personnel to determine their discomfort and disability glare sensitivity indicate their sensitivity to disability glare is about the same as the general population.

  3. Effect of different colored background lighting on LED discomfort glare perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweater Hickcox, K.; Narendran, N.; Bullough, J. D.; Freyssinier, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    In the past decade, there has been increased interest in energy-efficient lighting as energy resources become higher in demand. Street lighting and outdoor lighting are applications that are rapidly changing from the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) to newer technologies such as light-emitting diode (LED) or induction-type lamps. There is evidence that certain populations believe LED streetlights and area lights to produce more glare than HPS luminaires. A number of differences exist between new and traditional light sources besides efficiency. These include spectral power distribution (SPD), source luminance, beam intensity distribution, and the number of sources needed to achieve intended light levels. Many field studies and laboratory studies have shown a relationship between glare and SPD, with most studies suggesting that sources more weighted in short wavelengths have an increased likelihood of discomfort glare. A study to assess the effect of different SPDs on perception of discomfort glare was conducted. Subjects were shown a white-light LED array against a luminous background with one of three different SPDs (blue, white, or yellow). As well, different intensities of light from the array and from the background were used. For the range of conditions evaluated, the presence of any luminous background significantly reduced the perception of discomfort glare from the LED array. The blue background reduced perception significantly less than the white or the yellow backgrounds. The implications for solid-state lighting systems such as outdoor array lighting are discussed.

  4. Brightness perception under transient glare conditions with myopic observers wearing contact lenses and spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issolio, Luis; Lopez-Gil, Norberto; Colombo, Elisa M.; Miro, Ignacio

    2001-08-01

    Transient glare reduces the perceived brightness for stimulus luminances within the scotopic-mesopic range. This work studies this effect in myopic observers with lens and spectacles corrections and in one emmetrope. The task of the subject consists of compare brightness of two uniform luminance fields sequentially displayed, one of which had a reference luminance of 1 cd/m2. The reference stimulus was presented under glare condition the angle between the glare source and the lie of sight was 10 degrees. The reference field and he glare source were onset at the same time. Subjects had to report which field was brighter with respect to one another. A YES-NO method with constant stimulus was adopted to determine the perceptual matching luminance. Then duration of each stimulus was 300 msec and the interval between both of them was 1.2 msec. We found the effect of the transient glare is stronger as myopic subjects wear glasses corrections than they wear contact lens and the effect is even less for emmetropic subject with the naked eyes. Results could be explained considering an additional ectoptic light veil due to scattering on the glasses and lens.

  5. Disability Glare in the Aging Eye. Assessment and Impact on Driving☆

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Thomas J.T.P.; (René) van Rijn, L.J.; Kaper-Bongers, R.; Vonhoff, D.J.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; Grabner, G.; Nischler, C.; Emesz, M.; Wilhelm, H.; Gamer, D.; Schuster, A.; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G.C.; Coppens, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare different methods for the assessment of disability glare sensitivity in the elderly, to arrive at an objective assessment of the condition of the eye. To delineate the importance of straylight values in vision. Methods Three groups of subjects were studied: 1) Young subjects without any eye disease, 2) elderly subjects without any eye disease and 3) elderly subjects with (early) cataract in at least one eye. All subjects underwent 2 glare tests, 2 straylight tests, ETDRS visual acuity test, Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity test, refraction, LOCS III cataract classification. Straylight was quantified by means of the straylight parameter s. Results Repeatability, discriminative ability, and added value as compared to visual acuity were low for the glare tests and good for the straylight measurements. For young normal subjects, with log(s)=0.9, the standard glare situation with low beams gives a contrast reduction of 1.3, whereas for the healthy 77 year olds this increases to 2. With cataract hardly affecting visual acuity, log(s) can be as high as 1.8, resulting in a contrast reduction of 3.4. Conclusion Straylight measurement is of relevance for the assessment of the glare-related hindrance during driving, and can be used to objectify complaints and aid in the decision-making regarding cataract surgery.

  6. Large area glare sources and their effect on discomfort and visual performance at computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhaus, W.K.E.; Bailey, I.L.

    1992-05-01

    This paper studies the effects of a large area light source of variable but uniform luminance surrounding a video display terminal (VDT) on the perceived glare discomfort and visual performance of computer operators. A set of criteria was established for rating the discomfort from glare as either ``intolerable,`` ``disturbing,`` ``noticeable,`` or ``imperceptible``. Source luminance adjustments by means of a variable transformer to match the subjective glare criteria, as well as ratings of preselected lighting conditions on a visual analog scale with the same criteria, were used to determine comfortable lighting conditions. Results from the experiment indicate that subjects reliably selected a preferred lighting condition at any time when asked to adjust the luminance to produce optimum visual comfort. There was considerable between-subject variation in the range of luminances over which the surround field was neither noticeably too dim nor noticeably too bright. Comfortable luminance ranges also varied with initial presentation luminances immediately preceding the adjustment. Subjects preferred higher luminances following high initial presentation luminances. Performance speed at a difficult letter-counting task suggests that visual performance was slightly impaired by the presence of glare discomfort. Counting errors also occurred slightly more frequently under higher surround source luminances. There was a tendency for subjects to become more susceptible to glare over the course of the experiment.

  7. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  8. Getting Good Results from Survey Research: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, James F.

    2004-01-01

    This article is the second contribution to a research methods series dedicated to getting good results from survey research. In this series, "good results" is a stenographic term used to define surveys that yield accurate and meaningful information that decision makers can use with confidence when conducting program evaluation and policy…

  9. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Data Release 6, including Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Knapp, Gillian R.

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (see www.sdss.org for general information) will map one-quarter of the entire sky and perform a redshift survey of galaxies, quasars and stars. The DR6 is the sixth major data release and provides images, imaging catalogs, spectra, and redshifts for download. It is the first data release of SDSS-II, an extension of the original SDSS consisting of three subprojects: Legacy, SEGUE and a Supernova survey. Be sure to check out the separate page for SEGUE also at http://classic.sdss.org/dr6/start/aboutsegue.html.

  10. Numerical investigation of the effect of delaminations on fracture characteristics of glare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Sunil; Narayanan, S.

    2013-10-01

    A finite element examination of the effect of delaminations on fracture characteristics of fibre metal laminate (Glare), by comparing energy release rates of normal cracks in laminates with and without delaminations, is presented in the paper. Glare comprising thin cracked 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy layers alternately bonded with E-glass fibre based composite prepregs is considered for the analysis. Delaminations are modeled with interface cohesive elements. Energy release rates of normal cracks in laminates with delaminations are found to be higher than those in the laminates without delaminations.

  11. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  12. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  13. SKA Weak Lensing II: Simulated Performance and Survey Design Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaldi, Anna; Harrison, Ian; Camera, Stefano; Brown, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    We construct a pipeline for simulating weak lensing cosmology surveys with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), taking as inputs telescope sensitivity curves; correlated source flux, size and redshift distributions; a simple ionospheric model; source redshift and ellipticity measurement errors. We then use this simulation pipeline to optimise a 2-year weak lensing survey performed with the first deployment of the SKA (SKA1). Our assessments are based on the total signal-to-noise of the recovered shear power spectra, a metric that we find to correlate very well with a standard dark energy figure of merit. We first consider the choice of frequency band, trading off increases in number counts at lower frequencies against poorer resolution; our analysis strongly prefers the higher frequency Band 2 (950-1760 MHz) channel of the SKA-MID telescope to the lower frequency Band 1 (350-1050 MHz). Best results would be obtained by allowing the centre of Band 2 to shift towards lower frequency, around 1.1 GHz. We then move on to consider survey size, finding that an area of 5,000 square degrees is optimal for most SKA1 instrumental configurations. Finally, we forecast the performance of a weak lensing survey with the second deployment of the SKA. The increased survey size (3π steradian) and sensitivity improves both the signal-to-noise and the dark energy metrics by two orders of magnitude.

  14. 77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of James River in Richmond, VA in support of the Labor Day Fireworks event. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners and spectators from the hazards......

  15. The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.

  16. MMT HYPERVELOCITY STAR SURVEY. II. FIVE NEW UNBOUND STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of five new unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) in the outer Milky Way halo. Using a conservative estimate of Galactic escape velocity, our targeted spectroscopic survey has now identified 16 unbound HVSs as well as a comparable number of HVSs ejected on bound trajectories. A Galactic center origin for the HVSs is supported by their unbound velocities, the observed number of unbound stars, their stellar nature, their ejection time distribution, and their Galactic latitude and longitude distribution. Other proposed origins for the unbound HVSs, such as runaway ejections from the disk or dwarf galaxy tidal debris, cannot be reconciled with the observations. An intriguing result is the spatial anisotropy of HVSs on the sky, which possibly reflects an anisotropic potential in the central 10-100 pc region of the Galaxy. Further progress requires measurement of the spatial distribution of HVSs over the southern sky. Our survey also identifies seven B supergiants associated with known star-forming galaxies; the absence of B supergiants elsewhere in the survey implies there are no new star-forming galaxies in our survey footprint to a depth of 1-2 Mpc.

  17. Delphi Survey: A Report of Rounds I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Maynard C.

    This DELPHI survey, undertaken as a part of the Council for Exceptional Children project on professional standards and guidelines, was intended to provide input to the project staff, feedback to the respondents, and information to all interested persons in the field on trends and issues in the field of special education. The query domains included…

  18. Glare sensitivity and visual acuity after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia

    PubMed Central

    Niesen, U.; Businger, U.; Hartmann, P.; Senn, P.; Schipper, I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), an increase in glare sensitivity and a reduction in contrast sensitivity can occur owing to changes in the cornea (structure and topography). In this study, an attempt was made to quantify and document objectively a change in those subjective perceptual factors.
METHODS—Snellen visual acuity and disability glare were measured with the Berkeley glare test preoperatively as well as 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on 32 myopic patients (46 eyes). During the postoperative progress checks, haze was graded and contrast sensitivity was measured with the Vistech chart. All the data were statistically analysed by multiple regression.
RESULTS—One year after PRK, a reduction in visual acuity (VA) measured with the low acuity contrast chart (10%) with and without glare could still be found, despite the fact that acuity measurements with a high contrast Snellen chart showed the same VA 6 months postoperatively as well as before the treatment. The lowest VA could be measured 1 month postoperatively; thereafter, the acuity increased despite the increase in haze that occurred during the first 3 months.
CONCLUSION—Disability glare and a reduction in contrast sensitivity could be observed in most patients after PRK treatment with the Meditec laser system with its scanning slit. The future will show if new technology and a broader flattening area of 6 to 7 mm can minimise these postoperative complications.

 PMID:9059248

  19. Circumstellar shells resolved in IRAS survey data. II - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    IRAS survey data for 512 red giant stars and young planetary nebulae were processed using a computer program which fitted the data to an idealized model of a circumstellar shell. Seventy-six of these stars were found to have circumstellar shells resolved in the 60-micron survey data. Forty pct of the 76 stars are carbon stars. Thirteen are Mira variables. The evolution of these shells, involving the interaction of the expelled material with the ISM, is modeled, and the results suggest that the period during which Mira variables lose mass lasts for approximately 10 exp 5 yr. Carbon stars are found to shed mass for about 2 x 10 exp 5 yr. The expansion velocity of the outer shell for the largest shells will normally be lower by a factor of 3-5 than the expansion velocity obtained from CO observations.

  20. The DiskMass Survey. II. Error Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.; Martinsson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ_{*}), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25°-35° is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction ({F}_bar) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σdyn), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ^disk_{*}), and disk maximality ({F}_{*,max}^disk≡ V^disk_{*,max}/ V_c). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ~25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  1. An S[II] Survey of the Rosette Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ybarra, J. E.; Phelps, R. L.; Mahaffey, C.

    2002-12-01

    We present observations resulting from a narrow-band [SII] and continuum survey of the Rosette Molecular Cloud, using the 1.5-meter telescope at Palomar Observatory. We discuss the detection of several Herbig-Haro objects and discuss possible spatial coincidences with known star forming regions within the cloud. Research supported, in part, by a Cottrell College Science Award from the Research Corporation.

  2. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-20

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, {approx}0.2 M{sub sun}) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  3. A survey of phenotype II in familial Mediterranean fever

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, C.; Kasapcopur, O.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Phenotype II in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the onset of amyloidosis before the onset of FMF with its typical attacks, or as an isolated finding in a member of an FMF family. Its presence was investigated by looking for proteinuria among the asymptomatic relatives of patients with FMF complicated by amyloidosis and among the asymptomatic relatives of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) complicated by amyloidosis, used as controls.
METHODS—The relatives of the index patients (13 with FMF and amyloidosis) and controls (6 with JCA and amyloidosis) were screened for proteinuria. Rectal biopsies were performed when proteinuria was significant (⩾300 mg/d).
RESULTS—461 relatives were screened in the FMF group and 269 among the controls. Two of the FMF relatives and one JCA relative had no symptoms of FMF but had significant proteinuria. Rectal biopsy for amyloidosis was negative in all instances of significant proteinuria.
CONCLUSION—Phenotype II is uncommon among the relatives of patients with FMF and amyloidosis.

 PMID:11053071

  4. The core collapse supernova rate from the SDSS-II supernova survey

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-09-10

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10{sup –4}((h/0.7){sup 3}/(yr Mpc{sup 3})) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  5. The WSRT Virgo Hi filament survey. II. Cross correlation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popping, A.; Braun, R.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The extended environment of galaxies contains a wealth of information about the formation and life cycle of galaxies which are regulated by accretion and feedback processes. Observations of neutral hydrogen are routinely used to image the high brightness disks of galaxies and to study their kinematics. Deeper observations will give more insight into the distribution of diffuse gas in the extended halo of the galaxies and the inter-galactic medium, where numerical simulations predict a cosmic web of extended structures and gaseous filaments. Aims: To observe the extended environment of galaxies, column density sensitivities have to be achieved that probe the regime of Lyman limit systems. H i observations are typically limited to a brightness sensitivity of NHI ~ 1019 cm-2, but this must be improved upon by ~2 orders of magnitude. Methods: In this paper we present the interferometric data of the Westerbork Virgo H i Filament Survey (WVFS) - the total power product of this survey has been published in an earlier paper. By observing at extreme hour angles, a filled aperture is simulated of 300 × 25 m in size, that has the typical collecting power and sensitivity of a single dish telescope, but the well defined bandpass characteristics of an interferometer. With the very good surface brightness sensitivity of the data, we hope to make new H i detections of diffuse systems with moderate angular resolution. Results: The survey maps 135 degrees in Right Ascension between 8 and 17 h and 11 degrees in Declination between - 1 and 10 degrees, including the galaxy filament connecting the Local Group with the Virgo Cluster. Only positive declinations could be completely processed and analysed due to projection effects. A typical flux sensitivity of 6 mJy beam-1 over 16 km s-1 is achieved, that corresponds to a brightness sensitivity of NHI ~ 1018 cm-2. An unbiased search has been done with a high significance threshold as well a search with a lower significance limit

  6. The Chandra Fornax Survey. II. The Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Karen; Zurek, D.; Scharf, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fornax cluster of galaxies lies in the southern hemisphere and is second only to the richer and more well-studied Virgo cluster in its accessibility for high resolution multi-wavelength data collection. A deep \\emph{Chandra} survey of the inner one degree of this cluster was performed in 2003, with first results published in 2005 identifying 771 X-ray point sources. We present a catalog of these X-ray point sources. Possible and likely optical candidates were identified from ground-based, HST and GALEX images. This catalog will facilitate future investigations by enhancing our understanding of a cluster's fainter and smaller objects, calibrating distance rulers, and constraining cosmological models. This work was conducted by a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) position at the American Museum of Natural History and funded by the NSF.

  7. Hα kinematics of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, I.; Carignan, C.; Amram, P.; Hernandez, O.; Chemin, L.; Daigle, O.; de Denus-Baillargeon, M.-M.; Balkowski, C.; Boselli, A.; Fathi, K.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2008-04-01

    This is the second part of an Hα kinematics follow-up survey of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The aim of this paper is to shed new light on the role of baryons and their kinematics and on the dark/luminous matter relation in the star-forming regions of galaxies, in relation with studies at other wavelengths. The data for 37 galaxies are presented. The observations were made using Fabry-Perot interferometry with the photon-counting camera FaNTOmM on four different telescopes, namely the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m, the ESO La Silla 3.6-m, the William Herschel 4.2-m and the Observatoire du mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescopes. The velocity fields are computed using custom IDL routines designed for an optimal use of the data. The kinematical parameters and rotation curves are derived using the GIPSY software. It is shown that non-circular motions associated with galactic bars affect the kinematical parameters fitting and the velocity gradient of the rotation curves. This leads to incorrect determinations of the baryonic and dark matter distributions in the mass models derived from those rotation curves. Based on observations made with the ESO 3.60-m telescope at La Silla Observatories under programme ID 076.B-0859 and on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii. E-mail: isabelle@astro.umontreal.ca (ID);claude.carignan@umontreal.ca (CC) ‡ Visiting Astronomer, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France and the University of Hawaii.

  8. Absorption-line survey of 32 QSOs at red wavelengths - properties of the Mg II absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzetta, K.M.; Wolfe, A.M.; Turnshek, D.A.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a survey of 32 QSOs for Mg II absorption at red wavelengths are presented, and the properties of the metal absorption systems are investigated. When interpreted in terms of ejection, the Mg II absorption systems are randomly distributed in velocity relative to the QSOs, although the systems may cluster on scales of a few thousand km/s. This is consistent with the absorption systems arising in intervening material not associated with the QSOs. The equivalent width distribution of the Mg II systems is well fitted by either an exponential or a power-law distribution, with the number density of the absorption systems increasing with decreasing rest equivalent width. There is marginally significant evidence for cosmological evolution of the number density of the Mg II absorbers, and no evidence for evolution of the Mg II equivalent width distribution with redshift. 42 references.

  9. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaoyu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  10. Evaluation Of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) And Veiling Glare Characteristics For Cathode Ray Tube Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banbury, J. R.

    1981-10-01

    Cathode-ray tube evaluation is becoming increasingly important in connection with the prediction of overall performance for systems incorporating an imaging display. Modulation transfer function has been measured by a method which takes account of the basic non-linearities of the crt and also offers improved accuracy by reducing the effects of phosphor screen noise. Two tests for crt internal veiling glare are discussed. Standard test conditions, which have been successfully used for a wide range of displays are described for both mtf and veiling glare. A contrast index is employed to indicate the extent of nonlinearity in the display transfer characteristic, and the paper also discusses briefly the use of generalised drive characteristics and limiting contrast curves as a supplement or alternative to modulation transfer function for definition of display performance.

  11. GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the 3D surface of palaeoglaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellitero, Ramón; Rea, Brice R.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig R.; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Lukas, Sven; Renssen, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Glacier reconstructions are widely used in palaeoclimatic studies and this paper presents a new semi-automated method for generating glacier reconstructions: GlaRe, is a toolbox coded in Python and operating in ArcGIS. This toolbox provides tools to generate the ice thickness from the bed topography along a palaeoglacier flowline applying the standard flow law for ice, and generates the 3D surface of the palaeoglacier using multiple interpolation methods. The toolbox performance has been evaluated using two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known, using the basic reconstruction routine in GlaRe. Results in terms of ice surface, ice extent and equilibrium line altitude show excellent agreement that confirms the robustness of this procedure in the reconstruction of palaeoglaciers from glacial landforms such as frontal moraines.

  12. Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinière, Freddy; Alderliesten, René; Tooski, Mehdi; Benedictus, Rinze

    2012-12-01

    An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the plate varied when cumulating the number of impacts. Damage accumulation was limited thanks to the synthesis of unidirectional composite and metal. The glass/epoxy plies with high elastic tensile strength could withstand several impacts before perforation despite delamination growth in the vicinity of the impacted area. The damage tolerant aluminium layers prevented the penetration of the projectile and avoided the expansion of delamination. This efficient mechanism preserved the structural integrity of GLARE until first aluminium cracking at the non-impacted side. Among the different failure modes, plate deformation absorbed most of the impact energy. The findings will support the development of a generic quasi-static analytical model and numerical methods.

  13. Theoretical Prediction And Experimental Measurement Of Glare In Infrared Components And Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence J.

    1981-10-01

    Experimental measurements of glare in refracting thermal imaging systems are in good agreement with theoretical predictions from ray-tracing, indicating that the primary cause of glare is multiple reflections from the optical surfaces. This is confirmed by measurements of the polar scattering function from blanks of infrared optical materials. Since the publication of this work (1), further measurements on diamond-turned Germanium blanks have shown a scattering level for some samples, which is as low as the best polished Germanium. Also recent measurements on Zinc Selenide, using an almost identical experimental arrangement (2), have provided supporting evidence that the scattering from this material at 10.6 microns includes a component from the volume as well as from the surfaces of the material.

  14. THE SURVEY OF LINES IN M31 (SLIM): INVESTIGATING THE ORIGINS OF [C II] EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kapala, M. J.; Sandstrom, K.; Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Fouesneau, M.; Croxall, K.; Dalcanton, J.; Leroy, A.

    2015-01-01

    The [C II] 158 μm line is one of the strongest emission lines observed in star-forming galaxies and has been empirically measured to correlate with the star-formation rate (SFR) globally and on kiloparsec scales. However, because of the multiphase origins of [C II], one might expect this relation to break down at small scales. We investigate the origins of [C II] emission by examining high spatial resolution observations of [C II] in M31 with the Survey of Lines in M31. We present five ∼700 × 700 pc (3' × 3') fields mapping the [C II] emission, Hα emission, and the ancillary infrared (IR) data. We spatially separate star-forming regions from diffuse gas and dust emission on ∼50 pc scales. We find that the [C II]-SFR correlation holds even at these scales, although the relation typically has a flatter slope than found at larger (kiloparsec) scales. While the Hα emission in M31 is concentrated in the SFR regions, we find that a significant amount (∼20%-90%) of the [C II] emission comes from outside star-forming regions and that the total IR emission (TIR) has the highest diffuse fraction of all SFR tracers. We find a weak correlation of the [C II]/TIR to dust color in each field and find a large-scale trend of increasing [C II]/TIR with galactocentric radius. The differences in the relative diffuse fractions of [C II], Hα, and IR tracers are likely caused by a combination of energetic photon leakage from H II regions and heating by the diffuse radiation field arising from older (B-star) stellar populations. However, we find that by averaging our measurements over kiloparsec scales, these effects are minimized, and the relation between [C II] and SFR found in other nearby galaxy studies is retrieved.

  15. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey:Search Algorithm and Follow-up Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Don Frederic; Depoy, D.L.; Doi, Mamoru; Garnavich, Peter M.; Craig, Hogan, J.; Holtzman, Jon; Jha, Saurabh; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miknaitis, Gajus; Nichol, Robert C.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew; SubbaRao, Mark; /Chicago U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo U. /Apache Point Observ. /Seoul Natl. U. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Tokyo U. /Seoul Natl. U. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ.

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg2 region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, Galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the Type Ia SNe, the main driver for the Survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  16. Bright but slow - Type II supernovae from OGLE-IV - implications for magnitude-limited surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poznanski, D.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2015-05-01

    We study a sample of 11 Type II supernovae (SNe) discovered by the OGLE-IV survey. All objects have well-sampled I-band light curves, and at least one spectrum. We find that two or three of the 11 SNe have a declining light curve, and spectra consistent with other SNe II-L, while the rest have plateaus that can be as short as 70 d, unlike the 100 d typically found in nearby galaxies. The OGLE SNe are also brighter, and show that magnitude-limited surveys find SNe that are different than usually found in nearby galaxies. We discuss this sample in the context of understanding Type II SNe as a class and their suggested use as standard candles.

  17. TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES. IV. OBJECTS FROM THE NORTHERN SKY VARIABILITY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Edward G.

    2013-09-15

    We have obtained VR photometry of 447 Cepheid variable star candidates with declinations north of -14 Degree-Sign 30', most of which were identified using the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) data archive. Periods and other photometric properties were derived from the combination of our data with the NSVS data. Atmospheric parameters were determined for 81 of these stars from low-resolution spectra. The identification of type II Cepheids based on the data presented in all four papers in this series is discussed. On the basis of spectra, 30 type II Cepheids were identified while 53 variables were identified as cool, main sequence stars and 283 as red giants following the definitions in Paper III. An additional 30 type II Cepheids were identified on the basis of light curves. The present classifications are compared with those from the Machine-learned All Sky Automated Survey Classification Catalog for 174 stars in common.

  18. PHOTOMETRY OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES FROM THE NORTHERN PART OF THE ALL SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Edward G.; Hemen, Brian; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: bhemen1@bigred.unl.edu E-mail: lthacke1@bigred.unl.edu

    2009-06-15

    We have obtained VR photometry of 282 Cepheid variable star candidates from the northern part of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). These together with data from the ASAS and the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) were used to redetermine the periods of the stars. We divided the stars into four groups based on location in a plot of mean color, (V-R), versus period. Two of the groups fell within the region of the diagram containing known type II Cepheids and yielded 14 new highly probable type II Cepheids. The properties of the remaining stars in these two groups are discussed but their nature remains uncertain. Unexplained differences exist between the sample of stars studied here and a previous sample drawn from the NSVS by Akerlof et al. This suggests serious biases in the identification of variables in different surveys.

  19. A new device for dynamic luminance mapping and glare risk assessment in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisuit, Apiparn; Münch, Mirjam; Deschamps, Laurent; Kämpf, Jérôme; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    High dynamic range imaging has been shown to be a reliable tool to assess luminance maps and glare risk probability in buildings. However, there are some limitations of image capturing time, especially when dealing with highly dynamic and contrasted daylight situations. We used a newly developed prototype of a digital camera which contains a high dynamic range pixel array chip, with a logarithmic scale for encoding. This type of camera allows to effectively assessing luminance, contrast and contrast directions, by taking only a single image or by performing real time recordings. The device was equipped with a fisheye lens and V-lambda filters to adapt the camera's spectral sensitivity to the human eye. After spectral as well as photometric calibration and vignetting correction, the device was tested to perform luminance mapping of real scenes. The results showed that luminance maps of a room can be efficiently assessed under dynamic daylight and mixed day- and electric lighting conditions in a very short time (i.e. 100 ms), when compared to classical HDR imaging techniques. This allows us to calculate glare indexes of a scene simultaneously. The camera opens a variety of new applications as a useful tool for architects, building designers and lighting experts. The device can be used to easily monitor daylight availability and glare indexes in existing buildings and further developments for advanced (day-) lighting control can be envisaged.

  20. PHYSICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF [O II] EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Greg; Malz, A. I.; Schneider, Donald P. E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu E-mail: hagen@psu.edu E-mail: aimalz@psu.edu; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Dark Energy Experiment pilot survey identified 284 [O II] λ3727 emitting galaxies in a 169 arcmin{sup 2} field of sky in the redshift range 0 < z < 0.57. This line flux limited sample provides a bridge between studies in the local universe and higher-redshift [O II] surveys. We present an analysis of the star formation rates (SFRs) of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass as determined via spectral energy distribution fitting. The [O II] emitters fall on the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies with SFR decreasing at lower masses and redshifts. However, the slope of our relation is flatter than that found for most other samples, a result of the metallicity dependence of the [O II] star formation rate indicator. The mass-specific SFR is higher for lower mass objects, supporting the idea that massive galaxies formed more quickly and efficiently than their lower mass counterparts. This is confirmed by the fact that the equivalent widths of the [O II] emission lines trend smaller with larger stellar mass. Examination of the morphologies of the [O II] emitters reveals that their star formation is not a result of mergers, and the galaxies' half-light radii do not indicate evolution of physical sizes.

  1. A CLASS I AND CLASS II CH{sub 3}OH MASER SURVEY OF EGOs FROM THE GLIMPSE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Churchwell, E.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.

    2009-09-10

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser survey of a sample of {approx}20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 {mu}m emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire images. These 4.5 {mu}m selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color Infrared Array Camera images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II CH{sub 3}OH masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, toward EGOs is {approx}>64%-nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers, which trace molecular outflows, is {approx}89% toward EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. The two types of CH{sub 3}OH masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 {mu}m emission, while 44 GHz masers are widely distributed and generally trace diffuse 4.5 {mu}m features. We also present results of a complementary James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) single-pointing molecular line survey of EGOs in the outflow tracers HCO{sup +}(3-2) and SiO(5-4). The HCO{sup +} line profiles and high SiO detection rate (90%) are indicative of the presence of active outflows. No 44 GHz continuum emission is detected at the 5 mJy beam{sup -1} (5{sigma}) level toward 95% of EGOs surveyed, excluding bright ultracompact H II regions as powering sources for the 4.5 {mu}m outflows. The results of our surveys constitute strong evidence that EGOs are young, massive YSOs, with active outflows, presumably powered by ongoing accretion.

  2. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  3. RESIS-II: An Updated Version of the Original Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Katherine V.; Mixon, David M.; Sundquist, Eric T.; Stallard, Robert F.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) database, originally compiled by the Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) in collaboration with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, is the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout the conterminous United States (U.S.). The database is a cumulative historical archive that includes data from as early as 1755 and as late as 1993. The 1,823 reservoirs included in the database range in size from farm ponds to the largest U.S. reservoirs (such as Lake Mead). Results from 6,617 bathymetric surveys are available in the database. This Data Series provides an improved version of the original RESIS database, termed RESIS-II, and a report describing RESIS-II. The RESIS-II relational database is stored in Microsoft Access and includes more precise location coordinates for most of the reservoirs than the original database but excludes information on reservoir ownership. RESIS-II is anticipated to be a template for further improvements in the database.

  4. The HIFI spectral survey of AFGL 2591 (CHESS). II. Summary of the survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaźmierczak-Barthel, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Helmich, F. P.; Chavarría, L.; Wang, K.-S.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: This paper presents the richness of submillimeter spectral features in the high-mass star forming region AFGL 2591. Methods: As part of the Chemical Herschel Survey of Star Forming Regions (CHESS) key programme, AFGL 2591 was observed by the Herschel (HIFI) instrument. The spectral survey covered a frequency range from 480 to 1240 GHz as well as single lines from 1267 to 1901 GHz (i.e. CO, HCl, NH3, OH, and [CII]). Rotational and population diagram methods were used to calculate column densities, excitation temperatures, and the emission extents of the observed molecules associated with AFGL 2591. The analysis was supplemented with several lines from ground-based JCMT spectra. Results: From the HIFI spectral survey analysis a total of 32 species were identified (including isotopologues). Although the lines are mostly quite weak (∫TmbdV ~ few K km s-1), 268 emission and 16 absorption lines were found (excluding blends). Molecular column densities range from 6 × 1011 to 1 × 1019 cm-2 and excitation temperatures from 19 to 175 K. Cold (e.g. HCN, H2S, and NH3 with temperatures below 70 K) and warm species (e.g. CH3OH, SO2) in the protostellar envelope can be distinguished. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. A new method of glare protection on highway real-time monitoring during nighttime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Chen, Zhebo; Ni, Xuxiang; Lu, Zukang

    2007-01-01

    When car run in highway during night, need switch on its headlight, for intensity of the light is very high, it will cause glare vision, the camera of monitoring system will be saturation, and all the other detail (For example: License plate) can't be shown on the screen except headlight and its glare. In this paper, introduce a new system and method of glare protection on highway nighttime monitoring, it can decrease the intensity of headlight and the glare vision in real-time, so the monitoring system could gain more details of highway from camera. The whole system's hardware is made up of outer camera-lens, inner camera-lens, spatial light modulator array and image sensor. The outer camera-lens images the objects (cars on highway) on the plane of the spatial light modulator array's panel. So, the spatial light modulator array can modulate part of the image on its panel, such as decrease or increase transmission ratio (or reflect ratio). The inner camera-lens images the spatial light modulator array's panel to the image sensor. So, the image on the image sensor is the image of object image after modulated. After the image sensor gained the image, we will use our software to analyze the image, use real-time processing to get the saturation and glared region. Firstly, we use threshold arithmetic to get the saturation and high intensive pixels of the image; secondly, we use filter to get ride of the noise made from threshold arithmetic, so we can get the region of saturation and glare region of the original image; thirdly, we do expand arithmetic at the direction of car's moving, and feedback the image to spatial light modulator. If we don't use expand arithmetic at the direction of car's moving, and feedback the image gained after step 2, for the car in highway is moving very fast, after the time of image processing, the car has moved to a new location with it's direction, so the feedback image will not decrease the light intensity of the car's headlight and it

  6. Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000)

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Howard W.; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric; MielkeJr, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Soil metal surveys were conducted in Baltimore, MD (1976–1979), Minnesota (1981–1988) and most recently, New Orleans, LA (1989-present). The unique characteristic of New Orleans is that it has two surveys; Survey I was completed in 1992 and Survey II was completed in 2000. This paper seeks to determine if there is a perceptible change in the amount of metals during less than a decade that separated these surveys. The Survey I collection was 4,026 samples stratified by 283 census tracts. All samples were collected in residential neighborhoods at least one block from a busy street. The Survey II collection was 5,467 samples stratified by 286 census tracts (plus City Park). The Survey II collection included busy streets as a category of samples. For comparison, the busy street category of 1,078 samples was excluded from Survey II for a total of 4,388 samples. The extraction methods of the two surveys used the same protocol for strength of acid (1 M HNO3), shaker-time (2 hours), and room temperature (~22ºC). However, Survey II differed in amount of sample used in extraction. For Surveys I and II, 4.0g and 0.4g were used respectively. The same ICP-AES was used to measure 8 metals in both surveys. To evaluate the analytical results of the two methods, reference soil samples (n=36) from the Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories, International Soil-analytical Exchange (WEPAL; ISE) were used. The relationship between the 4.0 and 0.4 g results were linear and the Survey I results were adjusted for sample:acid ratio. Further evaluation was done by creating interpolated Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) maps based on the median MMA for each census tract. A new map was created by dividing Survey II MMA by Survey I MMA. The ratio indicates increases of soil metals in the inner city and decreases of soil metals in the outlying areas of Metropolitan New Orleans. Comparing fresh parent alluvium from the Mississippi River with urban soil metal quantities

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Southern Cosmology Survey. II. (Menanteau+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menanteau, F.; Hughes, J. P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Deshpande, A. J.; Hilton, M.; Infante, L.; Jimenez, R.; Kosowsky, A.; Moodley, K.; Spergel, D.; Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    Our cluster analysis is based on all of the public unprocessed imaging data available for download at the time of writing from the observations carried out for the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) proposal. This was a NOAO Large Survey project (05B-0043, PI: Joe Mohr) that was awarded 45 nights between 2005 and 2007 to carry out intermediate depth g, r, i, z-band observations on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) Blanco 4m telescope using the 8192x8192pixel (0.36deg2^) MOSAIC-II camera. (5 data files).

  8. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  9. The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey. III. Kinematic Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2012-07-01

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67° >= l >= 18°, where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. "Bubble" H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  10. Spectroscopic CCD surveys for quasars at large redshift. II - A Pfuei transit survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Maarten; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.

    1986-01-01

    A CCD transit survey has been carried out with the 200 in. telescope of a strip of sky 5 arcmin wide and 9 hr long. Direct images and slitless spectra of over 43,000 objects were obtained on two successive nights. An automatic search for emission lines of given minimum equivalent width and signal-to-noise ratio yielded 52 candidate sources. Slit spectra revealed that 24 were emission-line galaxies with z less than 0.4 and eight were quasars with 2 between 1.00 and 2.76. The number of quasars detect agrees with that predicted from luminosity function models for z less than 2.9. The models also indicate that between 30 and 62 quasars with z less than 2.9 should have been found in this survey, but none were detected. This result reconfirms that there is a redshift cutoff near or below redshift three. The apparent conflict of this measurement with the known existence of dozens of quasars with redshifts larger than three is discussed.

  11. Catalog of Narrow Mg II Absorption Lines in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Using the Data Release 9 Quasar spectra from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, which does not include quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we detect narrow Mg ii λλ2796, 2803 absorption doublets in the spectral data redward of 1250 Å (quasar rest frame) until the red wing of the Mg ii λ2800 emission line. Our survey is limited to quasar spectra with a median signal-to-noise ratio < {{S}}/{{N}}> ≥slant 4 pixel-1 in the surveyed spectral region, resulting in a sample that contains 43,260 quasars. We have detected a total of 18,598 Mg ii absorption doublets with 0.2933 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.6529. About 75% of absorbers have an equivalent width at rest frame of {W}rλ 2796≥slant 1 \\mathringA . About 75% of absorbers have doublet ratios ({DR}={W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803) in the range of 1 ≤ DR ≤ 2, and about 3.2% lie outside the range of 1 - σDR ≤ DR ≤ 2 + σDR. We characterize the detection false positives/negatives by the frequency of detected Mg ii absorption doublets in the limits of the S/N of the spectral data. The S/N = 4.5 limit is assigned a completeness fraction of 53% and tends to be complete when the S/N is greater than 4.5. The redshift number densities of all of the detected Mg ii absorbers moderately increase from z ≈ 0.4 to z ≈ 1.5, which parallels the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. Limiting our investigation to those quasars whose emission redshift can be determined from narrow emission lines, the relative velocities (β) of Mg ii absorbers have a complex distribution which probably consists of three classes of Mg ii absorbers: (1) cosmologically intervening absorbers; (2) environmental absorbers that reside within the quasar host galaxies or galaxy clusters; (3) quasar outflow absorbers. After subtracting contributions from cosmologically intervening absorbers and environmental absorbers, the β distribution of the Mg iiabsorbers might mainly be contributed by the quasar outflow

  12. Anniston community health survey: Follow-up and dioxin analyses (ACHS-II)--methods.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Dutton, N D; Cusack, C; Mennemeyer, S T; Pavuk, M

    2016-02-01

    High serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported previously among residents of Anniston, Alabama, where a PCB production facility was located in the past. As the second of two cross-sectional studies of these Anniston residents, the Anniston Community Health Survey: Follow-Up and Dioxin Analyses (ACHS-II) will yield repeated measurements to be used to evaluate changes over time in ortho-PCB concentrations and selected health indicators in study participants. Dioxins, non-ortho PCBs, other chemicals, heavy metals, and a variety of additional clinical tests not previously measured in the original ACHS cohort will be examined in ACHS-II. The follow-up study also incorporates a questionnaire with extended sections on diet and occupational history for a more comprehensive assessment of possible exposure sources. Data collection for ACHS-II from 359 eligible participants took place in 2014, 7 to 9 years after ACHS. PMID:25982988

  13. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok E-mail: sunkwok@hku.h

    2009-11-20

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 mum, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 mum band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Halpha images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  14. Relationship between absorptive lenses and contrast sensitivity in healthy young subjects with glare under photopic- and mesopic-vision conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Masatsugu; Uozato, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the effect of absorptive lenses on contrast sensitivity under photopic- and mesopic-visions with glare, from the viewpoint of luminous transmittance (LT) and spectral transmittance. The subjects were 24 healthy volunteers. Log contrast sensitivity (logCS) under two luminance conditions with glare was measured with a contrast glare test device. Binocular logCSs with absorptive lenses were compared with those without absorptive lenses (control condition). Furthermore, to investigate the effect of spectral transmittance, we calculated the ratio of stimulus quantity and the correlation between this ratio and logCS. Compared with that in the control, logCS was hardly affected in the case of high-luminous-transmittance absorptive lenses under binocular visions with glare. Middle- and long-wavelength lights effectively contribute to contrast sensitivity under photopic-vision and lights at each wavelength showed almost the same coefficients of correlation under mesopic-vision. Previous studies suggested that absorptive lenses provide users with protection against harmful radiation and glare. Our present results suggested that short-wavelength and high-LT absorptive lenses are particularly useful in daylight.

  15. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bianca; de Camargo Pinto, Louise Lapagesse; Giugliani, Roberto; Wraith, James Edmond; Guffon, Nathalie; Eich, Elke; Beck, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years) and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years). Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle). Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required. PMID:21808707

  16. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Lee, Eleanor

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  17. Flicker-glare and visual-comfort assessments of light emitting diode billboards.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Hsuan; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the discomfort glare produced by the high-brightness LED billboards in relation to four factors: flicker frequency, panel luminance, viewing angular sub-tense, and ambient illuminance. The results showed that visual comfort is not affected by ambient illuminance but by the other three factors. Also, interaction was found between luminance and viewing angle. The experimental data were curve fitted to construct visual comfort models of LED billboard displays. By modulating the operating conditions, comfort display with LED billboards can be achieved. PMID:25090356

  18. The VMC Survey - XIII. Type II Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepi, V.; Moretti, M. I.; Marconi, M.; Clementini, G.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; de Grijs, R.; Emerson, J. P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ivanov, V. D.; Muraveva, T.; Piatti, A. E.; Subramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    The VISTA (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) survey of the Magellanic Clouds System (VMC) is collecting deep Ks-band time-series photometry of the pulsating variable stars hosted in the system formed by the two Magellanic Clouds and the Bridge connecting them. In this paper, we have analysed a sample of 130 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Type II Cepheids (T2CEPs) found in tiles with complete or near-complete VMC observations for which identification and optical magnitudes were obtained from the OGLE III (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) survey. We present J and Ks light curves for all 130 pulsators, including 41 BL Her, 62 W Vir (12 pW Vir) and 27 RV Tau variables. We complement our near-infrared photometry with the V magnitudes from the OGLE III survey, allowing us to build a variety of period-luminosity (PL), period-luminosity-colour (PLC) and period-Wesenheit (PW) relationships, including any combination of the V, J, Ks filters and valid for BL Her and W Vir classes. These relationships were calibrated in terms of the LMC distance modulus, while an independent absolute calibration of the PL(Ks) and the PW(Ks, V) was derived on the basis of distances obtained from Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes and Baade-Wesselink technique. When applied to the LMC and to the Galactic globular clusters hosting T2CEPs, these relations seem to show that (1) the two Population II standard candles RR Lyrae and T2CEPs give results in excellent agreement with each other; (2) there is a discrepancy of ˜0.1 mag between Population II standard candles and classical Cepheids when the distances are gauged in a similar way for all the quoted pulsators. However, given the uncertainties, this discrepancy is within the formal 1σ uncertainties.

  19. Cosmology with Photometrically Classified Type Ia Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Nichol, Robert C.; Sako, Masao; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Bassett, Bruce; Biswas, Rahul; Brown, Peter; Cinabro, David; Dawson, Kyle S.; Dilday, Ben; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kunz, Martin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Richmond, Michael; Riess, Adam; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Taylor, Matt; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2013-02-01

    We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN classification technique of Sako et al., aided by host-galaxy redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.55). SuperNova ANAlysis simulations of our methodology estimate that we have an SN Ia classification efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e.g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives Ω m = 0.24+0.07 -0.05 (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint statistical constraints on Ω m and ΩΛ, comparable to those derived from the spectroscopically confirmed Three-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3). Using only our data, the statistics-only result favors an accelerating universe at 99.96% confidence. Assuming a constant wCDM cosmological model, and combining with H 0, cosmic microwave background, and luminous red galaxy data, we obtain w = -0.96+0.10 -0.10, Ω m = 0.29+0.02 -0.02, and Ω k = 0.00+0.03 -0.02 (statistical errors only), which is competitive with similar spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia analyses. Overall this comparison is reassuring, considering the lower redshift leverage of the SDSS-II SN sample (z < 0.55) and the lack of spectroscopic confirmation used herein. These results demonstrate the potential of photometrically classified SN Ia samples in improving cosmological constraints.

  20. Effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition among different age groups.

    PubMed

    Mahjoob, Monireh; Heydarian, Samira; Koochi, Somayyeh

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition for various ages. A total of 60 subjects, aged 5-60 years, with no ocular pathology and no previous surgery were assessed in this cross-sectional study. We divided subjects into six subgroups according to their ages, and the number of subjects in each group was 10: group 1, aged 5-10 years; group 2, aged 11-20 years; group 3, aged 21-30 years; group 4, aged 31-40 years; group 5, aged 41-50 years; and group 6, aged 51-60 years. Snellen visual acuity and Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity with and without glare and with the use of yellow filter under glare condition were determined. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 20. Our results showed a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity under glare condition in all age groups (p = 0.000), which improved significantly with the use of yellow filter (p = 0.000). Although when data in different age groups were analyzed separately, this improvement was only significant in older subjects, aged 51-60 years (p = 0.007). No significant difference was found between Snellen visual acuity with and without glare (p = 0.083), and also we found no yellow filter effect on visual acuity under glare condition. We conclude that yellow filter, which absorbs short wavelength, may provide significant contrast sensitivity benefits for individuals and influences older subjects more than younger ones. PMID:26613932

  1. Validation of a method to measure light distortion surrounding a source of glare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Neves, Helena; Macedo-de-Araújo, Rute; Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; da-Silva, Ana C.; Queirós, António; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to validate a new device dedicated to measure the light disturbances surrounding bright sources of light under different sources of potential variability. Twenty subjects were involved in the study. Light distortion was measured using an experimental prototype (light distortion analyzer, CEORLab, University of Minho, Portugal) comprising twenty-four LED arrays panel at 2 m. Sources of variability included: intrasession and intersession repeated measures, pupil size (3 versus 6 mm), defocus (+0.50) correction for the working distance, angular resolution (15 deg versus 30 deg), temporal stimuli presentation, and pupil size. Size, shape, location, and irregularity parameters have been obtained. At a low speed of presentation of the stimuli, changes in angular resolution did not have an effect on the results of the parameters measured. Results did not change with pupil size. Intensity of the central glare source significantly influenced the outcomes. Examination time was reduced by 30% when a 30 deg angular resolution was explored instead of 15 deg. Measurements were fast and repeatable under the same experimental conditions. Size and shape parameters showed the highest consistency, whereas location and irregularity parameters showed lower consistency. The system was sensitive to changes in the intensity of the central glare source but not to pupil changes in this sample of healthy subjects.

  2. Color and contrast sensitivity after glare from high-brightness LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, H.-D.

    2008-02-01

    The color contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with 7 specially developed test charts in red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow and black as a reference, namely without and after glare from 4 colored high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 tests in order to check especially the ability to discriminate low contrast. It was found that a contrast decrease of one level is equivalent to an increase of about 4 s in the required identification time and in addition a delay time between about 14 s and 16 s has been measured at the beginning of the respective test as a result of the dazzling glare from an LED. In addition trials have been performed with 4 different pseudoisochromatic color plates designed by Ishihara for color vision. These plates have been used to determine temporary color deficiencies after an exposure from a high-brightness LED. For this purpose 40 volunteers have been included in a laboratory test. Color vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied color plate and respective LED color.

  3. First-Year Spectroscopy for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Chen; Romani, Roger W.; Sako, Masao; Marriner, John; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert

    2008-03-25

    This paper presents spectroscopy of supernovae discovered in the first season of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. This program searches for and measures multi-band light curves of supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.4, complementing existing surveys at lower and higher redshifts. Our goal is to better characterize the supernova population, with a particular focus on SNe Ia, improving their utility as cosmological distance indicators and as probes of dark energy. Our supernova spectroscopy program features rapid-response observations using telescopes of a range of apertures, and provides confirmation of the supernova and host-galaxy types as well as precise redshifts. We describe here the target identification and prioritization, data reduction, redshift measurement, and classification of 129 SNe Ia, 16 spectroscopically probable SNe Ia, 7 SNe Ib/c, and 11 SNe II from the first season. We also describe our efforts to measure and remove the substantial host galaxy contamination existing in the majority of our SN spectra.

  4. A Large-Scale, Low-Frequency Murchison Widefield Array Survey of Galactic H ii Regions between 260 < l < 340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Callingham, J. R.; Su, H.; Morgan, J.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Mckinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Procopio, P.; Prabu, T.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.

    2016-05-01

    We have compiled a catalogue of H ii regions detected with the Murchison Widefield Array between 72 and 231 MHz. The multiple frequency bands provided by the Murchison Widefield Array allow us identify the characteristic spectrum generated by the thermal Bremsstrahlung process in H ii regions. We detect 306 H ii regions between 260° < l < 340° and report on the positions, sizes, peak, integrated flux density, and spectral indices of these H ii regions. By identifying the point at which H ii regions transition from the optically thin to thick regime, we derive the physical properties including the electron density, ionised gas mass, and ionising photon flux, towards 61 H ii regions. This catalogue of H ii regions represents the most extensive and uniform low frequency survey of H ii regions in the Galaxy to date.

  5. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Anderson, L. D.

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  6. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Second epoch VLBA Calibrator Survey (VCS-II) (Gordon+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, D.; Jacobs, C.; Beasley, A.; Peck, A.; Gaume, R.; Charlot, P.; Fey, A.; Ma, C.; Titov, O.; Boboltz, D.

    2016-07-01

    Six Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) calibrator survey campaigns were run between 1994 and 2007 (VCS1, Beasley et al. 2002, cat. J/ApJS/141/13; VCS2, Fomalont et al. 2003, cat. J/AJ/126/2562; VCS3, Petrov et al. 2005, cat. J/AJ/129/1163; VCS4, Petrov et al. 2006, cat. J/AJ/131/1872; VCS5, Kovalev et al. 2007, cat. J/AJ/133/1236; VCS6, Petrov et al. 2008, cat. J/AJ/136/580) We report on the results of a second epoch VLBA Calibrator Survey campaign (VCS-II) in which 2400 VCS sources were re-observed in the X and S bands. The VLBA S/X (S band~2.3GHz and X band~8.6GHz) dual frequency system was used. We used the VLBA RDBE/Mark5C system, which has 16 32MHz channels and records 2 Gbits/s using 2 bit sampling. Due to S-band filters below 2200MHz and above 2400MHz at most of the VLBA antennas, and a broad area of RFI from SiriusXM satellites (2320-2345MHz), only four channels could be deployed in the S band (2220.0, 2252.0, 2284.0, and 2348.0MHz). The other 12 channels were deployed in the X band (8460.0, 8492.0, 8524.0, 8556.0, 8620.0, 8652.0, 8716.0, 8748.0, 8812.0, 8844.0, 8876.0, and 8908.0MHz). We set a target of 300 sources per session, or 2400 total sources for the 8 VLBA sessions. We selected all sources from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) S/X astrometric/geodetic catalog (available at http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/solutions/ or by following the links at http://lupus.gsfc.nasa.gov/) between -50° and +90° decl. that had been observed in only 1 or 2 sessions as of mid 2013. This amounted to ~2060 sources. To fill out the list, we added ~340 additional sources that had been observed but not detected in the original VCS1-6 analysis. The eight schedules were run between 2014 January and 2015 March (VCS-II-A/BG219A on 2014 01/04 10:04-01/05 10:02; VCS-II-B/BG219B1 on 2014 05/31 17:12-06/01 17:05; VCS-II-D/BG219D on 2014 06/09 09:13-06/10 09:10; VCS-II-C/BG219C on 2014 08/05 13:03-08/06 13:00; VCS-II-E/BG219E on 2014 08/09 00:00-08/09 23:55; VCS-II-F/BG219F on 2014

  8. Glare-Tunable Transparent Electrochemical Smart Window Coupled with Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Shibasaki, Masaaki; Matsuzaki, Tatsuya; Nagata, Yujiro

    2013-04-01

    We fabricated a novel device assembled by coupling a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED) and a glare-tunable transparent electrochemical device. This device could be operated in six different states, namely, (1) transparent, (2) mirror, (3) black, (4) dual emission, (5) single-side emission with mirror, and (6) single-side emission with black. Switching between each of these states could be tuned by varying/selecting the applied DC bias voltage. The device showed 63.8% transmittance in the transparent state, and 42.1% reflectance in the mirror state at 700 nm. Transmittance in both the mirror and black states was less than 0.1% in the visible range.

  9. A cross-polarized freeform illumination design for glare reduction in fruit quality inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keresztes, Janos C.; Koshel, R. John; Chipman, Russel; Stover, John C.; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Common illumination systems in short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) include direct or indirect tungsten halogen lights. While direct lights provide more radiation onto the samples than dome setups, thus being more energy efficient, the acquired images often suffer from specular reflections and gloss. Glare artifacts in images increase variability in the data limiting the accuracy of machine vision algorithms for defect detection and quality inspection, or even providing false positives. Although domes are known to provide a near Lambertian illumination and glare free images, glossy regions and heterogeneities may remain in the data in practice. More particularly, in the field of fruit and vegetable quality inspection, due to their waxy surface, it remains challenging to design an efficient realistic lighting system. This paper suggests a new approach to optimize the illumination of fruit and vegetables based on measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), shape and Stokes parameters. From these measured values, a BRDF model is loaded into ray-tracing software for realistic illumination engineering in order to determine the most suitable illumination scheme. This concept is applied to apples and a cross polarizer (CP) with freeform optics (FO) optical configuration is proposed, which allows the FO to be optimized to maximize uniformity in the field of view of the imager and removes the parallel polarized gloss on the apples. The performance of this CP illumination system was determined experimentally for a set of apples. This cross polarized (CP) illumination system provided a uniformity (U) of 92% and an efficiency (ν) of 90%, while U = 87% and ν = 14% for an ideal dome configuration when illuminating a rectangular target. The simulated imaged apples with assigned optical properties performed better with CP (U=80%) than when using a dome (U=73%) by 7%. Finally, the sensitivity of the design for the light

  10. Exploring the Milky Way halo with SDSS-II SN survey RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lee, Nathan

    This thesis details the creation of a large catalog of RR Lyrae stars, their lightcurves, and their associated photometric and kinematic parameters. This catalog contains 421 RR Lyrae stars with 305 RRab and 116 RRc. Of these, 241 stars have stellar spectra taken with either the Blanco 4m RC spectrograph or the SDSS/SEGUE survey, and in some cases taken by both. From these spectra and photometric methods derived from them, an analysis is conducted of the RR lyrae's distribution, metallicity, kinematics, and photometric properties within the halo. All of these RR Lyrae originate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II SN Survey covers a 2.5 degree equatorial stripe ranging from -60 to +60 degrees in RA. This corresponds to relatively high southern galactic latitudes in the anti-center direction. The full catalog ranges from g 0 magnitude 13 to 20 which covers a distance of 3 to 95 kpc from the sun. Using this sample, we explore the Oosterhoff dichotomy through the D log P method as a function of | Z | distance from the plane. This results in a clear division of the RRab stars into OoI and OoII groups at lower | Z |, but the population becomes dominated by OoI stars at higher | Z |. The idea of a dual halo is explored primarily in the context of radial velocity distributions as a function of | Z |. In particular, V gsr , the radial velocity in the galactic standard of rest, is used as a proxy for V [straight phi] , the cylindrical rotational velocity. This is then compared against a single halo model galaxy, which results in very similar V gsr histograms for both at low to medium | Z |. However, at high | Z | there is a clear separation into two distinct velocity groups for the data without a corresponding separation in the model, suggesting that at least a two-component model for the halo is necessary. The final part of the analysis involves [Fe/H] measurements from both spectra and photometric relations cut in both | Z | and radial velocity. In this case

  11. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J. [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  12. EASTERN LAKE SURVEY-PHASE II AND NATIONAL STREAM SURVEY-PHASE I PROCESSING LABORATORY OPERATIONS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Surface Water Survey was designed to characterize surface water chemistry in regions of the United States believed to be potentially sensitive to acidic deposition. The National Stream Survey was a synoptic survey designed to quantify the chemistry of streams in area...

  13. A survey of Mg II h and k emission in near-solar type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer measurements of Mg II h and k emission fluxes are presented for 30 F and G stars that are on or near the main sequence and compared with Wilson's measurements of the Ca II H and K fluxes in these stars. The survey includes a large proportion of stars with very low chromospheric activity as well as 111 Tau, X(1) Ori and other examples of strong chromospheric emission. Emission cores are presented in all of the stars observed. A sharp lower limit to the flux in the cores of the k lines implies the existence of a minimum level of chromospheric activity in which the k line flux is a constant fraction of stellar luminosity. Reduction of Wilson's values to absolute fluxes produces a close correlation between Mg and Ca strength with possibly some dependence on color. For the most active stars, the Mg k and Ca fluxes are consistent with the presence of solar plage covering up to one half of the stellar surface. However, the ratio of k to h in these stars is much less than this simple interpretation predicts.

  14. Host galaxies of luminous type II AGN: Winds, shocks, and comparisons to The SAMI Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Rebecca; Croom, Scott; Pracy, Michael; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    We present IFS observations of luminous (log(L[O III]/L⊙) > 8.7) local (z < 0.11) type II AGN, and demonstrate that winds are ubiquitous within this sample and have a direct influence on the ISM of the host galaxies. We use both non-parametric (e.g. line width and asymmetry) and multi-Gaussian fitting to decompose the complex emission profiles close to the AGN. We find line widths containing 80% flux in the range 400 - 1600 km/s with a mean of 790 ± 90 km/s, such high velocities are strongly suggestive that these AGN are driving ionized outflows. Additionally, multi-Gaussian fitting reveals that 14/17 of our targets require 3 separate kinematic components in the ionized gas in their central regions. The broadest components of these fits have FWHM = 530 - 2520 km/s, with a mean value of 920 ± 50 km/s. By simultaneously fitting both the Hβ/[O III] and Hα/[N II] complexes we construct ionization diagnostic diagrams for each component. 13/17 of our galaxies show a significant (> 95 %) correlation between the [N II]/Hα ratio and the velocity dispersion of the gas. Such a correlation is the natural consequence of a contribution to the ionization from shock excitation and we argue that this demonstrates that the outflows from these AGN are directly impacting the surrounding ISM within the galaxies. In addition, we use stellar absorption features to measure kinematics for these AGN host galaxies and those of a control sample selected from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to search for evidence of these luminous AGN being preferentially hosted by disturbed or merging systems.

  15. Knowledge of women's issues and epilepsy (KOWIE-II): a survey of health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Long, Lucretia; Montouris, Georgia

    2005-02-01

    Attendees of the American College of Physicians 2003 annual meeting were invited to complete a computerized version of the Knowledge of Women's Issues and Epilepsy (KOWIE-II) questionnaire. This 10-item survey includes items specific to issues that affect women with epilepsy (WWE), including hormone sensitive seizures, effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on oral contraception, bone health, sexual function, pregnancy, and breast-feeding. A total of 202 healthcare providers (HCP) responded to the survey, 92% of which identified themselves as physicians. Few understood the effects of endogenous steroid hormones on seizure threshold (24%) and that epilepsy is associated with an increased incidence of female sexual dysfunction (37%). Most knew that enzyme-inducing AEDs may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives (71%) and that certain AEDs are associated with bone disease (77%). The majority were aware that most WWE have healthy children (86%), that women do not need to discontinue AEDs during pregnancy (75%), and that the most appropriate AED during pregnancy is one that best addresses the patient's seizures. Fewer than half (47%) of participants knew that women taking AEDs could breast-feed safely. This sample of HCPs was not adequately informed about the unique issues affecting WWE. An aggressive educational effort is necessary to close the gaps in knowledge. PMID:15652739

  16. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, S; Yoshida, T; Tsutsumi, M; Saito, K

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. PMID:24698118

  17. A Herschel [C ii] Galactic plane survey. I. The global distribution of ISM gas components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, J. L.; Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The [C ii] 158 μm line is an important tool for understanding the life cycle of interstellar matter. Ionized carbon is present in a variety of phases of the interstellar medium (ISM), including the diffuse ionized medium, warm and cold atomic clouds, clouds in transition from atomic to molecular, and dense and warm photon dominated regions. Aims: Velocity-resolved observations of [C ii] are the most powerful technique available to disentangle the emission produced by these components. These observations can also be used to trace CO-dark H2 gas and determine the total mass of the ISM. Methods: The Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) project surveys the [C ii] 158 μm line over the entire Galactic disk with velocity-resolved observations using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. We present the first longitude-velocity maps of the [C ii] emission for Galactic latitudes b = 0°, ±0.5°, and ±1.0°. We combine these maps with those of H i, 12CO, and 13CO to separate the different phases of the ISM and study their properties and distribution in the Galactic plane. Results: [C ii] emission is mostly associated with spiral arms, mainly emerging from Galactocentric distances between 4 and 10 kpc. It traces the envelopes of evolved clouds as well as clouds that are in the transition between atomic and molecular. We estimate that most of the observed [C ii] emission is produced by dense photon dominated regions (~47%), with smaller contributions from CO-dark H2 gas (~28%), cold atomic gas (~21%), and ionized gas (~4%). Atomic gas inside the Solar radius is mostly in the form of cold neutral medium (CNM), while the warm neutral medium gas dominates the outer galaxy. The average fraction of CNM relative to total atomic gas is ~43%. We find that the warm and diffuse CO-dark H2 is distributed over a larger range of Galactocentric distances (4-11 kpc) than the cold and dense H2 gas traced by 12CO and 13CO (4-8 kpc). The fraction of CO-dark H2 to total H2 increases

  18. Methodology to assess potential glint and glare hazards from concentrating solar power plants : analytical models and experimental validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    With growing numbers of concentrating solar power systems being designed and developed, glint and glare from concentrating solar collectors and receivers is receiving increased attention as a potential hazard or distraction for motorists, pilots, and pedestrians. This paper provides analytical methods to evaluate the irradiance originating from specularly and diffusely reflecting sources as a function of distance and characteristics of the source. Sample problems are provided for both specular and diffuse sources, and validation of the models is performed via testing. In addition, a summary of safety metrics is compiled from the literature to evaluate the potential hazards of calculated irradiances from glint and glare. Previous safety metrics have focused on prevention of permanent eye damage (e.g., retinal burn). New metrics used in this paper account for temporary flash blindness, which can occur at irradiance values several orders of magnitude lower than the irradiance values required for irreversible eye damage.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-II SN Survey: host-galaxy spectral data (Wolf+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. C.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Gupta, R. R.; Sako, M.; Fischer, J. A.; Kessler, R.; Jha, S. W.; March, M. C.; Scolnic, D. M.; Fischer, J.-L.; Campbell, H.; Nichol, R. C.; Olmstead, M. D.; Richmond, M.; Schneider, D. P.; Smith, M.

    2016-07-01

    Observations from the full 3yr SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS; Sako et al. 2014, arXiv:1401.3317) were used for our SN Ia sample, and a combination of spectra from SDSS and BOSS was utilized for host-galaxy spectroscopy. (1 data file).

  20. Migrant Children in Florida. The Phase II Report of the Florida Migratory Child Survey Project, 1968-1969, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, E. John; And Others

    The Phase II study of the Florida Migratory Child Survey Project had as its primary focus the data obtained directly from migratory workers and public schools. Major objectives of the 12-month study were (1) to obtain an accurate count of migratory workers and children in each Florida county, (2) to determine movement patterns of migratory…

  1. Measurement of the droplets sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shiquan; Jia, Ming; Wang, Tianyou; Lü, Qieni; Sun, Kai

    2016-04-01

    An improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing (EGPVS) is proposed to investigate the droplets sizes of a flash boiling spray. When a spherical droplet with a relative refractive index from 1.16 to 1.41 is illuminated by two opposite laser sheets and a charge-coupled device camera is used to collect the s-polarization light at an observation angle of 90°, the intensities of the reflected lights are much stronger than the other order scattering lights. If the intensity of incident laser is controlled appropriately, two glare points from the reflected lights for the droplet are formed at the focused plane, while the intensities of the other order scattering lights are too weak to form any glare points. Then, the droplet diameter can be derived from the distance between the two glare points. In addition, the focused image is relative small, making it possible to measure dense spray. First, the characteristics of the improved EGPVS are discussed, and a series of standard particles are measured for validating this technique. Then, the technique is applied to investigate the droplets sizes of flash boiling spray. It is found that the minimum measurable diameter of droplets is 7.1 μm, and the relative error is less than 4.7 %. The droplet size distributions of spray are different at different stages. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of gasoline spray decreases gradually as the fuel temperature increases, which is different from that of a single-component fuel with a sharp decrease in SMD at the flash boiling stage.

  2. Design and manufacture of an athermalication high-speed lens with low veiling glare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rongbao; Ji, Yiqun; Zhao, Zhicheng; Chen, Xinhua; Song, Wenbao; Shen, Weimin

    2013-12-01

    Advanced optical imaging systems should have high imaging quality and robotic environmental suitability. Such a near-infrared lens with the Pitzval style is designed and developed. Its operation wavelength is from 0.72μm to 1.0μm and its relative aperture as high as 1:2. Its passive athermalization design to suit for the wide operation temperature range from -45°C to 60°C is implemented through optimal selection of its optical glasses and opto-mechamical structure. Sharp ghost image due to even reflection at optical surfaces is eliminated with our suggested means, and thus stray light within its image plane is both low and uniform even under backlighting. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the designed lens at the Niquest spatial frequency 90 lines/mm of focal plane array detector is higher than 0.6 within its operation temperature range and its entire field of view. Eighty percent of its diffraction encircled energy is within one pixel of the detector. Its point source transmittance (PST) when the illuminating off-angle of point source is from 5 to 60 degrees, which is just out of its field of view, is computed through modeling and simulation, and as low as between 10-3 to 10-11. The experimentally measured MTF values and veiling glare index of our developed lens reaches respectively to 0.61 and 0.372% and validates our suggested design in the paper.

  3. From bed topography to ice thickness: GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the surface of palaeoglaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Rea, Brice; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Renssen, Hans; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    We present GlaRe, A GIS tool that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometry for palaeoglaciers given the bed topography. This tool utilises a numerical approach and can work using a minimum of morphological evidence i.e. the position of the palaeoglacier front. The numerical approach is based on an iterative solution to the perfect plasticity assumption for ice rheology, explained in Benn and Hulton (2010). The tool can be run in ArcGIS 10.1 (ArcInfo license) and later updates and the toolset is written in Python code. The GlaRe toolbox presented in this paper implements a well-established approach for the determination of palaeoglacier equilibrium profiles. Significantly it permits users to quickly run multiple glacier reconstructions which were previously very laborious and time consuming (typically days for a single valley glacier). The implementation of GlaRe will facilitate the reconstruction of large numbers of palaeoglaciers which will provide opportunities for such research addressing at least two fundamental problems: 1. Investigation of the dynamics of palaeoglaciers. Glacier reconstructions are often based on a rigorous interpretation of glacial landforms but not always sufficient attention and/or time has been given to the actual reconstruction of the glacier surface, which is crucial for the calculation of palaeoglacier ELAs and subsequent derivation of quantitative palaeoclimatic data. 2. the ability to run large numbers of reconstructions and over much larger spatial areas provides an opportunity to undertake palaeoglaciers reconstructions across entire mountain, ranges, regions or even continents, allowing climatic gradients and atmospheric circulation patterns to be elucidated. The tool performance has been evaluated by comparing two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known with a basic reconstruction using GlaRe. Results from the comparisons between extant glacier surfaces and modelled

  4. Urinary cadmium and blood pressure: results from the NHANES II survey.

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, A S; DiCiccio, Y; Provenzano, G

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure were examined in a sample of 951 adult men and women who participated in the Second National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES II). Among all participants, positive relationships were seen between urinary cadmium levels and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively), after adjusting for age, sex, race, relative body weight, smoking status, and hypertensive medication use. However, analyses for subgroups determined by sex and smoking status were inconsistent. Among current smokers, urinary cadmium levels were significantly positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure for women, and with diastolic blood pressure for men. Yet among former smokers and lifelong nonsmokers of both sexes, urinary cadmium was not significantly associated with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Evidence that some hypertensive medications increase urinary cadmium excretion suggests that the positive associations seen among current smokers may reflect high urinary cadmium levels among hypertensives induced by hypertensive treatment. After treated hypertensives were removed from the analysis, regression coefficients relating blood pressure to cadmium dropped by a factor of two and lost statistical significance. We conclude that the present data provide little support for a causal association between systemic cadmium and hypertension at nonoccupational exposure levels. Further, conflicting results of previous studies may reflect failure to control adequately for age, smoking status, and hypertensive treatment. PMID:2040243

  5. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  6. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA survey. II. Supernova environmental metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; Stanishev, V.; Mourão, A. M.; Rodrigues, M.; Flores, H.; Walcher, C. J.; Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Badenes, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mollá, M.; Meidt, S.; Pérez, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The metallicity of a supernova progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that can rule the progenitor's fate. We present the second study of nearby supernova (SN) host galaxies (0.005 survey. We analyze the metallicity of 115 galaxies, which hosted 132 SNe within and 10 SNe outside the field of view (FoV) of the instrument. Another 18 galaxies, which hosted only SNe outside the FoV, were also studied. Using the O3N2 calibrator that was described elsewhere, we found no statistically significant differences between the gas-phase metallicities at the locations of the three main SN types - Ia, Ib/c and II; they all have 12 + log (O/H) ≃ 8.50 within 0.02 dex. The total galaxy metallicities are also very similar, and we argue that the reason is that our sample only consists of SNe discovered in massive galaxies (log (M/M⊙) > 10 dex) by targeted searches. We neither found evidence that the metallicity at the SN location differs from the average metallicity at the galactocentric distance of the SNe. By extending our SN sample with published metallicities at the SN location, we are able to study the metallicity distributions for all SN subtypes split into SN discovered in targeted and untargeted searches. We confirm a bias toward higher host masses and metallicities in the targeted searches. By combining data from targeted and untargeted searches, we found a sequence from higher to lower local metallicity: SN Ia, Ic, and II show the highest metallicity, which is significantly higher than those of SN Ib, IIb, and Ic-BL. Our results support the scenario according to which SN Ib result from binary progenitors. Additionally, at least part of the SN Ic are the result of single massive stars that were stripped of their outer layers by metallicity-driven winds. We studied several proxies of the local metallicity that are frequently used in the literature and found that the total host

  7. Survey of non-linear hydrodynamic models of type-II Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, R.

    2016-03-01

    We present a grid of non-linear convective type-II Cepheid models. The dense model grids are computed for 0.6 M⊙ and a range of metallicities ([Fe/H] = -2.0, -1.5, -1.0), and for 0.8 M⊙ ([Fe/H] = -1.5). Two sets of convective parameters are considered. The models cover the full temperature extent of the classical instability strip, but are limited in luminosity; for the most luminous models, violent pulsation leads to the decoupling of the outermost model shell. Hence, our survey reaches only the shortest period RV Tau domain. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, we detect two domains in which period-doubled pulsation is possible. The first extends through the BL Her domain and low-luminosity W Vir domain (pulsation periods ˜2-6.5 d). The second domain extends at higher luminosities (W Vir domain; periods >9.5 d). Some models within these domains display period-4 pulsation. We also detect very narrow domains (˜10 K wide) in which modulation of pulsation is possible. Another interesting phenomenon we detect is double-mode pulsation in the fundamental mode and in the fourth radial overtone. Fourth overtone is a surface mode, trapped in the outer model layers. Single-mode pulsation in the fourth overtone is also possible on the hot side of the classical instability strip. The origin of the above phenomena is discussed. In particular, the role of resonances in driving different pulsation dynamics as well as in shaping the morphology of the radius variation curves is analysed.

  8. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. II. SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES IN THE EPOCH OF CLUSTER ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta; Gladders, Michael D.; Abramson, Louis

    2013-06-10

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS) provides spectra of {approx}2200 galaxies 0.31 < z < 0.54 in five rich clusters (R {approx}< 5 Mpc) and the field. Infalling, dynamically cold groups with tens of members account for approximately half of the supercluster population, contributing to a growth in cluster mass of {approx}100% by the present day. The ICBS spectra distinguish non-star-forming (PAS) and poststarburst (PSB) from star-forming galaxies-continuously star-forming (CSF) or starbursts (SBH or SBO), identified by anomalously strong H{delta} absorption or [O II] emission. For the infalling cluster groups and similar field groups, we find a correlation between PAS+PSB fraction and group mass, indicating substantial ''preprocessing'' through quenching mechanisms that can turn star-forming galaxies into passive galaxies without the unique environment of rich clusters. SBH + SBO starburst galaxies are common, and they maintain an approximately constant ratio (SBH+SBO)/CSF Almost-Equal-To 25% in all environments-from field, to groups, to rich clusters. Similarly, while PSB galaxies strongly favor denser environments, PSB/PAS Almost-Equal-To 10%-20% for all environments. This result, and their timescale {tau} {approx} 500 Myr, indicates that starbursts are not signatures of a quenching mechanism that produces the majority of passive galaxies. We suggest instead that starbursts and poststarbursts signal minor mergers and accretions, in star-forming and passive galaxies, respectively, and that the principal mechanisms for producing passive systems are (1) early major mergers, for elliptical galaxies, and (2) later, less violent processes-such as starvation and tidal stripping, for S0 galaxies.

  9. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Goobar, Ariel; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3{sigma}) that SNe Ia are {approx_equal} 0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R{sub V} {approx_equal} 1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R{sub V} {approx} 2. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of > 4{sigma}) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  10. A COMPLETE ATLAS OF H I ABSORPTION TOWARD H II REGIONS IN THE SOUTHERN GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY (SGPS I)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.; Dickey, J. M.; Dawson, J. R.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2014-04-01

    We present a complete catalog of H I emission and absorption spectrum pairs, toward H II regions, detectable within the boundaries of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS I), a total of 252 regions. The catalog is presented in graphical, numerical, and summary formats. We demonstrate an application of this new data set through an investigation of the locus of the Near 3 kpc Arm.

  11. Identification of depressed patient types in the community and their treatment needs: findings from the DEPRES II (Depression Research in European Society II) survey. DEPRES Steering Committee.

    PubMed

    Tylee, A; Gastpar, M; Lépine, J P; Mendlewicz, J

    1999-05-01

    DEPRES II (Depression Research in European Society II), the first in-depth, pan-European survey of depression in the community, provided an opportunity to identify depressed patient types and their treatment needs. Cluster analysis applied to data generated from DEPRES II interviews revealed six depressed patient types with clearly differentiated profiles. The patient type with moderately impaired depression has episodic depression and minimal disability. By contrast, severe depression associated with anxiety presents with chronic symptoms, including anxiety and panic, and causes considerable disruption to normal life and employment. Depression associated with chronic physical problems and depression associated with social problems are characterized by chronic physical illness and relationship or financial difficulties, respectively, and sufferers are pessimistic about recovery. Depression associated with sleep problems is associated with symptoms of tiredness and broken or inadequate sleep, and is commonly caused by stress. Tiredness is also a principal symptom of depression associated with tiredness or fatigue, but sufferers' ability to sleep is unaffected. All patient types would benefit from antidepressant therapy. The depressed patient types identified from the DEPRES II data make intuitive sense, but now need to be tested for face validity in the primary care setting. PMID:10435768

  12. Sagittarius II, Draco II and Laevens 3: Three New Milky Way Satellites Discovered in the Pan-STARRS 1 3 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Slater, Colin T.; Sweeney, William E.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Huxor, Avon P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Draper, Peter W.; Hodapp, Klaus A.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Magnier, Eugene A.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    We present the discovery of three new Milky Way satellites from our search for compact stellar overdensities in the photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS 1, or PS1) 3π survey. The first satellite, Laevens 3, is located at a heliocentric distance of d = 67 ± 3 kpc. With a total magnitude of MV = ‑4.4 ± 0.3 and a half-light radius of rh = 7 ± 2 pc, its properties resemble those of outer halo globular clusters. The second system, Draco II/Laevens 4, is a closer and fainter satellite (d ∼ 20 kpc, MV = ‑2.9 ± 0.8), whose uncertain size ({r}h={19}-6+8 {pc}) renders its classification difficult without kinematic information; it could either be a faint and extended globular cluster or a faint and compact dwarf galaxy. The third satellite, Sagittarius II/Laevens 5 (Sgr II), has an ambiguous nature, as it is either the most compact dwarf galaxy or the most extended globular cluster in its luminosity range ({r}h={37}-8+9 {pc} and MV = ‑5.2 ± 0.4). At a heliocentric distance of 67 ± 5 kpc, this satellite lies intriguingly close to the expected location of the trailing arm of the Sagittarius stellar stream behind the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). If confirmed through spectroscopic follow up, this connection would locate this part of the trailing arm of the Sagittarius stellar stream that has so far gone undetected. It would further suggest that Sgr II was brought into the Milky Way halo as a satellite of the Sgr dSph.

  13. The Alabama Adolescent Health Survey: Health Knowledge and Behaviors. Summary Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Stephen; Adcock, Anthony

    This survey is a follow-up to a comprehensive survey of eighth- and tenth-grade public school students conducted in 1988. The 1990 sample includes over 3,400 students from rural, metropolitan, and mixed school districts. Data were collected using a 120-item questionnaire and compared to available information from the 1988 survey. The study…

  14. The ALMA Patchy Deep Survey: a blind search for [C II] emitters at z ˜ 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Nagao, T.; Iono, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Tamura, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shimizu, I.

    2015-07-01

    We present a result of a blind search for [C II] 158 μm emitters at z ˜ 4.5 using Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 archival data. We collected extragalactic data covering at 330-360 GHz (band 7) from 8 Cycle 0 projects from which initial results have been already published. The total number of fields is 243 and the total on-source exposure time is 19.2 h. We searched for line emitters in continuum-subtracted data cubes with spectral resolutions of ˜50, 100, 300 and 500 km s-1. We could not detect any new line emitters above a 6σ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the [C II] luminosity function at z ˜ 4.5 over L_[C II] ˜ 10^8-10^{10} L_{⊙} or star formation rate, SFR ˜ 10-1000 M_^{⊙}yr-1. These limits are at least two orders of magnitude larger than the [C II] luminosity functions expected from the z ˜ 4 UV luminosity function or from numerical simulation. However, this study demonstrates that we would be able to better constrain the [C II] luminosity function and to investigate possible contributions from dusty galaxies to the cosmic star formation rate density by collecting Cycle 1+2 archival data as the ALMA Patchy Deep Survey.

  15. Thermal and optical design analyses, optimizations, and experimental verification for a novel glare-free LED lamp for household applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nisa

    2015-07-20

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technologies are undergoing very fast developments to enable household lamp products with improved energy efficiency and lighting properties at lower cost. Although many LED replacement lamps are claimed to provide similar or better lighting quality at lower electrical wattage compared with general-purpose incumbent lamps, certain lighting characteristics important to human vision are neglected in this comparison, which include glare-free illumination and omnidirectional or sufficiently broad light distribution with adequate homogeneity. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the thermal and lighting performance and trade-offs for several commercial LED replacement lamps for the most popular Edison incandescent bulb. We present simulations and analyses for thermal and optical performance trade-offs for various LED lamps at the chip and module granularity levels. In addition, we present a novel, glare-free, and production-friendly LED lamp design optimized to produce very desirable light distribution properties as demonstrated by our simulation results, some of which are verified by experiments. PMID:26367844

  16. Imprints of galaxy evolution on H II regions. Memory of the past uncovered by the CALIFA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Miralles-Caballero, D.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Papaderos, P.; Ellis, S.; Galbany, L.; Kehrig, C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; González Delgado, R.; Mollá, M.; Ziegler, B.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bekeraitė, S.; Roth, M. M.; Pasquali, A.; Díaz, A.; Bomans, D.; van de Ven, G.; Wisotzki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Context. H ii regions in galaxies are the sites of star formation, so they are special places for understanding the build-up of stellar mass in the universe. The line ratios of this ionized gas are frequently used to characterize the ionization conditions. In particular, the oxygen abundances are assumed to trace the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Aims: We explore the connections between the ionization conditions and the properties of the overall underlying stellar population (ionizing or not-ionizing) in H ii regions, in order to uncover the actual physical connection between them. Methods: We use the H ii regions catalog from the CALIFA survey, which is the largest in existence with more than 5000 H ii regions, to explore their distribution across the classical [O iii] λ5007/Hβ vs. [N ii] λ6583/Hα diagnostic diagram, and the way it depends on the oxygen abundance, ionization parameter, electron density, and dust attenuation. The location of H ii regions within this diagram is compared with predictions from photoionization models. Finally, we explore the dependence of the location within the diagnostic diagram on the properties of the host galaxies, the galactocentric distances, and the properties of the underlying stellar population. Results: The H ii regions with weaker ionization strengths and more metal-rich are located in the bottom righthand area of the diagram. In contrast, those regions with stronger ionization strengths and more metal poor are located in the upper lefthand end of the diagram. Photoionization models per se do not predict these correlations between the parameters and the line ratios. The H ii regions located in earlier-type galaxies, closer to the center and formed in older and more metal-rich regions of the galaxies are located in the bottom-right area of the diagram. On the other hand, those regions located in late-type galaxies in the outer regions of the disks and formed on younger and more metal-poor regions lie in the top

  17. Educational Plant Survey, Dade County Schools, April/May 1992. Volume I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Findings of a survey of educational plants in Dade County, Florida, are presented in this document. The survey's purpose is to aid in formulating plans for housing the educational activities of district students and staff. Volume 1 contains facilities lists for elementary, middle, and high schools; vocational technical centers; exceptional…

  18. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  19. National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): II. Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, E. Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Heeringa, Steven; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    The national comorbidity survey that seeks to determine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among U.S. adolescents is based on a dual-frame design that includes 904 adolescents from a previous household survey and 9,244 adolescent students from a sample of 320 schools. Replacement schools for those that refuse to participate do not…

  20. Optimizing baryon acoustic oscillation surveys - II. Curvature, redshifts and external data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Bassett, Bruce A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Vardanyan, Mihran

    2010-02-01

    We extend our study of the optimization of large baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys to return the best constraints on the dark energy, building on Paper I of this series by Parkinson et al. The survey galaxies are assumed to be pre-selected active, star-forming galaxies observed by their line emission with a constant number density across the redshift bin. Star-forming galaxies have a redshift desert in the region 1.6 < z < 2, and so this redshift range was excluded from the analysis. We use the Seo & Eisenstein fitting formula for the accuracies of the BAO measurements, using only the information for the oscillatory part of the power spectrum as distance and expansion rate rulers. We go beyond our earlier analysis by examining the effect of including curvature on the optimal survey configuration and updating the expected `prior' constraints from Planck and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We once again find that the optimal survey strategy involves minimizing the exposure time and maximizing the survey area (within the instrumental constraints), and that all time should be spent observing in the low-redshift range (z < 1.6) rather than beyond the redshift desert, z > 2. We find that, when assuming a flat universe, the optimal survey makes measurements in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.7, but that including curvature as a nuisance parameter requires us to push the maximum redshift to 1.35, to remove the degeneracy between curvature and evolving dark energy. The inclusion of expected other data sets (such as WiggleZ, the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and a stage III Type Ia supernova survey) removes the necessity of measurements below redshift 0.9, and pushes the maximum redshift up to 1.5. We discuss considerations in determining the best survey strategy in light of uncertainty in the true underlying cosmological model.

  1. Waves Forecasters in World War II (with a Brief Survey of Other Women Meteorologists in World War II).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    1995-11-01

    Out of the nearly 6000 U.S. military officers who were trained to be weather forecasters during World War II, there wore approximately 100 women. They were recruited into the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) by the U.S. Navy and underwent training with the military men in the so-called cadet program. Letters of reminiscence from six WAVES forecasters are combined with official navy correspondence, archival information from universities, and newspaper articles of the period to reconstruct the recruitment, training, duty assignments, and postwar careers of these women.With limited information, an effort has also been made to document the training of civilian women in the cadet program, and to estimate the number of women who served as forecasters in foreign countries during the war. The status of women in meteorology prior to the United States' entry into the war is examined as a backdrop to the study. Principal results of the study are as follows:1) The recruitment of WAVES forecasters was in response to extreme shortages of weather officers at the Naval Air Stations (NAS) in early 1943 as the war escalated.2) Those recruited to be WAVES forecasters had previous experience as math/science teachers and had a lower than average attrition rate in the demanding cadet program.3) The WAVES were assigned as NAS forecasters stateside, and there is some evidence that they were differentially treated in comparison to the male naval forecasters.4) In addition to the women forecasters in the WAVES, approximately 50 civilian women were trained in the cadet program under the sponsorship of the Civilian Aeronautics Administration and the U.S. Weather Bureau; England also recruited an estimated 50 women into weather forecasting during the latter stages of WWII.5) Of the 200 women who were trained to be forecasters, it is estimated that less than 10% remained in meteorology.

  2. Report on the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-82 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part II, June 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Virginia B.; Khoury, Bernard V.

    Results of the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-1982 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part II are presented, based on usable responses from 299 institutions. The survey findings provide information about changes in the pattern of graduate school enrollment and allow comparisons between public and private…

  3. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family…

  4. High angular resolution far-infrared and submillimeter mapping survey of the dust cores associated with ultracompact H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of the research funded under this grant has been to perform a high angular resolution mapping survey of the far-infrared and submillimeter continuum emission from the dust cocoons surrounding young, deeply embedded massive stars and the ultracompact H II regions they create. The high infrared, submillimeter, and radio luminosity makes the ultracompact H II regions ideal tracers of current high-mass star formation. Detailed investigations of their structure, evolution, and interaction with their parent molecular clouds are thus important for understanding the early evolutionary phases of massive main sequence stars, the nature of the dense molecular cores in which they form, and the relationship to coeval low-mass star formation.

  5. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    PubMed

    Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Attfield, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m⁻³ at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m⁻³ at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m⁻³ across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m⁻³, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m⁻³ by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average

  6. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m−3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m−3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m−3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m−3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m−3 by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and

  7. A Copernicus survey of Mg II emission in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.; Oegerle, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of Mg II emission in late-type stars is examined using scan data obtained with the Copernicus satellite. The luminosity in the Mg II k emission line was found to be closely related to stellar absolute magnitude, leading to the suggestion that such correlation may be very useful for future UV observations. The stellar surface flux in the k line was observed to be roughly constant or to decrease slowly with later spectral type, a finding which is then used to show that the pressure at the top of the chromosphere decreases with later spectral type, in agreement with the conclusions by McClintock et al. (1975). An asymmetry in the Mg II k line was noticed to be present in the available data for the stars later than K2-K5.

  8. A survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud in the (C II) 158 micron line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mochizuki, Kenji; Nakagawa, Takao; Doi, Yasuo; Yui, Yukari Y.; Okuda, Haruyuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Yui, Masao; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Low, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    We have mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (the LMC) in the (C II) 158 microns fine-structure line with the Balloon-borne Infrared Carbon Explorer (BICE) system. The (C II) line emission was detected over most of the LMC. The mean (C II)/CO (J = 1-0) line intensity ratio was 23,000 18 times larger than the typical value observed in the Galactic plane (1300). This result implies that each clump of the molecular clouds in the LMC has a larger C(+) envelope relative to its CO core than those in our Galaxy. Lower dust abundance due to its lower metallicity allows UV photons, which convert CO molecules into C(+) ions, to penetrate deeper into the clumps in the LMC than in our Galaxy.

  9. THE PRISM MULTI-OBJECT SURVEY (PRIMUS). II. DATA REDUCTION AND REDSHIFT FITTING

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Richard J.; Moustakas, John; Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W.; Burles, Scott M.; Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Mendez, Alexander J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zhu, Guangtun; Bernstein, Rebecca A.

    2013-04-20

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z {approx} 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of {approx}2500 objects over 0.18 deg{sup 2}. The final PRIMUS catalog includes {approx}130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg{sup 2}. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  10. The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). II. Data Reduction and Redshift Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Richard J.; Moustakas, John; Blanton, Michael R.; Burles, Scott M.; Coil, Alison L.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zhu, Guangtun; Aird, James; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bolton, Adam S.; Hogg, David W.; Mendez, Alexander J.

    2013-04-01

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z ~ 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of ~2500 objects over 0.18 deg2. The final PRIMUS catalog includes ~130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg2. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of σ z /(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  11. The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). II. The emission line catalog and properties of emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Totani, Tomonori; Tonegawa, Motonari; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Ohta, Kouji; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Bunker, Andrew J.; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hikage, Chiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Okumura, Teppei; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2016-06-01

    We present basic properties of ˜3300 emission line galaxies detected by the FastSound survey, which are mostly Hα emitters at z ˜ 1.2-1.5 in the total area of about 20 deg2, with the Hα flux sensitivity limit of ˜1.6 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 at 4.5 σ. This paper presents the catalog of the FastSound emission lines and galaxies, which is open to the public. We also present basic properties of typical FastSound Hα emitters, which have Hα luminosities of 1041.8-1043.3 erg s-1, star formation rates (SFRs) of 20-500 M⊙ yr-1, and stellar masses of 1010.0-1011.3 M⊙. The 3D distribution maps for the four fields of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) W1-4 are presented, clearly showing large scale clustering of galaxies at the scale of ˜100-600 comoving Mpc. Based on 1105 galaxies with detections of multiple emission lines, we estimate that the contamination of non-Hα lines is about 4% in the single-line emission galaxies, which is mostly [O III]λ5007. This contamination fraction is also confirmed by the stacked spectrum of all the FastSound spectra, in which Hα, [N II]λλ6548,6583, [S II]λλ6717,6731, and [O I]λλ6300,6364 are seen.

  12. THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Cohen, Martin

    2011-12-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From {approx}18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large ( Almost-Equal-To 6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  13. A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shisen; Sun, Yaojie; Lin, Yandan; You, Bo

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a facile coating technique to fabricate the light diffusing film with hemispherical surface convex micro-structure. The coating was prepared by different ratio of light-diffusing particles (LDP)/polyacrylates composites via in situ radical polymerization, with the H2SO4 and vinyl triethoxysilane (A-151) pretreatment made the LDP better dispersed and incorporated with polyacrylate polymer chains. When the mass ratio (LDP/polyacrylate) was 0.5, the film obtained the highest light-diffusing effect and more than 90% transmittance due to the formation of hemispherical surface convex micro-structure. The light diffusing films have excellent anti-glare property if applied to LED light system.

  14. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 ± 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  15. Attitudes and Beliefs About Domestic Violence: Results of a Public Opinion Survey. II Beliefs about Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Alissa Pollitz; Carlson, Bonnie E.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings from a public opinion survey designed to measure beliefs about the causes of domestic violence (DV) based on telephone interviews with 1,200 residents across six New York State communities. Findings reveal substantial diversity and complexity among beliefs and interesting similarities and differences across open- and…

  16. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1993-94, Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1993-94. Part I covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes,…

  17. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey 1994-96. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1994-96. Part 1 covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes, life and…

  18. Physical Education in Schools: Preliminary Findings of a Worldwide Survey. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Ken; Marshall, J. Joe

    2000-01-01

    This second in a two-part article summarizes the preliminary findings of a worldwide survey on physical education in schools. This part focuses on: resources (i.e., finances, facilities and equipment, and qualified teaching personnel); issues and trends in physical education; concluding comments; and selected references covering both parts of the…

  19. The Peat Marwick/AS&U Compensation Survey. Part II: For College and University Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1986

    1986-01-01

    A total of 375 responses were received from two- and four-year colleges nationwide to a survey of compensation packages for the following positions: president; professor; and chief officers for academic concerns, business, facilities, purchasing, and computer services. Tables display data sorted by two- and four-year institutions and enrollment…

  20. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-02-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of {approx}10 deg{sup 2} of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R {approx} 20) spectra in 2-5 {mu}m for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 {mu}m, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 {mu}m. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 {mu}m can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the

  1. Cosmic Shear Results from the Deep Lens Survey. II. Full Cosmological Parameter Constraints from Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, M. James; Tyson, J. Anthony; Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Michael D.; Schmidt, Samuel; Wittman, David

    2016-06-01

    We present a tomographic cosmic shear study from the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), which, providing a limiting magnitude {r}{lim}∼ 27 (5σ ), is designed as a precursor Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) survey with an emphasis on depth. Using five tomographic redshift bins, we study their auto- and cross-correlations to constrain cosmological parameters. We use a luminosity-dependent nonlinear model to account for the astrophysical systematics originating from intrinsic alignments of galaxy shapes. We find that the cosmological leverage of the DLS is among the highest among existing \\gt 10 deg2 cosmic shear surveys. Combining the DLS tomography with the 9 yr results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP9) gives {{{Ω }}}m={0.293}-0.014+0.012, {σ }8={0.833}-0.018+0.011, {H}0={68.6}-1.2+1.4 {\\text{km s}}-1 {{{Mpc}}}-1, and {{{Ω }}}b=0.0475+/- 0.0012 for ΛCDM, reducing the uncertainties of the WMAP9-only constraints by ∼50%. When we do not assume flatness for ΛCDM, we obtain the curvature constraint {{{Ω }}}k=-{0.010}-0.015+0.013 from the DLS+WMAP9 combination, which, however, is not well constrained when WMAP9 is used alone. The dark energy equation-of-state parameter w is tightly constrained when baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) data are added, yielding w=-{1.02}-0.09+0.10 with the DLS+WMAP9+BAO joint probe. The addition of supernova constraints further tightens the parameter to w=-1.03+/- 0.03. Our joint constraints are fully consistent with the final Planck results and also with the predictions of a ΛCDM universe.

  2. Cosmic Shear Results from the Deep Lens Survey. II. Full Cosmological Parameter Constraints from Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, M. James; Tyson, J. Anthony; Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Michael D.; Schmidt, Samuel; Wittman, David

    2016-06-01

    We present a tomographic cosmic shear study from the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), which, providing a limiting magnitude {r}{lim}˜ 27 (5σ ), is designed as a precursor Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) survey with an emphasis on depth. Using five tomographic redshift bins, we study their auto- and cross-correlations to constrain cosmological parameters. We use a luminosity-dependent nonlinear model to account for the astrophysical systematics originating from intrinsic alignments of galaxy shapes. We find that the cosmological leverage of the DLS is among the highest among existing \\gt 10 deg2 cosmic shear surveys. Combining the DLS tomography with the 9 yr results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP9) gives {{{Ω }}}m={0.293}-0.014+0.012, {σ }8={0.833}-0.018+0.011, {H}0={68.6}-1.2+1.4 {\\text{km s}}-1 {{{Mpc}}}-1, and {{{Ω }}}b=0.0475+/- 0.0012 for ΛCDM, reducing the uncertainties of the WMAP9-only constraints by ˜50%. When we do not assume flatness for ΛCDM, we obtain the curvature constraint {{{Ω }}}k=-{0.010}-0.015+0.013 from the DLS+WMAP9 combination, which, however, is not well constrained when WMAP9 is used alone. The dark energy equation-of-state parameter w is tightly constrained when baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) data are added, yielding w=-{1.02}-0.09+0.10 with the DLS+WMAP9+BAO joint probe. The addition of supernova constraints further tightens the parameter to w=-1.03+/- 0.03. Our joint constraints are fully consistent with the final Planck results and also with the predictions of a ΛCDM universe.

  3. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  4. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  5. The Infrared Medium-Deep Survey. II. How to Trigger Radio AGNs? Hints from their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Chapman, Scott; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Pak, Soojong; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-01

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ~25 deg2 and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (Mu - Mr ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  6. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  7. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-05-15

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive (<3.'5). We find that the sources extracted can best be described as molecular clumps-large dense regions in molecular clouds linked to cluster formation. We find that the flux density distribution of sources follows a power law with dN/dS {proportional_to} S {sup -2.4{+-}0.1} and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0.{sup 0}095 {+-} 0.{sup 0}001).

  8. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Kasen, Daniel; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble residuals in our

  9. A survey for PAH emission in H II regions, planetary and proto-planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuizon, M.; Cox, P.; Lequeux, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a systematic investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in H II regions, planetary nebulae (PN), and proto-planetary nebulae (PNN), are reported. Data is obtained from the low resolution spectra (LRS) of IRAS. The results show that: PAHs are formed in carbon rich objects; and PAH emission is ubiquitous in general interstellar medium and requires the presence of ultraviolet photons, in planetary and proto-planetary nebulae, PAH emission is seen only where an ionizing flux is present and in carbon rich objects.

  10. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. II. The luminosity function and mean galaxy density.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Vettolani, G.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    1997-10-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey we have recently completed as an ESO Key-Project over about 23 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude b_J_=19.4 and consists of 3342 galaxies with reliable redshift determination. The ESP survey is intermediate between shallow, wide angle samples and very deep, one-dimensional pencil beams: spanning a volume of ~5x10^4^h^-3^Mpc^3^ at the sensitivity peak (z~0.1), it provides an accurate determination of the "local" luminosity function and the mean galaxy density. We find that, although a Schechter function (with α=-1.22, M^*^_bJ_=-19.61+5logh and φ^*^=0.020h^3^/Mpc^3^) is an acceptable representation of the luminosity function over the entire range of magnitudes (M_bJ_<=-12.4+5logh), our data suggest the presence of a steepening of the luminosity function for M_bJ_>=-17+5logh. Such a steepening at the faint end of the luminosity function, well fitted by a power law with slope β~-1.6, is almost completely due to galaxies with emission lines: in fact, dividing our galaxies into two samples, i.e. galaxies with and without emission lines, we find significant differences in their luminosity functions. In particular, galaxies with emission lines show a significantly steeper slope and a fainter M^*^. The amplitude and the α and M^*^ parameters of our luminosity function are in good agreement with those of the AUTOFIB redshift survey (Ellis et al. 1996). Vice-versa, our amplitude is significantly higher, by a factor ~1.6 at M~M^*^, than that found for both the Stromlo-APM (Loveday et al. 1992) and the Las Campanas (Lin et al. 1996) redshift surveys. Also the faint end slope of our luminosity function is significantly steeper than that found in these two surveys. The galaxy number density for M_bJ_<=-16+5logh is well determined (n{bar}=0.08+/-0.015h^3^/Mpc^3^). Its estimate for M_bJ_<=-12.4+5logh is more uncertain, ranging from n{bar}=0.28h

  11. Prevalence of childhood hearing loss. The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Gomez-Marin, O; Lee, H M

    1996-09-01

    Comparative analysis of the epidemiology of childhood hearing loss was undertaken among African-American, Hispanic-American, and non-Hispanic white children. Audiometric data on children aged 6-19 years were obtained from 688 African Americans, 330 Cuban Americans, 2,602 Mexican Americans, 1,025 Puerto Ricans, and 3,243 non-Hispanic whites who participated in either the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II, 1976-1980, or the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone decibel hearing threshold level (averaged over 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz) greater than 15 in the ear with the best response. The prevalence (per 1,000) of bilateral hearing loss was 17.0 for African-American, 68.3 for Cuban-American, 27.6 for Mexican-American, 57.7 for Puerto Rican, and 15.5 for non-Hispanic white children. Differences in prevalence by ethnicity/race diminished when a more stringent definition of hearing loss (i.e., moderate or greater than 30 dB hearing threshold level) was used. There were no adolescent African-American males aged 16-19 years who had a hearing loss. After adjustment for age, the odds of hearing loss was significantly greater in males than in females only in non-Hispanic whites (odds ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.6-3.3). On the basis of 1993 census population estimates in the United States, over 819,000 children aged 6-19 years have some degree of hearing impairment, and over 216,000 of these children have moderate or greater hearing impairment. PMID:8781458

  12. Erratum; A Three-Position Spectral Line Survey of Sagittarius B2 between 218 and 263 GHz. II. Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nummelin, A.; Bergman, P.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Friberg, P.; Irvine, W. M.; Millar, T. J.; Ohishi, M.; Saito, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper ``A Three-Position Spectral Line Survey of Sagittarius B2 between 218 and 263 GHz. II. Data Analysis'' by A. Nummelin, P. Bergman, Å. Hjalmarson, P. Friberg, W. M. Irvine, T. J. Millar, M. Ohishi, and S. Saito (ApJS, 128, 213 [2000]), the affiliations for M. Ohishi and S. Saito were set incorrectly. The correct affiliation for M. Ohishi is National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan; ohishi@nao.ac.jp. The correct affiliation for S. Saito is Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui University, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 901-8507, Japan; saito@maxwell.apphy.fukui-u.ac.jp. The Press sincerely regrets this error.

  13. Preliminary Results of Detailed Chemical Abundance Analysis of Milky Way Satellite Galaxy Reticulum II Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting; Dark Energy Survey Milky Way Science Group

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from abundance analysis of stars in Milky Way satellite galaxies found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES has discovered 16 candidate satellite galaxies of the Milky Way in its first two years of operation. Since January 2015, three candidates have subsequently been revealed to be dark matter-dominated by spectroscopic follow-up studies of their kinematics, confirming their status as satellite galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up of the remaining 13 candidates is underway. We have analyzed high resolution VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of member stars in one of these satellite galaxies, Reticulum II. Using equivalent width measurement and spectral synthesis methods, we measure the abundances of Iron and other species in order to begin to understand the chemical content of these Milky Way satellites.

  14. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II: Photometry and Supernova Ia Light Curves from the 2005 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Marriner, John; Kessler, Richard; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Ben; Frieman, Joshua A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Jha, Saurabh; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marshall, Jennifer L.; McGinnis, David; Miknaitis, Gajus; /KICP, Chicago /Portsmouth U., ICG /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Portsmouth U., ICG /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U. /Tokyo U., ICRR /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-26

    We present ugriz light curves for 146 spectroscopically confirmed or spectroscopically probable Type Ia supernovae from the 2005 season of the SDSS-II Supernova survey. The light curves have been constructed using a photometric technique that we call scene modeling, which is described in detail here; the major feature is that supernova brightnesses are extracted from a stack of images without spatial resampling or convolution of the image data. This procedure produces accurate photometry along with accurate estimates of the statistical uncertainty, and can be used to derive photometry taken with multiple telescopes. We discuss various tests of this technique that demonstrate its capabilities. We also describe the methodology used for the calibration of the photometry, and present calibrated magnitudes and fluxes for all of the spectroscopic SNe Ia from the 2005 season.

  15. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J.; Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Gamen, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M {sub ☉} are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars.

  16. Demographics of dumping. II: A national environmental equity survey and the distribution of hazardous materials handlers.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P; Anderton, D L

    2000-11-01

    Using a national survey of facilities governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), we examine the sociospatial distribution of a much larger group of hazardous materials handlers than did previous environmental equity studies. Overall we find that RCRA-governed facilities are more likely to be sited in working-class neighborhoods with lower percentages of minority residents. We do not find evidence of stark environmental inequities. RCRA facilities, however, are close to neighborhoods with a higher percentage of minority residents. And in nonmetropolitan areas, they are slightly more likely to be located in neighborhoods with a higher percentage of black residents. PMID:11086571

  17. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Frank, A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Guerrero, M. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  18. The Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey. II. Further results and analysis of the full sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, R.; Venturi, T.; Giacintucci, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Cuciti, V.; Macario, G.; Athreya, R.

    2015-07-01

    The intra-cluster medium contains cosmic rays and magnetic fields that are manifested through the large scale synchrotron sources, termed radio haloes, relics, and mini-haloes. The Extended Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS) is an extension of the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (GRHS) designed to search for radio haloes using GMRT 610/235 MHz observations. The GRHS and EGRHS consists of 64 clusters in the redshift range 0.2-0.4 that have an X-ray luminosity larger than 5 × 1044 erg s-1 in the 0.1-2.4 keV band and declination, δ > -31° in the REFLEX and eBCS X-ray cluster catalogues. In this second paper in the series, GMRT 610/235 MHz data on the last batch of 11 galaxy clusters and the statistical analysis of the full sample are presented. A new mini-halo in RX J2129.6+0005 and candidate diffuse sources in Z5247, A2552, and Z1953 have been discovered. A unique feature of this survey are the upper limits on the detections of 1 Mpc sized radio haloes; 4 new are presented here, making a total of 31 in the survey. Of the sample, 58 clusters with adequately sensitive radio information were used to obtain the most accurate occurrence fractions so far. The occurrence fractions of radio haloes, mini-haloes and relics in our sample are ~22%, ~16% and ~5%, respectively. The P1.4 GHz-LX diagrams for the radio haloes and mini-haloes are presented. The morphological estimators - centroid shift (w), concentration parameter (c), and power ratios (P3/P0) derived from the Chandra X-ray images - are used as proxies for the dynamical states of the GRHS and EGRHS clusters. The clusters with radio haloes and mini-haloes occupy distinct quadrants in the c-w, c-P3/P0 and w-P3/P0 planes, corresponding to the more and less morphological disturbance, respectively. The non-detections span both the quadrants. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. The Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey. II. Statistical and Multiwavelength Counterpart Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Jagadheep D.; Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2007-11-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser sample detected in the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey. The distribution of the masers in the Galaxy, and statistics of their multiwavelength counterparts is consistent with the hypothesis of 6.7 GHz maser emission being associated with massive young stellar objects. Using the detection statistics of our survey, we estimate the minimum number of methanol masers in the Galaxy to be 1275. The l-v diagram of the sample shows the tangent point of the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm to be around 49.6°, and suggests the occurrence of massive star formation along the extension of the Crux-Scutum arm. A Gaussian component analysis of the maser spectra shows the mean line width to be 0.38 km s-1, which is more than a factor of 2 larger than what has been reported in the literature. We also find no evidence that faint methanol masers have different properties than their bright counterparts.

  20. The Swift UVOT Stars Survey. II. RR Lyrae Stars in M3 and M15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Balzer, Benjamin G.; Hagen, Lea M. Z.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first results of a near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae stars have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT’s unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprised of 275 RR Lyrae, 2 anomalous Cepheids, 1 classical Cepheid, 1 SX Phoenicis star, and 1 possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period-metallicity-luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.

  1. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE COSMOS FIELD. II. SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Puccetti, S.; Vignali, C.; Cappelluti, N.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Fruscione, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Miyaji, T.; Damiani, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that covers the central contiguous {approx}0.92 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field. C-COSMOS is the result of a complex tiling, with every position being observed in up to six overlapping pointings (four overlapping pointings in most of the central {approx}0.45 deg{sup 2} area with the best exposure, and two overlapping pointings in most of the surrounding area, covering an additional {approx}0.47 deg{sup 2}). Therefore, the full exploitation of the C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the point-spread function (PSF) changes strongly among different observations of the same source (from {approx}1 arcsec up to {approx}10 arcsec half-power radius); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate. We present here our treatment of four key analysis items: source detection, localization, photometry, and survey sensitivity. Our final procedure consists of a two step procedure: (1) a wavelet detection algorithm to find source candidates and (2) a maximum likelihood PSF fitting algorithm to evaluate the source count rates and the probability that each source candidate is a fluctuation of the background. We discuss the main characteristics of this procedure, which was the result of detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools, calibrated with extensive and dedicated simulations.

  2. THE TAIWANESE-AMERICAN OCCULTATION SURVEY PROJECT STELLAR VARIABILITY. II. DETECTION OF 15 VARIABLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lin, H.-C.; Alcock, C.; Bianco, F. B.; Lehner, M. J.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Coehlo, N. K.; Rice, J. A.; Cook, K. H.; Marshall, S. L.; Dave, R.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Schwamb, M. E.

    2010-05-15

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data-covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days-are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17{sup h}30{sup m}6.{sup s}7, decl. = 27{sup 0}17'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg{sup 2} field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  3. The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey Project Stellar Variability. II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Coehlo, N. K.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lehner, M. J.; Lin, H.-C.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data—covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days—are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17h30m6.s7, decl. = 27°17'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg2 field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, δ Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  4. The XXL Survey. II. The bright cluster sample: catalogue and luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, F.; Clerc, N.; Giles, P. A.; Adami, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Pierre, M.; Maughan, B. J.; Lieu, M.; Le Fèvre, J. P.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Ardila, F.; Baldry, I.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Démoclès, J.; Eckert, D.; Evrard, A. E.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Guennou, L.; Horellou, C.; Iovino, A.; Koulouridis, E.; Le Brun, V.; Lidman, C.; Liske, J.; Maurogordato, S.; Menanteau, F.; Owers, M.; Poggianti, B.; Pomarède, D.; Pompei, E.; Ponman, T. J.; Rapetti, D.; Reiprich, T. H.; Smith, G. P.; Tuffs, R.; Valageas, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J. P.; Ziparo, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ~2 at a sensitivity of ~10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims: This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods: The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results: The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M⊙, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ~ 1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters. Based on

  5. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-11-15

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers {approx}50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii ({approx}1.75 Mpc or 1{sup 0}) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin{sup 2}. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for {approx}73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10{sigma} point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 < M {sub F814W} < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008

  6. Attitudes and beliefs about domestic violence: results of a public opinion survey: II. Beliefs about causes.

    PubMed

    Worden, Alissa Pollitz; Carlson, Bonnie E

    2005-10-01

    This report presents findings from a public opinion survey designed to measure beliefs about the causes of domestic violence (DV) based on telephone interviews with 1,200 residents across six New York State communities. Findings reveal substantial diversity and complexity among beliefs and interesting similarities and differences across open- and close-ended questions regarding explanations for partner abuse. Most respondents think about the causes of violence in the context of individual problems, relationships, and families, not as a problem with roots in our society or culture. Few believe that women are the cause of their own abuse, one fourth still believe that some women want to be abused, and most believe that women can end abusive relationships. Secondhand experiences with DV were associated with some beliefs about causes of abuse, and gender, age, education, and race were associated with certain beliefs in predictable ways. PMID:16162487

  7. Redshifts for fainter galaxies in the first CfA survey slice. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary; Thorstensen, John R.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for 96 galaxies in right ascension alpha between 8h and 17h declination delta between 30 and 31 deg, and with m(Zwicky) in the range 15.6-15.7. These correspond to 94 of the 96 entries in the Zwicky-Nilson merged catalog. The declination range delta between 29 deg and 31 deg is now complete to m(Zwicky) = 15.7. The structures in the first 6-deg-wide slice of the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey slice (delta between 26.5 and 32.5 deg are clearly defined in the 2-deg-wide slightly deeper sample; the fainter galaxies trace the structures defined by the brighter ones.

  8. A survey of rich clusters of galaxies with HEAO 1. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Kowalski, M. P.; Cruddace, R. G.; Meekins, J.; Smathers, H.; Yentis, D.; Wood, K.; Mcnutt, D.; Chubb, T.; Johnson, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of an X-ray survey of approximately 1900 Abell clusters of galaxies performed with the NRL large-area X-ray detectors on HEAO 1. The cluster luminosity function derived from the observations made at ecliptic longitudes between 80 and 180 deg and 260 and 360 deg is fit with both power law and exponential relations, and used to estimate a total contribution of Abell clusters to the volume emissivity of the diffuse X-ray background of between 3 and 10%. No strong correlation is found between X-ray luminosity and Bautz-Morgan class, richness class or 26-MHz radio power, although B-M type I and Abell richness class 3 appear more likely to be strong X-ray sources. A correlation is suggested between optical radius and X-ray luminosity.

  9. SN 2006oz: rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloudas, G.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Dilday, B.; Gorosabel, J.; Vinko, J.; Gallazzi, A.; Wheeler, J. C.; Bassett, B.; Fischer, J. A.; Frieman, J. A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goobar, A.; Jelínek, M.; Malesani, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Nordin, J.; Östman, L.; Sako, M.; Schneider, D. P.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.

    2012-05-01

    Context. A new class of super-luminous transients has recently been identified. These objects reach absolute luminosities of Mu < -21, lack hydrogen in their spectra, and are exclusively discovered by non-targeted surveys because they are associated with very faint galaxies. Aims: We aim to contribute to a better understanding of these objects by studying SN 2006oz, a newly-recognized member of this class. Methods: We present multi-color light curves of SN 2006oz from the SDSS-II SN Survey that cover its rise time, as well as an optical spectrum that shows that the explosion occurred at z ~ 0.376. We fitted black-body functions to estimate the temperature and radius evolution of the photosphere and used the parametrized code SYNOW to model the spectrum. We constructed a bolometric light curve and compared it with explosion models. In addition, we conducted a deep search for the host galaxy with the 10 m GTC telescope. Results: The very early light curves show a dip in the g- and r-bands and a possible initial cooling phase in the u-band before rising to maximum light. The bolometric light curve shows a precursor plateau with a duration of 6-10 days in the rest-frame. A lower limit of Mu < - 21.5 can be placed on the absolute peak luminosity of the SN, while the rise time is constrained to be at least 29 days. During our observations, the emitting sphere doubled its radius to ~2 × 1015 cm, while the temperature remained hot at ~15 000 K. As for other similar SNe, the spectrum is best modeled with elements including O ii and Mg ii, while we tentatively suggest that Fe iii might be present. The host galaxy is detected in gri with 25.74 ± 0.19, 24.43 ± 0.06, and 24.14 ± 0.12, respectively. It is a faint dwarf galaxy with Mg = -16.9. Conclusions: We suggest that the precursor plateau might be related to a recombination wave in a circumstellar medium (CSM) and discuss whether this is a common property of all similar explosions. The subsequent rise can be equally well

  10. The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey. II. Cluster Confirmation with SDSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ˜85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections.

  11. Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey. II. The Molecular Gas Content and Properties of a Subset of SPOGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lisenfeld, Ute; Lanz, Lauranne; Appleton, Philip N.; Ardila, Felipe; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Medling, Anne M.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2016-08-01

    We present CO(1–0) observations of objects within the Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey taken with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m single dish and the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy interferometer. Shocked poststarburst galaxies (SPOGs) represent a transitioning population of galaxies, with deep Balmer absorption ({{EW}}{{H}δ }\\gt 5 {\\mathring{{A}}} ), consistent with an intermediate-age (A-star) stellar population, and ionized gas line ratios inconsistent with pure star formation. The CO(1–0) subsample was selected from SPOGs detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with 22 μm flux detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3. Of the 52 objects observed in CO(1–0), 47 are detected with S/N > 3. A large fraction (37%–46% ± 7%) of our CO-SPOG sample were visually classified as morphologically disrupted. The H2 masses detected were between {10}8.7-10.8 {M}ȯ , consistent with the gas masses found in normal galaxies, though approximately an order of magnitude larger than the range seen in poststarburst galaxies. When comparing the 22 μm and CO(1–0) fluxes, SPOGs diverge from the normal star-forming relation, having 22 μm fluxes in excess of the relation by a factor of < {ɛ }{{MIR}}> ={4.91}-0.39+0.42, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Na i D characteristics of CO-SPOGs show that it is likely that many of these objects host interstellar winds. Objects with large Na i D enhancements also tend to emit in the radio, suggesting possible AGN driving of neutral winds.

  12. Current medication choices in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis II--update of a survey performed in 1993.

    PubMed

    Brunner, H I; Kim, K N; Ballinger, S H; Bowyer, S L; Griffin, T A; Higgins, G C; Mier, R; Passo, M H; Rennebohm, R; Schikler, K; Lovell, D J

    2001-10-01

    The documentation of treatments used for Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is important to allow for the evaluation of practice patterns for future outcome studies. A survey of nine pediatric rheumatologists was performed between September 1999 and February 2000. Each of the physicians prospectively recorded demographic and treatment information on consecutively sampled JRA patients (n=395). Pauciarticular onset JRA was present in 46%, polyarticular onset JRA in 35%, and systemic onset JRA in 19% of the children. Naproxen was the most frequently prescribed medication (55% of the patients), followed by methotrexate (MTX), which was used in 39% of the patients. Folic acid supplementation (1 mg/day) was provided to 69% of the patients treated with MTX. Etanercept was used in 11% of the children. Eleven percent of the patients received corticosteroids, and 13% of children on corticosteroids took calcium supplements. Uveitis was present in 8% and had a chronic course in 79% of those cases. Although systemic medications were used in 50% of the children with uveitis to control eye inflammation, severe damage to the eyes developed in 30% of them. Fourteen percent of the patients required gastroprotective medications. Compared with findings of a similar survey performed in 1993, there was no significant change in the frequency of use of naproxen, but nabumetone is now more often prescribed, and COX-2 inhibitors have been introduced in the therapy of JRA. Changes among second-line agents used for JRA have also occurred, although there was no change in the frequency of use of MTX or corticosteroids. JRA continues to be a treatment challenge for the practicing pediatric rheumatologist. Patients often show incomplete response to the currently available medications. Therefore, new therapeutic agents need to be evaluated for their use in JRA, and the treatment of JRA associated uveitis especially needs to be improved. PMID:17039159

  13. Galaxy density profiles and shapes - II. Selection biases in strong lensing surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; van de Ven, Glenn; Keeton, Charles R.

    2009-09-01

    Many current and future astronomical surveys will rely on samples of strong gravitational lens systems to draw conclusions about galaxy mass distributions. We use a new strong lensing pipeline (presented in Paper I of this series) to explore selection biases that may cause the population of strong lensing systems to differ from the general galaxy population. Our focus is on point-source lensing by early-type galaxies with two mass components (stellar and dark matter) that have a variety of density profiles and shapes motivated by observational and theoretical studies of galaxy properties. We seek not only to quantify but also to understand the physics behind selection biases related to: galaxy mass, orientation and shape; dark matter profile parameters such as inner slope and concentration; and adiabatic contraction. We study how all of these properties affect the lensing Einstein radius, total cross-section, quad/double ratio and image separation distribution, with a flexible treatment of magnification bias to mimic different survey strategies. We present our results for two families of density profiles: cusped and deprojected Sérsic models. While we use fixed lens and source redshifts for most of the analysis, we show that the results are applicable to other redshift combinations, and we also explore the physics of how our results change for very different redshifts. We find significant (factors of several) selection biases with mass; orientation, for a given galaxy shape at fixed mass; cusped dark matter profile inner slope and concentration; concentration of the stellar and dark matter deprojected Sérsic models. Interestingly, the intrinsic shape of a galaxy does not strongly influence its lensing cross-section when we average over viewing angles. Our results are an important first step towards understanding how strong lens systems relate to the general galaxy population.

  14. The GHOSTS survey - II. The diversity of halo colour and metallicity profiles of massive disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Bailin, Jeremy; de Jong, Roelof S.; Holwerda, Benne; Streich, David; Silverstein, Grace

    2016-04-01

    We study the stellar halo colour properties of six nearby massive highly inclined disc galaxies using Hubble space telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 observations in both F606W and F814W filters from the GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks, and Star clusters) survey. The observed fields probe the stellar outskirts out to projected distances of ˜50-70 kpc from their galactic centre along the minor axis. The 50 per cent completeness levels of the colour-magnitude diagrams are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). We find that all galaxies have extended stellar haloes out to ˜50 kpc and two out to ˜70 kpc. We determined the halo colour distribution and colour profile for each galaxy using the median colours of stars in the RGB. Within each galaxy, we find variations in the median colours as a function of radius which likely indicates population variations, reflecting that their outskirts were built from several small accreted objects. We find that half of the galaxies (NGC 0891, NGC 4565, and NGC 7814) present a clear negative colour gradient in their haloes, reflecting a declining metallicity; the other have no significant colour or population gradient. In addition, notwithstanding the modest sample size of galaxies, there is no strong correlation between their halo colour/metallicity or gradient with galaxy's properties such as rotational velocity or stellar mass. The diversity in halo colour profiles observed in the GHOSTS galaxies qualitatively supports the predicted galaxy-to-galaxy scatter in halo stellar properties, a consequence of the stochasticity inherent in the assembling history of galaxies.

  15. ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-03-15

    We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

  16. Spectroscopy of supernova host galaxies from the SDSS-II SN survey with the SDSS and BOSS spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmstead, Matthew Dwaune

    Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) have been used as standard candles to measure cosmological distances. The initial discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe was performed using ~50 SNe Ia. Large SNe surveys have increased the number of spectroscopically-confirmed SNe Ia to over a thousand with redshift coverage beyond z = 1. We are now in the age of abundant photometry without the ability for full follow-up spectroscopy of all SN candidates. SN cosmology using these large samples will increasingly rely on robust photometric classification of SN candidates. Photometric classification will increase the sample by including faint SNe as these are preferentially not observed with follow-up spectroscopy. The primary concern with using photometrically classified SNe Ia in cosmology is when a core-collapse SNe is incorrectly classified as an SN Ia. This can be mitigated by obtaining the host galaxy redshift of each SN candidate and using this information as a prior in the photometric classification, removing one degree of freedom. To test the impact of redshift on photometric classification, I have performed an assessment on photometric classification of candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. I have tested the classification with and without redshift priors by looking at the change of photometric classification, the effect of data quality on photometric classification, and the effect of SN light curve properties on photometric classification. Following our suggested classification scheme, there are a total of 1038 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1002 SNe~Ia with the spectroscopic redshift. For 912 (91.0%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Finally, I investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2

  17. THE HST/ACS+WFC3 SURVEY FOR LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS. II. SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Meara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Worseck, Gabor; Madau, Piero

    2013-03-10

    We present the first science results from our Hubble Space Telescope survey for Lyman limit absorption systems (LLS) using the low dispersion spectroscopic modes of the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3. Through an analysis of 71 quasars, we determine the incidence frequency of LLS per unit redshift and per unit path length, l(z) and l(X), respectively, over the redshift range 1 < z < 2.6, and find a weighted mean of l(X) =0.29 {+-} 0.05 for 2.0 < z < 2.5 through a joint analysis of our sample and that of Ribaudo et al. Through stacked spectrum analysis, we determine a median (mean) value of the mean free path to ionizing radiation at z = 2.4 of {lambda}{sup 912}{sub mfp} = 243(252) h {sup -1}{sub 72} Mpc, with an error on the mean value of {+-}43 h {sup -1}{sub 72} Mpc. We also re-evaluate the estimates of {lambda}{sup 912}{sub mfp} from Prochaska et al. and place constraints on the evolution of {lambda}{sup 912}{sub mfp} with redshift, including an estimate of the ''breakthrough'' redshift of z = 1.6. Consistent with results at higher z, we find that a significant fraction of the opacity for absorption of ionizing photons comes from systems with N{sub H{sub I}} {<=}10{sup 17.5} cm{sup -2} with a value for the total Lyman opacity of {tau}{sup Lyman}{sub eff} = 0.40 {+-} 0.15. Finally, we determine that at minimum, a 5-parameter (4 power law) model is needed to describe the column density distribution function f(N{sub H{sub I}}, X) at z {approx} 2.4, find that f(N{sub H{sub I}}, X) undergoes no significant change in shape between z {approx} 2.4 and z {approx} 3.7, and provide our best fit model for f(N{sub H{sub I}}, X).

  18. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  19. Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: II. chemical surveys.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Kristin K; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Morata, Thais C; Van Campen, Luann E; Dallaire, Jacques; Alvarez, Frank J

    2005-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a series of surveys to evaluate occupational exposure to noise and potentially ototoxic chemical agents among members of a professional stock car racing team. Exposure assessments included site visits to the team's race shop and a worst-case scenario racetrack. During site visits to the race team's shop, area samples were collected to measure exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals, including, organic compounds (typical of solvents), metals, and carbon monoxide (CO). Exposures to these chemicals were all below their corresponding Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PELs), NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs), and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs). During site visits to the racetrack, area and personal samples were collected for organic compounds, lead, and CO in and around the "pit" area where the cars undergo race preparation and service during the race. Exposures to organic compounds and lead were either nondetectable or too low to quantify. Twenty-five percent of the CO time-weighted average concentrations exceeded the OSHA PEL, NIOSH REL, and ACGIH TLV after being adjusted for a 10-hour workday. Peak CO measurements exceeded the NIOSH recommended ceiling limit of 200 ppm. Based on these data, exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals are probably not high enough to produce an adverse effect greater than that produced by the high sound pressure levels alone. However, carbon monoxide levels occasionally exceeded all evaluation criteria at the racetrack. PMID:16009649

  20. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. II. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THETHIRD DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, N; Oguri, M; Becker, R H; Shin, M; Richards, G T; Hennawi, J F; White, R L; Pindor, B; Strauss, M A; Kochanek, C S; Johnston, D E; Gregg, M D; Kayo, I; Eisenstein, D; Hall, P B; Castander, F J; Clocchiatti, A; Chiu, K; Kawano, Y; Scranton, R; Frieman, J; Keeton, C R; Morokuma, T; Rix, H; Turner, E L; Burless, S; Brunner, R J; Sheldon, E S; Bahcall, N A; Fukugita, M

    2007-09-13

    We report the first results of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars using the spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Among 46,420 quasars from the SDSS Data Release 3 ({approx}4188 deg{sup 2}), we select a subsample of 22,683 quasars that are located at redshifts between 0.6 and 2.2 and are brighter than the Galactic extinction corrected i-band magnitude of 19.1. We identify 220 lens candidates from the quasar subsample, for which we conduct extensive and systematic follow-up observations in optical and near-infrared wavebands, in order to construct a complete lensed quasar sample at image separations between 1-inch and 20-inch and flux ratios of faint to bright lensed images larger than 10{sup -0.5}. We construct a statistical sample of 11 lensed quasars. Ten of these are galaxy-scale lenses with small image separations ({approx} 1-inch - 2-inch) and one is a large separation (15-inch) system which is produced by a massive cluster of galaxies, representing the first statistical sample of lensed quasars including both galaxy- and cluster-scale lenses. The Data Release 3 spectroscopic quasars contain an additional 11 lensed quasars outside the statistical sample.

  1. Red giant stars from the Sloan digital sky survey. II. Distances

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kefeng; Chen, Yuqin; Carrell, Kenneth; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhao, Gang

    2014-10-10

    We present distance determinations for a large and clean sample of red giant branch stars selected from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The distances are calculated based on both observational cluster fiducials and theoretical isochrones. Distributions of distances from the two methods are very similar with peaks at about 10 kpc and tails extending to more than 70 kpc. We find that distances from the two methods agree well for the majority of the sample stars; though, on average, distances based on isochrones are 10% higher than those based on fiducials. We test the accuracy of our distance determinations using 332 stars from 10 Galactic globular and open clusters. The average relative deviation from the literature cluster distances is 4% for the fiducial-based distances and 8% for the isochrone-based distances, both of which are within the uncertainties. We find that the effective temperature and surface gravity derived from low-resolution spectra are not accurate enough to essentially improve the performance of distance determinations. However, for stars with significant extinction, effective temperature may help to better constrain their distances to some extent. We make our sample stars and their distances available from an online catalog. The catalog comprises 17,941 stars with reasonable distance estimations reaching to more than 70 kpc, which is suitable for the investigation of the formation and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the Galactic halo.

  2. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  3. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-12-20

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M{sub sun}, diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10{sup 4} AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10{sup 4} AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  4. Urinary cadmium and blood pressure: Results from the NHANES II survey

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; DiCiccio, Y. ); Provenzano, G. )

    1991-02-01

    Relationships between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure were examined in a sample of 951 adult men and women who participated in the Second National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES 2). Among all participants, positive relationships were seen between urinary cadmium levels and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjusting for age, sex, race, relative body weight, smoking status, and hypertensive medication use. However, analyses for subgroups determined by sex and smoking status were inconsistent. Among current smokers, urinary cadmium levels were significantly positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure for women, and with diastolic blood pressure for men. Yet among former smokers and lifelong nonsmokers of both sexes, urinary cadmium was not significantly associated with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Evidence that some hypertensive medications increase urinary cadmium excretion suggests that the positive associations seen among current smokers may reflect high urinary cadium levels among hypertensives induced by hypertensive treatment. After treated hypertensives were removed from the analysis, regression coefficients relating blood pressure to cadmium dropped by a factor of two and lost statistical significance. The authors conclude that the present data provide little support for a causal association between systemic cadmium and hypertension at nonoccupational exposure levels. Further, conflicting results of previous studies may reflect failure to control adequately for age, smoking status, and hypertensive treatment.

  5. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II - The IRAS survey observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell.

  6. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7 SPECTROSCOPIC M DWARF CATALOG. II. STATISTICAL PARALLAX ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, John J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.

    2011-03-15

    We present a statistical parallax analysis of low-mass dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We calculate absolute r-band magnitudes (M{sub r} ) as a function of color and spectral type and investigate changes in M{sub r} with location in the Milky Way. We find that magnetically active M dwarfs are intrinsically brighter in M{sub r} than their inactive counterparts at the same color or spectral type. Metallicity, as traced by the proxy {zeta}, also affects M{sub r} , with metal-poor stars having fainter absolute magnitudes than higher metallicity M dwarfs at the same color or spectral type. Additionally, we measure the velocity ellipsoid and solar reflex motion for each subsample of M dwarfs. We find good agreement between our measured solar peculiar motion and previous results for similar populations, as well as some evidence for differing motions of early and late M-type populations in U and W velocities that cannot be attributed to asymmetric drift. The reflex solar motion and the velocity dispersions both show that younger populations, as traced by magnetic activity and location near the Galactic plane, have experienced less dynamical heating. We introduce a new parameter, the independent position altitude (IPA), to investigate populations as a function of vertical height from the Galactic plane. M dwarfs at all types exhibit an increase in velocity dispersion when analyzed in comparable IPA subgroups.

  7. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  8. A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. II. The observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Duffee, B.; Heiter, U.; Kuschnig, R.; Weiss, W. W.

    2001-07-01

    lambda Bootis stars comprise only a small number of all A-type stars and are characterized as nonmagnetic, Population i, late B to early F-type dwarfs which show significant underabundances of metals whereas the light elements (C, N, O and S) are almost normal abundant compared to the Sun. In the second paper on a spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars, we present the spectral classifications of all program stars observed. These stars were selected on the basis of their Strömgren uvbybeta colors as lambda Bootis candidates. In total, 708 objects in six open clusters, the Orion OB1 association and the Galactic field were classified. In addition, 9 serendipity non-candidates in the vicinity of our program stars as well as 15 Guide Star Catalogue stars were observed resulting in a total of 732 classified stars. The 15 objects from the Guide Star Catalogue are part of a program for the classification of apparent variable stars from the Fine Guidance Sensors of the Hubble Space Telescope. A grid of 105 MK standard as well as ``pathological'' stars guarantees a precise classification. A comparison of our spectral classification with the extensive work of Abt & Morrell (\\cite{Abt95}) shows no significant differences. The derived types are 0.23 +/- 0.09 (rms error per measurement) subclasses later and 0.30 +/- 0.08 luminosity classes more luminous than those of Abt & Morrell (\\cite{Abt95}) based on a sample of 160 objects in common. The estimated errors of the means are +/- 0.1 subclasses. The characteristics of our sample are discussed in respect to the distribution on the sky, apparent visual magnitudes and Strömgren uvbybeta colors. Based on observations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dos Dias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University of Toronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas).

  9. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. II. SURVEY RESULTS: SPOTS ARE UBIQUITOUS ON L AND T DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Metchev, Stanimir A.; Heinze, Aren; Apai, Dániel; Flateau, Davin; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam; Marley, Mark S.; Artigau, Étienne; Plavchan, Peter; Goldman, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    We present results from the Weather on Other Worlds Spitzer Exploration Science program to investigate photometric variability in L and T dwarfs, usually attributed to patchy clouds. We surveyed 44 L3-T8 dwarfs, spanning a range of J – K{sub s} colors and surface gravities. We find that 14/23 (61%{sub −20%}{sup +17%}, 95% confidence) of our single L3-L9.5 dwarfs are variable with peak-to-peak amplitudes between 0.2% and 1.5%, and 5/16 (31%{sub −17%}{sup +25%}) of our single T0-T8 dwarfs are variable with amplitudes between 0.8% and 4.6%. After correcting for sensitivity, we find that 80%{sub −27%}{sup +20%} of L dwarfs vary by ≥0.2%, and 36%{sub −17%}{sup +26%} of T dwarfs vary by ≥0.4%. Given viewing geometry considerations, we conclude that photospheric heterogeneities causing >0.2% 3-5 μm flux variations are present on virtually all L dwarfs, and probably on most T dwarfs. A third of L dwarf variables show irregular light curves, indicating that L dwarfs may have multiple spots that evolve over a single rotation. Also, approximately a third of the periodicities are on timescales >10 hr, suggesting that slowly rotating brown dwarfs may be common. We observe an increase in the maximum amplitudes over the entire spectral type range, revealing a potential for greater temperature contrasts in T dwarfs than in L dwarfs. We find a tentative association (92% confidence) between low surface gravity and high-amplitude variability among L3-L5.5 dwarfs. Although we can not confirm whether lower gravity is also correlated with a higher incidence of variables, the result is promising for the characterization of directly imaged young extrasolar planets through variability.

  10. SDSS-II Supernova Survey: An Analysis of the Largest Sample of Type Ia Supernovae and Correlations with Host-galaxy Spectral Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; Kessler, Rick; Jha, Saurabh W.; March, Marisa C.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.

  11. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Chamaeleon II. Properties of cold dust in disks around young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.; Cox, N. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Winston, E.; Kóspál, Á.; Royer, P.; Vavrek, R.; André, Ph.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Testi, L.; Bressert, E.; Ricci, L.; Men'shchikov, A.; Könyves, V.

    2013-07-01

    Context. We report on the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) of the Chamaeleon II (Cha II) star-forming region, focusing on the detection of Class I to III young stellar objects (YSOs). Aims: We aim at characterizing the circumstellar material around these YSOs and at understanding which disk parameters are most likely constrained by the new HGBS data, which are expected to be crucial for studying the transition from optically thick disks to evolved debris-type disks. Methods: We recovered 29 of the 63 known YSOs in Cha II with a detection in at least one of the PACS/SPIRE pass-bands: 3 Class I YSOs (i.e.,100%), 1 flat source (i.e., 50%), 21 Class II objects (i.e., 55%), 3 Class III objects (i.e, 16%), and the unclassified far-infrared source IRAS 12522-7640. We explored PACS/SPIRE colors of this sample and modeled their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the optical to Herschel's wavelengths with the RADMC-2D radiative transfer code. Results: We find that YSO colors are typically confined to the following ranges: -0.7 ≲ log (F70 / F160) ≲ 0.5, -0.5 ≲ log (F160 / F250) ≲ 0.6, 0.05 ≲ log (F250 / F350) ≲ 0.25 and -0.1 ≲ log (F350 / F500) ≲ 0.5. These color ranges are expected to be only marginally contaminated by extragalactic sources and field stars and, hence, provide a useful YSO selection tool when applied together. We were able to model the SED of 26 of the 29 detected YSOs. We discuss the degeneracy/limitations of our SED fitting results and adopted the Bayesian method to estimate the probability of different values for the derived disk parameters. The Cha II YSOs present typical disk inner radii ≲0.1 AU, as previously estimated in the literature on the basis of Spitzer data. Our probability analysis shows that, thanks to the new Herschel data, the lower limits to the disk mass (Mdisk) and characteristic radius (RC) are well constrained, while the flaring angle (1 + φ) is only marginally constrained. The lower limit to RC is typically

  12. Design and testing of z-shaped stringer-stiffened compression panels -- Evaluation of ARALL, GLARE, AND 2090 materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Reddy, S.V.; Wilson, D.

    1997-12-31

    Within the aerospace industry, there is a constant objective to develop more efficient and more economical aircraft. It is well known that the more prohibitive costs of air travel are associated with fuel consumption and the service losses incurred during downtime maintenance. Obviously, fuel consumption is greatly affected by weight. Thus, there is a search for new materials and construction techniques that offer substantial weight savings. A design study was conducted to determine the potential weight savings and performance increase from advanced metallic materials for wing skin panels. The materials included aluminum lithium 2090-T83, ARALL-3 (aramid-reinforced aluminum laminate) and GLARE-2 (glass-aluminium-reinforced epoxy). This wing has mechanically attached stringers to stiffen the panel against compressive and shear loading. The advanced skin materials were designed into an advanced wing box; advantage was taken of the increase in strength and stiffness. Two 2090-T83 aluminum-lithium skins with 7075-T6511 extruded Z-shaped stringers bonded to them were used for the evaluation of the upper wing cover structure. One panel had five bays, the other four. The study confirmed that a weight savings in the order of 10 to 15% can be achieved with panels made with these advanced materials. The compression tests showed that all test panels failed in column bending and the predicted critical loads compared to those from the tests were conservative. The tests also validated the design methodology.

  13. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey. A Feature-Based Taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bus, Schelte J.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2002-07-01

    The second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASSII) produced an internally consistent set of visible-wavelength charge-coupled device (CCD) spectra for 1447 asteroids (Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus, ). These data provide a basis for developing a new asteroid taxonomy that utilizes more of the information contained in CCD spectra. Here we construct a classification system that builds on the robust framework provided by existing asteroid taxonomies. In particular, we define three major groupings (the S-, C-, and X-complexes) that adhere to the classical definitions of the S-, C-, and X-type asteroids. A total of 26 classes are defined, based on the presence or absence of specific spectral features. Definitions and boundary parameters are provided for each class, allowing new spectral observations to be placed in this system. Of these 26 classes, 12 bear familiar single-letter designations that follow previous conventions: A, B, C, D, K, O, Q, R, S, T, V, and X. A new L-class is introduced to describe 35 objects with spectra having a steep UV slope shortward of 0.75 μm, but which are relatively flat longward of 0.75 μm. Asteroids with intermediate spectral characteristics are assigned multiletter designations: Cb, Cg, Cgh, Ch, Ld, Sa, Sk, Sl, Sq, Sr, Xc, Xe, and Xk. Members of the Cgh- and Ch-classes have spectra containing a 0.7-μm feature that is generally attributed to hydration. Although previously considered featureless, CCD observations reveal distinct features of varying strengths in the spectra of asteroids in the X-complex, thus allowing the Xc-, Xe-, and Xk-classes to be established. Most notably, the spectra of Xe-type asteroids contain an absorption feature centered near 0.49 μm that may be associated with troilite. Several new members are identified for previously unique or sparsely populated classes: 12 A-types, 3 O-types, and 3 R-types. Q-types are common within the near-Earth asteroid population but remain unobserved in

  14. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  15. THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: PARAMETERIZING THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE AS A FUNCTION OF HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Dilday, Benjamin; Marriner, John; Frieman, Joshua; Kessler, Richard; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Garnavich, Peter; Jha, Saurabh W.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2012-08-10

    Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Supernova Survey-II (SDSS-II SN Survey), we measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as a function of galaxy properties at intermediate redshift. A sample of 342 SNe Ia with 0.05 < z < 0.25 is constructed. Using broadband photometry and redshifts, we use the PEGASE.2 spectral energy distributions to estimate host galaxy stellar masses and recent star formation rates (SFRs). We find that the rate of SNe Ia per unit stellar mass is significantly higher (by a factor of {approx}30) in highly star-forming galaxies compared to passive galaxies. When parameterizing the SN Ia rate (SNR{sub Ia}) based on host galaxy properties, we find that the rate of SNe Ia in passive galaxies is not linearly proportional to the stellar mass; instead an SNR{sub Ia}{proportional_to}M{sup 0.68} is favored. However, such a parameterization does not describe the observed SNR{sub Ia} in star-forming galaxies. The SNR{sub Ia} in star-forming galaxies is well fitted by SNR{sub Ia} = (0.41 {+-} 0.15) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sup 0.72{+-}0.15} + (0.65 {+-} 0.25) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}SFR{sup 1.01{+-}0.22} (statistical errors only), where M is the host galaxy stellar mass (in M{sub Sun }) and SFR is the SFR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We show that our results, for SNe Ia in passive galaxies, are consistent with those at higher redshifts (favoring SNR{sub Ia}{proportional_to}M) when accounting for the difference in the ages of our galaxies. This suggests that the rate of SNe Ia is correlated with the age of the stellar population. The MLCS extinction parameter, A{sub V} , is similar in passive and moderately star-forming galaxies, but we find indications that it is smaller, on average, in highly star-forming galaxies. This result appears to be driven by a deficit of the reddest (A{sub V} > 0.15) SNe Ia in highly star-forming galaxies. We consider that the high levels of dust in these systems may be obscuring the reddest and faintest SNe

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Milky Way global survey of star clusters. II. (Kharchenko+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Roeser, S.; Schilbach, E.; Scholz, R.-D.

    2013-11-01

    An all-sky target list of 3784 entries with initial cluster parameters was compiled from sources available in the literature. As the primary source we used the data from the Catalogue of Open Cluster Data (COCD, Kharchenko et al. 2005a,b, Cat. J/A+A/438/1163, J/A+A/440/403). For further optical clusters the data were taken from the Dias et al. (2002, Cat. B/ocl) list (Version 3.1, 24/nov/2010). Known associations were retrieved from Melnik & Dambis (2009, Cat. J/MNRAS/400/518). For clusters detected in the NIR the information came from Bica et al. (2003b, Cat. J/A+A/404/223), Dutra et al. (2003, Cat. J/A+A/400/533), Froebrich et al. (2007, Cat. J/MNRAS/374/399). Globular clusters were selected from the catalogue by Harris (1996, edition 2010, 2010arXiv1012.3224H). Additionally, we incorporated supplementary data on embedded clusters from Bica et al. (2003a, Cat. J/A+A/397/177), Lada & Lada (2003ARA&A..41...57L) and on stars in associations from Humphreys (1978, Cat. V/44). The basic stellar data were taken from the all-sky catalogue 2MAst (2Mass with Astrometry), that was extracted from the all-sky catalogues PPMXL (Roeser et al. 2010, Cat. I/317) and 2MASS (Cutri et al. 2003, Cat. II/246). Additionally, we incorporated data on radial velocities from Kharchenko et al. (2007, Cat. III/254) and spectral types from ASCC-2.5 (Kharchenko & Roeser 2009, Cat. I/280). Around each object from our target list we defined a circular area with a radius of ra=r2+radd where r2 is the cluster radius, and radd=0.3°. In these areas we selected in 2MAst only those stars with flags Rflg (the 2nd triple of the flags in 2MASS) set to 1, 2, or 3 in each band, i.e. the stars with the best quality detections in photometric and astrometric data. There are 3784 targets in our object list, we confirmed 3006 clusters and/or associations. These 3006 sky areas contain about 63.5 mln 2MAst stars with best quality detections in photometric and astrometric data. We selected about 0.14 mln most

  17. The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey. II. X-ray spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, P.; Moretti, A.; Tundo, E.; Liu, T.; Rosati, P.; Borgani, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; D'Avanzo, P.

    2014-07-01

    < 0.4. We derive the luminosity-temperature relation for these 46 sources, finding good agreement with previous studies. Conclusions: Thanks to the good X-ray spectral quality and the low background of Swift/XRT, we are able to measure ICM temperatures and X-ray luminosities for the 46 sources with redshifts. Once redshifts are available for the remaining 26 sources, this sample will constitute a well-characterized, flux-limited catalog of clusters distributed over a broad redshift range (0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.0) providing a statistically complete view of the cluster population with a selection function that allows a proper treatment of any measurement bias. The quality of the SWXCS sample is comparable to other samples available in the literature and obtained with much larger X-ray telescopes. Our results have interesting implications for the design of future X-ray survey telescopes, characterized by good-quality PSF over the entire field of view and low background. Tables 1 and 2 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgCatalog and data products of SWXCS, constantly updated, are made available to the public through the websites http://www.arcetri.astro.it/SWXCS/ and http://swxcs.ustc.edu.cn/

  18. The ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey. II. The distribution of velocity dispersions of rich galaxy clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazure, A.; Katgert, P.; den Hartog, R.; Biviano, A.; Dubath, P.; Escalera, E.; Focardi, P.; Gerbal, D.; Giuricin, G.; Jones, B.; Le Fevre, O.; Moles, M.; Perea, J.; Rhee, G.

    1996-06-01

    The ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey (the ENACS) has yielded 5634 redshifts for galaxies in the directions of 107 rich, Southern clusters selected from the ACO catalogue (Abell et al. 1989). By combining these data with another 1000 redshifts from the literature, of galaxies in 37 clusters, we construct a volume-limited sample of 128 R_ACO_>=1 clusters in a solid angle of 2.55sr centered on the South Galactic Pole, out to a redshift z=0.1. For a subset of 80 of these clusters we can calculate a reliable velocity dispersion, based on at least 10 (but very often between 30 and 150) redshifts. We deal with the main observational problem that hampers an unambiguous interpretation of the distribution of cluster velocity dispersions, namely the contamination by fore- and background galaxies. We also discuss in detail the completeness of the cluster samples for which we derive the distribution of cluster velocity dispersions. We find that a cluster sample which is complete in terms of the field-corrected richness count given in the ACO catalogue gives a result that is essentially identical to that based on a smaller and more conservative sample which is complete in terms of an intrinsic richness count that has been corrected for superposition effects. We find that the large apparent spread in the relation between velocity dispersion and richness count (based either on visual inspection or on machine counts) must be largely intrinsic; i.e. this spread is not primarily due to measurement uncertainties. One of the consequences of the (very) broad relation between cluster richness and velocity dispersion is that all samples of clusters that are defined complete with respect to richness count are unavoidably biased against low-σ_V_ clusters. For the richness limit of our sample this bias operates only for velocity dispersions less than =~800km/sec. We obtain a statistically reliable distribution of global velocity dispersions which, for velocity dispersions σ_V_>800km/s, is

  19. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide. II. A survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-01-01

    I. Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this prototypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydro desulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low, negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. II. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties.

  20. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. IV. THE EVOLUTION OF [O II] EMITTING GALAXIES FROM z {approx} 0.5 TO z {approx} 0

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Zeimann, Gregory R. E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu; and others

    2013-05-20

    We present an analysis of the luminosities and equivalent widths of the 284 z < 0.56 [O II]-emitting galaxies found in the 169 arcmin{sup 2} pilot survey for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). By combining emission-line fluxes obtained from the Mitchell spectrograph on the McDonald 2.7 m telescope with deep broadband photometry from archival data, we derive each galaxy's dereddened [O II] {lambda}3727 luminosity and calculate its total star formation rate. We show that over the last {approx}5 Gyr of cosmic time, there has been substantial evolution in the [O II] emission-line luminosity function, with L* decreasing by {approx}0.6 {+-} 0.2 dex in the observed function, and by {approx}0.9 {+-} 0.2 dex in the dereddened relation. Accompanying this decline is a significant shift in the distribution of [O II] equivalent widths, with the fraction of high equivalent-width emitters declining dramatically with time. Overall, the data imply that the relative intensity of star formation within galaxies has decreased over the past {approx}5 Gyr, and that the star formation rate density of the universe has declined by a factor of {approx}2.5 between z {approx} 0.5 and z {approx} 0. These observations represent the first [O II]-based star formation rate density measurements in this redshift range, and foreshadow the advancements which will be generated by the main HETDEX survey.

  1. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. Material and methods SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. Results From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18–79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Conclusions Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region. PMID:26322082

  2. Investigations in Time and of Space Using the FIRST Survey: Radio Source Variability and the Evolution of FR II Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    The FIRST survey covered ∼10,000 deg2 of the sky over a decade, providing unprecedented levels of flux density sensitivity (∼ 1 mJy) at 1.4 GHz, uniformity to within 15% (at ∼0.15 mJy rms), 5.4" angular resolution, astrometric accuracy to better than 1" and has cataloged ≳ 800,000 sources. It has made enormous contributions to diverse scientific ends including such subjects as radio source populations, quasars, large-scale structure and clustering of radio sources, gravitational lensing, cosmology, etc. I present the motivation, analysis and results of two projects also intended to demonstrate the power and expand the scope of the FIRST survey's scientific reach. A comprehensive search for variable and transient radio sources has been conducted using the ∼55,000 snapshot images of the FIRST survey. An analysis leading to the discovery of 1,651 variable and transient objects down to mJy levels over a wide range of timescales (few minutes to years) is presented. The multi-wavelength matching for counterparts reveals the diverse classes of objects exhibiting variability. Interestingly, ∼ 60% of the objects in the sample have either no classified counterparts or no corresponding sources at any other wavelength and require multi-wavelength follow-up observations. I discuss these classes of variables and speculate on the identity of objects that lack multi-wavelength counterparts. Thus, the FIRST survey has yielded the largest sample by far of radio variables and transients to date to unprecedented levels of sensitivity and sky coverage and demonstrates the promise of future radio instruments which have transient-detection as one of their key science projects. For decades, radio astronomers have attempted to use double-lobed radio sources to constrain the angular size-redshift (θ - z ) relation and to derive cosmological parameters therefrom. Most of the early attempts have, embarrassingly, shown general consistency with a static Euclidean universe rather

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC survey of the SHADES fields. II. (Michalowski+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Austermann, J. E.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Egami, E.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Schael, A. M.; Scott, K. S.; Smail, I.; Targett, T. A.; Wagg, J.; Wilson, G. W.; Xu, L.; Yun, M.

    2013-04-01

    We utilized the JCMT/AzTEC 1.1mm maps and catalogues from Austermann et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/401/160). These data cover 0.7deg2 to an rms depth of 0.9-1.7mJy/beam. We selected all 148 sources presented by Austermann et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/401/160) with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3.5, and adopted the statistically deboosted 1.1mm flux densities. The VLA 1.4GHz and GMRT 0.61GHz radio data were taken from Ivison et al. (2005MNRAS.364.1025I, 2007, Cat. J/MNRAS/380/199) and Ibar et al. (2009, Cat. J/MNRAS/397/281, 2010MNRAS.401L..53I), respectively. The mid-IR Spitzer data in the Lockman Hole East field are from programmes PID 81 (PI: G. Rieke) and PID 50249 (PI: E. Egami), described in Egami et al. (2004ApJS..154..130E) and Dye et al. (2008MNRAS.386.1107D), whereas in the UDS field the mid-IR data are from the Spitzer Public Legacy Survey of the UKIDSS UDS (PI: J. Dunlop, http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/spitzermission/observingprograms/ legacy/spuds/) described in Caputi et al. (2011MNRAS.413..162C). The optical data in both fields were obtained with Subaru/SuprimeCam, as described in Dye et al. (2006MNRAS.372.1227D) and Furusawa et al. (2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1). The near-IR data in both fields are provided by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS; Lawrence et al. 2007, Cat. II/314) with the SXDF/UDS field benefitting from the ultradeep J, H, K coverage provided by the UDS (e.g. Cirasuolo et al. 2010MNRAS.401.1166C), while the Lockman Hole East field is part of the somewhat shallower UKIDSS DXS (Warren et al., 2007MNRAS.375..213W). (5 data files).

  4. Evolution of the cosmological mass density of neutral gas from Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Data Release 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a search for damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS), Data Release 7. We use a fully automatic procedure to identify DLAs and derive their column densities. The procedure is checked against the results of previous searches for DLAs in SDSS. We discuss the agreements and differences and show the robustness of our procedure. For each system, we obtain an accurate measurement of the absorber's redshift, the H I column density and the equivalent width of associated metal absorption lines, without any human intervention. We find 1426 absorbers with 2.15 < z < 5.2 with log N(H I) ≥ 20, out of which 937 systems have log N(H I) ≥ 20.3. This is the largest DLA sample ever built, made available to the scientific community through the electronic version of this paper. In the course of the survey, we discovered the intervening DLA with highest H I column density known to date with log N(H I) = 22.0±0.1. This single system provides a strong constraint on the high-end of the N(H I) frequency distribution now measured with high accuracy. We show that the presence of a DLA at the blue end of a QSO spectrum can lead to important systematic errors and propose a method to avoid them. This has important consequences for the measurement of the cosmological mass density of neutral gas at z ~ 2.2 and therefore on our understanding of galaxy evolution over the past 10 billion years. We find a significant decrease of the cosmological mass density of neutral gas in DLAs, Ω_g^DLA, from z = 4 to z = 2.2, consistent with the result of previous SDSS studies. However, and contrary to other SDSS studies, we find that Ω_g^DLA(z = 2.2) is about twice the value at z = 0. This implies that Ω_g^DLA keeps decreasing at z < 2.2. Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/505/1087

  5. A MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, LluIs; Miquel, Ramon; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Ihara, Yutaka; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Marriner, John; Molla, Mercedes

    2010-06-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {<=} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {<=} z {<=} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sup +0.17+0.01} {sub -0.12-0.01}) SNur h {sup 2} and (0.55{sup +0.13+0.02} {sub -0.11-0.01}) SNur h {sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12} L {sup -1} {sub xsun} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sup +0.18+0.01} {sub -0.12-0.01}) SNur h {sup 2} and (0.49{sup +0.15+0.02} {sub -0.11-0.01}) SNur h {sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sup +1.99+0.07} {sub -1.11-0.04}) SNur h {sup 2} and (0.36{sup +0.84+0.01} {sub -0.30-0.01}) SNur h {sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sup +1.31+0.043} {sub -0.91-0.015} and 3.02{sup +1.31+0.062} {sub -1.03-0.048}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sup +0.15} {sub -0.14})+(0.91{sup +0.85} {sub -0.81}) x z] SNuB h {sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most three hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe

  6. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  7. The SLUGGS survey*: exploring the globular cluster systems of the Leo II group and their global relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartha, Sreeja S.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Alabi, Adebusola B.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Spitler, Lee R.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Roediger, Joel C.

    2016-05-01

    We present an investigation of the globular cluster (GC) systems of NGC 3607 and NGC 3608 as part of the ongoing SLUGGS (SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS) survey. We use wide-field imaging data from the Subaru telescope in the g, r and i filters to analyse the radial density, colour and azimuthal distributions of both GC systems. With the complementary kinematic data obtained from the Keck II telescope, we measure the radial velocities of a total of 81 GCs. Our results show that the GC systems of NGC 3607 and NGC 3608 have a detectable spatial extent of ˜15 and 13 galaxy effective radii, respectively. Both GC systems show a clear bimodal colour distribution. We detect a significant radial colour gradient for the GC subpopulations in both galaxies. NGC 3607 exhibits an overabundance of red GCs on the galaxy minor axis and NGC 3608 shows a misalignment in the GC subpopulation position angles with respect to the galaxy stellar component. With the aid of literature data, we discuss several relationships between the properties of GC systems and their host galaxies. A one-to-one relation between the ellipticities of red GCs and the galaxy stellar light emphasizes the evolutionary similarities between them. In our sample of four slowly rotating galaxies with kinematically decoupled cores, we observe a higher ellipticity for the blue GC subpopulation than their red counterparts. Also, we notice the flattening of negative colour gradients for the blue GC subpopulations with increasing galaxy stellar mass. Finally, we discuss the formation scenarios associated with the blue GC subpopulation.

  8. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3. II. COMPLETING THE SNAPSHOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Tremblay, G. R.; Harris, D. E.; O'Dea, C. P.; Kharb, P.; Axon, D.; Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A.; Baum, S. A.; Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W.; Gilli, R.; Giovannini, G.; Grandi, P.; Torresi, E.; Risaliti, G.

    2012-12-15

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  9. Impact of flat panel-imager veiling glare on scatter-estimation accuracy and image quality of a commercial on-board cone-beam CT imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Lazos, Dimitrios; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this study is to measure the low frequency drop (LFD) of the modulation transfer function (MTF), associated with the long tails of the detector point spread function (PSF) of an on-board flat panel imager and study its impact on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and scatter measurement accuracy. Methods: Two different experimental methods were used to characterize LFD and its associated PSF of a Varian OBI flat-panel detector system: the edge response function (ERF) method and the disk transfer function (DTF) method. PSF was estimated by fitting parametric models to these measurements for four values of the applied voltage (kVp). The resultant PSF was used to demonstrate the effect of LFD on image contrast and CT number accuracy in CBCT images reconstructed from synthetic datasets, as well as, accuracy of scatter measurements with the beam-stop method. Results: The MTFs derived from the measured ERF data revealed LFDs varying from 8% (at 60 kVp) to 10.5% (at 120 kVp), while the intensity of the long PSF tails was found to increase with increasing kVp. The veiling glare line spread functions derived from the ERF and DTF methods were in excellent agreement. Uncorrected veiling glare reduced contrast and the image intensity in CBCT reconstruction, near the phantom periphery (by 67 Hounsfield units in a 20 cm-in-diameter water phantom) and (to a smaller degree) near inhomogeneities. Use of the bow-tie filter mitigated these effects. Veiling glare also resulted in about 10%-15% overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio when measured with the beam-stop or beam-stop array method. Conclusions: The long tails of the detector PSF were found to have a modest dependence of beam spectrum, which is reflected on the MTF curve LFD. Our findings show that uncorrected veiling glare can affect quantitative accuracy and contrast in CBCT imaging, based on flat panel imager. In addition, it results in overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio, measured

  10. Impact of flat panel-imager veiling glare on scatter-estimation accuracy and image quality of a commercial on-board cone-beam CT imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Lazos, Dimitrios; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study is to measure the low frequency drop (LFD) of the modulation transfer function (MTF), associated with the long tails of the detector point spread function (PSF) of an on-board flat panel imager and study its impact on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and scatter measurement accuracy. Methods: Two different experimental methods were used to characterize LFD and its associated PSF of a Varian OBI flat-panel detector system: the edge response function (ERF) method and the disk transfer function (DTF) method. PSF was estimated by fitting parametric models to these measurements for four values of the applied voltage (kVp). The resultant PSF was used to demonstrate the effect of LFD on image contrast and CT number accuracy in CBCT images reconstructed from synthetic datasets, as well as, accuracy of scatter measurements with the beam-stop method. Results: The MTFs derived from the measured ERF data revealed LFDs varying from 8% (at 60 kVp) to 10.5% (at 120 kVp), while the intensity of the long PSF tails was found to increase with increasing kVp. The veiling glare line spread functions derived from the ERF and DTF methods were in excellent agreement. Uncorrected veiling glare reduced contrast and the image intensity in CBCT reconstruction, near the phantom periphery (by 67 Hounsfield units in a 20 cm-in-diameter water phantom) and (to a smaller degree) near inhomogeneities. Use of the bow-tie filter mitigated these effects. Veiling glare also resulted in about 10%–15% overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio when measured with the beam-stop or beam-stop array method. Conclusions: The long tails of the detector PSF were found to have a modest dependence of beam spectrum, which is reflected on the MTF curve LFD. Our findings show that uncorrected veiling glare can affect quantitative accuracy and contrast in CBCT imaging, based on flat panel imager. In addition, it results in overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio