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Sample records for glass fibre-reinforced plastics

  1. Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Forsman-Grönholm, L; Estlander, T; Pfäffli, P; Juntunen, J; Kanerva, L

    1993-09-01

    A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards and for evaluation of skin protection. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work. 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders. 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis. 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust from finishing work on the skin. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild and only 3 patients had been on sick leave because of occupational skin disease. PMID:8222622

  2. Trends in Occupational Exposure to Styrene in the European Glass Fibre-Reinforced Plastics Industry

    PubMed Central

    Van Rooij, J. G. M.; Kasper, A.; Triebig, G.; Werner, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This study presents temporal trends of styrene exposure for workers in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry during the period 1966–2002. Methods: Data of personal styrene exposure measurements were retrieved from reports, databases and peer-reviewed papers. Only sources with descriptive statistics of personal measurements were accepted. The styrene exposure data cover personal air samples and biological monitoring data, that is, urinary styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and/or phenylglyoxylic acid) and styrene in blood. Means of series of measurements were categorized by year, country, production process, job and sampling strategy. Linear mixed models were used to identify temporal trends and factors affecting exposure levels. Results: Personal exposure measurements were available from 60 reports providing data on 24145 1–8-h time-weighted average shift personal air samples. Available data of biological exposure indicators included measurements of mandelic acid in post-shift urine (6361 urine samples being analysed). Trend analyses of the available styrene exposure data showed that the average styrene concentration in the breathing zone of open-mould workers in the European GRP industry has decreased on average by 5.3% per year during the period 1966–1990 and by only 0.4% annually in the period after 1990. The highest exposures were measured in Southern Europe and the lowest exposures in Northern Europe with Central Europe in between. Biological indicators of styrene (mandelic acid in post-shift urine) showed a somewhat steeper decline (8.9%), most likely because urine samples were collected in companies that showed a stronger decrease of styrene exposure in air than GRP companies where no biological measurements were carried out. PMID:18550625

  3. Prediction of Damage Factor in end Milling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Ömer; Işık, Birhan; Çiçek, Adem; Kara, Fuat

    2013-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites are an economic alternative to engineering materials because of their superior properties. Some damages on the surface occur due to their complex cutting mechanics in cutting process. Minimisation of the damages is fairly important in terms of product quality. In this study, a GFRP composite material was milled to experimentally minimise the damages on the machined surfaces, using two, three and four flute end mills at different combinations of cutting parameters. Experimental results showed that the damage factor increased with increasing cutting speed and feed rate, on the other hand, it was found that the damage factor decreased with increasing depth of cut and number of the flutes. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) results clearly revealed that the feed rate was the most influential parameter affecting the damage factor in end milling of GFRP composites. Also, in present study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models with five learning algorithms were used in predicting the damage factor to reduce number of expensive and time-consuming experiments. The highest performance was obtained by 4-10-1 network structure with LM learning algorithm. ANN was notably successful in predicting the damage factor due to higher R2 and lower RMSE and MEP.

  4. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Kearns, M.; McCourt, M.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  5. Laser Surface Pre-treatment of Aluminium for Hybrid Joints with Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckert, André; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Lightweight construction is a major trend in the automotive industry. Theconnection of fibre reinforced plastics with aluminium is consequently seen as promising prospect. In this regard, thermal joining can be applied for bonding of such hybrid joints. But in order to create a load bearing metal plastic joint, the surface of the metal has to be pre-treated. Recent research has shown that with laser surface pre-treatment high joint strengths are obtained. Yet there are a variety of laser sources and manufacturable surface topographies with structure sizes ranging from macroscopic to nanoscopic profiles. Within this work,macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscopic laser processed structures are created on aluminium and consequently joined to glass fibre reinforced thermoplastics of different fibre length and fibre content. High shear tensile strengths of up to 42 N/mm2 were obtained depending on the allocated material and the surface pre-treatment.

  6. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  7. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  8. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi `Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  9. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  10. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  11. Prediction of thermal strains in fibre reinforced plastic matrix by discretisation of the temperature exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of environmental effects on fibre reinforced plastics habitually is made difficult due to the complex variability of the natural service environment. This paper suggests a method to predict thermal strain distribution over the material lifetime by discretisation of the exposure history. Laboratory results show a high correlation between predicted and experimentally measured strain distribution

  12. Processing of microencapsulated dyes for the visual inspection of fibre reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch. Kerschbaum, M. Küsters, K.

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of damages caused during processing, assembly or usage of fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenge. The use of inspection technology like ultrasonic scanning enables a detailed damage analysis but requires high investments and trained staff. Therefore, the visual inspection method is widely used. A drawback of this method is the difficult identification of barely visible damages, which can already be detrimental for the structural integrity. Therefore an approach is undertaken to integrate microencapsulated dyes into the laminates of fibre reinforced plastic parts to highlight damages on the surface. In case of a damage, the microcapsules rupture which leads to a release of the dye and a visible bruise on the part surface. To enable a wide application spectrum for this technology the microcapsules must be processable without rupturing with established manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced plastics. Therefore the incorporation of microcapsules in the filament winding, prepreg autoclave and resin transfer moulding (RTM) process is investigated. The results show that the use of a carrier medium is a feasible way to incorporate the microcapsules into the laminate for all investigated manufacturing processes. Impact testing of these laminates shows a bruise formation on the specimen surface which correlates with the impact energy level. This indicates a microcapsule survival during processing and shows the potential of this technology for damage detection and characterization.

  13. Mechanical, degradation and cytocompatibility properties of magnesium coated phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Hasan, Muhammad S; Grant, David M; Harper, Lee T; Parsons, Andrew J; Palmer, Graham; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Retention of mechanical properties of phosphate glass fibre reinforced degradable polyesters such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid in aqueous media has been shown to be strongly influenced by the integrity of the fibre/polymer interface. A previous study utilising 'single fibre' fragmentation tests found that coating with magnesium improved the fibre and matrix interfacial shear strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a magnesium coating on the manufacture and characterisation of a random chopped fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composite. Short chopped strand non-woven phosphate glass fibre mats were sputter coated with degradable magnesium to manufacture phosphate glass fibre/polycaprolactone composites. The degradation behaviour (water uptake, mass loss and pH change of the media) of these polycaprolactone composites as well as of pure polycaprolactone was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The Mg coated fibre reinforced composites revealed less water uptake and mass loss during degradation compared to the non-coated composites. The cations released were also explored and a lower ion release profile for all three cations investigated (namely Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) was seen for the Mg coated composite samples. An increase of 17% in tensile strength and 47% in tensile modulus was obtained for the Mg coated composite samples. Both flexural and tensile properties were investigated and a higher retention of mechanical properties was obtained for the Mg coated fibre reinforced composite samples up to 10 days immersion in PBS. Cytocompatibility study showed both composite samples (coated and non-coated) had good cytocompatibility with human osteosarcoma cell line. PMID:25028389

  14. Effect of ultrasonically-assisted drilling on carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhdum, Farrukh; Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2014-11-01

    This research focuses on the effect of ultrasonically-assisted drilling (UAD) on carbon fibre-reinforced plastics. High-frequency vibration was used to excite a drill bit during its standard operation. An extensive experimental study of drilling forces, temperature, chip formation, surface finish, circularity, delamination and tool wear was conducted using ∅3 mm drill and presented here. UAD showed a significant improvement in drill quality when compared to conventional drilling processes. A finite-element study was also conducted to understand the nature of drilling-force reduction in UAD.

  15. The oxidative stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Batt, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites is assessed. Loss of composite strength due to oxidative exposure at elevated temperatures under no load, static load and cyclic fatigue as well as due to thermal cycling are all examined. It is determined that strength loss is gradual and predictable based on the oxidation of carbon fibres. The glass matrix was not found to prevent this degradation but simply to limit it to a gradual process progressing from the composite surfaces inward.

  16. Cutting forces in ultrasonically assisted drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhdum, Farrukh; Jennings, Luke T.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) is a non-traditional hybrid machining process, which combines features of conventional drilling and vibratory machining techniques to obtain remarkable improvements in machinability of advanced materials. The experiments are conducted on commercially available samples of a carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) at a feed rate of 16 mm/min. In this study, a thrust force reduction in excess of 60% is observed in UAD when compared to conventional drilling (CD). Lower delamination was observed when compared to CD techniques. Optical microscopy revealed that the material is removed as a continuous chip in UAD whereas in case of CD we observe powdered dust. Light and scanning electron microscopy of CFRP chips obtained in drilling elucidate fundamental differences in the underlying machining processes in UAD of CFRP.

  17. Advanced Grounding Methods in the Presence of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, M.; Thurecht, F.; Pfeiffer, E.; Ruddle, A.

    2012-05-01

    Lightweight satellite structures are usually of sandwich type where the core is formed of a honeycomb-like structure made of aluminium foil. The outer facesheets are made of aluminium and serve as a ground reference plane. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), however, is a composite material having an electrical conductivity that is about 2000 times lower than the conductivity of aluminium. Since such a material is not suitable to carry electrical current of high value a network of metal sheets (grounding rails) connects all equipment mounted on the satellite structure. This paper describes an evaluation whether the classical grounding rail system can be replaced by a network of round wires while the high-frequency portion of the current is flowing along the CFRP sheet.

  18. Optimization of microwire/glass-fibre reinforced polymer composites for wind turbine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, F. X.; Peng, H. X.; Chen, Z.; Wang, H.; Zhang, J. W.; Hilton, G.

    2013-11-01

    We here report a comprehensive study of glass-fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) incorporating ferromagnetic microwires for microwave absorption applications. With wire addition, a remarkable dependence of microwave absorption performance appears on the local properties of wires such as wire geometry and the mesostructure such as inter-wire spacing, as well as the embedded depth of the wires layer. The impact testing further demonstrates that the metallic microwires can to some extent improve the impact performance. Based on both the absorption and impact behavior, we propose an optimized design of the microwire/GFRP composites to achieve simultaneous best possible absorption and impact performance for multifunctional applications in aeronautical structures and wind turbines.

  19. Assessment of solvent capsule-based healing for woven E-glass fibre-reinforced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Erica; Cohades, Amaël; Richard, Inès; Michaud, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Molding (VARIM) with low vacuum pressure difference was used to manufacture woven glass fibre-reinforced epoxy resin plates, with a fibre volume fraction of approx. 50 vol% and containing ethyl phenylacetate (EPA)-filled capsules for self-healing purposes. Capsules were introduced by functionalising the fabrics through manual dispersion. We investigated the capability of autonomously healing delaminations induced by static loading in Mode I and II. Healing did not take place for composite samples; this was attributed to the presence of bare fibres on the crack plane and to the reduction of EPA diffusion into the matrix in the presence of fibres both of which hinder the swelling mechanism responsible for healing the cracks.

  20. Tensile properties of glass/natural jute fibre-reinforced polymer bars for concrete reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, K. W.; Park, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    The tensile performance of glass/natural jute fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bar, intended for concrete reinforcement was evaluated as a function of volume fraction of natural jute fibre. Natural jute fibre, mixed at a ratio of 7:3 with vinyl ester, was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent and used to replaced glass fibre in the composite in volume fractions of 0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 100%. The tensile load-displacement curve showed nearly linear elastic behaviour up to 50% natural jute fibre, but was partially nonlinear at a proportion of 70%. However, the glass/natural jute FRP bars prepared using 100% natural jute fibre showed linear elastic behaviour. Tensile strength decreased as the natural jute fibre volume fraction increased because the tensile strength of natural jute fibre is much lower than that of glass fibre (about 1:8.65). The degree of reduction was not proportional to the natural jute fibre volume fraction due to the low density of natural jute fibre (1/2 that of glass fibre). Thus, as the mix proportion of natural jute fibre increased, the amount (wt%) and number of fibres used also increased.

  1. A composite-appropriate integration method of thick functional components in fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippatos, A.; Höhne, R.; Kliem, M.; Gude, M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of integrated structural health monitoring systems for critical composite parts, such as wind turbine blades, fuselage and wing parts, is an promising approach to guarantee a safe and efficient operational lifetime of such components. Therefore, the integration of thick functional components like sensors, actuators and electronic components is often necessary. An optimal integration of such components should be ensured without material imperfections in the composite structure, i.e. voids and resin rich areas, and failure of the functional components. In this paper, first investigations were undertaken for a basic understanding of the mechanical performance of a fibre reinforced plastic component with integrated functional elements. The influence of different materials and treatment methods for the encapsulation of electronic components was experimentally investigated under static and dynamic loading tests. By means of a parametric finite element model, the effects of an encapsulation and various parameters such as the shape and orientation of the electronic components were examined. Several encapsulation variants were investigated in order to minimise the chance of failure initiations. Based both on experimental and numerical results, a preferred composite integration concept was selected for an electronic board and some first recommendations for an optimal integration were derived.

  2. Effect of cyclical loading on the macroscopic failure behaviour of fibre reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Marder, J.; Kuesters, K.; Fischer, K.

    2014-05-01

    Fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) have become the preferred material choice for a wide range of lightweight applications. However, not only the static strength but also the strength and stiffness degradation under cyclical loading conditions have to be predicted for the efficient and reliable design of structures. The phenomenology of the macroscopic damage process of a laminate subjected to cyclical loads is commonly characterized by a first inter-fibre fracture (IFF) and a subsequent accumulation of these IFFs. Finally the laminate fails by one of the macroscopic failure modes named fibre failure (FF), inter-fibre fracture or delamination. Beside these macroscopic failure mechanisms, laminates are inherently characterized by microscopic flaws and cracks in the matrix and at the fibre matrix interface which accumulate especially in transversely loaded plies before the first macroscopic fracture occurs. In well-designed laminates the majority of the fibres are aligned with the loading direction. The fibre longitudinal compressive strength is therefore a critical value, since its inherently lower than the fibre longitudinal tensile strength. The fibre longitudinal compressive strength is influenced by a multitude of factors, such as fibre volume content, fibre and matrix material and also by the micro damage state of a ply. In this paper, the influence of the micro damage state on the fibre longitudinal compressive strength will be discussed. Experimental investigations have been performed to introduce a characteristic micro damage state into a ply by cyclical transverse preloading and quantify the effect of the preloading and the damage state on the fibre longitudinal compressive strength.

  3. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misri, S.; Leman, Z.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ishak, M. R.

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres. The composites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The tensile and impact test was carried out in accordance to ASTM 5083 and ASTM D256 standard. The fibre glass boat is a familiar material used in boat industry. A lot of research on fabrication process such as lay-up, vacuum infusion mould and resin transfer mould has been conducted. Hybrid material of sugar palm fibre and fibre glass was used in fabricating the boat. This research investigates the method selection for fabrication of small boat application of natural fibre composites. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres; woven glass fibre, strand mat, natural and hand woven of woven sugar palm fibres were prepared. The small boat were fabricated using a compression moulding and lay up technique. The results of the experiment showed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break value and impact strength were higher than the natural woven sugar palm fibre. The best method for fabricating the small boat was compression moulding technique. As a general conclusion, the usage of glass fibre had improved the tensile properties sugar palm fibre composites and compression moulding technique is suitable to be used in making a small boat application of natural fibre composites.

  4. Corrosive effect of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic on stainless-steel screws during implantation into man.

    PubMed

    Tayton, K

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of stainless-steel screws used to fix carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to human fractures was compared with the corrosion on similar screws used to fix stainless-steel AO plates. Corrosive changes were noted in both sets of screws with similar frequency and severity; however, the stainless-steel plates were 'in situ' almost twice as long as the CFRP ones, showing that the corrosive changes occurred more rapidly on screws in contact with CFRP. Nevertheless, over the implantation time necessary for bone healing, corrosion was very mild and there is no clinical contra-indication to the use of stainless-steel and CFRP together in this particular application. PMID:6842566

  5. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composite Post and Core Used in Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries. PMID:22567447

  6. Crack Detection in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Theory, Model Development and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G F; Mikkelsen, L P; McGugan, M

    2015-01-01

    In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material's mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP), the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination), and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor) was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model. PMID:26513653

  7. Crack Detection in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Theory, Model Development and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, G. F.; Mikkelsen, L. P.; McGugan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material’s mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP), the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination), and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor) was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model. PMID:26513653

  8. Enhanced Terahertz Imaging of Small Forced Delamination in Woven Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites with Wavelet De-noising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Junliang; Locquet, Alexandre; Citrin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) reflection imaging is applied to characterize a woven glass fibre-reinforced composite laminate with a small region of forced delamination. The forced delamination is created by inserting a disk of 25- μ m-thick Upilex film, which is below the THz axial resolution, resulting in one featured echo with small amplitude in the reflected THz pulses. Low-amplitude components of the temporal signal due to ambient water vapor produce features of comparable amplitude with features associated with the THz pulse reflected off the interfaces of the delamination and suppress the contrast of THz C- and B-scans. Wavelet shrinkage de-noising is performed to remove water-vapor features, leading to enhanced THz C- and B-scans to locate the delamination in three dimensions with high contrast.

  9. Study of injection moulded long glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene and the effect on the fibre length and orientation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveeen, B.; Caton-Rose, P.; Costa, F.; Jin, X.; Hine, P.

    2014-05-01

    Long glass fibre (LGF) composites are extensively used in manufacturing to produce components with enhanced mechanical properties. Long fibres with length 12 to 25mm are added to a thermoplastic matrix. However severe fibre breakage can occur in the injection moulding process resulting in shorter fibre length distribution (FLD). The majority of this breakage occurs due to the melt experiencing extreme shear stress during the preparation and injection stage. Care should be taken to ensure that the longer fibres make it through the injection moulding process without their length being significantly degraded. This study is based on commercial 12 mm long glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP) and short glass fibre Nylon. Due to the semi-flexiable behaviour of long glass fibres, the fibre orientation distribution (FOD) will differ from the orientation distribution of short glass fibre in an injection molded part. In order to investigate the effect the change in fibre length has on the fibre orientation distribution or vice versa, FOD data was measured using the 2D section image analyser. The overall purpose of the research is to show how the orientation distribution chnages in an injection moulded centre gated disc and end gated plaque geometry and to compare this data against fibre orientation predictions obtained from Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight.

  10. Bone attachment to glass-fibre-reinforced composite implant with porous surface.

    PubMed

    Mattila, R H; Laurila, P; Rekola, J; Gunn, J; Lassila, L V J; Mäntylä, T; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2009-06-01

    A method has recently been developed for producing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC) with porous surfaces, intended for use as load-bearing orthopaedic implants. This study focuses on evaluation of the bone-bonding behaviour of FRC implants. Three types of cylindrical implants, i.e. FRC implants with a porous surface, solid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) implants and titanium (Ti) implants, were inserted in a transverse direction into the intercondular trabeculous bone area of distal femurs and proximal tibias of New Zealand White rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post operation, and push-out tests (n=5-6 per implant type per time point) were then carried out. At 12 weeks the shear force at the porous FRC-bone interface was significantly higher (283.3+/-55.3N) than the shear force at interfaces of solid PMMA/bone (14.4+/-11.0 N; p<0.001) and Ti/bone (130.6+/-22.2N; p=0.001). Histological observation revealed new bone growth into the porous surface structure of FRC implants. Solid PMMA and Ti implants were encapsulated mostly with fibrous connective tissue. Finite element analysis (FEA) revealed that porous FRC implants had mechanical properties which could be tailored to smooth the shear stress distribution at the bone-implant interface and reduce the stress-shielding effect. PMID:19268643

  11. Acoustic Emission Source Location in Unidirectional Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Plates Using Virtually Trained Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Caprino, G.; Lopresto, V.; Leone, C.; Papa, I.

    2010-06-02

    Acoustic emission source location in a unidirectional carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic plate was attempted employing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology. The acoustic emission events were produced by a lead break, and the response wave received by piezoelectric sensors, type VS150-M resonant at 150 kHz. The waves were detected by a Vallen AMSY4 eight-channel instrumentation. The time of arrival, determined through the conventional threshold crossing technique, was used to measure the dependence of wave velocity on fibre orientation. A simple empirical formula, relying on classical lamination and suggested by wave propagation theory, was able to accurately model the experimental trend. Based on the formula, virtual training and testing data sets were generated for the case of a plate monitored by three transducers, and adopted to select two potentially effective ANN architectures. For final validation, experimental tests were carried out, positioning the source at predetermined points evenly distributed within the plate area. A very satisfactory correlation was found between the actual source locations and the ANN predictions.

  12. Influence of cyclic freeze-thaw on the parameters of the electric response to the pulse mechanical excitation of concrete reinforced by glass fibre reinforced polymer bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursa, T. V.; Petrov, M. V.; Korzenok, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of the influence of cyclic freeze-thaw on the parameters of electric response from samples of concrete reinforced by glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars were conducted. It is found that an increase in the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the attenuation coefficient of energy of electric responses and moves the centre of gravity of spectrum to the low-frequency area. The results can be used to develop a method of nondestructive testing of reinforced concrete.

  13. Effect of monomer composition of polymer matrix on flexural properties of glass fibre-reinforced orthodontic archwire.

    PubMed

    Ohtonen, J; Vallittu, P K; Lassila, L V J

    2013-02-01

    To compare force levels obtained from glass fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) archwires. Specifically, FRC wires were compared with polymer matrices having different dimethacrylate monomer compositions. FRC material (E-glass provided by Stick Tech Ltd, Turku, Finland) with continuous unidirectional glass fibres and four different types of dimethacrylate monomer compositions for the resin matrix were tested. Cross-sectionally round FRC archwires fitting into the 0.3 mm slot of a bracket were divided into 16 groups with six specimens in each group. Glass fibres were impregnated by the manufacturer, and they were initially light-cured by hand light-curing unit or additionally post-cured in light-curing oven. The FRC archwire specimens were tested at 37°C according to a three-point bending test in dry and wet conditions using a span length of 10 mm and a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The wires were loaded until final failure. The data were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The dry FRC archwire specimens revealed higher load values than water stored ones, regardless of the polymer matrix. A majority of the FRC archwires showed higher load values after being post-cured. ANOVA revealed that the polymer matrix, curing method, and water storage had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the flexural behaviour of the FRC archwire. Polymer matrix composition, curing method, and water storage affected the flexural properties and thus, force level and working range which could be obtained from the FRC archwire. PMID:22058110

  14. Reusing fly ash in glass fibre reinforced cement: a new generation of high-quality GRC composites.

    PubMed

    Payá, J; Bonilla, M; Borrachero, M V; Monzó, J; Peris-Mora, E; Lalinde, L F

    2007-01-01

    New composite materials based on an alkali-resistant glass-fibre reinforced cement (AR-GRC) system are being developed by using fly ash (FA) produced at coal thermoelectric power plants, and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) from the petrol industry as cement replacement materials. These wastes are reactive from the pozzolanic viewpoint, and modify the nature and the microstructure of the cement matrix when a part of the Portland cement is replaced in the formulation of GRC. Several microstructural and mechanical aspects are being studied for AR-GRC systems. The behaviour of composites exposed to ageing shows that the pozzolanic activity of the ground FA added in high amounts and its mixture with the FC3R increase the flexural strength and no evidences of strength decay are observed. Additionally, the fibres due to the high alkalinity of the cementing matrix can be deteriorated. Fibres in the control (only Portland cement) and FC3R containing composites were attacked, whereas composites with FA and their mixture with FC3R show that the fibres have not been attacked, due to the pozzolanic activity of replacing materials that reduce the calcium hydroxide content in the cementing matrix. PMID:17512718

  15. Contour scanning of textile preforms using a light-section sensor for the automated manufacturing of fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2008-04-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) are particularly suitable for components where light-weight structures with advanced mechanical properties are required, e.g. for aerospace parts. Nevertheless, many manufacturing processes for FRP include manual production steps without an integrated quality control. A vital step in the process chain is the lay-up of the textile preform, as it greatly affects the geometry and the mechanical performance of the final part. In order to automate the FRP production, an inline machine vision system is needed for a closed-loop control of the preform lay-up. This work describes the development of a novel laser light-section sensor for optical inspection of textile preforms and its integration and validation in a machine vision prototype. The proposed method aims at the determination of the contour position of each textile layer through edge scanning. The scanning route is automatically derived by using texture analysis algorithms in a preliminary step. As sensor output a distinct stage profile is computed from the acquired greyscale image. The contour position is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a sigmoid function. The whole contour position is generated through data fusion of the measured edge points. The proposed method provides robust process automation for the FRP production improving the process quality and reducing the scrap quota. Hence, the range of economically feasible FRP products can be increased and new market segments with cost sensitive products can be addressed.

  16. Interface shear strength and fracture behaviour of porous glass-fibre-reinforced composite implant and bone model material.

    PubMed

    Nganga, Sara; Ylä-Soininmäki, Anne; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-11-01

    Glass-fibre-reinforced composites (FRCs) are under current investigation to serve as durable bone substitute materials in load-bearing orthopaedic implants and bone implants in the head and neck area. The present form of biocompatible FRCs consist of non-woven E-glass-fibre tissues impregnated with varying amounts of a non-resorbable photopolymerisable bifunctional polymer resin with equal portions of both bis-phenyl-A-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). FRCs with a total porosity of 10-70 vol% were prepared, more than 90 vol% of which being functional (open pores), and the rest closed. The pore sizes were greater than 100 μm. In the present study, the push-out test was chosen to analyse the shear strength of the interface between mechanically interlocked gypsum and a porous FRC implant structure. Gypsum was used as a substitute material for natural bone. The simulative in vitro experiments revealed a significant rise of push-out forces to the twofold level of 1147 ± 271 N for an increase in total FRC porosity of 43%. Pins, intended to model the initial mechanical implant fixation, did not affect the measured shear strength of the gypsum-FRC interface, but led to slightly more cohesive fracture modes. Fractures always occurred inside the gypsum, it having lower compressive strength than the porous FRC structures. Therefore, the largest loads were restricted by the brittleness of the gypsum. Increases of the FRC implant porosity tended to lead to more cohesive fracture modes and higher interfacial fracture toughness. Statistical differences were confirmed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The differences between the modelled configuration showing gypsum penetration into all open pores and the real clinical situation with gradual bone ingrowth has to be considered. PMID:22098879

  17. Scanning induction thermography (SIT) for imaging damages in carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. Renil; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-03-01

    Scanning Induction Thermography (SIT) combines both Eddy Current Technique (ECT) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Techniques (TNDT) [1],[2]. This NDT technique has been earlier demonstrated for metallic components for the detection of cracks, corrosion, etc.[3]-[9] Even though Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) has a relatively less electrical conductivity compared to metals, it was observed that sufficient heat could be generated using induction heating that can be used for nondestructive evaluation using the Induction Thermography technique. Also, measurable temperatures could be achieved using relatively less currents, when compared to metals. In Scanning Induction Thermography (SIT) technique, the induction coil moves over the sample at optimal speeds and the temperature developed in the sample due to Joule heating effects is captured as a function of time and distance using an IR camera in the form of video images. A new algorithm is also presented for the analysis of the video images for improved analysis of the data obtained. Several CFRP components were evaluated for detection of impact damage and delaminations using the SIT technique.

  18. A compliant, high failure strain, fibre-reinforced glass-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.

    1982-01-01

    A glass-matrix composite reinforced by discontinuous graphite fibers was produced by hot pressing glass-powder-impregnated two-dimensional arrays of in-plane randomly oriented graphite fibers held together by approximately 5-10% by weight of organic binder (generally polyester). The composite tensile behavior is characterized by a highly nonlinear stress-strain curve which differs markedly from that of either unreinforced glass or a similarly reinforced epoxy-matrix composite. By virtue of this nonlinearity, the composite is able to redistribute applied stresses to achieve a high load-carrying capacity. The fibrous microstructure and the low fiber-matrix bond provide a mechanism for achieving high fracture toughness and unusually high compliance. For a 96%-silica-matrix composite, the strength is retained to over 1000 C.

  19. Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.

  20. Effect of Si and Fe doping on calcium phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone bone analogous composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M Shah; Ahmed, I; Muja, N; Almeida, S; Rudd, C D; Bureau, M N; Nazhat, S N

    2012-04-01

    Reinforcing biodegradable polymers with phosphate-based glass fibres (PGF) is of interest for bone repair and regeneration. In addition to increasing the mechanical properties, PGF can also release bioinorganics, as they are water soluble, a property that may be controllably translated into a fully degradable composite. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the solubility of calcium-containing phosphate-based glasses (PG) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x=0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. On replacing SiO(2) with Fe(2)O(3), there was an increase in the glass transition temperature and density of the PG, suggesting greater crosslinking of the phosphate chains. This significantly reduced the dissolution rates of degradation and ion release. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL). Initially, the flexural strength and modulus significantly increased with PGF incorporation. In deionized water, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) displayed a significantly greater weight loss and ion release compared with PCL-Fe10. In simulated body fluid, brushite was formed only on the surface of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5). Dynamic mechanical analysis in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C revealed that the PCL-Fe10 storage modulus (E') was unchanged up to day 7, whereas the onset of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5)E' decrease occurred at day 4. At longer-term ageing in PBS, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) flexural strength and modulus decreased significantly. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PCL-PGF grew up to day 7 in culture. PGF can be used to control the properties of biodegradable composites for potential application as bone fracture fixation devices. PMID:22248526

  1. Shape memory composites based on glass-fibre-reinforced poly(ethylene)-like polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Rubio, R.; Laza, J. M.; Vilas, J. L.; Rodriguez, M.; León, L. M.

    2012-03-01

    The mechanical response of a series of semicrystalline shape memory polymers was considerably enhanced by incorporating short glass fibres without modifying the thermo-responsive actuation based on balanced crystallinity and elasticity. The effect of different fractions of inorganic reinforcement on thermo-mechanical properties was evaluated using different instrument techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and three-point flexural tests. Moreover, we studied the inorganic reinforcement influence on the shape memory actuation capabilities by thermo-mechanical bending cycle experiments. As demonstrated, the manufactured polymer composites showed excellent shape memory capacities, similar to neat active polymer matrices, but with outstanding improvements in static and recovering mechanical performance.

  2. Fibre-reinforced materials.

    PubMed

    Brown, D

    2000-11-01

    This paper considers the role of fibres in the reinforcement of composite materials, and the significance of the form the fibre takes and the material from which it is made. The current dental applications of fibre reinforcement, including dental cements and splints, fibres made into structures for use in composites, denture bases and the contemporary use of fibres in fixed partial dentures, are reviewed. Their role in biomedical implants is surveyed and their future forecast. PMID:11218597

  3. A method for edge detection of textile preforms using a light-section sensor for the automated manufacturing of fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Orth, Alexandre; Niggemann, Christian

    2007-06-01

    The present work describes a new method to measure the contour position of plane reinforcement fabrics for the manufacturing of structural composite parts. The pursued approach uses optical metrology based on laser light-section technology. In detail, a laser line is projected over the edge of a fabric layer and acquired with a digital camera, which is located under an offset angle to the laser sensor. This leads to a distinctive displacement of the laser line in the acquired image, which is proportional to the distance between the sensor and the fabric layer. The distorted line can be described as a step profile, to which an analytical function is fitted to calculate the horizontal edge position with sub-pixel accuracy. To measure the whole layer position, the edges are scanned with the laser sensor to provide multiple contour points. This allows the interpolation of the object contour. The interpolated contour can be compared with the specified position and dimension of the textile layer. This enables a closed-loop control of the cutting and build-up process of the preform. Thus, an efficient production process of fibre-reinforced plastics through an automated inline measurement is possible.

  4. The influence of coupling agents on mechanical property retention and long-term cytocompatibility of phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA composites.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M S; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Walker, G S; Scotchford, C A

    2013-12-01

    Completely resorbable composites are an attractive alternative for metallic bone-fracture fixation devices. However, failure of their interfacial integrity within aqueous environments, which can lead to a rapid loss of overall mechanical properties, has been reported in the literature. In this study coupling agents were investigated for phosphate glass fibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites. Three coupling agents with varying wettability were employed to improve initial mechanical properties and their retention in vitro via improvement of the interfacial bond between polymer matrix and fibres. Coupling agents were grafted onto the glass fibres by dip-coating in coupling agent solution at optimised concentrations. Three-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and sorbitol ended PLA oligomer treatments improved the initial flexural properties (27% strength with APS and 17% modulus via SPLA treatment) of the composites and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) treatments also decreased the loss of flexural strength and modulus during degradation. HDI treated samples retained 57.2% and 64.7% of their initial strength and modulus, respectively compared to control where only 34% of initial strength and 52% of initial modulus was retained after 28 days of degradation in PBS solution. Initial improvements in flexural properties were associated with improved shear bond strength at the interface due to covalent bonding between the glass fibres and polymer matrix provided by the coupling agents. Delay in mechanical property loss with degradation was suggested to be due to the hydrophobicity at the interface, which could have hindered the interfacial integrity loss and consequently loss of mechanical integrity of the composites. All coupling agent treated and control composites were tested for cytocompatibility using a primary human osteoblast cell line. A comparable response to the control, in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation

  5. Effect of Matrix Modification on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Jingwen; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    In order to investigate the effect of the matrix variability on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass fiber reinforced composites at 77K, three kinds of modifiers were employed to diethyl toluene diamine (DETD) cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy resin system. The woven glass fiber reinforced composites were fabricated by vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). The ILSS at 77 K was studied and the results indicated that introduction of modifiers used in this study can enhance the ILSS of composite at 77 K. A maximum of 14.87% increase was obtained by addition of 10 wt% IPBE into the epoxy matrix. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the fracture mechanism and strengthening effect.

  6. Testing and simulation of a polypropylene-glass fibre reinforced woven composite on a wide range of strain-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Othman, R.; Rozycki, P.

    2012-08-01

    Medium costs composites materials are good candidates to develop lightweight and economical shock absorber for the next generation of cars. In this context we are interested in characterising and modelling of Twintex a long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. Testing will be carried with a standard tensile rig and an original layout using a crossbow/Hopkinson rig. A special attention is made to compression behaviour identification, often neglected but critical for crash absorber behaviour. The model will be checked on the testing specimen and its validity will be discussed.

  7. The Surface Finish of Thermally Aged Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites Using E-glass as a Surface Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, M. L.; Fox, B. L.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigated the effect of woven E-glass mass (25 g/m2, 50 g/m2, 85 g/m2, 135 g/m2) on the painted surface finish of various thermoset (EPIKOTETM RIM935, EPIKOTETM 04434, Ultratec LpTM ES300, Ultratec LpTM SPV6035) carbon fibre composite laminates, before and after aging at 95 °C for 168 h. The as-moulded laminate surfaces were evaluated using surface profilometry techniques and the painted and aged surfaces were evaluated using a wave-scan distinctness of image (DOI) instrument. It was found that the 25 g/m2 E-glass surface layer assisted with reducing the roughness of the as-moulded surfaces and the long-term waviness of the painted surfaces due to the increase in resin-richness at the surface. The EPIKOTETM 04434 resin system that contained diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy had the least change in long-term waviness with thermal aging due to the rigid fluorene-based backbone in comparison to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) systems.

  8. [The behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics during laser cutting].

    PubMed

    Emmrich, M; Levsen, K; Trasser, F J

    1992-06-01

    The pattern of the organic emissions, which are produced by processing of fibre reinforced plastics (epoxy resins reinforced by aramid and glass fibres and phenol resins reinforced by aramid fibre) with laser beam was studied and the concentrations of the main components determined. Despite the application of plastic materials with different chemical structures, the observed patterns are very similar. Mainly aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted, especially benzene and toluene, as well as some heteroatom-containing aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. phenol). By use of oxygen as process gas the emissions during cutting of glass fibre reinforced plastics can be reduced, while they will be constantly high with aramid fibre reinforced plastics. PMID:1503604

  9. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent's within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  10. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  11. Cytocompatibility, mechanical and dissolution properties of high strength boron and iron oxide phosphate glass fibre reinforced bioresorbable composites.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Hasan, Muhammad S; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2016-06-01

    In this study, Polylactic acid (PLA)/phosphate glass fibres (PGF) composites were prepared by compression moulding. Fibres produced from phosphate based glasses P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O (P45B0), P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-B2O3 (P45B5), P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-Fe2O3 (P45Fe3) and P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-B2O3-Fe2O3 (P45B5Fe3) were used to reinforce the bioresorbable polymer PLA. Fibre mechanical properties and degradation rate were investigated, along with the mechanical properties, degradation and cytocompatibility of the composites. Retention of the mechanical properties of the composites was evaluated during degradation in PBS at 37°C for four weeks. The fibre volume fraction in the composite varied from 19 to 23%. The flexural strength values (ranging from 131 to 184MPa) and modulus values (ranging from 9.95 to 12.29GPa) obtained for the composites matched those of cortical bone. The highest flexural strength (184MPa) and modulus (12.29GPa) were observed for the P45B5Fe3 composite. After 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37°C, ~35% of the strength profile was maintained for P45B0 and P45B5 composites, while for P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 composites ~40% of the initial strength was maintained. However, the overall wet mass change of P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 remained significantly lower than that of the P45B0 and P45B5 composites. The pH profile also revealed that the P45B0 and P45B5 composites degraded quicker, correlating well with the degradation profile. From SEM analysis, it could be seen that after 28 days of degradation, the fibres in the fractured surface of P45B5Fe3 composites remain fairly intact as compared to the other formulations. The in vitro cell culture studies using MG63 cell lines revealed both P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 composites maintained and showed higher cell viability as compared to the P45B0 and P45B5 composites. This was attributed to the slower degradation rate of the fibres in P45Fe3 and P45B5Fe3 composites as compared with the fibres in P45B0 and P45B5 composites. PMID:26745720

  12. Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soutis, C.

    2005-02-01

    Fibrous composites have found applications in aircraft from the first flight of the Wright Brothers’ Flyer 1, in North Carolina on December 17, 1903, to the plethora of uses now enjoyed by them on both military and civil aircrafts, in addition to more exotic applications on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), space launchers and satellites. Their growing use has risen from their high specific strength and stiffness, when compared to the more conventional materials, and the ability to shape and tailor their structure to produce more aerodynamically efficient structural configurations. In this paper, a review of recent advances using composites in modern aircraft construction is presented and it is argued that fibre reinforced polymers, especially carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) can and will in the future contribute more than 50% of the structural mass of an aircraft. However, affordability is the key to survival in aerospace manufacturing, whether civil or military, and therefore effort should be devoted to analysis and computational simulation of the manufacturing and assembly process as well as the simulation of the performance of the structure, since they are intimately connected.

  13. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-07-07

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  14. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating "smart" electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  15. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Steel Fibre- Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, A.; Tamme, V.; Laurson, M.

    2015-11-01

    Steel fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC) is widely used in the structural elements of buildings: industrial floors, slabs, walls, foundation, etc. When a load is applied to a fibre- reinforced composite consisting of a low-modulus matrix reinforced with high-strength, high- modulus fibres, the plastic flow of the matrix under stress transfers the load to the fibre; this results in high-strength, high-modulus material which determines the stiffness and stress of the composite. In this study the equivalent flexural strength, equivalent flexural ratio Re,3 and the compressing strength of SFRC are investigated. Notched test specimens with five different dosages of steel fibres (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 kg/m3) were prepared using industrial concrete. Determination of flexural tension strength was carried out according to the EU norm EVS-EN 14651:2005+A1:2007. The equivalent flexural strength and subsequent equivalent flexural ratio Re,3 of SFRC with a dosage of 20, 25, 30, 35 kg/m3 similar to their average values and with a dosage of 40 kg/m3 were 31% higher than their average values. The compressive strength of the steel fibre-reinforced concrete was slightly higher compared to plain concrete, except specimens with the dosage of 40 kg/m3 where the increase was 30%.

  16. Fire Retardancy of Natural Fibre Reinforced Sheet Moulding Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapuarachchi, T. D.; Ren, G.; Fan, M.; Hogg, P. J.; Peijs, T.

    2007-07-01

    Due to environmental awareness and economical considerations, natural fibre reinforced polymer composites seem to present a viable alternative to synthetic fibre reinforced polymer composites such as glass fibres. This is a feasibility study to asses the potential application of natural fibre reinforced sheet moulding compound materials (NF-SMC) for the use in building applications, with particular emphases to their reaction to fire. The reinforcing fibres in this study were industrial hemp fibres. The cone calorimeter which asses the fire hazard of materials by Heat Release Rate (HRR) was used, radiant heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m2 were utilised to simulate an ignition source and fully developed room fire conditions respectively. The results acquired here demonstrate that the NF-SMC can compete with current building materials in terms of their fire behaviour. The peak heat release value for the fire retardant (FR) NF-SMC was 176 kW/m2 conversely for a non-FR NF-SMC was 361 kW/m2.

  17. Self Healing Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard S.; Williams, Hugo R.; Williams, Gareth J.

    Lightweight, high-strength, high-stiffness fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials are leading contenders as component materials to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. For example, their widespread use is critical to the success of advanced engineering applications, such as the Boeing 787 and Airbus A380. Such materials typically comprise complex architectures of fine fibrous reinforcement e.g. carbon or glass, dispersed within a bulk polymer matrix, e.g. epoxy. This can provide exceptionally strong, stiff, and lightweight materials which are inherently anisotropic, as the fibres are usually arranged at a multitude of predetermined angles within discrete stacked 2D layers. The direction orthogonal to the 2D layers is usually without reinforcement to avoid compromising in-plane performance, which results in a vulnerability to damage in the polymer matrix caused by out-of-plane loading, i.e. impact. Their inability to plastically deform leaves only energy absorption via damage creation. This damage often manifests itself internally within the material as intra-ply matrix cracks and inter-ply delaminations, and can thus be difficult to detect visually. Since relatively minor damage can lead to a significant reduction in strength, stiffness and stability, there has been some reticence by designers for their use in safety critical applications, and the adoption of a `no growth' approach (i.e. damage propagation from a defect constitutes failure) is now the mindset of the composites industry. This has led to excessively heavy components, shackling of innovative design, and a need for frequent inspection during service (Richardson 1996; Abrate 1998).

  18. Behaviour of photopolymerized silicate glass fibre-reinforced dimethacrylate composites subjected to hydrothermal ageing: part II. Hydrolytic stability of mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K C; Chen, T; Kusy, R P

    1998-11-01

    The flexural properties and failure morphologies of dimethacrylate-copolymer composites reinforced with either S2-glass or quartz fibres ( approximately 33-66 vol%) were examined after hydrothermal ageing (0-3 mon at 37 degrees C). Initially the S2-glass composites were generally stiffer and stronger than comparably reinforced quartz composites, but within 1 wk the properties of S2-glass composites decreased by 12%-26%. The properties of quartz composites were relatively stable, except for those of composites with the least reinforcement (35 vol%), which decreased by roughly 15%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that in all composites buckling had occurred at the site of load application. Evidence of good fibre-matrix adhesion was observed for both types of composites under all conditions. Modelling of degradation between 1 wk and 3 mon revealed that: (1) the only temporal change was a slight increase in the stiffness of S2-glass composites; and (2) higher reinforcement levels reduced the retention of strength in S2-glass composites but had the opposite effect (on both properties) for quartz composites (p<0.05). For the most highly reinforced S2-glass composites, susceptibility to degradation was offset by high initial properties; and after ageing (elastic modulus approximately 50 GPa, strength approximately 1.2 GPa), these composites were still, on average, approximately 25% stiffer and 50% stronger than the more hydrostable quartz counterparts. PMID:15348683

  19. A numerical approach for the design of multiscale fibre-reinforced cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Chacón, Francisco; Schlangen, Erik; Cifuentes, Héctor; Medina, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, a numerical framework for the design of new multiscale fibre-reinforced cementitious composites is presented. This is accomplished by covering three different length scales, namely the micro-, meso- and macroscale. At the microscale (here defined as ~1 mm), an enhanced fibre-reinforced lattice model is presented for the simulation of strain hardening cementitious composites. On the other hand, the analysis of fibre-reinforced concrete is performed at the mesoscale (~10 mm) by means of a novel lattice-particle model. The main variables in both models are the fibre dimensions (i.e. length and diameter), the fibre volume content and the fibre-matrix bond behaviour. Their contribution to the global mechanical properties is discussed in details. Finally, the structural characterisation of the fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) is carried out by means of a hierarchical numerical homogenisation of the material behaviour, integrating the information obtained from lower scales into the macroscale problem (~1 m). The macroscopic response of the resulting material is characterised via three-point bending tests using a continuum damage plastic model. Although the described lattice models can be used independently as design tools in fibre cement-based composites at the micro- or mesoscale, the multiscale procedure described in this paper allows for the development of new types of FRCC by considering the effect of the multiple-scale fibre-reinforcement.

  20. Fabrication of fibre reinforced nickel aluminide matrix composites by reactive processing

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Horsfall, I.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the fabrication by reactive processing of short, and continuous, alumina fibre reinforced nickel aluminide matrix composites. The fibre is introduced into the aluminide system to increase toughness and high temperature strength. The short fibre reinforced nickel aluminide is formed by squeeze casting a porous preform containing nickel powder and SAFFIL fibre with an aluminium or aluminium alloy melt. The continuous fibre reinforced nickel aluminide is formed by squeeze casting a jig containing nickel coated ALMAX fibre. The short fibre reinforced composite (containing 10% and 20% volume fibre) reacted during infiltration with an aluminium melt to form a single phase intermetallic. Using an aluminium-copper melt the intermetallic formation was inhibited and a multi-phase composite was obtained. A preliminary study into reactive processing of this system by utilising a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) cycle is presented. HIP was required to prevent the formation of porosity due to an imbalance in the diffusive mobility of the various components. It was found that HIP was only effective on canned samples, the preferred encapsulation material being glass. The continuous fibre reinforced composite did not react to an intermetallic phase when infiltrated with an aluminum melt. Use of an aluminum-copper melt resulted in partial nickel-melt reaction producing various nickel-aluminum (-copper) phases. HIP was then used to form a two phase intermetallic matrix with no evidence of fibre damage.

  1. Hybrid type anterior fibre-reinforced composite resin prosthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Shinya, Akikazu; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2008-03-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from implant to conventional Maryland prosthesis, can be used for the replacement of a missing anterior tooth. In patients refusing implant treatment, when minimal teeth reduction is preferred, a fibre reinforced composite (FRC) prosthesis can be a good alternative to conventional prosthetic techniques. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical procedure for fabricating hybrid type FRC prosthesis with pre-impregnated unidirectional E-glass fibres. Fibre-reinforced composite, in combination with adhesive technology, appears promising treatment option for replacing missing teeth. However, further clinical investigation will be required to provide additional information on this technique. PMID:18468325

  2. UV-laser Ablation of Fibre Reinforced Composites with Ns-Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, H.; Gäbler, F.; Stute, U.

    Within this work the ablation behaviour of both carbon and glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin was assessed when ablated by a nanosecond-pulsed laser source emitting radiation in the ultra-violet spectrum. The investigation focussed on the influences of pulse overlap, focus spot diameter and resulting fluence on process quality and machining time.Results showed that ns-pulsed UV-lasers are capable of machining both types of fibre reinforced composites, while achieving good quality surfaces without burn marks or otherwise heat-damaged areas.

  3. Electron beam irradiation in natural fibres reinforced polymers (NFRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kechaou, B.; Salvia, M.; Fakhfakh, Z.; Juvé, D.; Boufi, S.; Kallel, A.; Tréheux, D.

    2008-11-01

    This study focuses on the electric charge motion in unsatured polyester and epoxy composites reinforced by natural fibres of Alfa type, treated by different coupling agents. The electric charging phenomenon is studied by scanning electron microscopy mirror effect (SEMME) coupled with the induced current method (ICM). Previously, using the same approach, glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GFRE) was studied to correlate mechanical [B. Kchaou, C. Turki, M. Salvia, Z. Fakhfakh, D. Tréheux, Composites Science and Technology 64 (2004) 1467], or tribological [B. Kchaou, C. Turki, M. Salvia, Z. Fakhfakh, D. Tréheux, Dielectric and friction behaviour of unidirectionalglass fibre reinforced epoxy (GFRE), Wear, 265 (2008) 763.] properties and dielectric properties. It was shown that the dielectric properties of the fibre-matrix interfaces play a significant role in the optimization of the composite. This result seems to be the same for natural fibre composites: the fibre-matrix interfaces allow a diffusion of the electric charges which can delocalize the polarization energy and consequently delay the damage of the composite. However, a non-suited sizing can lead to a new trapping of electric charges along these same interfaces with, as a consequence, a localization of the polarisation energy. The optimum composite is obtained for one sizing which helps, at the same time, to have a strong fibre-matrix adhesion and an easy flow of the electric charges along the interface.

  4. Speckle interferometric damage investigation of fibre-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, Manfred; Flemming, Torsten; Floureux, Thierry; Aebischer, Hubert A.

    1996-06-01

    With the aid of the recently reported technique of adding up phase images modulo 2π that correspond to stepwise applied load increments, the fringe density that can be achieved in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) has been substantially improved. This technique also allows the measurement of much larger deformations than were hitherto possible with ESPI. The analytical power of the method is demonstrated in the measurement of high local displacement gradients in carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRPs). In-plane and out-of-plane displacement field measurements, performed with one single optical instrument, are compared with finite-element models. This paper reports how the technique is used to detect and quantify damage in fatigued CFRP laminates via its effect on the surface displacement field. Moreover, the measured displacement fields are used to validate a finite-element damage model. The correctness of the delamination measurement is verified with the aid of ultrasonic C-scan reference results.

  5. Thermoforming of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, Rauri; Murphy, Adrian; Wilson, Ryan; Jiang Zhenyu; Price, Mark

    2011-05-04

    The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding for whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available

  6. Nanoscale plasticity in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Tesar, A.; Belak, J.

    1993-10-01

    Mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity and damage initiation in silica glass is examined using molecular dynamics simulation. Computer experiments are carried out by indenting a sharp diamond-like tool, containing 4496 atoms, into a silica slab consisting of 12288 atoms. Both elastic and plastic deformation of silica is observed during nanoindentation simulation; this transition occurs at an indentation of 1.25 nm, and the calculated hardness (15GPa for 1.5 nm indentation) agrees with experiment.

  7. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-22

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  8. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; van Haag, J.; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material's properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  9. A Progressive Damage Model for unidirectional Fibre Reinforced Composites with Application to Impact and Penetration Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, M.; Hopmann, C.

    2016-06-01

    The computationally efficient simulation of the progressive damage behaviour of continuous fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenging task with currently available computer aided engineering methods. This paper presents an original approach for an energy based continuum damage model which accounts for stress-/strain nonlinearities, transverse and shear stress interaction phenomena, quasi-plastic shear strain components, strain rate effects, regularised damage evolution and consideration of load reversal effects. The physically based modelling approach enables experimental determination of all parameters on ply level to avoid expensive inverse analysis procedures. The modelling strategy, implementation and verification of this model using commercially available explicit finite element software are detailed. The model is then applied to simulate the impact and penetration of carbon fibre reinforced cross-ply specimens with variation of the impact speed. The simulation results show that the presented approach enables a good representation of the force-/displacement curves and especially well agreement with the experimentally observed fracture patterns. In addition, the mesh dependency of the results were assessed for one impact case showing only very little change of the simulation results which emphasises the general applicability of the presented method.

  10. A Progressive Damage Model for unidirectional Fibre Reinforced Composites with Application to Impact and Penetration Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, M.; Hopmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    The computationally efficient simulation of the progressive damage behaviour of continuous fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenging task with currently available computer aided engineering methods. This paper presents an original approach for an energy based continuum damage model which accounts for stress-/strain nonlinearities, transverse and shear stress interaction phenomena, quasi-plastic shear strain components, strain rate effects, regularised damage evolution and consideration of load reversal effects. The physically based modelling approach enables experimental determination of all parameters on ply level to avoid expensive inverse analysis procedures. The modelling strategy, implementation and verification of this model using commercially available explicit finite element software are detailed. The model is then applied to simulate the impact and penetration of carbon fibre reinforced cross-ply specimens with variation of the impact speed. The simulation results show that the presented approach enables a good representation of the force-/displacement curves and especially well agreement with the experimentally observed fracture patterns. In addition, the mesh dependency of the results were assessed for one impact case showing only very little change of the simulation results which emphasises the general applicability of the presented method.

  11. Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

  12. Dynamic fracture behaviour in fibre-reinforced cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rena C.; Cifuentes, Héctor; Rivero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Zhang, Xiaoxin

    2016-08-01

    The object of this work is to simulate the dynamic fracture propagation in fibre-reinforced cementitious composites, in particular, in steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). Beams loaded in a three-point bend configuration through a drop-weight impact device are considered. A single cohesive crack is assumed to propagate at the middle section; the opening of this crack is governed by a rate-dependent cohesive law; the fibres around the fracture plane are explicitly represented through truss elements. The fibre pull-out behaviour is depicted by an equivalent constitutive law, which is obtained from an analytical load-slip curve. The obtained load-displacement curves and crack propagation velocities are compared with their experimental counterparts. The good agreement with experimental data testifies to the feasibility of the proposed methodology and paves the way to its application in a multi-scale framework.

  13. Ultrasonic monitoring of asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junqing; Yang, Fan; Wang, Rongguo

    2013-08-01

    Asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy laminates was manufactured for the purpose with repeat tensile test, which will be applied in composite pressure vessel. Ultrasonic C scan and A scan approach are used to evaluate the damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al (carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy) laminates. Nondestructive detection is carried out for the CFRP-Al laminates before and after tensile test. Comparison results and pulse echo analysis show that when subjected to repeat tensile test with 70% elastic limit strain load of the CFRP laminates, the interface debonding between CFRP and Al will not occur but the delamination within CFRP laminates becomes the main damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al laminates. This investigation indicated that combined ultrasonic C scan and A scan is available for damage evaluation of fibre metal laminates.

  14. Fibre reinforcement in a structurally compromised endodontically treated molar: a case report

    PubMed Central

    de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to fracture is considerably higher than vital teeth. Although posts and core build-ups followed by conventional crowns have been generally employed for the purpose of reconstruction, this procedure entails sacrificing a considerable amount of residual sound enamel and dentin. This has drawn the attention of researchers to fibre reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC), designed to replace dentin, enables the biomimetic restoration of teeth. Besides improving the strength of the restoration, the incorporation of glass fibres into composite resins leads to favorable fracture patterns because the fibre layer acts as a stress breaker and stops crack propagation. The following case report presents a technique for reinforcing a badly broken-down ETT with biomimetic materials and FRC. The proper utilization of FRC in structurally compromised teeth can be considered to be an economical and practical measure that may obviate the use of extensive prosthetic treatment. PMID:27200283

  15. Fibre reinforcement in a structurally compromised endodontically treated molar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soares, Renita; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2016-05-01

    The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to fracture is considerably higher than vital teeth. Although posts and core build-ups followed by conventional crowns have been generally employed for the purpose of reconstruction, this procedure entails sacrificing a considerable amount of residual sound enamel and dentin. This has drawn the attention of researchers to fibre reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC), designed to replace dentin, enables the biomimetic restoration of teeth. Besides improving the strength of the restoration, the incorporation of glass fibres into composite resins leads to favorable fracture patterns because the fibre layer acts as a stress breaker and stops crack propagation. The following case report presents a technique for reinforcing a badly broken-down ETT with biomimetic materials and FRC. The proper utilization of FRC in structurally compromised teeth can be considered to be an economical and practical measure that may obviate the use of extensive prosthetic treatment. PMID:27200283

  16. Understanding and Improving the Elastic Compressive Modulus of Fibre Reinforced Soy-Based Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sadakat

    Soy-based polyurethane foams (PUFs) were reinforced with fibres of different aspect ratios to improve the compressive modulus. Each of the three fibre types reinforced PUF differently. Shorter micro-crystalline cellulose fibres were found embedded inside the cell struts of PUF and reinforced them. The reinforcement was attributed to be stress transfer from the matrix to the fibre by comparing the experimental results to those predicted by micro-mechanical models for short fibre reinforced composites. The reinforced cell struts increased the overall compressive modulus of the foam. Longer glass fibres (470 microns, length) provided the best reinforcement. These fibres were found to be larger than the cell diameters. The micro-mechanical models could not predict the reinforcement provided by the longer glass fibres. The models predicted negligible reinforcement because the very low modulus PUF should not transfer load to the higher modulus fibres. However, using a finite element model, it was determined that the fibres were providing reinforcement through direct fibre interaction with each other. Intermediate length glass fibres (260 microns, length) were found to poorly reinforce the PUF and should be avoided. These fibres were too short to interact with each other and were on average too large to embed and reinforce cell struts. In order to produce natural fibre reinforced PUFs in the future, a novel device was invented. The purpose of the device is to deliver natural fibres at a constant mass flow rate. The device was found to consistently meter individual loose natural fibre tufts at a mass flow rate of 2 grams per second. However, the device is not robust and requires further development to deliver a fine stream of natural fibre that can mix and interact with the curing polymeric components of PUF. A design plan was proposed to address the remaining issues with the device.

  17. Evaluating quality of adhesive joints in glass-fiber plastic piping by using active thermal NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, M.; Marinho, C. A.; Nesteruk, D. A.; Rebello, J. M.; Soares, S. D.; Vavilov, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    GRP-type composites (Glass-fibre Reinforced Plastics) have been continuously employed in the oil industry in recent years, often on platforms, especially in pipes for water or oil under moderate temperatures. In this case, the pipes are usually connected through adhesive joints and, consequently, the detection of defects in these joints, as areas without adhesive or adhesive failure (disbonding), gains great importance. One-sided inspection on the joint surface (front side) is a challenging task because the material thickness easily exceeds 10 mm that is far beyond the limits of the capacity of thermography applied to GRP inspection, as confirmed by the experience. Detection limits have been evaluated both theoretically and experimentally as a function of outer wall thickness and defect lateral size. The 3D modeling was accomplished by using the ThermoCalc-6L software. The experimental unit consisted of a FLIR SC640 and NEC TH- 9100 IR imagers and some home-made heaters with the power from 1,5 to 30 kW. The results obtained by applying pulsed heating have demonstrated that the inspection efficiency is strongly dependent on the outer wall thickness with a value of about 8 mm being a detection limit.

  18. Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon nitride composites by slurry infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Grenet, C.; Plunkett, L.; Veyret, J.B.; Bullock, E.

    1995-12-01

    The present paper reports on the fabrication of long-carbon fibre reinforced silicon nitride matrix composites by liquid infiltration of an aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry followed by hot-pressing. A methodology for the maximum volume and uniform infiltration of preforms has been developed by optimising slurry rheology and fibre wetting conditions. Fully infiltrated green forms of 55% theoretical density are achieved with some 40% volume fraction of fibres. The quality of the composites has been assessed by microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization.

  19. Nano- and microstructure of short fibre reinforced and unreinforced hydroxyaptite.

    PubMed

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Klemm, V; Irmer, G; Müller, E

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) and alumina short fibre reinforced hydroxyapatite (Al2O3/HA) were processed by uniaxial pressing of green bodies with 200 MPa and sintering in air for 4 hours at 1150 degrees C, 1175 degrees C and 1200 degrees C. The phase composition of the materials were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Results were supported by X-ray diffraction. Amorphous calcium phosphate could be found either as islands in unreinforced HA or at the grain boundaries in the Al2O3/HA composite. The reinforced calcium phosphate contains an enhanced amount of decomposition products like tetracalcium phosphate. PMID:12451875

  20. Slender reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdošová, K.; Bilčík, J.

    2011-06-01

    The requirement for a long life with relatively low maintenance costs relates to the use of building structures. Even though the structure is correctly designed, constructed and maintained, the need for extensions of its lifetime can appear. The preservation of the original structure with a higher level of resistance or reliability is enabled by strengthening. Conventional materials are replaced by progressive composites - mainly carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). They are used for strengthening reinforced concrete columns in two ways: added reinforcement in the form of CFRP strips in grooves or CFRP sheet confinement and eventually their combination. This paper presents the effect of the mentioned strengthening methods on slender reinforced concrete columns.

  1. In-process deformation measurements of translucent high speed fibre-reinforced disc rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Katrin; Filippatos, Angelos; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Kuschmierz, Robert; Leithold, Christoph; Langkamp, Albert; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    The high stiffness to weight ratio of glass fibre-reinforced polymers (GFRP) makes them an attractive material for rotors e.g. in the aerospace industry. We report on recent developments towards non-contact, in-situ deformation measurements with temporal resolution up to 200 µs and micron measurement uncertainty. We determine the starting point of damage evolution inside the rotor material through radial expansion measurements. This leads to a better understanding of dynamic material behaviour regarding damage evolution and the prediction of damage initiation and propagation. The measurements are conducted using a novel multi-sensor system consisting of four laser Doppler distance (LDD) sensors. The LDD sensor, a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer was already successfully applied for dynamic deformation measurements at metallic rotors. While translucency of the GFRP rotor material limits the applicability of most optical measurement techniques due to speckles from both surface and volume of the rotor, the LDD profits from speckles and is not disturbed by backscattered laser light from the rotor volume. The LDD sensor evaluates only signals from the rotor surface. The anisotropic glass fibre-reinforcement results in a rotationally asymmetric dynamic deformation. A novel signal processing algorithm is applied for the combination of the single sensor signals to obtain the shape of the investigated rotors. In conclusion, the applied multi-sensor system allows high temporal resolution dynamic deformation measurements. First investigations regarding damage evolution inside GFRP are presented as an important step towards a fundamental understanding of the material behaviour and the prediction of damage initiation and propagation.

  2. Creep behavior of abaca fibre reinforced composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, B.C.; Lieng, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    This study investigates the creep behavior of abaca fibre reinforced composite lamina. The optimum proportions of constituents and loading conditions, temperature and stresses, are investigated in terms of creep properties. Lamina with abaca fibre volume fractions of 60, 70 and 80 percent, embedded in polyester resin were fabricated. Creep tests in tension at three temperature levels 20{degrees}C, 100{degrees}C and 120{degrees}C and three constant stress levels of 0. 1 MPa, 0. 13 Mpa and 0. 198 MPa using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) were performed. The creep curves show standard regions of an ideal creep curve such as primary and secondary creep stage. The results also show that the minimum creep rate of abaca fibre reinforced composite increases with the increase of temperature and applied stress. Plotting the minimum creep rate against stress, depicts the variations of stress exponents which vary from 1.6194 at 20{degrees}C to 0.4576 at 120{degrees}C.

  3. Mechanical properties of SiC long fibre reinforced copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendel, A.; Paffenholz, V.; Köck, Th.; Bolt, H.

    2009-04-01

    SiC fibre reinforced copper is a potential novel heat sink material for the divertor of future fusion reactors to reinforce the zone between plasma facing material (W) and heat sink material (CuCrZr). The metal matrix composite (MMC) should be able to withstand heat loads up to 15 MW/m 2 at operating temperatures of up to 550 °C. SCS6 fibres were coated by magnetron sputtering with a titanium interlayer and the copper matrix was deposited by electroplating. The composite was consolidated by hot-isostatic pressing. The average ultimate tensile strength of composite samples with 20% fibre reinforcement is 640 MPa and for the Young's modulus 162 GPa was determined. The Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature and reaches 113 GPa at 550 °C. Fracture area analysis after tensile tests show the failure of the SCS 6 fibres at the interface between the two outer carbon layers. Titanium as interlayer led to an improved bonding between the outer carbon coating of the SiC fibres and the copper matrix.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Drilling of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbilir, Ozden; Ghassemieh, Elaheh

    2012-06-01

    Despite the increased applications of the composite materials in aerospace due to their exceptional physical and mechanical properties, the machining of composites remains a challenge. Fibre reinforced laminated composites are prone to different damages during machining process such as delamination, fibre pull-out, microcracks, thermal damages. Optimization of the drilling process parameters can reduces the probability of these damages. In the current research, a 3D finite element (FE) model is developed of the process of drilling in the carbon fibre reinforced composite (CFC). The FE model is used to investigate the effects of cutting speed and feed rate on thrust force, torque and delamination in the drilling of carbon fiber reinforced laminated composite. A mesoscale FE model taking into account of the different oriented plies and interfaces has been proposed to predict different damage modes in the plies and delamination. For validation purposes, experimental drilling tests have been performed and compared to the results of the finite element analysis. Using Matlab a digital image analysis code has been developed to assess the delamination factor produced in CFC as a result of drilling.

  5. High strain rate compression testing of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, R. A.; Langdon, G. S.; Cloete, T. J.; Nurick, G. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper details an investigation of the high strain rate compression testing of GFPP with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) in the through-thickness and in-plane directions. GFPP posed challenges to SHPB testing as it fails at relatively high stresses, while having relatively low moduli and hence mechanical impedance. The modifications to specimen geometry and incident pulse shaping in order to gather valid test results, where specimen equilibrium was achieved for SHPB tests on GFPP are presented. In addition to conventional SHPB tests to failure, SHPB experiments were designed to achieve specimen equilibration at small strains, which permitted the capture of high strain rate elastic modulus data. The strain rate dependency of GFPP's failure strengths in the in-plane and through-thickness direction is modelled using a logarithmic law.

  6. Blast impact behaviour of concrete with different fibre reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdlová, Martina; Čechmánek, René; Řídký, Radek

    2015-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the development of special concrete intended for the explosion resistance applications, with the emphasis on minimal secondary fragments formation at the explosion. The fine-grained concrete matrix has been reinforced by various types of short dispersed fibers (metallic, mineral and polymer) of different sizes and by their combination and the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the physico-mechanical properties and blast resistance was observed. The concrete prism specimens have been subjected to the determination of mechanical parameters (compressive and flexural strength at quasi-static load). The blast tests were conducted on the slab specimens prepared from selected mixtures. The material characteristics and explosion test data have been used for numerical investigation, which defined the optimal wall composition and dimensions of the concrete element which should resist the explosion defined by type, size, weight and placement of the blast. In the next step the test elements resistance was verified by real explosion test.

  7. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Y.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Wang, B. Y.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.

    2008-02-22

    An intrinsic plastic Cu{sub 45}Zr{sub 46}Al{sub 7}Ti{sub 2} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  8. RESOURCE RECOVERY FROM PLASTIC AND GLASS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated with the overall objective of assessing and evaluating State-of-the-Art for recovery of glass and plastic from solid waste. Literature was gathered from numerous sources, contacts were made with industrial and recycling organizations, and quest...

  9. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  10. Resorbable continuous-fibre reinforced polymers for osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dauner, M; Planck, H; Caramaro, L; Missirlis, Y; Panagiotopoulos, E

    1998-03-01

    Four institutes from three countries in the European Union have collaborated under the BRITE-EURAM framework programme for the development of processing technologies for resorbable osteosynthesis devices. The devices should be continuous-fibre reinforced, and the technology should offer the possibility of orienting the fibres in the main trajectories. Poly-L-lactide and poly-L-DL-lactides have been synthesized for reinforcement fibres and matrix material, respectively. Melt-spun P-L-LA fibres of a strength of 800 MPa have been embedded in an amorphous P-L-DL-LA 70 : 30 matrix by compression moulding. Ethyleneoxide sterilized samples have been tested in vitro and in vivo. A satisfying bending modulus has been reached (6 GPa). Yet with 50% strength retention after ten weeks, fast degradation occurred that could be related to residual monomers. By this fast degradation 70% resorption after one year could be observed in the non-functional animal studies in rabbits. There was only a mild inflammatory reaction, which confirmed the good biocompatibility of the materials even during the resorption period. Further effort has to concentrate on the reduction of initial monomer content. The great advantage of the processing method to orient fibres in the device will be utilized in prototype samples, e.g. an osteosynthesis plate with fixation holes. PMID:15348907

  11. Predicting the tensile modulus and strength of single and hybrid natural fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facca, Angelo George

    Natural fibre reinforced thermoplastics (NFRT) are used in a variety of commercial applications, but there is little theoretical modeling of structure/property relationships in these materials. In this thesis, micromechanical models available in the short-fibre literature were adapted to predict the tensile modulus and strength of some NFRT formulations. Hemp, 20 and 40-mesh hardwood, rice hulls and E-glass fibres were blended into HDPE to produce single and hybrid composites. Changes in fibre density and moisture content that occur during composite manufacturing were included in the micromechanical models. To account for fibre densification, the Young's modulus of the natural fibres was determined on a cell wall basis. A modified hybrid rule of mixtures (HROM) equation that uses experimental data from single NFRT was developed and found to adequately predict the tensile modulus of the hybrid composites. The tensile modulus for both the single and hybrid composites was found to linearly increase with an increase in fibre loading. The failure mechanism for all composite specimens was due to fibre pullout followed by matrix failure. Consequently the tensile strength of the NFRT was predicted using a ROM strength equation, which was modified with a derived semi-empirical fibre clustering parameter. The clustering parameter correctly predicted that as fibre loading increased, the average fibre stress would decrease. By assuming no contact between different types of fibres it was possible to use a modified HROM strength equation to predict the tensile strength of the hybrid composites. As a result parameters taken from the respective single fibre systems could be applied directly to the HROM equation. The modified ROM and HROM strength equations adequately predicted the tensile strength of various single and hybrid fibre reinforced composites over a wide range of composite loading. In this study experiments were conducted to shed light on the effect of a coupling agent

  12. Hierarchical analysis of the degradation of fibre-reinforced polymers under the presence of void imperfections.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Wilfried V; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo

    2016-07-13

    The subject of this work is the investigation of the influence of voids on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRPs) under compression loading. To specify the damage accumulation of FRPs in the presence of voids, the complex three-dimensional structure of the composite including voids was analysed and a reduced mechanical model composite was derived. The hierarchical analysis of the model composite on a micro-scale level implies the description of the stress and strain behaviour of the matrix using the photoelasticity technique and digital image correlation technology. These studies are presented along with an analytical examination of the stability of a single fibre. As a result of the experimental and analytical studies, the stiffness of the matrix and fibre as well as their bonding, the initial fibre orientation and the fibre diameter have the highest impact on the failure initiation. All these facts lead to a premature fibre-matrix debonding with ongoing loss of stability of the fibre and followed by kink-band formation. Additional studies on the meso-scale of transparent glass FRPs including a unique void showed that the experiments carried out on the model composites could be transferred to real composites. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242296

  13. A viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for short-fibre reinforced polymers with complex fibre orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nciri, M.; Notta-Cuvier, D.; Lauro, F.; Chaari, F.; Zouari, B.; Maalej, Y.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach for the modelling of viscous behaviour of short-fibre reinforced composites (SFRC) with complex distributions of fibre orientations and for a wide range of strain rates. As an alternative to more complex homogenisation methods, the model is based on an additive decomposition of the state potential for the computation of composite's macroscopic behaviour. Thus, the composite material is seen as the assembly of a matrix medium and several linear elastic fibre media. The division of short fibres into several families means that complex distributions of orientation or random orientation can be easily modelled. The matrix behaviour is strain-rate sensitive, i.e. viscoelastic and/or viscoplastic. Viscoelastic constitutive laws are based on a generalised linear Maxwell model and the modelling of the viscoplasticity is based on an overstress approach. The model is tested for the case of a polypropylene reinforced with short-glass fibres with distributed orientations and subjected to uniaxial tensile tests, in different loading directions and under different strain rates. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the model over a wide range of strain rates.

  14. Metallic Glasses: Gaining Plasticity for Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Ye, Jianchao; Lu, Jian; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s, metallic glasses (MGs) have attracted tremendous research interest in materials science and engineering, given their unique combination of mechanical properties. However, the industrial applications of MGs have been hindered due to their lack of ductility in bulk form at room temperature. In contrast, it was observed that MGs could exhibit excellent plasticity at the small size scale. In this article, we summarize the related experimental findings having been reported so far together with the possible origins of such a size effect in MGs. The enhanced plasticity of MGs in small volumes, together with their high mechanical strengths and remarkable thermoplastic formability, strongly implies that MGs are the promising materials for fabricating the next generation of micro- and nano-devices.

  15. Hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, M.; Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J. M.; Revitzer, H.; Sarlin, E.; Brander, T.; Saarela, O.

    2015-02-01

    Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten-CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔGc≈ 8.4 J/m2.

  16. A phenomenological intra-laminar plasticity model for FRP composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Hou, Chi; Wang, Wenzhi; Zhao, Meiying; Wan, Xiaopeng

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinearity of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have significant effects on the analysis of composite structures. This article proposes a phenomenological intralaminar plasticity model to represent the nonlinearity of FRP composite materials. Based on the model presented by Ladeveze et al., the plastic potential and hardening functions are improved to give a more rational description of phenomenological nonlinearity behavior. A four-parameter hardening model is built to capture important features of the hardening curve and consequently gives the good matching of the experiments. Within the frame of plasticity theory, the detailed constitutive model, the numerical algorithm and the derivation of the tangent stiffness matrix are presented in this study to improve model robustness. This phenomenological model achieved excellent agreement between the experimental and simulation results in element scale respectively for glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP). Moreover, the model is capable of simulating the nonlinear phenomenon of laminates, and good agreement is achieved in nearly all cases.

  17. Comparison of feedstocks for optical glass and optical plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David

    2010-08-01

    The raw materials for optical glasses and optical plastics are very different. The plastic feedstocks are volatile liquids, petrochemicals, which are highly refined by industrial distillation. The feedstocks for inorganic glasses are minerals, purified by solid processing methods. The optical plastic resin is always virgin stock; "regrind" is never used for high-quality optical plastics. In contrast, the inorganic optical glass feedstock is improved by adding "cullet", which is the recovered waste from breakage and trim during glass part production. This paper discusses the sources and refinement of feedstocks for both glass and plastic, including consideration of cost, recycle and ramifications for optical part production, and anticipated future trends. A snapshot summary of current marketplace conditions is given.

  18. Behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer confined reinforced concrete columns under fire condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ershad Ullah

    In recent years, fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials have demonstrated enormous potential as materials for repairing and retrofitting concrete bridges that have deteriorated from factors such as electro-chemical corrosion and increased load requirements. However, concerns associated with fire remain an obstacle to applications of FRP materials in buildings and parking garages due to FRP's sensitivity to high temperatures as compared with other structural materials and to limited knowledge on their thermal and mechanical behaviour in fire. This thesis presents results from an ongoing study on the fire performance of FRP materials, fire insulation materials and systems, and FRP wrapped reinforced concrete columns. The overall goal of the study is to understand the fire behaviour of FRP materials and FRP strengthened concrete columns and ultimately, provide rational fire safety design recommendations and guidelines for FRP strengthened concrete columns. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to achieve the goals of this research study. The experimental work consisted of both small-scale FRP material testing at elevated temperatures and full-scale fire tests on FRP strengthened columns. A numerical model was developed to simulate the behaviour of unwrapped reinforced concrete and FRP strengthened reinforced concrete square or rectangular columns in fire. After validating the numerical model against test data available in literature, it was determined that the numerical model can be used to analyze the behaviour of concrete axial compressive members in fire. Results from this study also demonstrated that although FRP materials experience considerable loss of their mechanical and bond properties at temperatures somewhat below the glass transition temperature of the resin matrix, externally-bonded FRP can be used in strengthening concrete structural members in buildings, if appropriate supplemental fire protection system is provided over

  19. Correlations of plasticity in sheared glasses.

    PubMed

    Varnik, Fathollah; Mandal, Suvendu; Chikkadi, Vijaykumar; Denisov, Dmitry; Olsson, Peter; Vågberg, Daniel; Raabe, Dierk; Schall, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In a recent paper [Mandal et al., Phys. Rev. E 88, 022129 (2013)], the nature of spatial correlations of plasticity in hard-sphere glasses was addressed both via computer simulations and in experiments. It was found that the experimentally obtained correlations obey a power law, whereas the correlations from simulations are better fitted by an exponential decay. We here provide direct evidence-via simulations of a hard-sphere glass in two dimensions (2D)-that this discrepancy is a consequence of the finite system size in the 3D simulations. By extending the study to a 2D soft disk model at zero temperature [Durian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4780 (1995)], the robustness of the power-law decay in sheared amorphous solids is underlined. Deviations from a power law occur when either reducing the packing fraction towards the supercooled regime in the case of hard spheres or changing the dissipation mechanism from contact dissipation to a mean-field-type drag in the case of soft disks. PMID:24827170

  20. Critical fictive temperature for plasticity in metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Golden; Neibecker, Pascal; Liu, Yan Hui; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A long-sought goal in metallic glasses is to impart ductility without conceding their strength and elastic limit. The rational design of tough metallic glasses, however, remains challenging because of the inability of existing theories to capture the correlation between plasticity, composition and processing for a wide range of glass-forming alloys. Here we propose a phenomenological criterion based on a critical fictive temperature, Tfc, which can rationalize the effect of composition, cooling rate and annealing on room-temperature plasticity of metallic glasses. Such criterion helps in understanding the widespread mechanical behaviour of metallic glasses and reveals alloy-specific preparation conditions to circumvent brittleness. PMID:23443564

  1. Critical fictive temperature for plasticity in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Golden; Neibecker, Pascal; Liu, Yan Hui; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A long-sought goal in metallic glasses is to impart ductility without conceding their strength and elastic limit. The rational design of tough metallic glasses, however, remains challenging because of the inability of existing theories to capture the correlation between plasticity, composition and processing for a wide range of glass-forming alloys. Here we propose a phenomenological criterion based on a critical fictive temperature, T(fc), which can rationalize the effect of composition, cooling rate and annealing on room-temperature plasticity of metallic glasses. Such criterion helps in understanding the widespread mechanical behaviour of metallic glasses and reveals alloy-specific preparation conditions to circumvent brittleness. PMID:23443564

  2. Constitutive law describing the strength degradation kinetics of fibre-reinforced composites subjected to constant amplitude cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, Alberto; Grassia, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    A two-parameter model based on strength degradation was developed and its predictive reliability was checked on a series of fatigue life and residual strength data available in the literature. The modelling approach explicitly accounts for the maximum cyclic stress, σ_{max}, and the stress ratio, R= σ_{min} /σ_{max}, and requires a limited number of experimental fatigue life data to predict the cycle-by-cycle strength degradation kinetics until the "sudden drop" of strength before catastrophic failure. Different loading conditions were analysed for a large variety of composites, including short-glass-fibre-reinforced polycarbonate, [±45]S glass/epoxy laminates, [±35]_{2S} graphite/epoxy laminates, AS4 carbon/epoxy 3k/E7K8 plain weave fabric with [45/-45/90/45/-45/45/-45/0/45/-45]S layup, and [CSM/fabric/(CSM/UD)2]S glass/polyester laminate. The modelling approach indicates that the fatigue life and the residual strength are related to the statistical distribution of the static strength.

  3. Biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites in engineering by detailed analyses of biological concept generators.

    PubMed

    Masselter, T; Hesse, L; Böhm, H; Gruhl, A; Schwager, H; Leupold, J; Gude, M; Milwich, M; Neinhuis, C; Speck, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites based on the detailed analysis of biological concept generators. The methods include analyses of the functional morphology and biomechanics of arborescent monocotyledons and columnar cacti as well as measurements and modelling of mechanical properties of biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. The key results show evidence of notch stress reduction by optimised stem-branch-attachment morphology in monocotyledons and columnar cacti. It could be shown that some of these highly interesting properties can be transferred into biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. PMID:27603330

  4. Plastic Membrane Sensor from a Disposed Combined Glass Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marafie, Hayat M.; Shoukry, Adel F.; Alshatti, Laila A.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of combined plastic membrane electrode for hydralazinium cation from a disposed glass electrode is described. A variety of electrodes could be prepared by students using other types of polymers, plasticizers, or exchangers which could also help to study effects of pH and temperature, or environmental investigations.

  5. Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yun; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Liu, Jian; Shen, Baolong; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems. PMID:25043428

  6. Composition Effect on Intrinsic Plasticity or Brittleness in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan-Yun; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Liu, Jian; Shen, Baolong; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems. PMID:25043428

  7. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) bridge--a minimally destructive approach.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, J J Jansen

    2015-05-01

    Replacing missing teeth is an integral part of the clinical services of the dental practitioner. The fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) bridge is a relatively new method for replacing missing teeth. This article will explain and discuss this alternative treatment option. Practical instructions on how to construct a FRC bridge will be given, by means of a clinical case. Different technique options will be illustrated to provide the reader with a good understanding of the most practical way to use the FRC strips. The fibre-reinforced composite provides a non-destructive, aesthetically pleasing and cost-effective way to restore missing teeth. Clinical Relevance: Minimally invasive options should always be considered and destruction of healthy enamel and dentine during the preparation phase of a replacement treatment should be avoided as much as possible. PMID:26062261

  8. Effect of sepiolite on the flocculation of suspensions of fibre-reinforced cement

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabo, Rocio; Fuente, Elena; Moral, Ana; Blanco, Angeles; Negro, Carlos

    2010-10-15

    Sepiolite is used to increase thixotropy of cement slurries for easier processing, to prevent sagging and to provide a better final quality in the manufacture of fibre-reinforced cement products. However, the effect of sepiolite on flocculation and its interactions with the components of fibre cement are yet unknown. The aim of this research is to study the effects of sepiolite on the flocculation of different fibre-reinforced cement slurries induced by anionic polyacrylamides (A-PAMs). Flocculation and floc properties were studied by monitoring the chord size distribution in real time employing a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) probe. The results show that sepiolite increases floc size and floc stability in fibre-cement suspensions. Sepiolite competes with fibres and clay for A-PAMs adsorption and its interaction with A-PAM improves flocculation of mineral particles.

  9. Structural features of plastic deformation in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Scudino, S. Shakur Shahabi, H.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U.; Kaban, I.; Escher, B.; Eckert, J.; Vaughan, G. B. M.

    2015-01-19

    Spatially resolved strain maps of a plastically deformed bulk metallic glass (BMG) have been created by using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that plastic deformation creates a spatially heterogeneous atomic arrangement, consisting of strong compressive and tensile strain fields. In addition, significant shear strain is introduced in the samples. The analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the strain tensor indicates that considerable structural anisotropy occurs in both the magnitude and direction of the strain. These features are in contrast to the behavior observed in elastically deformed BMGs and represent a distinctive structural sign of plastic deformation in metallic glasses.

  10. Google Glass in the Operating Room: The Plastic Surgeon's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sinkin, Jeremy C; Rahman, Omar F; Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2016-07-01

    New technologies and innovations are common in the delivery of modern health care. Google Glass is one such device gaining increased attention in medical specialties. The authors surveyed residents and attending physicians in the Department of Plastic Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, on their experience using Google Glass in the operating room. Ease of use, quality of images, gaze disruption, and distraction during surgery were measured. Overall, subjects found the device to be comfortable and satisfying to wear and use during surgery to capture images of good quality. Despite some identified weaknesses, Google Glass is a unique technology with a promising plastic surgical application in the operating room. PMID:27348661

  11. A modified fractional Zener model to describe the behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Ribeiro, C.

    2013-10-01

    In this work a modified conventional Fractional Zener Model is deduced and applied to estimate the viscoelastic constitutive parameters of a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer. The accuracy of this modified model was studied against conventional Fractional Zener model and Fractional Maxwell model, considering experimental data in the frequency domain. The set of parameters was found by solving a nonlinear constrained least square problem based on the variation of the storage and loss moduli with frequency.

  12. Comparative Study of Achievable Quality Cutting Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluemel, S.; Jaeschke, P.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    Laser cutting of CFRP lightweight parts has the advantages of a contact-free, automatable and flexible processing for a prospective series production. For the development of strategies for laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP), different scientific approaches exist to achieve a process with small heat affected zones (HAZ), and high cutting rates. Within this paper a cw laser, a nanosecond and a picosecond laser source emitting in the near infrared range have been used in combination with a scanning system to cut CFRP with a thermoplastic matrix. The influence of the scanning speed on the size of the HAZ and the corresponding tensile strength were investigated for each laser source. Furthermore, the authors compared the achievable HAZ and the effective cutting speeds of the different setups in order to evaluate the efficiency and quality of the chosen strategies. The results show that a nanosecond pulsed laser source with high average power is a good trade-off between attainable quality and cutting rate.

  13. [A metal-free single sitting fibre-reinforced composite bridge for tooth replacement using the EOS-System].

    PubMed

    Belvedere, P C

    1990-06-01

    This paper intends to introduce a technique for a one sitting fixed resin bridge with excellent aesthetics and longevity. Techniques using denture teeth or a crown portion of the patient's own teeth have already been presented by many authors. But they all have been unpredictable and their longevity could not be assured. The addition of resin fibre filament to create a flexible reinforcement at the pontic-abutment interface gives added strength to the acid etch bond between pontic and abutment. Reinforcing systems such as metal wires, woven screen, metal bars with retentive holes, glass fibres, silk and resin fibres have been used with varying results. The original composite reinforced bridge using resin fibres was done by the author with Kevlar 49 in February of 1981, replacing both upper central incisors using only the lateral incisors on a 22 year-old female. This four-unit-bridge is still in function (end of 1989) and has never been replaced or repaired. Since then improvements have been made and the following technique has evolved. 360 fibre reinforced "Belvedere bridges" have been placed to date with a success rate of 98%. One of the improvements is the use of another fibre, which has extremely high tensile strength: it is a polyethylene fibre, colourless and six times stronger than steel. PMID:2120805

  14. Thermal cycling of tungsten-fibre-reinforced superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherhold, Robert C.; Westfall, Leonard J.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal cycling of a tungsten-fiber-reinforced superalloy (TFRS) composite is typical of its application in high-temperature engine environments. The mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between fiber and matrix causes substantial longitudinal (0 deg) stresses in the composite, which can produce inelastic damage-producing matrix strains. The case of thermal fatigue is explored as a "worst case" of the possible matrix damage, in comparison with specimens which are also mechanically loaded in tension. The thermally generated cyclic stresses and the attendant matrix plasticity may be estimated using a nonlinear finite-element program, by proposing a physical analog to the micromechanics equations. A damage metric for the matrix is proposed using the Coffin-Manson criterion, which metric can facilitate comparisons of damage among different candidate materials, and also comparisons for a given material subjected to different temperature cycles. An experimental program was carried out for thermal cycling of a 37 vol pct TFRS composite to different maximum temperatures. The results confirm the prediction that thermal cycling produces matrix degradation and composite strength reduction, which become more pronounced with increasing maximum cyclic temperature. The strength of the fiber is shown to be identical for the as-fabricated and thermally cycled specimens, suggesting that the reduction in composite strength is due to the loss of matrix contribution and also to notching effects of the matrix voids on the fiber.

  15. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-06-23

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  16. A Lamb waves based statistical approach to structural health monitoring of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Michele; Gianneo, Andrea; Giglio, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This research investigates a Lamb-wave based structural health monitoring approach matching an out-of-phase actuation of a pair of piezoceramic transducers at low frequency. The target is a typical quasi-isotropic carbon fibre reinforced polymer aeronautical laminate subjected to artificial, via Teflon patches, and natural, via suitable low velocity drop weight impact tests, delaminations. The performance and main influencing factors of such an approach are studied through a Design of Experiment statistical method, considering both Pulse Echo and Pitch Catch configurations of PZT sensors. Results show that some factors and their interactions can effectively influence the detection of a delamination-like damage. PMID:25746761

  17. Rayleigh waves in an incompressible fibre-reinforced elastic solid with impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljeet

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, the equation of motion for an incompressible transversely isotropic fibre-reinforced elastic solid is derived in terms of a scalar function. The general solution of the equation of motion is obtained, which satisfies the required radiation condition. The appropriate impedance boundary conditions are also satisfied by the solution to obtain the required explicit secular equation for the Rayleigh wave speed. The numerical values of non-dimensional speed of a Rayleigh wave are obtained with the application of Iteration method. The dependence of the non-dimensional wave speed on non-dimensional material parameter and impedance parameters is shown graphically.

  18. Modelling and simulation of randomly oriented carbon fibre-reinforced composites under thermal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffler, R.; Fröschl, J.; Drechsler, K.; Ladstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced sheet moulding compounds (CF-SMC) already exhibit a complex material behaviour under uniaxial loads due to the random orientation of the fibres in the matrix resin. Mature material models for metallic materials are generally not transferable. This paper proposes an approach for modelling the fatigue behaviour of CF-SMC based on extensive static and cyclic tests using low cost secondary carbon fibres (SCF). The main focus is on describing the stiffness degradation considering the dynamic modulus of the material. Influence factors such as temperature, orientation, rate dependence and specimen thickness were additionally considered.

  19. Thermal Equilibrium in Plastic and Glass Microscale Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curbelo, Estela; Cerda, Maria F.; Mendez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the various thermal equilibrium conditions, which should be taken care for while designing or selecting the plastic and glass microscale containers for physical chemistry experiments. The results show that the thermal equilibrium completely depends on the material of the container for the same volume and thickness.

  20. Density variations of plastic carriers in metallic glasses during aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    Thermally induced deformation in metallic glasses was investigated by sampling the potential energy landscape (PEL) and probing the changes in the atomic properties (e.g. energy, displacement, stress). We demonstrate that there exists a universal plastic carrier in amorphous materials, which corresponds to the hopping between local minima on PEL. However very interestingly, the density of plastic carrier is largely affected by the aging history of the glasses. The higher fictive temperature (i . e . fast cooling rate), the larger density of plastic carrier is contained in the system. In particular, we observe a scaling of ρ~exp(- α/Tfic) , which is consistent with the prediction of shear transformation zone theory. The work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Experimental Study on the Strength Characteristics and Water Permeability of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Singh, S P; Singh, A P

    2014-01-01

    Results of an investigation conducted to study the effect of fibre hybridization on the strength characteristics such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, and water permeability of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) are presented. Steel fibres of different lengths, that is, 12.5 mm, 25 mm, and 50 mm, having constant diameter of 0.6 mm, were systematically combined in different mix proportions to obtain mono, binary, and ternary combinations at each of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% fibre volume fraction. A concrete mix containing no fibres was also cast for reference purpose. A total number of 1440 cube specimens of size 100∗100∗100 mm were tested, 480 each for compressive strength, split tensile strength, and water permeability at 7, 28, 90, and 120 days of curing. It has been observed from the results of this investigation that a fibre combination of 33% 12.5 mm + 33% 25 mm + 33% 50 mm long fibres can be adjudged as the most appropriate combination to be employed in hybrid steel fibre reinforced concrete (HySFRC) for optimum performance in terms of compressive strength, split tensile strength and water permeability requirements taken together. PMID:27379298

  2. Experimental Study on the Strength Characteristics and Water Permeability of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. P.; Singh, S. P.; Singh, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Results of an investigation conducted to study the effect of fibre hybridization on the strength characteristics such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, and water permeability of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) are presented. Steel fibres of different lengths, that is, 12.5 mm, 25 mm, and 50 mm, having constant diameter of 0.6 mm, were systematically combined in different mix proportions to obtain mono, binary, and ternary combinations at each of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% fibre volume fraction. A concrete mix containing no fibres was also cast for reference purpose. A total number of 1440 cube specimens of size 100∗100∗100 mm were tested, 480 each for compressive strength, split tensile strength, and water permeability at 7, 28, 90, and 120 days of curing. It has been observed from the results of this investigation that a fibre combination of 33% 12.5 mm + 33% 25 mm + 33% 50 mm long fibres can be adjudged as the most appropriate combination to be employed in hybrid steel fibre reinforced concrete (HySFRC) for optimum performance in terms of compressive strength, split tensile strength and water permeability requirements taken together. PMID:27379298

  3. Drying shrinkage of fibre-reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete containing fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Kayali, O.; Haque, M.N.; Zhu, B.

    1999-11-01

    Lightweight aggregate concretes containing fly ash with a compressive strength between 61 to 67 NPa were produced. The lightweight aggregate used was sintered fly ash. The concretes were reinforced with either polypropylene or steel fibres. The fibres did not affect the compressive strength, but did increase the tensile strength of these concretes. The modulus of elasticity of all the lightweight concretes tested was about 21 GPa, compared to 35 GPa for the normal-weight concrete. Fibre reinforcement did not affect the value of the elastic modulus. This type of lightweight concrete, containing fly ash as 23% of the total cementitious content, resulted in long-term shrinkage that is nearly twice as large as normal-weight concrete of somewhat similar strength. Polypropylene fibre reinforcement did not reduce drying shrinkage, while steel fibres did. Early shrinkage behavior of this type of lightweight concrete was similar to normal-weight concrete. However, the rate of shrinkage of the lightweight concrete remained constant until nearly 100 days of drying. This is different from normal-weight concrete that showed appreciably after 56 days. Shrinkage of normal-weight concrete stabilized after 400 days, which shrinkage of lightweight concrete did not appear to stabilize after a similar period of continuous drying.

  4. Distribution of Thermally Activated Plastic Events in a Flowing Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, David; Schuh, Christopher

    2009-06-01

    The potential energy landscape of a flowing metallic glass is revealed using the activation-relaxation technique. For a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones system initially deformed into a steady-state condition through quasistatic shear, the distribution of activation energies is shown to contain a large fraction of low-energy barriers, consistent with a highly nonequilibrium flow state. The distribution of plastic strains has a fundamentally different shape than that obtained during quasistatic simulations, exhibiting a peak at finite strain and, after elastic unloading, a nonzero mean plastic strain that evidences a polarization of the flow state. No significant correlation is found between the activation energy of a plastic event and its associated plastic strain.

  5. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-01-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation. PMID:26988265

  6. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-03-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation.

  7. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-01-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation. PMID:26988265

  8. High-power picosecond laser drilling/machining of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Sabli, A.

    2016-02-01

    The large differences in physical and thermal properties of the carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite constituents make laser machining of this material challenging. An extended heat-affected zone (HAZ) often occurs. The availability of ultrashort laser pulse sources such as picosecond lasers makes it possible to improve the laser machining quality of these materials. This paper reports an investigation on the drilling and machining of CFRP composites using a state-of-the-art 400 W picosecond laser system. Small HAZs (<25 µm) were obtained on the entry side of 6-mm-diameter hole drilled on sample of 6 mm thickness, whereas no HAZ was seen below the top surface on the cut surfaces. Multiple ring material removal strategy was used. Furthermore, the effect of laser processing parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and repetition rate on HAZ sizes and ablation depth was investigated.

  9. The Compatibility Effect Of Coupling Agent On Rheological-Morphological Relationship Of Banana Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. Y.; Shamsudin, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The rheological properties of banana fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP/BF) composites at different composition were analysed using Shimadzu capillary rheometer. The effect of coupling agent concentration on the rheological properties was studied and followed by drawing a relationship of rheological-morphological properties of PP/BF composites. It was found that all composite system exhibits pseudoplasticity and incorporation of treated fibres consequents enhanced viscosity due to improved interfacial adhesion at fibre-matrix interface. However, it was observed that PP/BF composite with 2 wt% silane concentration does not yield further enhancement in the rheological properties when compared to that of 1 wt%. Composites with 1 wt% silane concentration were found to yield most promising compatibility effect with well-oriented and uniformly dispersed fibre morphology.

  10. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20–450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load–displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  11. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  12. Recycling carbon fibre reinforced polymers for structural applications: technology review and market outlook.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Soraia; Pinho, Silvestre T

    2011-02-01

    Both environmental and economic factors have driven the development of recycling routes for the increasing amount of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) waste generated. This paper presents a review of the current status and outlook of CFRP recycling operations, focusing on state-of-the-art fibre reclamation and re-manufacturing processes, and on the commercialisation and potential applications of recycled products. It is shown that several recycling and re-manufacturing processes are reaching a mature stage, with implementations at commercial scales in operation, production of recycled CFRPs having competitive structural performances, and demonstrator components having been manufactured. The major challenges for the sound establishment of a CFRP recycling industry and the development of markets for the recyclates are summarised; the potential for introducing recycled CFRPs in structural components is discussed, and likely promising applications are investigated. PMID:20980138

  13. Repeated self-healing of microvascular carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, T. S.; Wass, D. F.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2014-11-01

    A self-healing, high performance, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is demonstrated by embedding a Lewis-acid catalytic curing agent within a laminate, manufactured using out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing methods. Two configurations of healing agent delivery, pre-mixed and autonomous mixing, are investigated via injection of a healing agent through bio-inspired microvascular channels exposed on Mode I fractured crack planes. Healing is effected when an epoxy resin-solvent healing agent mixture reaches the boundary of embedded solid-state scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf)3) catalyst, located on the crack plane, to initiate the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of epoxides. Tailored self-healing agents confer high healing efficiency values after multiple healing cycles (69-108%) to successfully mitigate against crack propagation within the composite microstructure.

  14. Effect of Steel Fibres Distribution on Impact Resistance Performance of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Syamsir, Agusril; Shao Yang, Chen; Beddu, Salmia; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Itam, Zarina; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the effect of the mesh distribution on the impact performance of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced with varied thickness and fraction volume subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at 0.57 m height has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the effect of the mesh distribution on the impact resistance SFRC for various slab thickness and fraction volume. Random fibre distribution is the more effective than the top and bottom fibre distribution in terms of absorption of impact energy, crack resistance, the ability to control crack formation and propagation against impact energy.

  15. Effect of Thickness and Fibre Volume Fraction on Impact Resistance of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Usman, Fathoni; Syamsir, Agusril; Shao Yang, Chen; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Beddu, Salmia; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Itam, Zarina; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the effect of the thickness and fibre volume fraction (VF) on the impact performance of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at 0.57 m height has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the relationship of impact resistance SFRC against slab thickness and volume fraction. There is a good linear correlation between impact resistances of SFRC against slab thickness. However the impact resistance of SFRC against percentage of volume fraction exhibit a non-linear relationship.

  16. Defect localization in fibre-reinforced composites by computing external volume forces from surface sensor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, F.; Schöpfer, F.; Schuster, T.

    2015-02-01

    We suggest a prospective method for detecting and visualizing defects in fibre-reinforced composites by computing external volume forces from measurements acquired by sensors that are integrated on the surface of the structure. Anisotropic materials like carbon fibre-reinforced composites are widely used in light weight construction which can exhibit damages that are not optically detectable. The key idea of our method is the interpretation of defects in such structures as if they were induced by an external volume force. This idea is based on the observation that a propagating elastic wave interferes with a damaged area by reflecting the wave. In that sense a damage can be seen as an additional source. Thus identifying the external volume force which has caused this wave is supposed to reveal the location of the defect. This approach leads to the inverse problem of determining the inhomogeneity of a hyperbolic initial-boundary value problem. We tackle this ill-posed problem by minimizing a Tikhonov functional which takes the oberservation points of our surface measurements into account. In the article we address the solvability of the direct problem, state and analyze the PDE-based optimization problem that aims for computing the external force and develop a numerical realization of its solution using the conjugate gradient method. First numerical results for a simple model case with different sensor adjustments show that the defects in fact are detectable. In that sense this article might be seen as starting point of future research which should comprehend deeper numerical studies and analysis of the problem.

  17. The Effect on the Flexural Strength, Flexural Modulus and Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Acrylic with That of Plain Unfilled Acrylic Resin – An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tony C; K, Aswini Kumar; Krishnan, Vinod; Mathew, Anil; V, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural strength, the flexural modulus and compressive strength of the acrylic polymer reinforced with glass, carbon, polyethylene and Kevlar fibres with that of plain unfilled resin. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 specimens were prepared and divided into 10 specimens each under 5 groups namely group 1- control group without any fibres, group 2 – carbon fibres, group 3- glass fibres, group 4 – polyethylene, group 5- Kevlar. Universal testing machine (Tinius olsen, USA) was used for the testing of these specimens. Out of each group, 5 specimens were randomly selected and testing was done for flexural strength using a three point deflection test and three point bending test for compressive strength and the modulus was plotted using a graphical method. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. Results: The respective mean values for samples in regard to their flexural strength for PMMA plain, PMMA+ glass fibre, PMMA+ carbon, PMMA+ polyethylene and PMMA+ Kevlar were 90.64, 100.79, 102.58, 94.13 and 96.43 respectively. Scheffes post hoc test clearly indicated that only mean flexural strength values of PMMA + Carbon, has the highest mean value. One-way ANOVA revealed a non-significant difference among the groups in regard to their compressive strength. Conclusion: The study concludes that carbon fibre reinforced samples has the greatest flexural strength and greatest flexural modulus, however the compressive strength remains unchanged. PMID:25954696

  18. Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor Response Model: Crack Growing Detection in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, G.; Mikkelsen, L. P.; McGugan, M.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents a novel method to simulate the sensor output response of a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor when embedded in a host material (Composite material or adhesive), during a crack growing/damage event. A finite element model of the crack growth mechanisms was developed, and different fracture modes were addressed. Then an output algorithm was developed to predict the sensor spectrum change during the different stages of the crack growing. Thus, it is possible to identify specific phenomenon that will only happen within the proximity of a crack, as compression field ahead the crack or non-uniform strain, and then identify the presence of such damage in the structure. Experimental tests were conducted in order to validate this concept and support the model. The FBG sensor response model was applied in a delamination of a Wind Turbine trailing edge, to demonstrate the applicability of this technique to more complicated structures, and to be used as a structural health monitoring design tool.

  19. How plasticizer makes a ductile polymer glass brittle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Shi-Qing

    During uniaxial extension, a polymer glass of high molecular weight is ductile at high temperatures (still below Tg) and turns brittle when the temperature is sufficiently lowered. Incorporation of small-molecular additives to polymer glasses can speed up segmental relaxation considerably. The effect of such plasticization should be to make the polymers more ductile. We examined the effect of blending a few weight percent of either triphenyl phosphate (TPP) or a mineral oil to a commercial-grade PS and PMMA. Our Instron tests show that the plasticized PS is less ductile. Specifically, at 70 oC, the original PS is ductile at an extensional rate of 0.02 s-1 whereas the PS with 4 wt. % TPP turns brittle. Mechanical spectroscopic measurements show that the alpha relaxation time is shortened by more than two orders of magnitude with 4 wt. % TPP. On the other hand, such anomalous behavior did not occur in PMMA. We need to go beyond the conventional description to rationalize these results This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859).

  20. Plasticity in bulk metallic glasses investigated via the strain distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayanta; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen; Bostroem, Magnus; Kvick, Aake; Yavari, Alain Reza; Greer, Alan Lindsay

    2007-09-01

    We measured the atomic-scale elastic strain in order to investigate the yielding of Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 20}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 10}Ti{sub 5} and Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by x-ray synchrotron radiation at room temperature. High resolution strain scanning reveals a deviation from the linear stress-strain relationship at the onset of macroplastic flow. Similar to polycrystalline metals, a saturation of the elastic strain components has been revealed in the case of the ''plastic'' Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} BMG. The results show that the atomic-level elastic strains of the plastic Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} BMG are more homogeneous compared to the 'brittle' Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 20}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 10}Ti{sub 5} glass.

  1. Torsional moment to failure for carbon fibre polysulphone expandable rivets as compared with stainless steel screws for carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy fracture plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Sell, P J; Prakash, R; Hastings, G W

    1989-04-01

    A method of securing carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy bone plates with carbon fibre polysulphone expanding rivets was investigated. Six carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy bone plates were secured to rods with carbon fibre polysulphone rivets and six were secured with standard cortical stainless steel screws. These constructions were then subjected to pure torsional load to failure. The carbon fibre expandable rivets failed at a greater torsional moment. PMID:2720038

  2. Prediction of failure in notched carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading.

    PubMed

    Tan, J L Y; Deshpande, V S; Fleck, N A

    2016-07-13

    A damage-based finite-element model is used to predict the fracture behaviour of centre-notched quasi-isotropic carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading. Damage within each ply is associated with fibre tension, fibre compression, matrix tension and matrix compression. Inter-ply delamination is modelled by cohesive interfaces using a traction-separation law. Failure envelopes for a notch and a circular hole are predicted for in-plane multi-axial loading and are in good agreement with the observed failure envelopes from a parallel experimental study. The ply-by-ply (and inter-ply) damage evolution and the critical mechanisms of ultimate failure also agree with the observed damage evolution. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of notched compressive strength are obtained upon employing the band broadening stress for microbuckling, highlighting the importance of this damage mode in compression. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242302

  3. Toughening and healing of continuous fibre reinforced composites with bis-maleimide based pre-pregs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Tsantzalis, S.; Tsokanas, P.; Christopoulos, A. C.; Loutas, T.

    2016-08-01

    Unidirectional (UD) pre-pregs containing self-healing materials based on Diels–Alder reaction bis-maleimide (BMI) polymers were successfully incorporated on the mid-plane of UD carbon fibre reinforced polymers. The fracture toughness of these composites and the introduced healing capability were measured under mode I loading. The interlaminar fracture toughness was enhanced considerably, since the maximum load (P max) of the modified composite increased approximately 1.5 times and the mode I fracture energy (G IC) displayed a significant increase of almost 3.5 times when compared to the reference composites. Furthermore the modified composites displayed a healing efficiency (HE) value of about 30% for P max and 20% for G IC after the first healing, appearing to be an almost stable behaviour after the third healing cycle. The HE displayed a decrease of 20% and 15% for P max and G IC values, respectively, after the fifth healing cycle. During the tests, the monitored acoustic emission (AE) activity of the samples showed that there is no significant difference due to the presence of BMI polymer in terms of AE hits. Moreover, optical microscopy not only showed that the epoxy matrix at the interface is partly infiltrated by the BMI polymer, but it also revealed the presence of pulled out fibres at the fractured surface, indicating ductile behaviour.

  4. Hidden defect identification in carbon fibre reinforced polymer plates using magnetic induction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lu; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2014-05-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials pose new challenges to the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. This study addresses the issue of large defect identification in CFRP plates using electromagnetic measurements. A dual plane magnetic induction tomography (MIT) technique is proposed as a method for damage localization in composite parts, where two arrays of planar sensors are utilized to measure the changes in induced voltages due to the changes in electrical conductivity properties. This geometry meets the requirements of damage inspection in plate structures and thus makes the imaging process feasible. The electrical voltage measurements are used as input to inversely map the spatial resolution of the samples in the region of interest. The stability and detectability of the dual plane system is examined using small metallic cubes. Both individual and multiple instances of damage embedded in CFRP samples are created as a representation of the possible manufacturing defects. Experimental study shows that the presence of damage can be identified in both cases using the dual plane MIT system. With advanced sensing design, rapid data collection unit and improvement in resolution, MIT could become a rapid NDE technique for the integrity inspection of composite structures.

  5. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.-Y.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension. PMID:20150337

  6. Mechanical properties of kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. R.; Leman, Z.; Sapuan, S. M.; Edeerozey, A. M. M.; Othman, I. S.

    2010-05-01

    Kenaf fibre has high potential to be used for composite reinforcement in biocomposite material. It is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fibre weight fraction i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The compression moulding technique was used to prepare the composite specimens for tensile, flexural and impact tests in accordance to the ASTM D5083, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. The overall results showed that the composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibre had higher mechanical properties than kenaf core fibre composites. The results also showed that the optimum fibre content for achieving highest tensile strength for both bast and core fibre composites was 20%wt. It was also observed that the elongation at break for both composites decreased as the fibre content increased. For the flexural strength, the optimum fibre content for both composites was 10%wt while for impact strength, it was at 10%wt and 5%wt for bast and core fibre composites respectively.

  7. Basic study of monitoring on fibre reinforced polymers: theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfiglioli, B.; Strauss, A.; Pascale, G.; Bergmeister, K.

    2005-06-01

    Recent research activities, technological utilization and commercialization activities in sensors and acquisition systems for monitoring have strongly supported the introduction of these innovations and new concepts in civil structural engineering. The impact of monitoring and assessing the health state of infrastructures, as well as new and old constructions, has become important and it seems to be one of the largest industries in the world. With the aim of monitoring new or repaired structures various monitoring systems have been extensively employed in recent years. In particular, in this paper attention is focused on the procedures usually adopted for monitoring the strengthening systems based on fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) applied to civil structures. Electrical strain gauges are often used to detect strain variations, but on composite materials the measures can be affected by various factors, such as the characteristics of the resin coating, the type of glue and the gauge length. In this paper the measurement errors on FRP elements are studied, from a theoretical approach developed in previous work on a deterministic basis. This approach is extended to the probabilistic field, with the aim of performing a sensitivity analysis of the basic variables which can cause errors in strain measurements. Additionally, the previous approach is extended to study the effect of the deviation of the direction of the gauges from the longitudinal axis of the FRP sheets. Finally, a comparison with experimental data is performed.

  8. Modelling The Bending Test Behaviour Of Carbon Fibre Reinforced SiC By Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.; Koch, D.; Voggenreiter, H.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid silicon infiltrated carbon fibre reinforced SiC, has shown to be a high-potential material for thermal protection systems. The tensile and bending behaviour of the ceramic-matrix composite, C/C-SiC, were investigated in varying orientations relative to the 0/90° woven carbon fibres. The ratio of bending to tensile strength was about 1.7 to 2 depending on the loading direction. With the goal to understand this large difference finite element analyses (FEA) of the bending tests were performed. The different stress-strain behaviour of C/C-SiC under tensile and compression load were included in the FEA. Additionally the bending failure of the CMC-material was modelled by Cohesive Zone Elements (CZE) accounting for the directional tensile strength and Work of Fracture (WOF). The WOF was determined by Single Edge Notched Bending (SENB) tests. Comparable results from FEA and bending test were achieved. The presented approach could also be adapted for the design of C/C-SiC-components and structures.

  9. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  10. Flow intrusion characteristics and fracture properties of titanium-fibre-reinforced bone cement.

    PubMed

    Topoleski, L D; Ducheyne, P; Cuckler, J M

    1998-09-01

    Two clinically relevant considerations for a new bone cement are its fracture properties and flow intrusion characteristics. We present data for a titanium-fibre-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) (Ti-PMMA). The fracture properties presented are a concise review of previously published material, while the flow intrusion observations are new. We performed fracture toughness and fatigue fracture experiments. Two types of fatigue specimens were designed and tested. A 'smooth' specimen represented the extreme case of minimum surface flaws. The lifetime of a 'smooth' specimen incorporates fatigue crack initiation (FCI) and fatigue crack propagation (FCP). 'Notched' specimens were created by machining a sharp notch into cylindrical specimens. The sharp notch effectively eliminated FCI from a random surface flaw and thus we made the assumption that the lifetime of the notched specimen was a function of FCP only. Fatigue testing was performed on rotating-bending fatigue machines until failure. Fibre addition resulted in a significant increase in fracture toughness over the control bone cement. Fibre addition and the combination of fibre addition and centrifugation increased the fatigue crack initiation and propagation resistance of the bone cement. For the intrusion studies, eight femurs were obtained from four dogs. The femurs were prepared following a procedure similar to that in human hip replacement surgery. One of the pair of femurs from each dog was filled with non-reinforced bone cement and the other was filled with Ti-PMMA. A stainless-steel rod was inserted into the cement to simulate the insertion of a prosthesis stem. The cemented bones were sectioned and then stained with Alizarin Red S to distinguish the bone from the PMMA or Ti-PMMA. Because of the irregular bone morphology, it was not practical to quantify intrusion depth, but instead to make general observations on the intrusion characteristics. The Ti fibres did not generally flow into the small openings

  11. Enhanced toughness and stable crack propagation in a novel tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite produced by chemical vapour infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.

    2014-04-01

    Tungsten is a promising candidate for the plasma-facing components of a future fusion reactor, but its use is strongly restricted by its inherent brittleness. An innovative concept to overcome this problem is tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite. In this paper we present the first mechanical test of such a composite material using a sample containing multiple fibres. The in situ fracture experiment was performed in a scanning electron microscope for close observation of the propagating crack. Stable crack propagation accompanied with rising load bearing capacity is observed. The fracture toughness is estimated using the test results and the surface observation.

  12. Glass transition temperature of a cationic polymethacrylate dependent on the plasticizer content - Simulation vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Karl G.; Maus, Martin; Kornherr, Andreas; Zifferer, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations ( NPT ensemble) are performed to compute the specific volume as a function of temperature of cationic polymethacrylate (Eudragit ® RS) with varying plasticizer (triethylcitrate) content ranging from pure polymer to a plasticizer weight proportion of 7.70%. The simulated glass transition temperature of these polymer-plasticizer blends is determined as the temperature marking the kink in the slope of specific volume vs. temperature plots. A linear dependence of the glass transition temperature on the plasticizer content is found. The computational findings are supported by differential scanning calorimetry experiments showing the same trend thus validating the applied computational method.

  13. Glass, Plastic and Semiconductors: Packaging Techniques for Miniature Optoelectric Components

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Garrett, H.E.; Patel, R.R.; Jones II, L.M.; Larson, M.C.; Emanuel, M.A.; Bond, S.W.; Deri, R.J.; Drayton, R.F.; Peterson, H.E.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-12-20

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, they have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years they have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. They have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. They have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. They have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, they have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and the custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

  14. A Fibre-Reinforced Poroviscoelastic Model Accurately Describes the Biomechanical Behaviour of the Rat Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Heuijerjans, Ashley; Matikainen, Marko K.; Julkunen, Petro; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational models of Achilles tendons can help understanding how healthy tendons are affected by repetitive loading and how the different tissue constituents contribute to the tendon’s biomechanical response. However, available models of Achilles tendon are limited in their description of the hierarchical multi-structural composition of the tissue. This study hypothesised that a poroviscoelastic fibre-reinforced model, previously successful in capturing cartilage biomechanical behaviour, can depict the biomechanical behaviour of the rat Achilles tendon found experimentally. Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendon’s main constituents namely: water, proteoglycan matrix and collagen fibres. A hyperelastic formulation of the proteoglycan matrix enabled computations of large deformations of the tendon, and collagen fibres were modelled as viscoelastic. Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were carried out following a repetitive tensile loading protocol. The material model parameters were calibrated against data from the rats by minimising the root mean squared error (RMS) between experimental force data and model output. Results and Conclusions All specimen models were successfully fitted to experimental data with high accuracy (RMS 0.42-1.02). Additional simulations predicted more compliant and soft tendon behaviour at reduced strain-rates compared to higher strain-rates that produce a stiff and brittle tendon response. Stress-relaxation simulations exhibited strain-dependent stress-relaxation behaviour where larger strains produced slower relaxation rates compared to smaller strain levels. Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile loading, where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendon

  15. Determination of dominant fibre orientations in fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements based on computed tomography scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Miguel A.; González, Dorys C.; Mínguez, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a nondestructive technique, based on absorbing X-rays, that permits the visualisation of the internal structure of materials in micron-range resolution. In this paper, the CT scan is used to determine the position and orientation of the fibres in steel fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements. The aim of this paper was to present a numerical procedure, automated through a MATLAB routine specially developed by the authors, which enables, fast and reliable, to obtain the orientation of each and every one of the fibres and their centre of gravity. The procedure shown is directly extrapolated to any type of fibre-reinforced material, only if there is a wide difference between density of fibres and density of matrix. The mathematical basis of this procedure is very simple and robust. The result is a fast algorithm and a routine easy to use. In addition, the validation tests show that the error is almost zero. This algorithm can help the industry to implement the technology of CT in the protocols of product quality control.

  16. Wood Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Fibre Geometry and Coupling Agent on Physico-Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledzki, Andrzej K.; Faruk, Omar

    2003-11-01

    Wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites at fibre content 50% by weight have been prepared and different types of wood fibres (hard wood fibre, soft wood fibre, long wood fibre and wood chips) were treated with coupling agent (MAH-PP) to increase the interfacial adhesion with the matrix to improve the dispersion of the particles and to decrease the water sorption properties of the final composite. The present study investigated the tensile, flexural, charpy impact and impact properties of wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites as a function of coupling agent and fibre length and structure. From the results it is observed that wood chips-PP composites showed better tensile and flexural properties comparative with the other wood fibre-PP composites with the addition of 5%MAH-PP, which is around 65% and 50% for tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Hard wood fibre-PP composites showed better impact characteristic values comparative to other wood fibre-PP composites with the addition of 5%MAH-PP and damping index decreased about to 60%. Charpy impact strength also increased up to 60% with the addition of 5%MAH-PP for long wood fibre-PP composites. Water absorption and scanning electron microscopy of the composites are also investigated.

  17. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.

    1968-01-01

    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  18. Success, clinical performance and patient satisfaction of direct fibre-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures - a two-year clinical study.

    PubMed

    Malmstrom, H; Dellanzo-Savu, A; Xiao, J; Feng, C; Jabeen, A; Romero, M; Huang, J; Ren, Y; Yunker, M A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the success, clinical performance and patient satisfaction of directly placed fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in 2 years. One hundred sixty-seven FRC FPDs (120 subjects) were directly fabricated to restore a single missing tooth by six Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) residents. The FRC FPDs recipients were randomised into two groups according to the fibre materials (pre-impregnated glass or polyethylene). Clinical performance was evaluated at baseline (2 weeks), 6, 12 and 24 months by two calibrated evaluators for prosthesis adaptation, colour match, marginal discoloration, surface roughness, caries and post-operative sensitivity using modified United State Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Prosthesis appearance, colour, chewing ability and overall satisfaction were evaluated by patients using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Kaplan-Meier estimation was used to estimate the prosthesis success. Ninety-four patients with 137 FRC FPDs returned (21·67% attrition rate for study subjects, 17·94% for FRC FPDs). Seventeen FRC FPDs failed, due to one-end (n = 4) or two-ends (n = 4) debonding or pontic fracture (n = 9). The cumulative 2-year success rate was 84·32% and survival rate was 92·7%; there were no statistically significant differences between the groups according to different missing tooth location, retention type or fibre materials (P > 0·05). Patient satisfaction regarding prosthesis appearance, col-our, chewing ability and overall satisfaction was rated high on the VAS (mean >80 mm) for all criteria at all time points. The FRC FPDs (restoring single tooth) fabricated by AEGD residents achieved acceptable success and survival rates in a 2-year follow-up. PMID:26172283

  19. Fibre-reinforced laminated composite tubes with free ends under uniform internal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayir, M. B.; Motavalli, M.

    1995-11-01

    The stress and deformation fields in a fibre-reinforced composite tube under uniform internal pressure are discussed in some detail. In the interior region far from the ends classical laminate theory delivers rather poor results and has to be adjusted to include effects due to lateral contraction and to curvature. In the region near the ends boundary conditions (here stress-free ends will be assumed) require more elaborate methods of calculation. The use of finite element methods may prove to be problematic because in some parts of the boundary region very large gradients are expected. The problem is particularly acute in lay-ups with angle-plies where 3D-elements would be needed. In the following study analytical solutions based on asymptotic approximations of the three-dimensional equations of linear elasticity for homogeneous orthotropic materials will be presented. One "small" parameter ɛR characterising thin shell geometry and another "small" parameter ɛG following from homogenised material properties of the shell structure and whose order of magnitude is comparable with ɛR are used to derive asymptotically consistent approximate solutions according to the following pattern: The adjusted laminate theory leads to stress distributions in each ply of the laminated tube which do not satisfy zero stress boundary conditions at the stress-free ends. In terms of asymptotic theory this is a typical problem of singular perturbations and can be solved by considering boundary layers near the free ends where stress and deformation fields satisfy the boundary conditions and match conveniently with stress and deformation distributions calculated with the adjusted laminate theory in the interior zone. To derive boundary layer equations which are easy to handle analytically and still obtain fairly accurate results, we replace the laminated structure by its homogeneous orthotropic equivalent. The boundary layer solutions are then obtained following the main ideas developed

  20. Shear bands in a bulk metallic glass after large plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, D.D.; Wang, Y.B.; Liao, X.Z.; Shen, J.

    2012-10-23

    A transmission electron microscopy investigation is conducted to trace shear bands in a Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 18.7}Ni{sub 12}Al{sub 16.3} bulk metallic glass after experiencing 4% plastic deformation. Shear band initiation, secondary shear band interactions, mature shear band broadening and the interactions of shear bands with shear-induced nanocrystals are captured. Results suggest that the plasticity of the bulk metallic glass is enhanced by complex shear bands and their interactions which accommodate large plastic strain and prevent catastrophic shear band propagation.

  1. Correlation between relaxations and plastic deformation, and elastic model of flow in metallic glasses and glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Weihua

    2011-09-01

    We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density {rho}{sub E} is determined to be a simple expression of {rho}{sub E}=(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs.

  2. Correlation between relaxations and plastic deformation, and elastic model of flow in metallic glasses and glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei Hua

    2011-09-01

    We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density ρE is determined to be a simple expression of ρE=10/11G +1/11K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs

  3. The effect of a magnetic field on a 2D problem of fibre-reinforced thermoelasticity rotation under three theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kh., Lotfy

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper, we introduce the coupled theory (CD), Lord-Schulman (LS) theory, and Green-Lindsay (GL) theory to study the influences of a magnetic field and rotation on a two-dimensional problem of fibre-reinforced thermoelasticity. The material is a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space. The method applied here is to use normal mode analysis to solve a thermal shock problem. Some particular cases are also discussed in the context of the problem. Deformation of a body depends on the nature of the force applied as well as the type of boundary conditions. Numerical results for the temperature, displacement, and thermal stress components are given and illustrated graphically in the absence and the presence of the magnetic field and rotation.

  4. Plasticity in the Supercooled Liquid Region of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T G; Wadsworth, J; Liu, C T; Ice, G E

    2000-10-30

    Intensive efforts have been carried out over the past decade to develop means to slow down the phase transformation kinetics during the forming of metallic glasses. As a result of these efforts, some metallic glasses can now be fabricated in bulk forms (BMG) from the liquid state at cooling rates on the order of 1-10 K/s, which is close to that of conventional casting. This enables the production of bulk amorphous alloys with a thickness of {approx}10 mm. While advances in amorphous metallic alloy development have been impressive, they have been made largely through experience [1]. Three main conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) Bulk metallic glasses generally have excellent mechanical formability in the supercooled liquid region. (2) Bulk metallic glasses may not be necessarily behave like a Newtonian fluid (i.e. m=1). The non-Newtonian behavior is associated with glass instability during deformation. (3) Multi-component Bulk metallic glasses can be used as the precursor of a nanocrystalline solid. However, the nanocrystalline solid is not necessarily superplastic. The non-superplastic behavior is caused by the difficult strain accommodation at grain triple junctions.

  5. Fiber Glass/Plastics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on methods of repairing damaged components and parts made of fiberglass/plastics is one of a series of texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis, and repair of engine powered vehicles. Materials provide basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing…

  6. Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni- and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weizhong, Liang; Zhiliang, Ning; Zhenqian, Dang; Linzhi, Wu

    2013-12-15

    Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni{sub 42}Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 21.5}Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}Si{sub 3.5} and Zr{sub 51}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 9} bulk metallic glasses at room temperature were studied by nanoindentation testing and atomic force microscopy under equivalent indentation experimental conditions. The different chemical composition of these two bulk metallic glasses produced variant tendencies for displacement serrated flow to occur during the loading process. The nanoindentation strain rate was calculated as a function of indentation displacement in order to verify the occurrence of displacement serrated flow at different loading rates. Atomic force microscopy revealed decreasing numbers of discrete shear bands around the indentation sites as loading rates increased from 0.025 to 2.5 mNs{sup −1}. Variations in plastic deformation behaviors between Ni and Zr-based glasses materials can be explained by the different metastable microstructures and thermal stabilities of the two materials. The mechanism governing plastic deformation of these metallic glasses was analyzed in terms of an established model of the shear transformation zone. - Highlights: • Plastic deformation of Ni- and Zr-based BMG is studied under identical conditions • Zr-based BMG undergoes a greater extent of plastic deformation than Ni-based BMG • Nanoindentation strain rate is studied to clarify variation in plastic deformation • Metastable microstructure, thermal stability affect BMG plastic deformation.

  7. Post-Impact Mechanical Characterisation of Glass and Basalt Woven Fabric Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Igor M.; Marra, Francesco; Pulci, Giovanni; Santulli, Carlo; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tirillò, Jacopo; Valente, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Two woven fabric laminates, one based on basalt fibres, the other on E-glass fibres, as a reinforcement for vinylester matrix, were compared in terms of their post-impact performance. With this aim, first the non-impacted specimens were subjected to interlaminar shear stress and flexural tests, then flexural tests were repeated on laminates impacted using a falling weight tower at three impact energies (7.5, 15 and 22.5J). Tests were monitored using acoustic emission analysis of signal distribution with load and with distance from the impact point. The results show that the materials have a similar damage tolerance to impact and also their post-impact residual properties after impact do not differ much, with a slight superiority for basalt fibre reinforced laminates. The principal difference is represented by the presence of a more extended delamination area on E-glass fibre reinforced laminates than on basalt fibre reinforced ones.

  8. Plastic and Glass Greenhouses Detection and Delineation from WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc-San, D.; Sonmez, N. K.

    2016-06-01

    Greenhouse detection using remote sensing technologies is an important research area for yield estimation, sustainable development, urban and rural planning and management. An approach was developed in this study for the detection and delineation of greenhouse areas from high resolution satellite imagery. Initially, the candidate greenhouse patches were detected using supervised classification techniques. For this purpose, Maximum Likelihood (ML), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classification techniques were applied and compared. Then, sieve filter and morphological operations were performed for improving the classification results. Finally, the obtained candidate plastic and glass greenhouse areas were delineated using boundary tracing and Douglas Peucker line simplification algorithms. The proposed approach was implemented in the Kumluca district of Antalya, Turkey utilizing pan-sharpened WorldView-2 satellite imageries. Kumluca is the prominent district of Antalya with greenhouse cultivation and includes both plastic and glass greenhouses intensively. When the greenhouse classification results were analysed, it can be stated that the SVM classification provides most accurate results and RF classification follows this. The SVM classification overall accuracy was obtained as 90.28%. When the greenhouse boundary delineation results were considered, the plastic greenhouses were delineated with 92.11% accuracy, while glass greenhouses were delineated with 80.67% accuracy. The obtained results indicate that, generally plastic and glass greenhouses can be detected and delineated successfully from WorldView-2 satellite imagery.

  9. CORRELATION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF PLASTICIZED PVC USING A LATTICE FLUID MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...

  10. Leakage of Oxygen from Blood and Water Samples Stored in Plastic and Glass Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter V.; Horton, J. N.; Mapleson, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Theory and experiment showed that samples of blood and water stored in 2-ml and 5-ml syringes made of polypropylene, polystyrene, or S.A.N. co-polymer exchanged oxygen with their surroundings. In the first hour the exchange was due mainly to equilibration with the plastic of the syringe and only in small degree to permeation through the plastic. With high initial tension or with blood of low haemoglobin concentration the exchange can result in errors in Po2 of up to 6% in two minutes and 16% in 30 to 60 minutes. With all-glass syringes the exchange was much slower but, even so, after 24 hours was important in all but a few of 18 interchangeable glass syringes. Therefore unless analysis can be started immediately all-glass syringes are to be preferred, and for prolonged storage even these should be selected. PMID:5565518

  11. Macroscopic tensile plasticity by scalarizating stress distribution in bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Dong, Jie; Huan, Yong; Wang, Yong Tian; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic tensile plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is highly desirable for various engineering applications. However, upon yielding, plastic deformation of BMGs is highly localized into narrow shear bands and then leads to the "work softening" behaviors and subsequently catastrophic fracture, which is the major obstacle for their structural applications. Here we report that macroscopic tensile plasticity in BMG can be obtained by designing surface pore distribution using laser surface texturing. The surface pore array by design creates a complex stress field compared to the uniaxial tensile stress field of conventional glassy specimens, and the stress field scalarization induces the unusual tensile plasticity. By systematically analyzing fracture behaviors and finite element simulation, we show that the stress field scalarization can resist the main shear band propagation and promote the formation of larger plastic zones near the pores, which undertake the homogeneous tensile plasticity. These results might give enlightenment for understanding the deformation mechanism and for further improvement of the mechanical performance of metallic glasses. PMID:26902264

  12. Macroscopic tensile plasticity by scalarizating stress distribution in bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Dong, Jie; Huan, Yong; Wang, Yong Tian; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The macroscopic tensile plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is highly desirable for various engineering applications. However, upon yielding, plastic deformation of BMGs is highly localized into narrow shear bands and then leads to the “work softening” behaviors and subsequently catastrophic fracture, which is the major obstacle for their structural applications. Here we report that macroscopic tensile plasticity in BMG can be obtained by designing surface pore distribution using laser surface texturing. The surface pore array by design creates a complex stress field compared to the uniaxial tensile stress field of conventional glassy specimens, and the stress field scalarization induces the unusual tensile plasticity. By systematically analyzing fracture behaviors and finite element simulation, we show that the stress field scalarization can resist the main shear band propagation and promote the formation of larger plastic zones near the pores, which undertake the homogeneous tensile plasticity. These results might give enlightenment for understanding the deformation mechanism and for further improvement of the mechanical performance of metallic glasses.

  13. Macroscopic tensile plasticity by scalarizating stress distribution in bulk metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meng; Dong, Jie; Huan, Yong; Wang, Yong Tian; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic tensile plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is highly desirable for various engineering applications. However, upon yielding, plastic deformation of BMGs is highly localized into narrow shear bands and then leads to the “work softening” behaviors and subsequently catastrophic fracture, which is the major obstacle for their structural applications. Here we report that macroscopic tensile plasticity in BMG can be obtained by designing surface pore distribution using laser surface texturing. The surface pore array by design creates a complex stress field compared to the uniaxial tensile stress field of conventional glassy specimens, and the stress field scalarization induces the unusual tensile plasticity. By systematically analyzing fracture behaviors and finite element simulation, we show that the stress field scalarization can resist the main shear band propagation and promote the formation of larger plastic zones near the pores, which undertake the homogeneous tensile plasticity. These results might give enlightenment for understanding the deformation mechanism and for further improvement of the mechanical performance of metallic glasses. PMID:26902264

  14. Synthesis and characterization of lamellar and fibre-reinforced NiAl-Mo and NiAl-Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haenschke, T.; Gali, A.; Heilmaier, M.; Krüger, M.; Bei, H.; George, E. P.

    2010-07-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) alloys of the eutectic systems NiAl-10Mo and NiAl-34Cr (at.%) are potential candidates for high-temperature structural applications. Here, these alloys were first arc-melted and drop-cast. Thereafter, they were directionally solidified (DS) at growth rates of 20 and 80 mm/h while rotating at a fixed rotation speed of 60 revolutions per minute. Specimens of the DS alloys were tested in three-point-bending and uniaxial compression to obtain mechanical properties, including the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). For the NiAl-Cr system DBTT was found to be around 300 °C. Microstructural observations revealed that in the section perpendicular to the growth direction a uniform distribution of fibres was observed. The expected decrease of the fibre diameter with increasing growth rate was not observed. Instead, the fibre diameter slightly increased with increasing crystal growth rates. First compression tests were performed to get insights into the creep behaviour of these fibre-reinforced microstructures.

  15. Development of tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites towards their use in DEMO—potassium doped tungsten wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesch, J.; Han, Y.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Höschen, T.; Jasper, B.; Zhao, P.; Linsmeier, Ch; Neu, R.

    2016-02-01

    For the next step fusion reactor the use of tungsten is inevitable to suppress erosion and allow operation at elevated temperature and high heat loads. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten and its susceptibility to operation embrittlement and thus allow its use as a structural as well as an armour material. That this concept works in principle has been shown in recent years. In this contribution we present a development approach towards its use in a future fusion reactor. A multilayer approach is needed addressing all composite constituents and manufacturing steps. A huge potential lies in the optimization of the tungsten wire used as fibre. We discuss this aspect and present studies on potassium doped tungsten wire in detail. This wire, utilized in the illumination industry, could be a replacement for the so far used pure tungsten wire due to its superior high temperature properties. In tensile tests the wire showed high strength and ductility up to an annealing temperature of 2200 K. The results show that the use of doped tungsten wire could increase the allowed fabrication temperature and the overall working temperature of the composite itself.

  16. Surface Modification of Metallic Glass Composites Through Severe Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sundeep; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita

    2015-03-01

    Refinement of crystalline dendrites in a metallic glass composite, Zr56.2Ti13.8Nb5.0Cu6.9Ni5.6Be12.5, was demonstrated by friction stir processing. The surface hardness of the amorphous matrix as well as the crystalline dendritic phase was found to increase by nearly a factor of two for the processed specimens. Higher hardness for the amorphous matrix was explained by the interaction of shear bands, while that for the crystalline dendrite was explained by grain refinement.

  17. Plastic Instability in Amorphous Selenium near its Glass Transition Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Caijun; Lamanna Jr, James; Gao, Yanfei; Oliver, Warren C.; Pharr, George M

    2010-01-01

    Deformation behavior of amorphous selenium near its glass transition temperature (31 C) has been investigated by uniaxial compression and nanoindentation creep tests. Cylindrical specimens compressed at high temperatures and low strain rates deform into drum-like shape, while tests at low temperatures and high strain rates lead to fragmentation. These results agree nicely with the stress exponent and kinetic activation parameters extracted from the nanoindentation creep tests by using a similarity analysis. The dependence of deformation modes on temperature and strain rate is understood as a consequence of material instability and strain localization in the rate-dependent solids.

  18. Use of synthetic fibre reinforcement for improving the performance of AGM separators for VRLA batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, N.

    Absorbent material made of 100% microglass fibre is well-known as a separator for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries and has been in use for about 20 years. As the VRLA battery market and demands on battery performance continue to grow, the electrical characteristics, productivity and reliability of VRLA batteries are being enhanced. Both the reliability and the electrical performance of the battery are linked to the AGM glass material. The properties of the AGM material impact the assembly route, defect rates, productivity, product cycleability, life, reliability, and recharge performance. An AGM product range which contains synthetic fibres up to 30% in mass (the remaining 70% is still glass) has been developed. The reinforcement of the material with a specific organic fibre is showing very positive effects, both on intrinsic separator characteristics and, as a consequence, on the manufacturing, electrical properties and cycle-life of batteries. The AGM product has been used in the battery market now for more than 20 years. Based on this experience, new testing methods such as the fatigue test and internal pressure measurement have been developed. It is clear from such measurements that reinforcement with synthetic fibre has a positive impact on battery characteristics.

  19. On the plastic deformation of soda-lime glass-a Cr3+ luminescence study of densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perriot, A.; Barthel, E.; Kermouche, G.; Quérel, G.; Vandembroucq, D.

    2011-03-01

    Silicate glasses are known to experience anomalous plastic behavior at micron scales: (1) they exhibit densification when flowing plastically; and (2) hydrostatic pressure affects the yield point. We have previously shown that densification maps are useful to infer a reliable constitutive law for the plastic response of silicate glasses. It is shown here that for soda-lime glass Cr3+ luminescence microspectroscopy may be used for that purpose. We also show that the constitutive law we have previously developed for amorphous silica provides a qualitative description of normal glasses, although it is unable to account for the finer details. More work is needed to quantitatively model normal-glass plasticity at the continuum length-scale.

  20. Enhanced plasticity of silica glass at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Funamori, Nobumasa; Sato, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    We have measured shear flow and residual structural anisotropy of Si O2 glass uniaxially compressed in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature with in situ optical-microscope and ex situ x-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. Large shear flow began at 8 -10 GPa and continued at least up to 20 GPa, where the macroscopic differential strain reached 70%. Recovered samples after shear flow were in the fully densified state and showed a large microscopic differential strain of 3% only in the intermediate-range network structure. These phenomena may be attributable to the changes in the Si-O bond covalency and the Si-O-Si bond angle with pressure and stresses.

  1. Solid spherical glass particle impingement studies of plastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Erosion experiments on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were conducted with spherical glass beads impacting at normal incidence. Optical and scanning electron microscopic studies and surface profile measurements were made on specimens at predetermined test intervals. During the initial stage of damage to PMMA and polycarbonate, material expands or builds up above the original surface. However, this buildup disappears as testing progresses. Little or no buildup was observed on PTFE. PTFE is observed to be the most resistant material to erosion and PMMA the least. At low impact pressures, material removal mechanisms are believed to be similar to those for metallic materials. However, at higher pressures, surface melting is indicated at the center of impact. Deformation and fatigue appear to play major roles in the material removal process with possible melting or softening.

  2. Failure criterion of glass fabric reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haga, O.; Hayashi, N.; Kasuya, K.

    1986-01-01

    Failure criteria are derived for several modes of failure (in unaxial tensile or compressive loading, or biaxial combined tensile-compressive loading) in the case of closely woven plain fabric, coarsely-woven plain fabric, or roving glass cloth reinforcements. The shear strength in the interaction formula is replaced by an equation dealing with tensile or compressive strength in the direction making a 45 degree angle with one of the anisotropic axes, for the uniaxial failure criteria. The interaction formula is useful as the failure criterion in combined tension-compression biaxial failure for the case of closely woven plain fabric laminates, but poor agreement is obtained in the case of coarsely woven fabric laminates.

  3. Cyclic fatigue behaviour of fibre reinforced rubber-toughened nylon composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinot, L.; Gomina, M.; Jernot, J.-P.; Moreau, R.; Nakache, E.

    2005-03-01

    The effects of the amount of rubber, the concentration of fibres and the state of the fibre/matrix interface upon the mechanical behaviour of glass fibre/rubber-toughened nylon ternary blends are checked. First, monotonic tensile tests were carried out on different intermediate materials and then on the ternary blends to derive the stress-strain curves and document the damage mechanisms. Cyclic fatigue tests were implemented on tensile specimens and the results were analysed in terms of the reduction of the Young's modulus, the increase of the hysteresis energy rate in the stress-strain diagram and the temperature rise. These findings were correlated to fractographic observations to assess the role of the different constituents.

  4. Structural Signature of Plasticity Unveiled by Nano-Scale Viscoelastic Contact in a Metallic Glass

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. M.; Zeng, J. F.; Wang, S.; Sun, B. A.; Wang, Q.; Lu, J.; Gravier, S.; Bladin, J. J.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Room-temperature plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) is commonly associated with local structural heterogeneity; however, direct observation of the subtle structural change caused by plasticity is vitally important but the data are extremely scarce. Based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (DAFM), here we show that plasticity-induced structural evolution in a Zr-Ni MG can be revealed via nano-scale viscoelastic contacts between an AFM tip and plastically deformed MG surface layers. Our experimental results clearly show a spatial amplification of the nano-scale structural heterogeneity caused by the distributed plastic flow, which can be linked to the limited growth, reorientation and agglomeration of some nano-scale energy-absorbing regions, which are reminiscent of the behavior of the defect-like regions with non-affine deformation as conceived in many theories and models. Furthermore, we are able to experimentally extract the thermodynamic properties of these nano-scale regions, which possess an energy barrier of 0.3–0.5 eV, about half of that for a typical shear transformation event that usually occurs at the onset of plasticity. The outcome of our current work sheds quantitative insights into the correlation between plasticity and structural heterogeneity in MGs. PMID:27383387

  5. Structural Signature of Plasticity Unveiled by Nano-Scale Viscoelastic Contact in a Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. M.; Zeng, J. F.; Wang, S.; Sun, B. A.; Wang, Q.; Lu, J.; Gravier, S.; Bladin, J. J.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Room-temperature plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) is commonly associated with local structural heterogeneity; however, direct observation of the subtle structural change caused by plasticity is vitally important but the data are extremely scarce. Based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (DAFM), here we show that plasticity-induced structural evolution in a Zr-Ni MG can be revealed via nano-scale viscoelastic contacts between an AFM tip and plastically deformed MG surface layers. Our experimental results clearly show a spatial amplification of the nano-scale structural heterogeneity caused by the distributed plastic flow, which can be linked to the limited growth, reorientation and agglomeration of some nano-scale energy-absorbing regions, which are reminiscent of the behavior of the defect-like regions with non-affine deformation as conceived in many theories and models. Furthermore, we are able to experimentally extract the thermodynamic properties of these nano-scale regions, which possess an energy barrier of 0.3–0.5 eV, about half of that for a typical shear transformation event that usually occurs at the onset of plasticity. The outcome of our current work sheds quantitative insights into the correlation between plasticity and structural heterogeneity in MGs.

  6. Structural Signature of Plasticity Unveiled by Nano-Scale Viscoelastic Contact in a Metallic Glass.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y M; Zeng, J F; Wang, S; Sun, B A; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Gravier, S; Bladin, J J; Wang, W H; Pan, M X; Liu, C T; Yang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Room-temperature plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) is commonly associated with local structural heterogeneity; however, direct observation of the subtle structural change caused by plasticity is vitally important but the data are extremely scarce. Based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (DAFM), here we show that plasticity-induced structural evolution in a Zr-Ni MG can be revealed via nano-scale viscoelastic contacts between an AFM tip and plastically deformed MG surface layers. Our experimental results clearly show a spatial amplification of the nano-scale structural heterogeneity caused by the distributed plastic flow, which can be linked to the limited growth, reorientation and agglomeration of some nano-scale energy-absorbing regions, which are reminiscent of the behavior of the defect-like regions with non-affine deformation as conceived in many theories and models. Furthermore, we are able to experimentally extract the thermodynamic properties of these nano-scale regions, which possess an energy barrier of 0.3-0.5 eV, about half of that for a typical shear transformation event that usually occurs at the onset of plasticity. The outcome of our current work sheds quantitative insights into the correlation between plasticity and structural heterogeneity in MGs. PMID:27383387

  7. Homogenization of plastic deformation in metallic glass foils less than one micrometer thick

    SciTech Connect

    Yavari, A. R.; Georgarakis, K.; Botta, W. J.; Inoue, A.; Vaughan, G.

    2010-11-01

    Metallic glasses do not possess crystalline structures with slip systems that provide for plastic deformation via dislocation glide. As such, when put under applied stress, they show a wide reversible elastic deformation {epsilon}{sub el{approx_equal}}2% before plastic flow occurs heterogeneously by localization in shear bands only tens of nanometers in thickness. Very recently, there have been reports that in microscopic (submicron thickness) pillars, such shear bands no longer form and deformation occurs homogeneously. Here we report on plastic deformation of submicron thickness foils of metallic glasses. When such foils are compressed or notched, a similar transition occurs from the usual heterogeneous plastic deformation mode via shear banding to more homogeneous deformation without formation of shear bands. Some shape instabilities in the form of vortices observed at interfaces between plastic zones and nondeformed regions are consistent with sharp deformation-induced density, velocity, and viscosity gradients. The onset of homogeneous deformation in the microscopic regime is discussed in relation to shear-band formation energy and thickness.

  8. Design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems use is described. The objective of this development was to examine the feasibility of producing lenses with a cost effectiveness superior to that of lenses made by casting of acrylic. The procedure used in executing this development, the method used in cost effectiveness evaluation, results obtained and recommendations for further work are presented.

  9. Preparation and tribological properties of C fibre reinforced C/SiC dual matrix composites fabrication by liquid silicon infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuan; Xiao, Peng; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Bo-yun

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional needle carbon fibre reinforced carbon and silicon carbide dual matrix composite (C/C-SiC) is one of a new type of high performance brake material. The carbon fibre preform prepared by three-dimensional needling method was first densified by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) to form porous carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. Then, the porous C/C composites were converted into C/C-SiC by liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), in which silicon carbide matrix was formed by reaction of carbon and melting silicon. The microstructure, mechanical properties and friction behaviour of C/C-SiC have been investigated. The results indicated that the composite was composed of 55 wt% C, 39 wt% SiC and 6 wt% Si. The density of C/C-SiC was 2.2 g cm-3 with 6.4% open porosity. The C/C-SiC exhibited good mechanical properties, especially excellent toughness which can help to avoid catastrophic brittle fracture. The flexural and compressive strength can reach to 214.6 MPa and 271.0 MPa, respectively. In addition, C/C-SiC had excellent impact damage tolerance of 25.2 kJ m-2. Compared to the self-friction, the C/C-SiC with steel opposing material shown higher static coefficient of friction (0.74) and better stability coefficient (0.28), while exhibited lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.25), higher temperature of friction subsurface (444 °C), higher wear rate (2.88 μm cycle-1). The main wear mechanism of the C/C-SiC composites with different opposing material both includes adhesion and oxidation abrasion.

  10. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-01-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes. PMID:15121504

  11. On the characteristic length scales associated with plastic deformation in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Gao, H. J.

    2012-05-14

    Atomistic simulations revealed that the spatial correlations of plastic displacements in three metallic glasses, FeP, MgAl, and CuZr, follow an exponential law with a characteristic length scale l{sub c} that governs Poisson's ratio {nu}, shear band thickness t{sub SB}, and fracture mode in these materials. Among the three glasses, FeP exhibits smallest l{sub c}, thinnest t{sub SB}, lowest {nu}, and brittle fracture; CuZr exhibits largest l{sub c}, thickest t{sub SB}, highest {nu}, and ductile fracture, while properties of MgAl lie in between those of FeP and CuZr. These findings corroborate well with existing experimental observations and suggest l{sub c} as a fundamental measure of the shear transformation zone size in metallic glasses.

  12. On the characteristic length scales associated with plastic deformation in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Gao, H. J.

    2012-05-01

    Atomistic simulations revealed that the spatial correlations of plastic displacements in three metallic glasses, FeP, MgAl, and CuZr, follow an exponential law with a characteristic length scale ℓc that governs Poisson's ratio ν, shear band thickness tSB, and fracture mode in these materials. Among the three glasses, FeP exhibits smallest ℓc, thinnest tSB, lowest ν, and brittle fracture; CuZr exhibits largest ℓc, thickest tSB, highest ν, and ductile fracture, while properties of MgAl lie in between those of FeP and CuZr. These findings corroborate well with existing experimental observations and suggest ℓc as a fundamental measure of the shear transformation zone size in metallic glasses.

  13. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn; Du, J. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  14. Methods for an investigation of the effect of material components on the mechanical characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willax, H. O.

    1980-01-01

    The materials used in the production of glass reinforced plastics are discussed. Specific emphasis is given to matrix polyester materials, the reinforcing glass materials, and aspects of specimen preparation. Various methods of investigation are described, giving attention to optical impregnation and wetting measurements and the gravimetric determination of the angle of contact. Deformation measurements and approaches utilizing a piezoelectric device are also considered.

  15. Mechanical properties and structural features of novel Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with unprecedented plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Zhao, Yucheng; Inoue, Akihisa; Jiang, Kemin; Huo, Juntao; Ling, Haibo; Li, Qiang; Shen, Baolong

    2014-08-01

    Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted great attention due to their unique magnetic and mechanical properties, but few applications have been materialized because of their brittleness at room temperature. Here we report a new Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG which exhibits unprecedented compressive plasticity (>20%) at room temperature without final fracture. The mechanism of unprecedented plasticity for this new Fe-based BMG was also investigated. It was discovered that the ductile Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG is composed of unique clusters mainly linked by less directional metal-metal bonds which are inclined to accommodate shear strain and absorbed energy in the front of crack tip. This conclusion was further verified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy experiments of Fe80-xNixP13C7 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30) and Fe72-xNixB20Si4Nb4 (x = 0, 7.2, 14.4, 21.6, 28.8) glassy systems. The results also indicate a strong correlation between the p-d hybridization and plasticity, verifying that the transition from brittle to ductile induced by Ni addition is due to the change of bonding characteristics in atomic configurations. Thus, we can design the plasticity of Fe-based BMGs and open up a new possible pathway for manufacturing BMGs with high strength and plasticity.

  16. Evaluate the effect of laser shock peening on plasticity of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhu, Yunhu; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Ren; Ji, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    The effect of laser shock peening (LSP) on mechanical properties, especially the plasticity of a typical Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) had been investigated. The surface treatment introduced by successive laser pulses facilitated the formation of shear bands and promoted the plastic deformation of BMG. Experimental investigations of the bending deformation behavior were performed by three-point bending test at room temperature. It was found that the LSP pretreatment could improve the plasticity. The shear bands in fracture surface of laser peened sample were increased which could be observed by SEM. Logarithmic strain and stress distributions during bending deformation were predicted by finite element analysis. The high level of strain concentration in peened sample represented the increasing possibility of shear band formation which was beneficial to enhance plasticity. Corresponding with the strain distribution, the stress in peened sample was also increased which would enhance the ability of resisting a larger bending load force. Besides, simulation results clearly showed the logarithmic strain evolution of the beams with different laser irradiated regions throughout the bending process. The results indicated that the larger the laser irradiated region was, the better the plasticity of BMG would be.

  17. Skin problems among fiber-glass reinforced plastics factory workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko; Nagano, Megumi; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Kitano, Takao; Ushijima, Kayo; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Futatsuka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Two surveys, one in winter the other in summer time, examined the skin problems of the entire manual workers (N=148) from 11 small-to-medium sized fiber-glass reinforced plastics (FRP) factories located in Kyushu, Japan. The workers were exposed to unsaturated polyester resin, including styrene and auxiliary agents such as cobalt naphthenate, hardeners such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxides, glass fiber and dust including shortened glass fiber and plastic particles. Eighty-seven workers (58.8%) reported having skin problems (mainly itching or dermatitis) since they started to work in FRP manufacturing and 25 workers had consulted a physician because of their skin problems; one worker was forced to take sick leave because of his severe dermatitis. History of allergic diseases and shorter occupational period (duration of employment) in a FRP factory were associated with greater probability of having a history of work-related skin symptoms. Workers in factories where dust-generating and lamination sites were located in different buildings were significantly less likely to have a history of skin problems than those in factories where the two sites were located in the same building. Of the 67 workers examined in both seasons closed to double the prevalence of dermatitis was found in summer (23.3%) than winter (13.4%). PMID:11926514

  18. Transverse isotropic modeling of the ballistic response of glass reinforced plastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) composites is gaining significant attention in the DoD community for use in armor applications. These materials typically possess a laminate structure consisting of up to 100 plies, each of which is constructed of a glass woven roving fabric that reinforces a plastic matrix material. Current DoD attention is focused on a high strength, S-2 glass cross-weave (0/90) fabric reinforcing a polyester matrix material that forms each ply of laminate structure consisting anywhere from 20 to 70 plies. The resulting structure displays a material anisotropy that is, to a reasonable approximation, transversely isotropic. When subjected to impact and penetration from a metal fragment projectile, the GRP displays damage and failure in an anisotropic manner due to various mechanisms such as matrix cracking, fiber fracture and pull-out, and fiber-matrix debonding. In this presentation, the author will describe the modeling effort to simulate the ballistic response of the GRP material described above using the transversely isotropic (TI) constitutive model which has been implemented in the shock physics code, CTH. The results of this effort suggest that the model is able to describe the delamination behavior of the material but has some difficulty capturing the in-plane (i.e., transverse) response of the laminate due to its cross-weave fabric reinforcement pattern which causes a departure from transverse isotropy.

  19. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. F.; Wei, B. C.; Wang, Y. R.; Li, W. H.; Cheung, T. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr48.5Cu46.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr2Cu and plate-like Cu10Zr7 compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  20. Unusual room-temperature compressive plasticity in nanocrystal-toughened bulk copper-zirconium glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Zhang, W.; Tsurui, T.; Yavari, A. R.; Greer, A. L.

    2005-05-01

    Cast Cu50Zr50 alloy rods with a diameter of 1 mm have been found to consist of a glassy phase containing fine crystalline particles with a size of about 5 nm. They have a glass transition temperature Tg of 675 K, and a large supercooled-liquid region extending 57 K above Tg. The rods exhibit a high yield strength of 1860 MPa and a Young's modulus of 104 GPa. Because they contain a dispersion of embedded nanocrystals, the as-cast bulk metallic glass rods can sustain a compressive plastic strain at room temperature of more than 50%, an exceptional value which is explicable by compensation of any shear softening by nanocrystal coalescence and pinning of shear bands.

  1. Optical Property Requirements for Glasses, Ceramics and Plastics in Spacecraft Window Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary draft of a standard published by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) that is intended to provide uniform window optical design requirements in support of the development of human-rated spaceflight hardware. The material covered in this standard is based on data from extensive testing by the Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, and compiled into requirements format by the NASA JSC Structural Engineering Division. At the time of this initial document release, a broader technical community has not reviewed this standard. The technical content of this standard is primarily based on the Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Window Optical Properties Requirements, CxP 72407, Baseline. Unlike other optical requirements documents available for human rated spacecraft, this document includes requirements that ensure functionality for windows that contain glass/ceramic and/or plastic window substrate materials. These requirements were derived by measuring the optical properties of fused silica and aluminosilicate glass window assemblies and ensuring that the performance of any window assembly that includes a plastic pane or panes will meet the performance level of the all-glass assemblies. The resulting requirements are based upon the performance and parameter metrology testing of a variety of materials, including glass, transparent ceramics, acrylics, and polycarbonates. In general, these requirements are minimum specifications for each optical parameter in order to achieve the function specified for each functional category, A through D. Because acrylic materials perform at a higher level than polycarbonates in the optics regime, and CxP/Orion is planning to use acrylic in the Orion spacecraft, these requirements are based heavily on metrology from that material. As a result, two of the current Category D requirements for plastics are cited in

  2. Enhancement of room-temperature plasticity in a bulk metallic glass by finely dispersed porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Takeshi; Inoue, Akihisa; Greer, Alan Lindsay

    2005-06-01

    Melts of Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20 (at. %) held under pressurized hydrogen are cast into bulk metallic glass (BMG) rods with fine (20-30μm diameter) pores uniformly dispersed. The low overall porosities (<4%) lead to only small reductions in Young modulus and yield strength, but to dramatically enhanced plasticity in compression: Rupture energy as high as 295MJm-3, compared to 16MJm-3 for the pore-free BMG. The pores force the proliferation of shear bands below the overall failure stress, a process of interest for toughening BMGs, materials for which shear localization in deformation restricts structural applications.

  3. Effects of temperature and pressure on the glass transitions of plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.S.; Garcia, D.; Idar, D.

    1998-12-31

    Various plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) contain about 5-wt% polymer, plasticizer, and stabilizer as binder. The glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) determines, in part, if the binder will reduce or increase the sensitivity of the PBX to impact. A soft binder reduces the impact sensitivity; however, too soft a binder compromises the mechanical strength below that desirable for dimensional stability. Glass transitions were measured by temperature modulated DSC for PBXs before and after pressing. Pressing temperature was 90 C. The T{sub g} of Estane, a polyester/polyurethane used in some PBX binders, was investigated. Only small changes were observed in the low temperature T{sub g} of the soft segments but larger changes were seen in the higher temperature transitions due to the relaxation of the hard segments. The T{sub g} of Kel F 800, a binder used in insensitive PBX 9502, was observed near ambient temperature. The PBX 9502 had a lower T{sub g} than the neat polymer. Mechanical strength will be measured for the samples.

  4. A Novel Micro-Scale Plastic Deformation Feature on a Bulk Metallic Glass Surface under Laser Shock Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yan-Peng; Wei, Bing-Chen; Wang, Xi; Xu, Guang-Yue; Li, Lei; Wu, Xian-Qian; Song, Hong-Wei; Huang, Chen-Guang

    2013-03-01

    Laser shocking peening is a widely applied surface treatment technique that can effectively improve the fatigue properties of metal parts. We observe many micro-scale arc plastic steps on the surface of Zr47.9Ti0.3Ni3.1Cu39.3Al9.4 metallic glass subjected to the ultra-high pressure and strain rate induced by laser shock peening. The scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the arc plastic step (APS) has an arc boundary, 50-300 nm step height, 5-50 μm radius and no preferable direction. These APSs have the ability to accommodate plastic deformation in the same way as shear band. This may indicate a new mechanism to accommodate the plastic deformation in amorphous metallic glass under high pressure, ultra-high strain rates, and short duration.

  5. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    PubMed

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  6. High plastic Zr-Cu-Fe-Al-Nb bulk metallic glasses for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-shen; Wang, Yun-liang; Wu, Yi-dong; Wang, Tan; Hui, Xi-dong

    2015-06-01

    Four Zr-Cu-Fe-Al-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with Zr contents greater than 65at% and minor additions of Nb were designed and prepared. The glass forming abilities, thermal stabilities, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance properties of the prepared BMGs were investigated. These BMGs exhibit moderate glass forming abilities along with superior fracture and yield strengths compared to previously reported Zr-Cu-Fe-Al BMGs. Specifically, the addition of Nb into this quaternary system remarkably increases the plastic strain to 27.5%, which is related to the high Poisson's ratio and low Young's and shear moduli. The Nb-bearing BMGs also exhibit a lower corrosion current density by about one order of magnitude and a wider passive region than 316L steel in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The combination of the optimized composition with high deformation ability, low Young's modulus, and excellent corrosion resistance properties indicates that this kind of BMG is promising for biomedical applications.

  7. A New Inverse Method of Elastic Constants for a Fibre-Reinforced Composite Plate from Laser-Based Ultrasonic Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2001-12-01

    A new inverse method based on the wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (ANN) is presented to recover elastic constants of a fibre-reinforced composite plate from laser-based ultrasonic Lamb waves. The transient waveforms obtained by numerical simulations under different elastic constants are taken as the input of the ANN for training and learning. The wavelet transform is employed for extracting the eigenvectors from the raw Lamb wave signals so as to simplify the structure of the ANN. Then these eigenvectors are input to a multi-layer internally recurrent neural network with a back-propagation algorithm. Finally, the experimental waveforms are used as the input in the whole system to inverse elastic constants of the experimental material.

  8. Ply level failure prediction of carbon fibre reinforced laminated composite panels subjected to low velocity drop-weight impact using adaptive meshing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Myler, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This work is concerned with physical testing and numerical simulations of flat and round nose drop-weight impact of carbon fibre-reinforced laminate composite panels to predict ply level failure. Majority of the existing studies on impact of composites by spherical nose impactors are experimental, computational models are simplified, and based on classical laminated plate theories where contributions of through-thickness stresses are neglected. Present work considers flat nose impact and contributions from through-thickness stresses and is mainly simulation based. A computational model was developed in ABAQUS™ software using adaptive meshing techniques. Simulation produced (2D model) stresses were numerically integrated using MATALB™ code to predict through-thickness (3D) stresses. Through-the-thickness stresses were then utilised in advanced failure criteria coded in MATLAB™ software to predict ply level failures. Simulation produced results demonstrate that the computational model can efficiently and effectively predict ply-by-ply failure status of relatively thick laminates.

  9. Impact of Plastic Deformation and Shear Band Formation on the Boson Heat Capacity Peak of a Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Yu. P.; Peterlechner, M.; Divinski, S. V.; Wilde, G.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of annealing on the low-temperature heat capacity of a bulk Pd38.5Ni40P21.5 metallic glass is investigated for as-quenched and deformed (rolled) states. Although the boson heat capacity peak increases with increasing strain, it relaxes faster and to a lower level compared to that of the as-quenched state after annealing treatments both below and above the glass transition temperature Tg. The glass is found to retain a certain "memory" on the room-temperature plastic deformation even after annealing above Tg. Indications for two counteracting processes that might be related to different types of shear bands are observed.

  10. Roles of nanoclusters in shear banding and plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T.G.

    2012-07-31

    During the course of this research we published 33 papers in various physics/material journals. We select four representing papers in this report and their results are summarized as follows. I. To study shear banding process, it is pertinent to know the intrinsic shear strain rate within a propagating shear band. To this aim, we used nanoindentation technique to probe the mechanical response of a Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 bulk metallic glass in locality and found notable pop-in events associated with shear band emission. Using a free volume model and under the situation when temperature and stress/hardness are fixed result in an equation, which predicts that hardness serration caused by pop-in decreases exponentially with the strain rate. Our data are in good agreement with the prediction. The result also predicts that, when strain rate is higher than a critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1, there will be no hardness serration, thereby no pop-in. In other words, multiple shear bandings will take place and material will flow homogeneously. The critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1 can be treated as the intrinsic strain rate within a shear band. We subsequently carried out a simulation study and showed that, if the imposed strain rate was over , the shear band spacing would become so small that the entire sample would virtually behave like one major shear band. Using the datum strain rate =1700 s^-1 and based on a shear band nucleation model proposed by us, the size of a shear-band nucleus in Au-BMG was estimated to be 3 × 10^6 atoms, or a sphere of ~30 nm in diameter. II. Inspired by the peculiar result published in a Science article “Super Plastic Bulk Metallic Glasses at Room Temperature”, we synthesized the Zr-based bulk metallic glass with a composition identical to that in the paper (Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10) and, subsequently, tested in compression at the same slow strain rate (~10^-4 s^-1). We found that

  11. Application of glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) mud-mats for Daria-A platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bertorelli, D.; Spessa, A.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the experience gained with glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) mud-mat materials used for the Garibaldi-C jacket, in the Adriatic sea, has shown that this solution can result in substantial cost savings. Therefore, Agip has investigated a further use of GRP mud-mats for the Daria-A platform as a means of reducing the lifting weight of the jacket and, moreover, to negate the requirement for additional buoyancy tanks during the free flotation and upending phases. Two possible solutions, the ``pultrusion`` and the ``lamination`` techniques, have been investigated to fabricate sandwich panels for the mud-mats. In this paper these two technologies are discussed with respect to their application to the construction and they are compared on a performance and cost basis.

  12. Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Heng; Ko, Seung Hwan; Misra, Nipun; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2009-02-01

    We report a rapid and low temperature process for fabricating composite TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics by in tandem spray deposition and laser annealing. A homogenized KrF excimer laser beam (248 nm) was used to layer-by-layer anneal spray deposited TiO2 nanoparticles. The produced TiO2 film is crack free and contains small particles (30 nm) mixed with different fractions of larger particles (100-200 nm) controlled by the applied laser fluence. Laser annealed double-layered structure is demonstrated for both doctor-blade deposited and spray-deposited electrodes and performance enhancement can be observed. The highest demonstrated all-laser-annealed cells utilizing ruthenium dye and liquid electrolyte showed power conversion efficiency of ˜3.8% under simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  13. Prediction of cutting forces in machining of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Surinder Kumar; Gupta, Meenu; Satsangi, P. S.

    2013-06-01

    Machining of plastic materials has become increasingly important in any engineering industry subsequently the prediction of cutting forces. Forces quality has greater influence on components, which are coming in contact with each other. So it becomes necessary to measure and study machined forces and its behavior. In this research work, experimental investigations are conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions and tool geometry on the cutting forces in the turning of the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics (UD-GFRP) composites. In this experimental study, carbide tool (K10) having different tool nose radius and tool rake angle is used. Experiments are conducted based on the established Taguchi's technique L18 orthogonal array on a lathe machine. It is found that the depth of cut is the cutting parameter, which has greater influence on cutting forces. The effect of the tool nose radius and tool rake angles on the cutting forces are also considerably significant. Based on statistical analysis, multiple regression model for cutting forces is derived with satisfactory coefficient ( R 2). This model proved to be highly preferment for predicting cutting forces.

  14. Changes Induced by Exposure of the Human Lung to Glass Fiber–Reinforced Plastic

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Carmelo; Giorgianni, Concetto; Brecciaroli, Renato; Giacobbe, Giovanni; Costa, Chiara; Cavallari, Vittorio; Albiero, Francesca; Catania, Stefania; Tringali, Maria Antonietta; Martino, Lucia Barbaro; Abbate, Simona

    2006-01-01

    The inhalation of glass dusts mixed in resin, generally known as glass fiber–reinforced plastic (GRP), represents a little-studied occupational hazard. The few studies performed have highlighted nonspecific lung disorders in animals and in humans. In the present study we evaluated the alteration of the respiratory system and the pathogenic mechanisms causing the changes in a group of working men employed in different GRP processing operations and exposed to production dusts. The study was conducted on a sample of 29 male subjects whose mean age was 37 years and mean length of service 11 years. All of the subjects were submitted to a clinical check-up, basic tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); microscopic studies and biochemical analysis were performed on the BAL fluid. Tests of respiratory function showed a large number of obstructive syndromes; scanning electron microscopy highlighted qualitative and quantitative alterations of the alveolar macrophages; and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of electron-dense cytoplasmatic inclusions indicating intense and active phlogosis (external inflammation). Biochemical analyses highlighted an increase in protein content associated with alterations of the lung oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. Inhalation of GRP, independent of environmental concentration, causes alterations of the cellular and humoral components of pulmonary interstitium; these alterations are identified microscopically as acute alveolitis. PMID:17107859

  15. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  16. 46 CFR 160.035-8 - Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P... reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled lifeboats. (a) General requirements. (1) Plastic lifeboats shall comply with the general requirements for the construction and arrangement of...

  17. 46 CFR 160.035-8 - Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P... reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled lifeboats. (a) General requirements. (1) Plastic lifeboats shall comply with the general requirements for the construction and arrangement of...

  18. Color stability of laboratory glass-fiber-reinforced plastics for esthetic orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Toshihiro; Minami, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective In our previous study, glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) made from polycarbonate and glass fibers were prepared for esthetic orthodontic wires using pultrusion. These laboratory GFRP wires are more transparent than the commercially available nickel-titanium wire; however, an investigation of the color stability of GFRP during orthodontic treatment is needed. Accordingly, in the present study, the color stability of GFRP was assessed using colorimetry. Methods Preparation of GFRP esthetic round wires (diameter: 0.45 mm [0.018 inch]) using pultrusion was described previously. Here, to investigate how the diameter of fiber reinforcement affects color stability, GFRPs were prepared by incorporating either 13-µm (GFRP-13) or 7-µm glass (GFRP-7) fibers. The color changes of GFRPs after 24 h, and following 1, 2, and 4 weeks of coffee immersion at 37℃, were measured by colorimetry. We evaluated the color stability of GFRPs by two evaluating units: the color difference (ΔE*) and National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Results After immersion, both GFRPs showed almost no visible color change. According to the colorimetry measurements, the ΔE* values of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 0.73-1.16, and 0.62-1.10, respectively. In accordance with NBS units, both GFRPs showed "slight" color changes. As a result, there were no significant differences in the ΔE* values or NBS units for GFRP-13 or GFRP-7. Moreover, for both GFRPs, no significant differences were observed in any of the immersion periods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the GFRPs will maintain high color stability during orthodontic treatment, and are an attractive prospect as esthetic orthodontic wires. PMID:26023541

  19. Glass fiber reinforced plastics within the fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smajic, Semir; Eckart, A.; Horrobin, M.; Lindhorst, B.; Pott, J.-U.; Rauch, C.; Rost, S.; Straubmeier, C.; Tremou, E.; Wank, I.; Zuther, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is meant to monitor and correct atmospheric piston varia­ tion and instrumental vibrations and flexure during near-infrared interferometric image acquisition of LING­ NIRVANA. In close work with the adaptive optics system the FFTS enables homothetic imaging for the Large Binocular Telescope. One of the main problems we had to face is the connection between the cryogenic upper part of the instrument, e.g. detector head, and the lower ambient temperature part. In this ambient temperature part the moving stages are situated that move the detector head in the given field of view (FOV). We show how we solved this problem using the versatile material glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP's) and report in what way this material can be worked. We discuss in detail the exquisite characteristics of this material which we use to combine the cryogenic and ambient environments to a fully working system. The main characteristics that we focus on are the low temperature conduction and the tensile strength of the GFRP's. The low temperature conduction is needed to allow for a low heat-exchange between the cryogenic and ambient part whereas the tensile strength is needed to support heavy structures like the baffle motor and to allow for a minimum of flexure for the detector head. Additionally, we discuss the way we attached the GFRP to the remaining parts of the FFTS using a two component encapsulant.

  20. Micromechanical Modeling the Plastic Deformation of Particle-Reinforced Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Shi, Xueping; Qiu, Kun

    2015-08-01

    A micromechanics model was employed to investigate the mechanical performance of particle-reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites. The roles of shear banding in the tensile deformation are accounted for in characterizing the strength and ductility of ductile particle-filled BMGs. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, shear band was considered to be a micro-crack in the present model. The strain-based Weibull probability distribution function and percolation theory were applied to describe the equivalent micro-crack evolution, which results in the progressive failure of BMG composites. Based on the developed model, the influences of shear bands on the plastic deformation were discussed for various microstructures. The predictions were in fairly good agreement with the experimental data from the literatures, which confirms that the developed analytical model is able to successfully describe the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, strain hardening, and stress softening elongation of composites. The present results will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the tensile ductility of BMG composites.

  1. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  2. [Toxicological evaluation of pesticide and chemical residues in control of biological processes in vegetables under glass and plastics].

    PubMed

    Goedicke, H J

    1988-01-01

    The cultivation of vegetables under glass and plastics is one of the most intensive application fields of pesticides and chemicals for regulation of biological processes. Therefore it may potentially occur a relatively high residues contamination of the crops. The author reveals in a survey the residue situation of usual insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, and chemicals for regulation of biological processes on tomatoes, cucumbers, and lettuce in comparison with the maximum residue limit after cold fogging application. The residues of benomyl, carbendazim, and ethylen-bis-dithiocarbamate are detailed discussed in the light of the latest toxicological findings. The results the residues of 11 agents on the crops show that after the corresponding preharvest interval the residues constitute 1.7-78% of the maximum residue limit. The conclusion is drawn that the cold fogging application of the agents under glass and plastics does not result in food hygienic toxicological problems. PMID:3068546

  3. Effects of relative humidity and ionic liquids on the water content and glass transition of plasticized starch.

    PubMed

    Bendaoud, Amine; Chalamet, Yvan

    2013-09-12

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the relationship between the glass transition temperature of the materials produced by the melting method and the water content, as well as the nature and concentration of the plasticizer used. Native starch was successfully treated with ionic liquid to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS). Ionic liquids have shown a better plasticization, and low absorption of water compared to glycerol, which means a better interaction of starch with ionic liquids. The water binding properties of TPS were studied by commenting the water absorption for the plasticized starch at different % RH and with different ratios of plasticizers. An amount of 22.5 wt% AMIMCl is the maximum that can act as a plasticizer. Above this composition, an increase in the wt% water and wt% AMIMCl induces a phase separation. This value corresponds to a chemical interpretation, which corresponds to a ratio of 1:3 AMIMCl/anhydro-glucose. A schematic representation of the different binding between starch, plasticizer and water has been proposed. PMID:23911499

  4. The design of fibre-reinforced composite blades for passive and active wind turbine rotor aerodynamic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaolis, Nicos M.

    An alternative method of varying the pitch of wind turbine rotor blades is examined, which relies on the use of fiber reinforced composite materials to design the blades so as to develop elastic coupling between an applied load of a generally twisting and non-twisting nature. With such an approach, twist can be obtained either by using one of the forces experienced by the blade during operation to alter passively the blade pitch, or by internal pressurization to control actively the blade pitch by varying the pressure. The passive control option is considered in detail. First the relevant composite construction geometries that produce the desired coupling effect are identified and then a theoretical model is developed. This is also used to explore the variation in coupling and stiffness properties with the fiber orientation. Various materials are considered including glass, aramid, and carbon fiber epoxy composites. Subsequently, the structural model is confirmed experimentally by a series of tests on composite, foam-cored beams specially designed and manufactured for this purpose. It is then combined with existing aerodynamic theories in order to model the performance of horizontal and vertical axis rotors employing such blades. The effect of passively induced twist on the aerodynamic performance is examined both theoretically and experimentally. Additionally, a simplified dynamic model is developed to obtain a general idea on how built-in elastic coupling may affect the dynamic stability of a horizontal axis rotor system. The active control option is considered in general as an alternative mechanism of inducing twist. The relevant theory is derived and illustrated with examples, and the realistic practicability of this concept is discussed. To validate the theory, a composite cylindrical shell has been designed, manufactured and tested under pressure.

  5. Retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames using glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakam, Zeyad Hamed-Ramzy

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames subjected to in-plane lateral loads using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates that are epoxy-bonded to the exterior faces of the infill walls. An extensive experimental investigation using one-third scale modeling was conducted and consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 64 assemblages, half of which were retrofitted, were tested under various combined in-plane loading conditions similar to those which different regions of a typical infill wall are subjected to. In the second phase, one bare and four masonry-infilled steel frames representative of a typical single-story, single-bay panel were tested under diagonal loading to study the overall behavior and the infill-frame interaction. The relative infill-to-frame stiffness was varied as a test parameter by using two different steel frame sections. The laminates altered the failure modes of the masonry assemblages and reduced the variability and anisotropic nature of the masonry. For the prisms which failed due to shear and/or mortar joint slip, significant strength increases were observed. For those exhibiting compression failure modes, a marginal increase in strength resulted. Retrofitting the infilled frames resulted in an average increase in initial stiffness of two-fold compared to the unretrofitted infilled frames, and seemed independent of the relative infill-to-frame stiffness. However, the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the retrofitted frames compared to the unretrofitted counterparts was higher for those with the larger relative infill-to-frame stiffness parameter. Unlike the unretrofitted infill walls, the retrofitted panels demonstrated almost identical failure modes that were characterized as "strictly comer crushing" in the vicinity of the loaded comers whereas no signs of distress were evident throughout the remainder of the infill. The laminates also maintained the structural integrity of

  6. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in elastically and plastically bent metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Ren, Yang; Ma, Dong; Gao, Yanfei F.; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-09-03

    In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was conducted on elastically and plastically bent bulk metallic glass (BMG) thin plates, from which distinct local elastic strain fields were mapped spatially. These directly measured residual strain fields can be nicely interpreted by our stress analysis, and also validate a previously proposed indirect residual-stress-measurement method by relating nanoindentation hardness to residual stresses. Local shear strain variations on the cross sections of these thin plates were found in the plastically bent BMG, which however cannot be determined from the indirect indentation method. As a result, this study has important implications in designing and manipulating internal strain fields in BMGs for the purpose of ductility enhancement.

  7. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in elastically and plastically bent metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Yuan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Ren, Yang; Ma, Dong; Gao, Yanfei F.; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-09-03

    In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was conducted on elastically and plastically bent bulk metallic glass (BMG) thin plates, from which distinct local elastic strain fields were mapped spatially. These directly measured residual strain fields can be nicely interpreted by our stress analysis, and also validate a previously proposed indirect residual-stress-measurement method by relating nanoindentation hardness to residual stresses. Local shear strain variations on the cross sections of these thin plates were found in the plastically bent BMG, which however cannot be determined from the indirect indentation method. As a result, this study has important implications in designing and manipulatingmore » internal strain fields in BMGs for the purpose of ductility enhancement.« less

  8. Various sizes of sliding event bursts in the plastic flow of metallic glasses based on a spatiotemporal dynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jingli E-mail: g.wang@shu.edu.cn; Chen, Cun; Wang, Gang E-mail: g.wang@shu.edu.cn; Cheung, Wing-Sum; Sun, Baoan; Mattern, Norbert; Siegmund, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-07-21

    This paper presents a spatiotemporal dynamic model based on the interaction between multiple shear bands in the plastic flow of metallic glasses during compressive deformation. Various sizes of sliding events burst in the plastic deformation as the generation of different scales of shear branches occurred; microscopic creep events and delocalized sliding events were analyzed based on the established model. This paper discusses the spatially uniform solutions and traveling wave solution. The phase space of the spatially uniform system applied in this study reflected the chaotic state of the system at a lower strain rate. Moreover, numerical simulation showed that the microscopic creep events were manifested at a lower strain rate, whereas the delocalized sliding events were manifested at a higher strain rate.

  9. Enhanced plasticity of bulk metallic glass in different aspect ratios via laser shock peening with multiple impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhu, Yunhu; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Ren; Ji, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study laser shock peening (LSP) with multiple laser impacts was used to improve the mechanical properties especially the plasticity of Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass (BMG) pillars in two aspect ratios (1:1 and 2:1). It was found that, with increasing laser impacts up to 5, the compression plastic strain of BMG pillar with aspect ratio of 1:1 increased from 0 to 1.48% and the compression strength increased significantly from 1569 MPa to 1721 MPa. With further laser impacts beyond 5, the changes in the plasticity and the compression strength were observed to be insignificant. Considering the effect of sample geometry at the same laser impacts, it could be concluded that the BMG pillars with smaller aspect ratio of 1:1 had better mechanical properties than that of the lager BMG pillars with aspect ratio of 2:1. Besides, the elastic strain limit of BMG pillars with LSP was not only independent of the laser impacts, but also irrelevant to the aspect ratio. At last, we discussed the reason for the increase of plasticity in view of the creation of excess free volume during LSP.

  10. Data on Material Properties and Panel Compressive Strength of a Plastic-bonded Material of Glass Cloth and Canvas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zender, George W; Schuette, Evan H; Weinberger, Robert A

    1944-01-01

    Results are presented of tests for determining the tensile, compressive, and bending properties of a material of plastic-bonding glass cloth and canvas layers. In addition, 10 panel specimens were tested in compression. Although the material is not satisfactory for primary structural use in aircraft when compared on a strength-weight basis with other materials in common use, there appears to be potential strength in the material that will require research for development. These points are considered in some detail in the concluding discussion of the report. An appendix shows that a higher tensile strength can be obtained by changes in the type of weave used in the glass-cloth reinforcement.

  11. Comparative study of the ballistic performance of glass reinforced plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudev, A.; Mehlman, M.J.

    1987-07-01

    The study consisted of two parts: 1) selection and characterization of E and S-2 Glass woven roving prepregs suitable for thick ballistic laminate fabrication; and 2) comparative evaluation of the ballistic performance of flat composite laminates ranging in thickness from 1.4'' to 1.9'' fabricated with the prepregs. E and S-2 glass woven roving reinforcements were prepregged with polyester, polyester Interpenetrating Network (IPN), vinylester and epoxy resins. A total of 14 different prepregs (2 E glass, 12 S-2 glass) from seven vendors were selected for evaluation. Two types of fiber finishes (epoxy compatible and starch-oil) were chosen to vary the level of surface compatibility (bond strength) with the particular matrix resin chosen. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF PLASTICALLY-INDUCED STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN A Zr-BASED BULK METALLIC GLASS USING POSITRON ANNIHILATION SPECTROCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, K M; Kanungo, B P; Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P

    2005-09-16

    Flow in metallic glasses is associated with stress-induced cooperative rearrangements of small groups of atoms involving the surrounding free volume. Understanding the details of these rearrangements therefore requires knowledge of the amount and distribution of the free volume and how that distribution evolves with deformation. The present study employs positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate the free volume change in Zr{sub 58.5}Cu{sub 15.6}Ni{sub 12.8}Al{sub 10.3}Nb{sub 2.8} bulk metallic glass after inhomogeneous plastic deformation by cold rolling and structural relaxation by annealing. Results indicate that the size distribution of open volume sites is at least bimodal. The size and concentration of the larger group, identified as flow defects, changes with processing. Following initial plastic deformation the size of the flow defects increases, consistent with the free volume theory for flow. Following more extensive deformation, however, the size distribution of the positron traps shifts, with much larger open volume sites forming at the expense of the flow defects. This suggests that a critical strain is required for flow defects to coalesce and form more stable nanovoids, which have been observed elsewhere by high resolution TEM. Although these results suggest the presence of three distinct open volume size groups, further analysis indicates that all groups have the same line shape parameter. This is in contrast to the distinctly different interactions observed in crystalline materials with multiple defect types. This similarity may be due to the disordered structure of the glass and positron affinity to particular atoms surrounding open-volume regions.

  13. Effect of montmorillonite on morphology, glass transition and crystallinity of the xylitol-plasticized bionanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihua; Chaudhary, Deeptangshu

    2013-10-15

    High amylose based nanocomposites plasticized by xylitol were prepared via twin-screw extrusion. The synergistic interaction in the xylitol-plasticized nanocomposite was studied via various characterization methods and the unique behavior of the xylitol-plasticized nanocomposite had been discussed. As revealed in the XRD and TEM results, good intercalated/exfoliated morphology had been achieved in all the nanocomposites. Furthermore, the expansion of nanoclay basal spacing was related to the xylitol/nanoclay ratio. DSC analysis clearly proved the unique crystallization process of xylitol-plasticized samples. Moreover, in the crystallization domain results, two domains sized at approximately 93.7 Å and 346 Å were found. This observation points to a two-level complex effect from two aggregate domains; one, the re-aggregation of certain number of silicate layers into domains which trap some of the amylose polymer chains, and two, the bulk drying process which combines smaller amylose crystalline domains within a larger amorphous high amylose matrix. PMID:23987359

  14. Thermal effects in the shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity: comparisons to metallic glass data.

    PubMed

    Falk, M L; Langer, J S; Pechenik, L

    2004-07-01

    We extend our earlier shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity to include the effects of thermally assisted molecular rearrangements. This version of our theory is a substantial revision and generalization of conventional theories of flow in noncrystalline solids. As in our earlier work, it predicts a dynamic transition between jammed and flowing states at a yield stress. Below that yield stress, it now describes thermally assisted creep. We show that this theory accounts for the experimentally observed strain-rate dependence of the viscosity of metallic glasses, and that it also captures many of the details of the transient stress-strain behavior of those materials during loading. In particular, it explains the apparent onset of superplasticity at sufficiently high stress as a transition between creep at low stresses and plastic flow near the yield stress. We also argue that there are internal inconsistencies in the conventional theories of these deformation processes, and suggest ways in which further experimentation as well as theoretical analysis may lead to better understanding of a broad range of nonequilibrium phenomena. PMID:15324056

  15. A study on the surface severe plastic deformation behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, J.W.; Shaw, L.L.; Wang, Y.D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Liaw, P.K.

    2009-10-14

    A surface treatment process, which can generate the severe plastic deformation in the near-surface layer of crystalline materials, is successfully applied on the Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass (BMG). The experiment is implemented using 20 WC/Co balls with a velocity of about 5 m/s to bombard the surface of the samples in a purified argon atmosphere. The plastic-flow deformation in the unconstrained sample edge was observed, which exhibits the good intrinsic ductility of this material under the experimental condition. In the sub-surface layer, the bombardment-induced shear-band operations generate the extrusion and intrusion marks on the side face. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows that the free volumes of the deformed BMG have increased, and possible crystallization may occur during the process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction techniques were used to inspect the possible crystal phase. A nanoindentation test shows that on the side surface, the hardness increases and, then, decreases with the distance from the processed surface. Four-point-bending-fatigue behavior has been studied and related to the modified surface structure and the compressive residual stress introduced by the surface treatment.

  16. Laser Shock Peening on Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass and Its Effect on Plasticity: Experiment and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C; Withers, Philip J; Dahmen, Karin A; Liaw, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and good wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via the micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three-dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analyses of serrated flows reveal plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. Our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials. PMID:25991412

  17. Laser shock peening on Zr-based bulk metallic glass and its effect on plasticity: Experiment and modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C.; Withers, Philip J.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-20

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and excellent wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via themore » micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analysis of serrated flow reveals plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. As a result, our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.« less

  18. Laser Shock Peening on Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass and Its Effect on Plasticity: Experiment and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C.; Withers, Philip J.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and good wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via the micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three-dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analyses of serrated flows reveal plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. Our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials. PMID:25991412

  19. Laser shock peening on Zr-based bulk metallic glass and its effect on plasticity: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C.; Withers, Philip J.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-20

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and excellent wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via the micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analysis of serrated flow reveals plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. As a result, our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.

  20. Laser Shock Peening on Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass and Its Effect on Plasticity: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C.; Withers, Philip J.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and good wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via the micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three-dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analyses of serrated flows reveal plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. Our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.

  1. Stability of glass versus plastics for transmissive high-power LED optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paßlick, C.; Hellwig, A.; Geyer, U.; Heßling, T.; Hübner, M. C.

    2014-09-01

    In the past, the major part of transmissive LED optics was made from injection molded polymers like PMMA or PC. Recent LED developments now show constantly increasing levels of luminous flux and energy densities, which restrict the usability of such polymer optics due to their limitations in thermal stability. Thermal simulations have shown that light guiding/mixing structures (rods) made from polymer materials can easily reach temperatures above their melting point due to the absorption characteristics. However, there is a great demand for such light rods from the automotive and entertainment industry and thus glass is becoming increasingly important as an optical material. Glass has typical transformation temperatures of hundreds of degrees Celsius and therefore withstands the conditions seen with LED without any problems. Square-shaped glass light guides show temperature advantages over round light rods, which are known for being able to produce caustics inside the material causing absorption and temperature hot spots, respectively. This paper presents some comparative thermal simulations by means of the Finite Element Method for a light conductor as an example and gives corresponding assistance for an appropriate material and light guide shape selection for highpower LED optics.

  2. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  3. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user. PMID:24334847

  4. Infrared thermography inspection of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) wind turbine blades and the concept of an automated scanning device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Maldague, X. P. V.

    2013-05-01

    Infrared thermography techniques have been used for many years in the non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT and E) of materials and structures. The main advantage of thermography over classical NDT techniques resides in the possibility of inspecting large areas in a fast and safe manner without needing to have access to both sides of the component. Nonetheless infrared thermography is limited to the detection of relatively shallow defects (a few millimetres under the surface), since it is affected by 3D heat diffusion. However, the most common types of anomalies found on composites, such as GRP wind turbine blades are delaminations, disbonds, water ingress, node failure and core crushing, and can be effectively detected and sometimes quantified using active thermographic techniques. This research work presents the use of infrared thermography on glass reinforced plastic (GRP) wind turbine blades assessment. Finally, the development of an autonomous, novel and lightweight multi-axis scanning system, as a concept, deploying in situ thermography NDT is also presented, with the intention of developing maximisation of the blade area coverage in a single run, at a known sensitivity, with the utilisation of the minimum number of system degrees of freedom and the maximum repeatability, as well as positional accuracy possible.

  5. Separating and Recycling Plastic, Glass, and Gallium from Waste Solar Cell Modules by Nitrogen Pyrolysis and Vacuum Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-09-01

    Many countries have gained benefits through the solar cells industry due to its high efficiency and nonpolluting power generation associated with solar energy. Accordingly, the market of solar cell modules is expanding rapidly in recent decade. However, how to environmentally friendly and effectively recycle waste solar cell modules is seldom concerned. Based on nitrogen pyrolysis and vacuum decomposition, this work can successfully recycle useful organic components, glass, and gallium from solar cell modules. The results were summarized as follows: (i) nitrogen pyrolysis process can effectively decompose plastic. Organic conversion rate approached 100% in the condition of 773 K, 30 min, and 0.5 L/min N2 flow rate. But, it should be noted that pyrolysis temperature should not exceed 773 K, and harmful products would be increased with the increasing of temperature, such as benzene and its derivatives by GC-MS measurement; (ii) separation principle, products analysis, and optimization of vacuum decomposition were discussed. Gallium can be well recycled under temperature of 1123 K, system pressure of 1 Pa and reaction time of 40 min. This technology is quite significant in accordance with the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Principle" for solid waste, and provides an opportunity for sustainable development of photovoltaic industry. PMID:27501125

  6. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  7. Plasma vitrification and re-use of non-combustible fiber reinforced plastic, gill net and waste glass.

    PubMed

    Chu, J P; Chen, Y T; Mahalingam, T; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, T W

    2006-12-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite material has widespread use in general tank, special chemical tank and body of yacht, etc. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume reduction of non-combustible FRP by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag with specific procedures. In this study, we have employed three main wastes such as, FRP, gill net and waste glass. The thermal molten process was applied to treat vitrified slag at high temperatures whereas in the post-heat treatment vitrified slags were mixed with specific additive and ground into powder form and then heat treated at high temperatures. With a two-stage heat treatment, the treated sample was generated into four crystalline phases, cristobalite, albite, anorthite and wollastonite. Fine and relatively high dense structures with desirable properties were obtained for samples treated by the two-stage heating treatment. Good physical and mechanical properties were achieved after heat treatment, and this study reveals that our results could be comparable with the commercial products. PMID:16839685

  8. Irradiation Effect of 14 MeV Neutron on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, A.; Hishinuma, Y.; Seo, K.; Tanaka, T.; Muroga, T.; Nishijima, S.; Katagiri, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Shindo, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Okuno, K.

    2006-03-31

    Design activity of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor clarifies intense neutron streaming from ports for neutral beam injectors. Energy spectrum of the streaming is very wide and 14 MeV neutron and gamma ray are the typical radiations. Large amount of glass fiber reinforced plastics will be used in a superconducting magnet system as an electric insulation material and a support structure, for such organic material is easy to manufacture, and light and cheap. In this report, effects of 14 MeV neutron and gamma ray irradiation on interlaminar shear strength and fracture mode are investigated using G-10CR small specimen of which configuration was proposed as a standard for evaluation of the interlaminar shear strength. A short beam test under three point bending was conducted at room temperature and 77 K. Neutron fluence of 3.91 x 1019 n/m2 was irradiated and the specimens did not show clear degradation of the strength. On the other hand, gamma ray irradiation of 1 MGy made the specimen weaker and 10 MGy caused delamination. Most of the specimens showed both of interlaminar cracking and bending fracture, but some specimens were fractured with irregular shear occurred on the planes connecting loading point and supporting points.

  9. Sulfamic Acid-Catalyzed Lead Perovskite Formation for Solar Cell Fabrication on Glass or Plastic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunlong; Sato, Wataru; Shoyama, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2016-04-27

    Lead perovskite materials such as methylammonium triiodoplumbate(II) (CH3NH3PbI3, PV) are promising materials for printable solar cell (SC) applications. The preparation of PV involves a series of energetically costly cleavages of the μ-iodo bridges via conversion of a mixture of PbI2 (PI) and methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I, MAI) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into a precursor solution containing a polymeric strip of a plumbate(II) dimer [(MA(+))2(PbI3(-))2·(DMF)2]m, which then produces a perovskite film with loss of DMF upon spin-coating and heating of the substrate. We report here that the PI-to-PV conversion and the PV crystal growth to micrometer size can be accelerated by a small amount of zwitterionic sulfamic acid (NH3SO3, SA) and that sulfamic acid facilitates electron transfer to a neighboring electron-accepting layer in an SC device. As a result, an SC device on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass made of a 320 nm thick PV film using 0.7 wt % SA showed a higher short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor and hence a 22.5% higher power conversion efficiency of 16.02% compared with the device made without SA. The power conversion efficiency value was reproducible (±0.3% for 25 devices), and the device showed very small hysteresis. The device without any encapsulation showed a respectable longevity on a shelf under nitrogen under ambient light. A flexible device similarly fabricated on ITO/poly(ethylene naphthalate) showed an efficiency of 12.4%. PMID:27054265

  10. Bond variability of glass-fiber-reinforcing-plastic reinforcement in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hanus, J.P.

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes an experimental program that investigated the bond variability of glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP) reinforcement in concrete. The variables in the study were manufacturer (Marshall Industries Composites, Incorporated M1 and Corrosion Proof Products/Hughes Brothers M2), bar size (Number 5 and 6), cover (2 and 3 bar diameters), and embedment length (10 through 47 inch). Tensile tests were also performed on the GFRP rebar for comparison to bond tests that exhibited bar failure. Eighty-four inverted half-beam bond specimens were tested while monitoring load, loaded-end slip, free-end slip, cracking, and acoustic emissions on the embedded bar and concrete. Three to six replicate tests were conducted for each set of variables. The results of each test within a series were examined to investigate the relative variability with respect to the failure types. The M1 rebar was observed to rely primarily on mechanical interlock to develop bond strength. This conclusion was based on investigations of the rebar surface condition, bar deformation geometry, slip curves, AE results, crack patterns and forensic investigations. Additionally, the ultimate loads for the bond tests with the Ml rebar were affected by changes in embedment lengths but did not vary for tests with 2 and 3d(b) cover. Overall, the M1 rebar had coefficients of variation (COV) of 14.3 and 8.9% for bond tests that exhibited bar failure and tensile test bar failures, respectively. The bond tests that failed in concrete splitting had COVs from 5.2 to 5.9%.