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Antibacterial activity of selected glass ionomer cements.  


Introduction: The aim of the paper was to determine the antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements against bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Material and methods: Four capsulated glass ionomer cements were applied in the study: Fuji Triage (GC), Fuji IX (GC), Ketac Molar (3M Espe) and Ketac Silver (3M Espe). Four standard bacterial strains were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the studied cements: Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. The bacterial suspension was spread with a cotton swab on TSA plates. For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep) were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. Results: Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain. Discussion: Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation. PMID:24491892

Luczaj-Cepowicz, El?bieta; Marczuk-Kolada, Gra?yna; Zalewska, Anna; Pawi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna



Dispersive surface properties of glass-ionomer cements determined by inverse gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface properties of several glass-ionomer cements (GIC), restorative dental materials, (GC-Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated for the first time by means of inverse gas chromatography. This method enables characterization of surface activity in dispersive (non-polar) and acid-base interactions. The ability of the surface of glass-ionomers to participate in dispersive interactions was expressed by the use of the dispersive component of surface free energy ?sd. This parameter was determined with satisfactory precision, meaning that the values of ?sd can be further used in the discussion of the influence of the type of GIC, its preparation and the storage time on the surface properties. The greatest capacity for dispersive interactions was revealed by Ketac Molar and the lowest by GC-Fuji. Dispersive interactions in the surface activity of glass-ionomers increased with increasing storage time after cement preparation.

Andrzejewska, E.; Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewski, M.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.



Microtensile bond strengths of glass ionomer (polyalkenoate) cements to dentine using four conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the microtensile bond strengths of three glass ionomer cements to dentine (Photac-Fil Quick; Fuji II LC; Fuji IX GP) using four different conditioners (Ketac Conditioner; Dentin Conditioner; Cavity Conditioner; and an experimental conditioner, K-930).Methods: Superficial occlusal dentine of extracted human third molars was exposed, finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper,

M Tanumiharja; M. F Burrow; M. J Tyas



Acid base surface properties of glass-ionomers determined by IGC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe surface properties of several glass-ionomer restorative dental materials (GC Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated by means of inverse gas chromatography. The capacity of the surface of glass-ionomers to undergo specific interactions was expressed using the specific component of free energy ? Gs as well as the parameters KA and KD to describe the ability of the cement to act both as an electron acceptor and an electron donor, respectively. The character of the examined surface was expressed with the use of the SC parameter. All these parameters were determined with a high degree of precision. It was found that the surface of glass-ionomer cements had a well-marked acidic character. The ability of the cement surface to take part in specific interactions differed with the various types of commercial products. The surface activity of the glass-ionomers investigated changed with the storage time (up to 6 months) indicating an on-going setting reaction.

Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewska, E.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.; Andrzejewski, M.



Diametral tensile strength and water sorption of glass-ionomer cements used in Atraumatic Restorative Treatment.  


The purposes of this study were to evaluate the diametral tensile strength and the water sorption of restorative (Fuji IX and Ketac Molar) and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (ProTec Cem, Fuji Plus and Vitremer) mixed at both manufacturer and increased powder: liquid ratio, for their use in the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment. A conventional restorative glass-ionomer (Ketac Fil) was used as control. Specimens (6.0 mm in diameter x 3.0 mm in height) were prepared and stored (1 hour, 1 day and 1 week) for a diametral tensile strength test. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). For the water sorption test, specimens of 15.0 mm in diameter x 0.5 mm in height were prepared and transfered to desiccators until a constant mass was obtained. Then the specimens were immersed in deionized water for 7 days, weighed and reconditioned to a constant mass in desiccators. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Five specimens of each studied material and consistency were prepared for each test. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cements showed significantly higher strength than the conventional materials. Except for ProTec Cem, the diametral tensile strength of the resin-modified materials significantly increased from luting to restorative consistency. Except for ProTec Cem, the water sorption of the resin-modified glass ionomers was higher than the others. The water sorption of resin-modified materials at restorative consistency was significantly lower than at luting consistency. Resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements mixed at increased powder: liquid ratio showed better properties than at luting consistency. PMID:21409320

Cefaly, Daniela Francisca Gigo; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima



Effect of ultrasound on the setting characteristics of glass ionomer cements studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the effect of ultrasound (US) application, US staring time and US duration on the setting of glass ionomer\\u000a cement (GIC) by using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR\\/FTIR) spectrometer. Methods Two conventional GICs, Fuji IX Fast and Ketac Molar were studied. US application was started at 30 s or 40 s after mixing\\u000a and was applied

A. Talal; K. E. Tanner; R. Billington; G. J. Pearson



Fluoride release of glass ionomer restorations after bleaching with two different bleaching materials  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of two bleaching agents on the fluoride release of three types of glass ionomer materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 specimens of the tested materials (Ketac Fil, Photac Fil and F2000) were prepared by a split Teflon ring with an internal diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 2 mm. The tested materials were applied and bleached according to manufacturer instructions. Fluoride release measurements were made by using specific ion electrode. Results: Results revealed that bleaching with opalescence Xtra caused little increase in fluoride release from Ketac Fil and Photac Fil but has no effect on F2000. However, Opalescence Quick had no significant effect on the three tested materials. Conclusions: Bleaching effect on fluoride release is material dependent and time has a significant role on fluoride release.

Baroudi, Kusai; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Tarakji, Bassel



Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting  

PubMed Central

Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n = 30): without heating (Group 1), heated with LED lamp of 1400?mW/cm2 for 30?s while setting (Group 2), and heated with LED lamp of 1400?mW/cm2 for 60?s while setting (Group 3). Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1?mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (? = 0.05). Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400?mW/cm2 during setting for 30?s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30?s and 60?s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

Fabian Molina, Gustavo; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Brain Lascano, Laura; Frencken, Jo E.



Biaxial flexural strength of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements heat-cured with an LED lamp during setting.  


Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n = 30): without heating (Group 1), heated with LED lamp of 1400?mW/cm(2) for 30?s while setting (Group 2), and heated with LED lamp of 1400?mW/cm(2) for 60?s while setting (Group 3). Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1?mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (? = 0.05). Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400?mW/cm(2) during setting for 30?s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30?s and 60?s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times. PMID:23841095

Fabián Molina, Gustavo; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Brain Lascano, Laura; Frencken, Jo E



Evaluation of Adhesive and Compressive Strength of Glass Ionomer Cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands\\u000a of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy. (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II (GC Corporation, Tokyo), Chem Flex\\u000a (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), Glass ionomer FX (Shofu-11, Japan), MR dental (MR dental suppliers Pvt Ltd, England). (B) Ceramometal\\u000a alloy (Ni–Cr:

Ramashanker; Raghuwar D. Singh; Pooran Chand; Sunit Km. Jurel; Shuchi Tripathi


Evaluation of adhesive and compressive strength of glass ionomer cements.  


The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy. (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II (GC Corporation, Tokyo), Chem Flex (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), Glass ionomer FX (Shofu-11, Japan), MR dental (MR dental suppliers Pvt Ltd, England). (B) Ceramometal alloy (Ni-Cr: Wiron 99; Bego, Bremen, Germany). (C) Cold cure acrylic resin. (E) Temperature cum humidity control chamber. (F) Instron Universal Testing Machine. Four different types of Glass ionomer cements were used in the study. From each type of the Glass ionomer cements, 15 specimens for each were made to evaluate the compressive strength and adhesive strength, respectively. The 15 specimens were further divided into three subgroups of five specimens. For compressive strength, specimens were tested at 2, 4 and 12 h by using Instron Universal Testing Machine. To evaluate the adhesive strength, specimens were surface treated with diamond bur, silicone carbide bur and sandblasting and tested under Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was concluded from the study that the compressive strength as well as the adhesive bond strength of MR dental glass ionomer cement with a ceramometal alloy was found to be maximum compare to other glass ionomer cements. Sandblasting surface treatment of ceramometal alloy was found to be comparatively more effective for adhesive bond strength between alloy and glass ionomer cement. PMID:23204729

Ramashanker; Singh, Raghuwar D; Chand, Pooran; Jurel, Sunit Km; Tripathi, Shuchi



Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

Wu, Wei


Evaluating dentin surface treatments for resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials.  


This in vitro study evaluated the effect of six surface treatments on the shear bond strength of three resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) to dentin. Occlusal surfaces of caries-free third molars were reduced to expose only dentin. Surface treatments were smear layer intact (negative control), Cavity Conditioner, EDTA, Ketac Primer, Self Conditioner, and etching with 35% phosphoric acid followed by the application of Optibond Solo Plus. Filtek Z250 composite resin bonded with Optibond Solo Plus served as a positive control. Conditioning agents were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. After surface treatments, Fuji II LC, Riva LC, Ketac Nano, and Filtek Z250 were placed in copper-band matrices 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height and were light-cured for 20 seconds. Specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24 hours, after which they were placed in deionized water for 24 hours at 37°C. They were then tested under shear forces in an Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference statistical analyses (p<0.05) indicated significant interaction between RMGIs and conditioning agents. Acid etching followed by Optibond Solo Plus provided highest bond strengths for all three RMGIs, which were not statistically different from the positive control. PMID:23088188

Imbery, T A; Namboodiri, A; Duncan, A; Amos, R; Best, A M; Moon, P C



Dental composites/glass ionomers: the materials.  


Most commercial dental composites contain liquid dimethacrylate monomers (including BIS-GMA or variations of it) and silica-containing compositions as inorganic reinforcing filler particles coated with methacrylate-functional silane coupling agents to bond the resin to the filler. They also contain initiators, accelerators, photo-initiators, photosensitizers, polymerization inhibitors, and UV absorbers. Durability is a major problem with posterior composites. The typical life-span of posterior composites is from three to 10 years, with large fillings usually fewer than five years. Polymerization shrinkage and inadequate adhesion to cavity walls are remaining problems. Some pulp irritation can occur if deep restorations are not placed over a protective film. Some have advocated the use of glass-ionomer cement as a lining under resin composite restorations in dentin. The concept of glass-ionomer cements (GICs) was introduced to the dental profession in the early 1970's. Current GICs may contain poly(acrylic acid) or a copolymer. Higher-molecular-weight copolymers may also be used to improve the physical properties of some GICs. Stronger and less-brittle hybrid materials have been produced by the addition of water-soluble compatible polymers to form light-curing GIC formulations. The ion-leachable aluminosilicate glass powder, in an aqueous solution of a polymer or copolymer of acrylic acid, is attacked by the hydrated protons of the acid, causing the release of aluminum and calcium ions. Salt bridges are formed, and a gel matrix surrounds the unreacted glass particles. The matrix is adhesive to mineralized tissues. Provisions must be made for maintenance of the water balance of restorations for the first 24 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1292462

Bowen, R L; Marjenhoff, W A



Physicomechanical properties of a zinc-reinforced glass ionomer restorative material.  


We compared a zinc-reinforced glass ionomer restorative material (ChemFil Rock) with three commercially available glass ionomer cements (GICs), namely, Fuji IX GP Extra, Ketac Molar Quick Aplicap, and EQUIA Fil, with respect to fracture toughness, microhardness, roughness, and abrasive wear. Fracture toughness (KIC) was tested according to ISO 13586 (n = 10). Hardness, roughness, and abrasive wear were also tested (n = 9). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test with adjustment for multiple comparisons (? = 0.05). As compared with the other GICs ChemFil Rock exhibited a greater increase in surface roughness (P < 0.05) and lower microhardness (P < 0.01). The wear resistance of ChemFil Rock was comparable to that of the other GICs (P > 0.05). ChemFil Rock had significantly lower fracture toughness as compared with EQUIA Fil (P = 0.01) and significantly higher fracture toughness as compared with the other GICs (P < 0.02). In conclusion, as compared with the three other commercially available GICs, ChemFil Rock had intermediate fracture toughness, the lowest microhardness, and the greatest change in surface roughness. PMID:24739702

Al-Angari, Sarah S; Hara, Anderson T; Chu, Tien-Min; Platt, Jeffrey; Eckert, George; Cook, N Blaine



The effect of strontium oxide in glass–ionomer cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of strontium oxide powder with poly(acrylic acid) has been studied both alone and within glass–ionomer cements. Reaction was found to be slow and the strontium-carboxylate structure was found to be partially covalent in character, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These are similar to the structures formed by calcium in glass–ionomer cements, but are different from

S. Deb; J. W. Nicholson



Microleakage in restorations with glass ionomer liners after thermocycling.  


The purpose of this study was to compare microleakage around two types of restorations lined with polyalkenoate (glass ionomer) cements after thermocycling. Preparations were made in 48 molars to a diameter and depth of 2.0 mm. Half of the preparations were lined with glass ionomer, and the remainder were not lined. Dental amalgam or glass ionomer restorative material was placed and the amalgams were left unburnished and unpolished. Selected restorations were thermocycled 625 times between 4 degrees C and 50 degrees C. Teeth were immersed in 0.5 per cent methylene blue solution, sectioned and visually scored for microleakage at X 100 magnification. Data analysis indicated significant differences in microleakage because of: thermocycling (chi 2 = 103.38, d.f. = 19,2P less than 0.0004); presence of glass ionomer liners (chi 2 = 53.28, d.f. = 19,2P less than 0.0001); and type of restorative material (chi 2 = 103.44,d.f. = 19,2P less than 0.0004). The use of a glass ionomer liner significantly reduced microleakage in both amalgam and glass ionomer restorations when subjected to thermocycling. PMID:2347987

Arcoria, C J; Vitasek, B A; DeWald, J P; Wagner, M J



Glass-ionomer dental restorative: part I: a structural study.  


A structural study of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) dental restoratives has been completed. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction studies indicate domain-like microstructure in a new experimental material, whereas a featureless amorphous gel-like microstructure exists in the conventional GIC. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies were also conducted. The new experimental GIC contains domains of (i) bonelike material (apatite), (ii) mesoporous material and (iii) other framework structures (aluminium phosphate in the high cristobalite structure), with its setting chemistry a restructuring of the aluminosilicate glass around the template of poly(acrylic acid). Conventional glass-ionomer cement may set by a similar but slower process. Leaching properties of glass-ionomer cements are also explained. PMID:15348734

Milne, K A; Calos, N J; O'Donnell, J H; Kennard, C H; Vega, S; Marks, D



Reinforcement of conventional glass-ionomer restorative material with short glass fibers.  


This study investigated the strengthening effect of glass fibers when added to conventional glass-ionomer restorative material. Glass fibers were incorporated into glass-ionomer powder in 3 wt% and 5 wt%. The fibers used had 1 mm length and 10 microm thickness. These criteria of fiber length, diameter, and concentration represent a new approach for reinforcing conventional glass-ionomer [Medifill, conventional restorative glass-ionomer]. The mechanical properties tested were diametral tensile strength, hardness, flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness after 24-h and 7-days of storage in deionized water. Glass short fibers were mixed thoroughly into the glass-ionomer powder before mixing with the cement liquid. Samples of specific dimensions were prepared for each time interval and fiber loading according to the manufacturer's instructions and international standards. Hardness was measured using a micro-hardness tester at 100 gram applied load for 15 s. The other mechanical properties were measured using a Lloyd universal testing machine. The results showed increased diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness by the addition of glass fibers. There was an appreciable increase of the tested mechanical properties of glass-ionomer restorative material as a result of increasing fiber loading and water storage for 1 week. It was concluded that conventional glass-ionomer can be reinforced by the addition of short glass fibers. PMID:19627810

Hammouda, Ibrahim M



Removal of amalgam, glass-ionomer cement and compomer restorations: changes in cavity dimensions and duration of the procedure.  


This study investigated changes in the dimensions of Class II cavities following the removal of amalgam, glass ionomer and compomer restorations. In 30 extracted caries-free human molars, preparation for 60 mesio-occlusal and occluso-distal cavities (two cavities per tooth) occurred. With a CEREC 3 laser triangulation sensor and software-based construction analysis, the dimensions of the cavities at seven defined sites were measured. The cavities were randomized into four groups. Group 1 was restored with Ketac-Fil glass-ionomer cement, Group 2 with amalgam and Group 3 with Compoglass F compomer. In Group 4, Compoglass F was used in combination with photochromic Tetric Flow Chroma as a cavity liner. The completed restorations were then removed using 2x magnification and the cavities were once again controlled using the laser system. The duration of the removal procedure was also recorded. Changes in cavity dimensions (depth, height and width) following removal of the restorations were significantly smaller in Groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 and 4 were characterized by a significant overextension of the cavities compared to Groups 1 and 2 in all three dimensions. Group 4, with Tetric Flow Chroma as a cavity liner, showed better results than Group 3, but this improvement was not statistically significant. The duration of the removal procedure was significantly shorter in Group 2 than in the other groups. PMID:12413228

Szep, Susanne; Baum, C; Alamouti, C; Schmidt, D; Gerhardt, T; Heidemann, D



Tunnel restorations using glass ionomer or glass cermet: in vitro marginal ridge fracture and microleakage.  


The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal ridge fracture resistance and microleakage following restorations of partial tunnel preparations using glass ionomer and glass cermet cements. Sixty eight sound premolars were selected for this study and were divided randomly into six groups. A standardized partial tunnel preparation was done on all the teeth except specimens belonging to Group I. The partial tunnel preparations of Groups III & V were restored with glass ionomer and that of Groups IV & VI were restored with glass cermet. The teeth belonging to Groups I, II, III & IV were subjected to marginal ridge fracture resistance testing. The teeth of Groups V & VI were tested for microleakage after immersing them in 5% methylene blue solution for 4 hours. The results indicated that the teeth restored with glass cermet were marginally better than that with glass ionomer in terms of marginal ridge fracture resistance. Both the materials failed to reinforce the marginal ridge to the level of an intact tooth. The microleakage which occurred around both the materials were statistically insignificant, but on comparison glass ionomer showed better results. Hence, glass ionomer is preferred as a restorative material for partial tunnel preparations because of additional inherent advantages like superior esthetics and fluoride leachability. PMID:9161212

Shetty, R; Munshi, A K



The use of glass ionomer in special needs patients.  


Placement of restorations for patients who are physically or intellectually disabled or mentally ill can pose considerable difficulties for the general practitioner. Access to the oral environment is often limited and patient tolerance and concentration may be reduced to rather brief periods of time. Oral hygiene routines may be less than ideal leading to a high caries rate. Enamel surfaces which do not normally become carious can develop broad but shallow lesions with a poorly defined outline. Selection of the most suitable restorative material will be important, with longevity of the restoration as the prime consideration. Other factors such as access, isolation of the lesion and patient co-operation must also be taken into account. Also, forces acting on restorative materials may be less than usual due to poor occlusion, teeth opposing dentures or being completely unopposed. Restoration by indirect techniques will often not be possible so the choice will be limited to the three plastic restorative materials normally used in restorative dentistry: amalgam, resin composite and glass ionomer. As a result of clinical experience it is suggested that glass ionomer will often be the material of choice. This paper describes five years experience with the resin-modified glass ionomers in an institutional practice which is limited to patients with special needs. Clinical significance Placement of restorations, with a reasonable expectation of longevity, can pose considerable problems for the patient with special needs. Resin-modified glass ionomer is a useful alternative material and has been placed with a high degree of success over a period of five years. PMID:10687236

Gryst, M E; Mount, G J



Glass-ionomer (Polyalkenoate) cements. Part 1. Development, setting reaction, structure and types.  


The unique properties of the glass-ionomer (or polyalkenoate) cement have widened the compass of restorative and preventive dentistry and changed traditional practice methods. Glass-ionomer cements are the reaction product of an aluminosilicate glass and a polyacid, for example poly (acrylic acid). PMID:2518638

Tay, W M; Lynch, E



Review Paper: Role of Aluminum in Glass-ionomer Dental Cements and its Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of aluminum in glass-ionomers and resin-modified glass-ionomers for dentistry is reviewed. Aluminum is included in the glass component of these materials in the form of Al2O3 to confer basicity on the glass and enable the glass to take part in the acid—base setting reactions. Results of studies of these reactions by FTIR and magic-angle spinning (MAS)-NMR spectroscopy are

John W. Nicholson; Beata Czarnecka



In vitro enamel remineralization at orthodontic band margins cemented with glass ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demineralization adjacent to orthodontic bands remains a clinical concern. The release of fluoride from glass ionomer cement has been shown to inhibit demineralization. The purpose of this study was to examine the remineralization effects of a glass ionomer cement adjacent to orthodontic bands. Forty extracted molars were painted with an acid-protective varnish, excluding a 2 × 6 mm window on

Kevin James Donly; Shayne Istre; Todd Istre



The bonding of glass-ionomer cements to dental amalgam.  


Clinicians are frequently confronted with the problem of ditched amalgam restorations. Materials which develop strong bonds to amalgam and tooth substance appear to be suitable for repair of such restorations and eliminate the need for complete replacement. This study evaluated the bond strengths of three glass-ionomer cements to amalgam made from conventional and high copper alloys. It was found that the bond strength values to amalgam were comparable with those to enamel and significantly higher than those to dentine. All bonds to the high copper amalgam failed in a cohesive mode; for the conventional amalgam, failure was either of the adhesive or cohesive type. PMID:2650727

Aboush, Y E; Jenkins, C B



Dissolution behavior and fluoride release from new glass composition used in glass ionomer cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradability in an acidic environment and the release of different ions, such as Na+, Ca2+, Al3+ and F? from a calcium fluoro-aluminosilicate glass (used in glass ionomer cements) during different exposure times at 37°C has been the object of this study. The formation of a leached layer on the surface of the glass has proved to be an important

Jhamak Nourmohammadi; Reza Salarian; Mehran Solati-Hashjin; Fatollah Moztarzadeh



Wear and microhardness of glass-ionomer cements.  


Pin-and-disc wear and Knoop Hardness measurements were made on three commercial glass-ionomer cements having slightly different compositions. The specific objective was to determine whether these cements have potential for use in posterior teeth, and, if not, what modifications in composition and structure would be appropriate to enhance their performance. The specimens were pre-conditioned in air, water, or lactic acid at 37 degrees C for one week prior to being wear-tested. Although differences among the samples were noted, some common trends were observed. From changes in hardness, before and after storage, two opposing trends were observed. One trend involved continued cross-linking and possible dehydration, resulting in a substantial increase in hardness. The other trend involved softening from penetrant liquid absorption and a concomitant decrease in hardness. The wear resistances compared favorably with those for resin-based composites except for the lactic-acid-stored specimens, for which changes in microstructure were revealed by SEM. All specimens were very brittle, and catastrophic failure during wear was frequent. Although our conclusion is that glass-ionomer cements with composition similar to those evaluated here are not acceptable for posterior occlusal application, some compositional changes may enhance their performance in stress-bearing applications. PMID:3476584

McKinney, J E; Antonucci, J M; Rupp, N W



Adhesive properties of modified glass-ionomer cements.  


The incorporation of water-soluble polymers and/or vinyl monomers into glass-ionomer cements can yield toughened "hybrid cement-composites". This study compared a commercial water-hardening glass-ionomer cement and seven experimental hybrids in their bonding to both dentin and Silar composite. The cements were sanded and phosphoric-acid-etched or left with an unaltered matrix-formed surface when adhesion to composite was tested. The seven hybrids included: 15% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with appropriate initiators/activators, 29% HEMA, 27% HEMA + 0.5% polyacrylic acid (PAA), 0.5% PAA, 1.5% PAA, 2.5% polyvinyl alcohol, and 2.5% gelatin. Acceptable bond strengths to applied composite and to dentin were observed for most of the modified hybrid cements. There were higher bond strengths with composite when the hybrids were left unetched. Bonding of some unetched, HEMA-containing cements achieved bond strengths (29% HEMA, 10.09 MPa) significantly higher than those of the unmodified cement (4.92 MPa). Resin-modified cements may promote better bonding by improved interaction and compatibility with the resin component of the composite. PMID:1387853

Rusz, J E; Antonucci, J M; Eichmiller, F; Anderson, M H



Solubility of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.  


Thirty standardized discs were fabricated from a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer -3M) using three different powder/liquid ratios. All specimens were immediately weighed. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva for thirty days. Twice each day the specimens received a 30-min. artificial caries challenge (pH 4.4) and were returned to artificial saliva. At the end of the thirty-day experimental period, the specimens were dried and weighed again. Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated that the 145 mg powder/35 mg liquid ratio had significantly less weight loss than the 145 mg powder/105 mg liquid ratio (p < 0.05). The results appear to demonstrate that solubility decreases as the aluminosilicate glass powder increases. PMID:9795733

Quackenbush, B M; Donly, K J; Croll, T P



Adhesion of different brands of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands\\u000a of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials  (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II - GC Corporation, Tokyo; Chem Flex — Dentsply DeTrey, Germany; Glass ionomer FX — Shofu-11,\\u000a Japan; MR dental — MR Dental Suppliers Pvt. Ltd., England;

Rama Shankar; Arvind Tripathi; Raghuwar D. Singh; Pooran Chand



Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements.  


Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a similar structural role in the glass, allowing for glass degradation and subsequent cement setting, and is reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation. We created zinc-containing GPCs and characterized their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Zinc-containing cements showed adhesion to bone close to 1 MPa, which was significantly greater than that of zinc-free cements (<0.05 MPa) and other currently approved biological adhesives. However, zinc-containing cements produced significantly lower metabolic activity in mouse osteoblasts exposed to cell culture medium conditioned with the cements than controls. Results show that although low levels of zinc may be beneficial to cells, zinc concentrations of 400 µM Zn(2+) or more resulted in cell death. In summary, we demonstrate that while zinc-containing GPCs possess excellent mechanical properties, they fail basic biocompatibility tests, produce an acute cytotoxic response in vitro, which may preclude their use in vivo. PMID:21680957

Brauer, Delia S; Gentleman, Eileen; Farrar, David F; Stevens, Molly M; Hill, Robert G



Fluoride release and bioactivity evaluation of glass ionomer: Forsterite nanocomposite  

PubMed Central

Background: The most important limitation of glass ionomer cements (GICs) is the weak mechanical properties. Our previous research showed that higher mechanical properties could be achieved by addition of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles to ceramic part of GIC. The objective of the present study was to fabricate a glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite and to evaluate the effect of addition of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles on bioactivity and fluoride release behavior of prepared nanocomposite. Materials and Methods: Forsterite nanoparticles were made by sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used in order to phase structure characterization and determination of grain size of Mg2SiO4 nanopowder. Nanocomposite was fabricated via adding 3wt.% of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles to ceramic part of commercial GIC (Fuji II GC). Fluoride ion release and bioactivity of nanocomposite were measured using the artificial saliva and simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. Bioactivity of specimens was investigated by Fourier transitioned-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and registration of the changes in pH of soaking solution at the soaking period. Statistical analysis was carried out by one Way analysis of variance and differences were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: The results of XRD analysis confirmed that nanocrystalline and pure Mg2SiO4 powder was obtained. Fluoride ion release evaluation showed that the values of released fluoride ions from nanocomposite are somewhat less than Fuji II GC. SEM images, pH changes of the SBF and results of the ICP-OES and FTIR tests confirmed the bioactivity of the nanocomposite. Statistical analysis showed that the differences between the results of all groups were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite could be a good candidate for dentistry and orthopedic applications, through of desirable fluoride ion release and bioactivity.

Sayyedan, Fatemeh Sadat; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Doostmohammadi, Ali; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Shirani, Farzaneh



The effect of saliva on surface hardness and water sorption of glass–ionomers and “compomers”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is reported in which commercial dental materials (glass–ionomers, resin-modified glass–ionomer and polyacid-modified composite resins) in the form of discs of dimensions 6 mm diameter×1 mm thickness were prepared and exposed to natural salivas (parotid and unstimulated whole), artificial saliva and water for up to 1 year. Surface hardness was measured at various time intervals, and water sorption characteristics

M. Aliping-McKenzie; R. W. A. Linden; J. W. Nicholson



Microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations with selective enamel etching.  


SUMMARY Aim : Bonding of resin-modified glass ionomers to enamel is an important quality, especially when saliva contamination is inevitable. This study evaluated if microleakage of a resin-modified glass ionomer improves with selective enamel etching, with or without saliva contamination. Methods : Class V cavities with the occlusal margin in enamel and the gingival margin on the root were prepared in extracted human permanent teeth and filled with a resin-modified glass ionomer using an acidic primer according to the manufacturer's recommendation or with an additional selective enamel etching step. Preparations were contaminated with saliva before primer application or before restoration placement (n=10). Restored teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 1000 cycles, stained with basic fuchsin, and sectioned. Microleakage distance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance followed by Duncan post hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. Results : Enamel microleakage was highest when saliva contamination occurred before the placement of resin-modified glass ionomer. Microleakage distances were significantly reduced in the selective etching groups regardless of saliva contamination. However, selective etching of enamel increased microleakage in cementum. The increase in cementum leakage was significantly higher when saliva contamination occurred before restoration placement. Conclusion : Selective etching reduces enamel microleakage of a resin-modified glass ionomer even with saliva contamination, but it may increase microleakage at the cementum. The severity of microleakage is affected by the timing of saliva contamination. PMID:24967989

Ludlow, Sw; Farmer, Sn; Donaldson, Me; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A



Effect of Vital Bleaching on Disintegration Tendency of Glass Ionomer Restorations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study was designed to assess the effect of two bleaching agents on the disintegration tendency of three types of glass ionomers. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 specimens were prepared by using a split Teflon ring with an internal diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. The tested materials were applied and bleached according to manufacturer’s instructions. Dissolution measurements were made by calculating weight loss through different periods of the test; (one week, one month and three months) and they were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results: All glass ionomer materials exhibited a degree of dissolution. Opalescence Xtra increased the dissolution of Photac Fil and F2000 significantly, while Opalescence Quick had no effect on dissolution of glass ionomer restoratives. Conclusion: Bleaching effect on dissolution of glass ionomers is material and time dependant. Care should be taken by clinicians When bleaching teeth that are restored by glass ionomer, because this dissolution may affect the physical properties of these restorations.

Baroudi, Kusai; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Tarakji, Bassel; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran



Effect of vital bleaching on disintegration tendency of glass ionomer restorations.  


Introduction: This study was designed to assess the effect of two bleaching agents on the disintegration tendency of three types of glass ionomers. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 specimens were prepared by using a split Teflon ring with an internal diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. The tested materials were applied and bleached according to manufacturer's instructions. Dissolution measurements were made by calculating weight loss through different periods of the test; (one week, one month and three months) and they were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: All glass ionomer materials exhibited a degree of dissolution. Opalescence Xtra increased the dissolution of Photac Fil and F2000 significantly, while Opalescence Quick had no effect on dissolution of glass ionomer restoratives. Conclusion: Bleaching effect on dissolution of glass ionomers is material and time dependant. Care should be taken by clinicians When bleaching teeth that are restored by glass ionomer, because this dissolution may affect the physical properties of these restorations. PMID:24701538

Baroudi, Kusai; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Tarakji, Bassel; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran



Stoichiometry of the leaching process of fluoride-containing aluminosilicate glass-ionomer glasses.  


Dental glass-ionomer cements (GIC) set by an acid-base reaction between a polyalkenoic acid and an ion-leachable glass. The exact relationship between the glass composition and the setting and final properties of GIC is not yet fully elucidated. As part of a systematic study of this relationship, we studied the leaching stoichiometry of glasses used in commercial formulations to correlate the glass composition with its leaching properties. The leaching experiments were performed in acetic acid solutions at pH = 3.4 by means of a pH-stat method. After predetermined time intervals, the suspension was filtered and the filtrate was analyzed for the glass constituents. The usefulness of the pH-stat method for the determination of glass reactivity was corroborated. The deviation of the leaching stoichiometry with respect to the pure glass stoichiometry decreased with increasing relative content of mono- and bivalent glass network dwellers and modifiers. Indications were found that the latter can be leached out independently and preferentially, while the leaching of network dwellers is coupled with the aluminum release. The F content as well as the reactivity of the glass affect the amount of fluoride available for release from a set GIC. It could be concluded that the leaching stoichiometry of GIC glasses can be correlated with their absolute and relative composition. PMID:10403458

De Maeyer, E A; Verbeeck, R M; Vercruysse, C W



Dentin Surface Treatment and Bond Strength of Glass Ionomers. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated the effect of dentin surface treatment on shear bond strengths of two visible light activated glass ionomer restorative materials to dentin. Cylinders of Fuji II LC and VariGlass VLC were bonded to dentin surfaces that were untreated,...

D. G. Charlton C. W. Haveman



A comparison of a hybrid light-cured glass-ionomer base and liner vs. a light-cured resin tooth fragment attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

parable strengths when fragments were meshed to- gether and luted by resin, with or without mechani- cal tooth preparations. More recently, reports involving successful fragment reattachment with glass ionomer have appeared. 5 Glass ionomer is recom- mended in many situations because of its dentin-bond- ing, fluoride-releasing, and decreased microleakage properties. 6 Bond strengths of tooth fragments reattached by glass ionomer

Jeffrey A. Dean; Anthony L. Minutilio; B. Keith Moore



In vitro investigation of aluminum and fluoride release from compomers, conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements: a standardized approach.  


The amount of fluoride release from dental cements necessary for an anticariogenic effect is not established: moreover, the possible toxic effects due to high fluoride and aluminum release are not well known and the results are still controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al) release from dental cements using a 'standardized approach' according to the end-use of the materials, i.e. biocompatibility testing. Two polyacid-modified resin composites of recent application, commonly called compomers (Dyract and Dyract Cem), were compared with two conventional acid-based (Fuji I, Ketac-Cem) and two resin-modified (Vitremer, Vitrebond) glass-ionomer cements (GICs). All types of cement are used in dentistry and are commercially available. Extracts of the cements into minimum essential medium, after setting over a 1-h (group A) and 1-week (group B) period, were performed. The extraction conditions were rigorously standardized. Mean values +/- standard deviation of F- and Al-levels in such extracts were measured and were expressed as microg g(-1) (micrograms of ions per gram of cement). A great difference in the amount of ion release, both F and Al, was shown among the tested materials. The GICs, as well as Ketac-Cem, released more F and Al than the compomers. All of the materials released the greatest proportion of ions when the extraction was performed in the first hour after mixing (group A). Al- and F-values showed a highly significant positive correlation, independently from the curing time. We conclude that the biological assessment of dental cements can be performed only if a pre-evaluation of the leachables is obtained by applying a standardized protocol which allows a useful comparison between the different materials. PMID:10841280

Savarino, L; Cervellati, M; Stea, S; Cavedagna, D; Donati, M E; Pizzoferrato, A; Visentin, M



Biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements (GICs) with and without chlorhexidine (CHX) as well as coated with varnish or not using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Materials and Methods: Biocompatibility of Fuji IX, Fuji IX with varnish, Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate and Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate with varnish was determined with in vitro cytotoxicity assay by using L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblasts. After 72 h, cell viabilities were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay to determine the effects of the cements on the mitochondrial function and microscopic images were taken by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. 72 h after treatment, there were statistically significant differences between Fuji IX and Fuji IX-CHX (P < 0.001). In addition, the reduction of the cytotoxicity by coating the GICs with varnish was indicative and increased the cell viability ratio (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Fuji IX coated with varnish was found to be the most biocompatible one among others. Thus adding CHX significantly reduced the cell viability, it is assumed that, due to the leakage of CHX and the other components of the GICs to the cell culture medium, the cell viabilities were decreased, so it is highly recommended to use varnish not only to reduce the water loss from the GICs, but also to reduce the cytotoxicity of the GICs.

Iz, Sultan Gulce; Ertugrul, Fahinur; Eden, Ece; Gurhan, S. Ismet Deliloglu



Resin-modified glass ionomer cements for bonding orthodontic retainers.  


The aims of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS), fracture mode, and wire pull out (WPO) resistance between resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and conventional orthodontic composite used as a lingual retainer adhesive. Forty lower human incisors were randomly divided into two equal groups. To determine the SBS, either Transbond-LR or Fuji Ortho-LC was applied to the lingual surface of the teeth by packing the material into cylindrical plastic matrices with an internal diameter of 2.34 mm and a height of 3 mm (Ultradent) to simulate the lingual retainer bonding area. To test WPO resistance, 20 samples were prepared for each composite where the wire was embedded in the composite material and cured, 20 seconds for Transbond-LR and 40 seconds for Fuji Ortho-LC. The ends of the wire were then drawn up and tensile stress was applied until failure of the resin. A Student's t-test for independent variables was used to compare the SBS and WPO data. Fracture modes were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Significance was determined at P < 0.05. The SBS values were 24.7 +/- 9.2 and 10.2 +/- 5.5 MPa and the mean WPO values 19.8 +/- 4.6 and 11.1 +/- 5.7 N for Transbond-LR and Fuji Ortho-LC, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the SBS and WPO values of Transbond-LR and Fuji Ortho-LC were significantly different (P < 0.001). No significant differences were present among the groups in terms of fracture mode. However, the RMGIC resulted in a significant decrease in SBS and WPO; it produced sufficient SBS values on the etched enamel surfaces, when used as a bonded orthodontic retainer adhesive. PMID:19793779

Baysal, Asli; Uysal, Tancan



Materials for restoration of primary teeth: I. Conventional materials and early glass ionomers.  


This paper demonstrates how the treatment of primary dentition may present the clinician with increased difficulties compared with the preparation and placement of restorations in adult dentition. Established dental materials (dental amalgam and conventional glass ionomer cements) and less well established alternative materials (copper cements) are reviewed. The use of amalgam to restore primary dentition is the subject of concern amongst the dental profession in terms of lack of adhesion and potential toxicity concerns, while the low tensile strength of traditional glass ionomer cements make them less suitable for the restoration of primary dentition. PMID:11862849

Fleming, G J; Burke, F J; Watson, D J; Owen, F J



Bioactive glass-ionomer cement with potential therapeutic function to dentin capping mineralization.  


We have developed a novel bioactive resin-modified glass-ionomer cement system with therapeutic function to dentin capping mineralization. In the system, the newly synthesized star-shape poly(acrylic acid) was formulated with water, Fuji II LC filler, and bioactive glass S53P4 to form resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Compressive strength (CS) was used as a screening tool for evaluation. The commercial glass-ionomer cement Fuji II LC was used as a control. All the specimens were conditioned in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C prior to testing. The effect of aging in SBF on CS and microhardness of the cements was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the in vitro dentin surface changes caused by the incorporation of bioactive glass. The results show that the system not only provided strengths comparable to original commercial Fuji II LC cement but also allowed the cement to help mineralize the dentin in the presence of SBF. It appears that this bioactive glass-ionomer cement system has direct therapeutic impact on dental restorations that require root surface fillings. PMID:18821992

Xie, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Weng, Yiming; Park, Jong-Gu; Jiang, Hui; Platt, Jeffrey A



The glass polyphosphonate cement: a novel glass-ionomer cement based on poly(vinyl phosphonic acid).  


This paper outlines research which aimed to develop a new type of Glass-ionomer cement, the glass polyphosphonate cement. The glass polyalkenoate cement, a form of Glass-ionomer cement, is now widely used in dentistry and is based on the reaction between an ion-leachable aluminosilicate glass and an aqueous solution of poly(acrylic acid) or its copolymers. The new cements described in this paper employ a novel polymer, poly(vinyl phosphonic acid), PVPA, as the acidic component. This is a much stronger acid than those used in the glass polyalkenoate cement, and various means must be employed to moderate the reaction in order to obtain a viable cement. These cements show a number of important differences in performance in comparison with PAA-based systems and these differences are discussed in the paper. PMID:10149147

Ellis, J; Anstice, M; Wilson, A D



Effects of polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements on stainless steel crown retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retentive properties of three dental cements were tested using stainless steel crowns Fitted to extracted third molar teeth. No significant difference was Found between the overall mean retentive Forces of the polycarboxylate cement and the two glass ionomer cements. Mechanical retention of the crowns was not a Factor in the overall retentive value.

David P. Noffsinger; Joseph R. Jedrychowski; Angelo A. Caputo



In vitro study of resin-modified glass ionomer cements for cementation of orthodontic bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate different light-cured and chemically cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements used for the cementation of orthodontic bands and to analyze various factors influencing the adhesive strength between enamel, cement and stainless steel.

Saskia M. Liebmann; Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann



Influence of the Retention of Antiseptic Solution Dyes on the Translucence of Glass-Ionomer Cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the great importance that antiseptic solutions have on the control and prevention of oral diseases and their influence on the translucence of esthetic restorative materials, the present study evaluated the effect of antiseptic solutions on the translucence of two glass-ionomer cements, Vidrion R and Chelon Fil, at eight time periods. Four antiseptic solutions were used: Listerine, Malvona, Flogoral

Alma Blásida; Elizaur CATIRSE


Effects of dentin surface treatments on shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) to dentin. Materials and methods 80 bovine permanent incisors were used. 40 cylindrical specimens of a GIC (Fuji IX GP Extra) and 40 cylindrical specimens of a RMGIC (Fuji II LC) were attached to the dentin. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 8 groups of equal size (n=10), 4 for every type of glass-ionomer cement, corresponding to type of dentin surface treatments. Group 1: GC Cavity Conditioner; Group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel; Group 3: Clearfil SE Bond; Group 4: no dentin conditioning (control). The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Model 3343, Instron Corp., Canton, Mass., USA) and subsequently tested for shear bond strength (MPa). Results ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups. Post hoc Tukey test showed different values of shear bond strength for Fuji IX GP Extra and for Fuji II LC. The different conditioners variably influence the adhesion of the glass-ionomer cements tested. Conclusions. RMGIC shear bond to dentin was higher than GIC. The use of a Self-etch adhesive system improved the shear bond strength values of RMGIC and lowered the shear bond strength values of GIC significantly.

Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Lombardini, Marco



A three-year clinical trial using a glass ionomer cement for the bonding of orthodontic brackets.  


Recent clinical studies measuring orthodontic bracket failure, when using glass ionomer cement as an adhesive, have reported a wide range of percentages of bracket failure. The present study recorded bracket failure over a 3-year period, longer than had been previously measured. Seventeen participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, either using glass ionomer cement or composite resin for bonding. In each group, brackets were bonded to incisors, canines, and premolars. Bracket failure was measured over the duration of comprehensive orthodontic treatment for all participants. Brackets bonded with the glass ionomer cement were more likely to fail (log-rank test; P < or = 0.022). This difference was clinically significant. At the present time, the disadvantage of extra bracket failures appears to outweigh potential advantages when considering glass ionomer cement for the routine bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:8863967

Miller, J R; Mancl, L; Arbuckle, G; Baldwin, J; Phillips, R W



In vitro wear of Ionofil Molar AC quick glass-ionomer cement.  


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-body wear-resistance of one type of restorative glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: Specimen including conventional GIC (Ionofil Molar AC Quick: IMACQ), hybrid ionomer (Fuji II LC), and composite resin (Heliomolar) were tested in a wearing machine. In this machine, a 6?kg load was applied via pressable chromium-cobalt bar at 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, 80,000, 120,000 cycles. Specimen weight was measured by an electronical weight balance before and after each cycle. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a t-test, and a paired t-test at P?0.05. Results: The highest weight loss has been found in Fuji II LC, then in GIC IMACQ and the least wear rate has been reported in heliomolar composite in all cycles except 120,000 cycles. In 120,000 cycles, the highest weight loss was seen in GIC IMACQ, then Fuji II LC, and finally heliomolar composite. There was a statistically significant difference in weight loss between GIC IMACQ and heliomolar composite (P=0/001). Conclusion: The wear rate of GIC IMACQ was between those of heliomolar composite and Fuji II LC glass ionomer in all cycles except 120,000 cycles. The most important advantage of this new-generation glass ionomer is its good manipulability and also high wear-resistance compared to the hybrid ionomer. Therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as restorative material in class I restorations in primary teeth. PMID:22406725

Abesi, Farida; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Sadati, Javad; Kheirollahi, Hossein



Effect of Hygroscopic Expansion on the Push-Out Resistance of Glass Ionomer-Based Cements Used for the Luting of Glass Fiber Posts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer (GIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) luting cements to the push-out resistance of fiber posts. Glass fiber posts were luted to post spaces using different cements. Experimental specimens were stored in water, while control specimens were desiccated and stored in mineral oil to eliminate water from intraradicular dentinal tubules and\\/or

Álvaro H. Cury; Cecilia Goracci; Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro; Ricardo M. Carvalho; Fernanda T. Sadek; Franklin R. Tay; Marco Ferrari



A clinical comparison of glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer and resin composite restorations in the treatment of cervical caries in xerostomic head and neck radiation patients.  


Controversy exists as to whether there is less secondary caries at the margins of glass ionomer restorations compared with other materials that do not release fluoride. This study examined the incidence of secondary caries for three types of restorative materials in Class V restorations in xerostomic patients. The study group consisted of 45 high caries-risk adult patients who had undergone head and neck irradiation for the treatment of cancer. All were substantially xerostomic and in need of at least three restorations in the same arch. Every patient received a restoration with each of the test materials, a conventional glass ionomer (GI), a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and a resin composite (C). Patients were instructed in the daily use of a neutral pH sodium fluoride gel in custom trays. Recall appointments were made at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and the restorations were examined for material loss, marginal integrity and recurrent caries at the restoration margin. Fluoride compliance was determined at each recall period and recorded as the percentage of recommended use during that interval. Patients were categorized at the end of the study as fluoride non-users if their average compliance was 50% or less. Those with greater than 50% compliance were categorized as fluoride users. In the latter group, no recurrent caries was found for any of the restorations, whereas a material-dependent incidence of recurrent caries was found in the fluoride non-user group. None of the GI, one RMGI and eight C restorations failed due to recurrent caries. For the fluoride non-user patients, Fishers exact test (p=0.05) showed no statistical difference between GI and RMGI but statistical differences were found among those materials and resin composite at each recall period. Recurrent caries reductions for GI and RMGI relative to C were greater than 80% in xerostomic patients not using topical fluoride supplementation. PMID:12216559

McComb, D; Erickson, R L; Maxymiw, W G; Wood, R E



Fuji III vs. Fuji VII glass ionomer sealants--a clinical study.  


Glass ionomer cements possess several properties that support their consideration in a wide variety of clinical applications including Pit and fissure sealants. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate Fuji III and Fuji VII glass ionomer sealants in terms of retention, caries incidence and salivary fluoride release between two groups of children aged 6 and-8 years respectively. One hundred and ten first permanent molars were sealed and the clinical evaluation showed no incidence of caries. There was partial or complete retention of the sealant in 80% of the treated teeth in both groups at the one-year evaluation. Irrespective of the sealant used, the pattern of fluoride release remained consistent, with an initial high fluoride release followed by low prolonged leakage before returning to baseline value at the end of one year. PMID:19093648

Kamala, B K; Hegde, Amitha M



Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Role of Tartaric Acid in Glass-ionomer Dental Cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

(+) - Tartaric acid is incorporated into glass-ionomer dental cements to control the setting characteristics. FTIR has been used to examine the cements as they set, and has confirmed previous results that (+)-tartaric acid reacts more readily with the glass than does poly(acrylic acid), thereby delaying the setting of the cement. Subsequently, ions released by the glass become available for

J. W. Nicholson; P. J. Brookman; O. M. Lacy; A. D. Wilson



Failure of resin-modified glass-ionomers subjected to shear loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of bond failure of resin-modified glass-ionomers is unknown. This study examined the failure on shear loading at the dentine interface of these materials. Twenty-five teeth (embedded in acrylic blocks) were sectioned longitudinally to expose a flat dentine surface. Cylinders of materials were made by injecting into a tube placed on the dentine of each section surface. The materials

S. K. Sidhu; M. Sherriff; T. F. Watson



Bone-like apatite layer formation on the new resin-modified glass-ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the apatite-forming ability of the new resin-modified glass-ionomer cement was evaluated by soaking the cement\\u000a in the simulated body fluid. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the\\u000a soaked cement pointed to the creation of poorly crystalline carbonated apatite. It was found that the releasing of calcium\\u000a ions from the soaked cement

Jhamak Nourmohammadi; S. K. Sadrnezhaad; A. Behnam Ghader



Clinical performance of reinforced glass ionomer restorations placed in UK dental practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To retrospectively evaluate the performance of reinforced glass ionomer restorations placed in load-bearing surfaces of posterior teeth in three UK general dental practices.Methods Inclusion criteria for the participating practitioners were that they would be able to find, in their regularly attending patients' mouths, a minimum of 30 Fuji IX restorations placed in load-bearing cavities in posterior teeth. The three

C. Siddons; S. Phipps; J. Bardha; R. J. Crisp; B. Dopheide; F. J. T. Burke



Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Objective. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. Methods. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive control. Results. Each of the tested materials significantly reduced the number of initially adhered CFUs; this reduction was even more pronounced after prior incubation in saliva. Antimicrobial effects on adherent bacteria were confirmed by live-dead staining. Conclusion. All five luting cements showed an antimicrobial potential which was increased by prior incubation with human saliva, suggesting an enhanced effect in vivo.

Altenburger, Markus; Spitzmuller, Bettina; Anderson, Annette; Hellwig, Elmar



Development of a novel aluminum-free glass ionomer cement based on magnesium/strontium-silicate glasses.  


The effects of strontium substitution for magnesium in a novel aluminum-free multicomponent glass composition for glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. A series of glass compositions were prepared based on SiO2-P2O5-CaO-ZnO-MgO(1-X)-SrOX-CaF2 (X=0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). The mechanical properties of GICs prepared were characterized by compressive strength, flexural strength, flexural modules, and microhardness. Cell proliferation was evaluated indirectly by CCK-8 assay using various dilutions of the cement and rat mesenchyme stem cells. Incorporation of strontium instead of magnesium in the glasses has a significant influence on setting time of the cements and the properties. All mechanical properties of the GICs with SrO substitution at X=0.25 were significantly increased, then gradually decreased with further increase of the amount of strontium substitution in the glass. The GIC at X=0.25, also, showed an improved cell viability at low doses of the cement extracts in comparison with other groups or control without extracts. The results of this study demonstrate that the glass compositions with strontium substitution at low levels can be successfully used to prepare aluminum-free glass ionomer cements for repair and regeneration of hard tissues. PMID:25063167

Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany A; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Gyu-Ri; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung



A study of glass-ionomer cement and its interface with enamel and dentin using a low-temperature, high-resolution scanning electron microscopic technique.  


This report describes a method of immobilizing the water contained in glass-ionomer cement and dental hard tissues and stabilizing the delicate organic component of dentin. With this method, the intact interface between glass-ionomer and dental hard tissues can be observed under scanning electron microscope with few of the artifacts that are caused by the desiccation associated with conventional scanning electron microscopic studies. There was a distinct zone of interaction between the glass-ionomer cement and enamel and dentin. Under severe thermal stress, glass-ionomer cement failed cohesively, leaving an intact interface with enamel and dentin. Machine-mixed glass-ionomer cements displayed a high level of porosity. Some glass particles were separated from the matrix, and there was evidence that some are dislodged from the matrix during specimen preparation. PMID:10332357

Ngo, H; Mount, G J; Peters, M C



Marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage and pulpal response to glass ionomer/glass cermet partial tunnel restorations.  


Sixty sound premolars which were to be extracted for orthodontic treatment purposes were restored either with glass ionomer cement or glass cermet cements after partial tunnel preparation, and prior to the extraction after a time interval of 30 and 60 days respectively. The teeth were then subjected to marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage study using dye penetration and histological evaluation of the pulpal response to these materials. Both the materials exhibited increase in marginal ridge fracture resistance at 60 days, with minimal degree of microleakage and were biologically compatible with the dental pulp. PMID:9484134

Prabhu, N T; Munshi, A K; Shetty, T R



Surgical management of invasive cervical resorption using resin-modified glass ionomer cement.  


Invasive cervical resorption is an external resorption that begins below the epithelial attachment. It is caused primarily by dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, or dental bleaching. This case report involved an invasive Class III cervical resorption resulting from trauma to the superior right central incisor. Root canal treatment was followed by surgical intervention. The resorptive defect was debrided, and part of the tooth was restored with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Postoperative follow-up revealed complete healing and healthy gingival attachment. PMID:24192742

Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Lopes, Renata Carvalho Portes; Oliveira, Ricardo Reis; Souza, Rodrigo Goncalves de; Henriques, Luiz Carlos Feitosa; Ribeiro-Sobrinho, Antonio Paulino



ART restorations and glass ionomer sealants in Zimbabwe: survival after 3 years.  


Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) consists of removing demineralised tooth tissues with hand instruments only, restoring the prepared cavity and sealing the adjacent pits and fissures with an adhesive filling material. This relatively painless, no-handpiece, minimal intervention approach to controlling dental caries is described. ART was applied in an oral health care programme in Zimbabwe that was carried out amongst secondary school students from 1994 to 1997. A new glass ionomer (Fuji IX) was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed in high caries risk students using the 'press-finger' technique. A total of 297 one-surface ART restorations and 95 glass ionomer sealants were placed in 142 and 66 students, respectively. After 3 years, the lost-to-follow-up percentages for one-surface ART restorations and glass ionomer sealants were 30.6% and 30.5%, respectively. Actuarial (life table) analysis resulted in 3-year survival rates of one-surface ART restorations of 88.3% (95% CI: 92.4%-84.2%), ranging from 94.3% to 65.4% per operator. A total of 28 ART restorations placed in 25 students failed. Reasons for failure related to the material and the operator (11 restorations or 5.3% each), and to caries adjacent to the restoration (one restoration or 0.5%). Reasons for failure were not recorded for five restorations (2.3%). Sealants were placed on surfaces diagnosed as early enamel lesions. After 3 years, 71.4% (95% CI: 81.7%-61.1%) of the fully and partially retained sealants survived with a range of 100% to 55.6% per operator. Of the sealed surfaces 96.3% (95% CI: 100%-92.2%) survived 3 years without developing caries. Experienced operators placed better ART restorations than inexperienced operators. This study has demonstrated that ART with a glass ionomer restorative material and sealants provided high quality preventive and restorative dental care to this student population. ART has become one of the treatment modalities available to oral health workers in managing dental caries. PMID:9870536

Frencken, J E; Makoni, F; Sithole, W D



Wear and microhardness of a silver-sintered glass-ionomer cement.  


Knoop Hardness and pin-and-disc-wear measurements were made on a commercial silver-sintered glass-ionomer cement. The objective was to determine whether the incorporation of a bonded-metal-to-glass filler would enhance durability as determined by the above measurements. As with the previous work on conventional (non-metalized) glass-ionomer cements, the specimens were preconditioned at 37 degrees C in air, water, 0.02 mol/L lactic acid (pH 2.67), and heptane. The influence of these media on the microhardness of the silver-sintered material was about the same as that on the conventional materials. Storing in air produced dehydration, which increased the hardness considerably. Heptane storage increased the hardness less, but this increase is attributed to continued curing during storage. After storage in water, the hardness was essentially unchanged; the influence of increased cure is believed to be offset by softening or plasticization from water uptake. Lactic acid produced a decrease in hardness from chemical dissolution as seen from the SEM observations. In most cases, in particular for the air-stored specimens, the wear resistance was enhanced markedly over that of the conventional materials evaluated previously. The exception was the lactic acid-stored specimens for which little, or no, improvement was observed during early periods of wear. The incorporation of silver appeared to provide lubrication, thus reducing wear. However, catastrophic failure from brittle fracture was still a problem, but its occurrence was less frequent. PMID:2966819

McKinney, J E; Antonucci, J M; Rupp, N W



The effect of maturation on in-vitro erosion of glass-ionomer and other dental cements.  


The clinical durability of restorations made using water-based materials depends upon the type of material used. Current specification tests cannot predict durability, possibly because these are carried out on samples matured for 24 hours whereas longer maturation times may be more relevant. The lactic acid jet test was selected as a test method, being believed capable of ranking materials in the same order of erosion resistance in vitro as found in vivo. The powder/liquid interaction (glass or zinc oxide with polymeric or phosphoric acid) was investigated by selecting glass-ionomer, zinc polycarboxylate, silicate and zinc phosphate cements, with emphasis placed on glass ionomers. Two test times, 24 hours and 2 months, were chosen, with eight samples for each material tested at each time. All glass ionomers showed a significant reduction in erosion rate with time; two zinc polycarboxylates also showed some reduction but not to a significant degree. The silicate and zinc phosphate cements increased in erosion rate but not significantly. It was concluded that materials using polymeric acids had erosion rates which reduced with time, significantly so for glass ionomers. This might explain their longevity over silicate cements. PMID:1467010

Williams, J A; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J


Resin-modified glass ionomer restorations in primary molars: a comparison of three in vitro procedures.  


In recent years, interest in the use of glass ionomer cements as a restorative material has been increased. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage of a glass ionomer restorative material (Vitremer TM) in Class V cavities of primary molars using three different application procedures. The experimental material consisted of 24 freshly extracted human primary molars in which a standardized class V cavities were prepared and restored with Vitremer utilizing three different application procedures (Vitremer with conditioner, with conditioner and primer or with primer). Teeth were covered with green stick compound and nail polish except approximately 1 mm from the class V cavities margins. Later, teeth were immersed in 5% methylene blue for 4 hours, rinsed with water and embedded in acrylic resin. The marginal microleakage was assessed according to the degree of dye penetration of the occlusal and cervical margins. The results showed no significant difference between the three different application procedures. However, the occlusal margin microleakage was significantly higher than the cervical margin (P = 0.0079). It was concluded that using different application procedures of Vitremer, including the recommendations of the manufacturer does not affect microleakage of class V cavities in primary molars. PMID:9161211

al-Obaidi, F F; Salama, F S



Effect of home-use fluoride gels on glass ionomer and composite restorations.  


The effect of home-use topical fluorides on the surface integrity of two glass ionomers and a composite was studied using SEM. Class V cavities prepared in extracted teeth were restored with two commercial glass ionomers and a composite. Teeth were randomly divided into groups and each group treated for 24 h with one of the following fluoride gels: acidulated phosphate fluoride (pH5), stannous fluoride (pH4.5), sodium fluoride (pH7), and a non-proprietary sodium fluoride (pH5.8). Surface degradation of the restorations was studied using SEM, rated according to specific criteria, and statistically analyzed by the Wilcoxon test (Rank Sums). It was found that the APF and the non-proprietary gel had a significant effect on both Gl matrix and particles and on the composite particles (p < 0.01). The neutral sodium fluoride had no significant effect on the materials (p > 0.01). PMID:8299874

el-Badrawy, W A; McComb, D; Wood, R E



Etching conditions for resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic brackets.  


This study reports the tensile bond strength of orthodontic eyelets (RMO, Inc, Denver, Colo) bonded to human extracted teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill) and various acid etchants (Etch-37 and All-Etch, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill; Ultra Etch, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for enamel preparation before bonding. The enamel etch conditions were as follows: 37% phosphoric acid with silica; 37% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% polyacrylic acid; and unetched enamel. Bond strength was measured by pulling in tension on the eyelet with a 0.018-in steel wire perpendicular to the enamel surface with a testing machine (Instron model 1125, Canton, Mass) at a speed of 2 mm/min. A light-cured resin cement (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) applied to enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid containing silica served as a control. Each group included 30 specimens. The Weibull distribution (m) was used for statistical analysis with a 90% CI. The different etchants used with RMGIC did not affect tensile bond strength. The resin cement group had the highest tensile strength. Significantly lower bond strengths were observed when glass ionomer cement was used to bond orthodontic attachments to nonetched teeth. However, unlike resin cement, RMGIC can bond effectively to etched teeth in a moist environment without an additional bonding agent. PMID:12045770

Valente, Rudolfo M; De Rijk, Waldemar G; Drummond, James L; Evans, Carla A



SEM observations of the reactions of the components of a light-activated glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cement on bovine dentine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Glass ionomer cements are used in clinical dentistry as lining, luting and restorative materials. The precise nature of their bonding mechanism to dentine is unclear. This study is an SEM examination of the effect of the liquid contained in Vitrebond cement (3M Co., MN) on the surface of bovine dentine, with respect to delays in photocuring and washing off

K. C. Titley; D. C. Smith; R. Chernecky



[An in-vitro study on improving the bonding strength of steel bands with the use of glass ionomer cements].  


An in-vitro investigation was carried out with the aim of improving bond strength at the glass-ionomer cement/stainless steel interface, thus reducing loosening rates. In bovine incisors it had previously been shown that the week point is the glass-ionomer cement/stainless steel, rather than the enamel/glass-ionomer cement interface. In a simple, standardized experimental set-up permitting reproducible measurements, the semi-flexible and irregularly shaped orthodontic bands were replaced by solid stainless steel cylinders made of the same alloy, and both shear and tensile bond strength were measured. Using this set-up, five different types of surface preparation were compared in terms of their bond strength. The highest bond strength was found to be associated with a steel surface sandblasted with coarse aluminium oxide. In further experiments, the devices provided by the manufacturer for dosing powder and liquid were found to be quite inaccurate. This is particularly unfortunate, since the bonding properties of the glass-ionomer cement investigated proved to vary significantly with small variations in the powder:liquid ratio. To reduce the rate of loosening of orthodontic bands, the cement should be mixed at refrigerator temperature, using capsules filled by the manufacturer with the optimal dosages, and then used with bands previously sandblasted with coarse aluminium oxide powder. PMID:8375785

Jost-Brinkmann, P G; Miethke, R R; Appenzeller, A H



Characterization of the kinetic behavior of resin modified Glass-ionomer cements by DSC, TMA and ultrasonic wave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the isothermal kinetic behavior of two resin modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIC) and a dental composite have been compared by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). The simultaneous evolution of the multiple reactions occurring in RMGIC has been analyzed not only by DSC and TMA but also by ultrasonic wave propagation using the pulse-echo technique.

F. Micelli; A. Maffezzoli; R. Terzi; V. A. M. Luprano



Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and composite resin when repairing large furcal perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the sealing ability of different repair materials and the pathway of bacterial penetration after closure of large pulp chamber floor perforations. Materials and methods Perforations were made in the furcation area of extracted human molars and sealed with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), glass ionomer cement or resin composite. The bacterial leakage method was used with Enterococcus

M. Kleivmyr; E. Bruzell; D. Ørstavik; G. Lodiene



Effects of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) containing polyelectrolytes on surface properties of conventional glass-ionomer cements (GIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that polyacids containing an N-vinylpyrrolidinone (NVP) comonomer produces a glass inomer cement with improved mechanical and handling properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NVP modified polyelectrolytes on the surface properties and shear bond strength to dentin of glass ionomer cements.Poly(acrylic acid (AA)-co-itaconic acid (IA)-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) was synthesized by free radical polymerization.

Alireza Moshaverinia; Nima Roohpour; Sahar Ansari; Maryam Moshaverinia; Scott Schricker; Jawwad A. Darr; Ihtesham U. Rehman



Powder-liquid ratio and properties of two restorative glass ionomer cements.  


Changes in the powder-liquid ratio of glass ionomer cements may affect some of its physical properties and acid erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties and acid erosion of two conventional restorative glass ionomer cements against ISO 9917-1:2007 standards after changing the powder-liquid ratio to an adequate consistency for luting indirect restorations. The methodology of ISO Specification 9917-1:2007 was applied to the powder-liquid ratio indicated by the manufacturer and to a modified ratio. Two restorative glass ionomer cements, ChemFil (Ch) (Dentsply) and lonofil Plus (IP) (Voco), were used to evaluate film thickness, compressive strength, net setting time and acid erosion. Thickness was measured three times with a digital micrometer (Digimatic Mitutoyo Corporation). Sample size was five for each cement or condition. Compressive strength (Instron 1011, crosshead speed of 1 mm/min) was evaluated after 24 h immersion in water at 37 degreesC. Sample size was five for each cement or condition. Setting time was evaluated for Ch and IP at 37 degreesC. Sample size was three for each cement or condition. Specimen moulds (30 x 30 x 5 mm) with a central perforation of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm depth were usedfor acid erosion tests. Erosion depth was measured with a micrometer gauge with a precision of 0. 001 mm, before and after 24-hour immersion in a lactic acid-sodium lactate solution with pH 2.74 at 370C. Sample size wasfivefor each condition. Student's t test was performed with a level of significance ofp< O.05 for each material and condition tested. Arithmetic mean (Standard Deviation). Powder-liquid ratio according to manufacturers: film thickness (in pm): Ch 220 (40), IP: 382 (5); compressive strength (in MPa) at 24 hs: Ch 166.3 (16,6), IP: 100 (10); net setting time (in min.) at 370C: Ch 3.44 (0.3), IP: 5.26 (0.1) ; depth of acid erosion (in mm): Ch 0.15 (0.02), IP: 0.17 (0.02). Modified powder-liquid ratio: film thickness (in pm): Ch 23(1), IP:24(1); compressive strength at 24 hs (in MPa): Ch: 69.3 (14.6), IP: 46.5 (7.4); net setting time (in min.) at 370C: Ch 5.72 (0.1) and IP 9.38 (0.1); depth of acid erosion (in mm): Ch 0.22 (0.02). Data were not recorded for IP because the sample disintegrated in the solution. Student's t test was performed for both materials and conditions with a level of significance of p< 0.05. The difference between each condition tested was statistically significant (p<0.01). While changes in the powder-liquid ratio of a restorative glass ionomer cement can result in some of its properties having values that are not far from those required for luting cements according to ISO specifications, it did not meet the requirements for acid erosion. PMID:22165320

Zahra, Vivian N; Kohen, Sergio G; Macchi, Ricardo L



Effect of glass-ionomer cement on the progression of proximal caries.  


Although effective preventive strategies exist for pit and fissure caries, prevention of proximal caries remains a significant challenge. This split-mouth study was designed to investigate the effect of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) on the progression of initial proximal caries in posterior teeth, testing the hypothesis that local application of fluoride-releasing GIC would reduce this progression. GIC was applied to 41 pairs of posterior teeth after elastic band separation in 7- to 19-year-old individuals. Follow-up bitewing radiographs were taken at 6 and 12 months. Differences in ? mean lesion depth at 6 and 12 months between test and control groups were significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.000). Lesions treated with GIC were more likely to remain in or regress to the outer half of enamel (OR = 6.3; 95%CI, 1.3-30.9). GIC provides an effective approach to the clinical management of incipient proximal caries. PMID:20858776

Trairatvorakul, C; Itsaraviriyakul, S; Wiboonchan, W



N-vinylpyrrolidone modified glass-ionomer resins for improved dental restoratives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies described in this dissertation focus on improvement of mechanical properties of current glass-ionomer cements. Thermal properties and microstructures of the cements were correlated with their mechanical strengths. The first study evaluated mechanical properties of selected commercial glass-ionomer cements and examined their microstructures. The results showed that resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM GICs) exhibited much higher flexural (FS) and diametral tensile strengths (DTS), compared to conventional GICs (C GICs). In addition, they exhibited comparable compressive strength (CS), relatively low microhardness and less wear resistance than C GICs. The C GICs exhibited brittle behavior, whereas the RM GICs underwent substantial plastic deformation in compression. The mechanical properties of the GICs were closely related to their microstructures. Factors such as the density of the microstructure, the integrity of the interface between the glass particles and polymer matrix, particle size and the number and size of voids have important roles in determining the mechanical properties. The second study evaluated thermal properties of these GICs. The results showed that the RM GICs exhibited higher thermal transition temperatures than those of the C GICs, thermal expansion coefficients of these cements were close to those of human teeth, and the indentation creep of the RM GICs were higher than the C GICs. The third study explored and evaluated the effect of a water-soluble monomer, N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), on the performance of current C GICs, indicating a significant improvement in both mechanical and working properties. The fourth study demonstrated the process of determining the optimal molar ratio of the NVP-containing copolymers, using design of experiment. The results showed that the optimal molar ratio for these copolymers was 7:1:3 for poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone), based on the FS test. The molar ratio of 8:2:1 (AA:IA:NVP) was considered as the best molar ratio for these copolymers, based on the DTS and CS tests. The fifth study formulated the NVP-containing RM GICs using a statistical design of experiment. The results indicated that the best graft ratio for 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (IEM) in this system was 15% of the terpolymer by a molar ratio. The optimal formulation was found to be at the weight ratio of 55:15:30 (RM NVP-containing terpolymer: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA): Hsb2O). Stress-strain curves showed that a relatively high amount of water in the formulation led to higher elastic modulus and proportional limit and lower malleability, whereas a relatively high amount of HEMA gave the opposite results. The sixth study evaluated the NVP modified GICs (NVPM GICs) with the best molar ratios and optimal formulations in the mechanical, thermal and working properties. The results showed that the effect of molecular weight on mechanical properties of the NVPM GICs were evident. Different glass powders exhibited different effects on properties of the NVPM GICs, due to different compositions, size and affinity. Powder/liquid ratios had significant effects on the mechanical properties of NVPM GICs, especially on FS. P/W ratios are only beneficial to the NVPM GICs mixed with the Fuji II glass powders. The NVPM GICs showed a higher WT than the models, due to water retention of the NVP ring. Thermal expansion coefficients for the NVPM GICs were close to those for the natural tooth. Mismatch between the glass powders used and the polymer matrix was a big concern in this study and should be solved in the future.

Xie, Dong


An in vitro study to assess the setting and surface crazing of conventional glass ionomer cement when layered over partially set mineral trioxide aggregate.  


The aim of our study was to assess the setting time and surface crazing of glass ionomer cement when layered over partially set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). To assess setting time, 40 hollow, cylindrical stainless steel molds were taken and equally divided into 4 groups. In groups I, II, and III glass ionomer cement was layered over partially setting MTA at 45 minutes, 4 hours, and 3 days, respectively. Group IV was used as a control. An additional 50 specimens were prepared for assessment of surface crazing. Twenty specimens (groups I and II) were prepared to study normal and desiccated patterns of conventional glass ionomer cement, respectively. Thirty specimens (groups III, IV, and V) were prepared by layering glass ionomer cement over partially set MTA at various time intervals. All the specimens were stained with red ink and analyzed for craze lines by light microscopy. From our study, it was observed that there was no statistical difference in setting time of glass ionomer cement when layered over partially set MTA in comparison to that of the control group. No craze lines were observed in those specimens (groups III, IV, and V) when viewed under staining and light microscopy. It could be concluded that conventional glass ionomer cement might be layered over partially set MTA after 45 minutes and could be used for single visit procedures. PMID:18358902

Ballal, Suma; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Nandini, Suresh; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam



The influence of resin coating on the shear punch strength of a high strength auto-cure glass ionomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of early water contact on the shear punch strength of a modern, high strength, auto-cure glass ionomer (Fuji IX GP).Methods. Specimens, 8.0mm in diameter and approximately 1.25mm thick, were prepared in metal washers, and allowed to remain covered by polyester strips for 7min, to ensure completion of the initial

Jakob Leirskar; Håkon Nordbø; Graham J Mount; Hien Ngo



The effect of ytterbium fluoride and barium sulphate nanoparticles on the reactivity and strength of a glass-ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWhile clinical advantages of glass-ionomers include fluoride release and radiopacity, disadvantages include low strength, slow initial setting times and opacity. The addition of nanoparticles, in particular those containing fluoride and cross-linkable ions, may mitigate the disadvantages while further improving the advantages. This investigation evaluated the effects of the addition of ytterbium fluoride (YbF3) and barium sulphate (BaSO4) on the strength

Leon H. Prentice; Martin J. Tyas; Michael F. Burrow



FTIR investigation of polymerisation and polyacid neutralisation kinetics in resin-modified glass-ionomer dental cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diamond ATR FTIR method has been developed to quantify the processes occurring in the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC), Fuji II LC (Improved), at 1mm depth from the cement\\/water interface. With Fuji II LC (Improved) various changes in the spectra due to 90% monomer polymerisation were observed within 1min after 20s exposure to a dental light. Following polymerisation further

A. M. Young



Healing patterns after subgingival placement of a resin-modified glass-ionomer restoration: a histometric study in dogs.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate, clinically and histometrically, the effects of subgingival placement of a resin-modified glass-ionomer restoration during flap surgery. Nine dogs were included in this study. The mandibular canines were randomly assigned to receive either a transgingival resin-modified glass-ionomer restoration (test group) or no restoration (control group). The apical margins of the restorations in the test group and a reference notch on those in the control group were placed at the level of the bone crest. Clinical parameters were recorded 7 days before sacrifice. The dogs were sacrificed after 107 days, and undecalcified sections were obtained for histologic evaluation. Clinically, both groups presented significant clinical attachment loss and an increase in probing depth, but differences between groups were not statistically significant (P > .05). Histologically, a significant difference between groups was observed for length of epithelium (test, 4.05 ± 0.57 mm; control, 3.36 ± 0.63 mm; P = .01). The test group showed more bone resorption (2.02 ± 1.47 mm) when compared with the control group (0.74 ± 0.37 mm) (P = .048). It can be concluded that even with the claimed favorable properties of resin-modified glass ionomer, the presence of the restoration within the biologic width causes increased migration of the apical epithelium and bone resorption. PMID:23998164

Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Suaid, Fabricia Ferreira; Carvalho, Marcelo Diniz; Nociti, Francisco Humberto; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Sallum, Enilson Antonio



Effects of incorporation of HA/ZrO(2) into glass ionomer cement (GIC).  


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a class of bioactive cements that bond directly to bone. In this paper, a new bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA)/zirconia (ZrO(2))-filled GIC composite was developed to improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the GICs with the surrounding bone and connective tissues. Nano-sized HA/30 wt% ZrO(2) powders were heat treated at 700 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius for 3 h to elucidate the influence of the crystallinity of composite powders on the performance of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs. The effects of different volume percentages of HA/ZrO(2) powders (4, 12, 28 and 40 vol%) substituted within GICs were investigated based on their microhardness, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength. The HA/ZrO(2)-GICs composite was soaked in distilled water for 1 day and 1 week before subjecting the samples to mechanical testing. Results showed that the glass and HA/ZrO(2) particles were distributed uniformly in the GIC matrix. The substitution of highly crystalline HA/ZrO(2) improved the mechanical properties of the HA/ZrO(2)-GICs due to the slow resorption rate for highly crystalline powders in distilled water. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs increased with increasing soak time due to the continuous formation of aluminium salt bridges, which improved the final strength of the cements. The compositions 4 and 12 vol% HA/ZrO(2)-GICs exhibited superior mechanical properties than the original GICs. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs were found to be much better than those of HA-GICs because ZrO(2) has the attributes of high strength, high modulus, and is significantly harder than glass and HA particles. Furthermore, ZrO(2) does not dissolve with increasing soaking time. PMID:15350775

Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Khor, K A



The effect of ultrasound on the uptake of fluoride by glass ionomer cements.  


Ultrasound has been shown to improve the set of glass ionomer cements (GICs) and also other cement properties. In particular, the release of fluoride is enhanced. These cements also can take up fluoride ion from liquids. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ultrasound on this cement property. Two commercial dental restorative GICs were used together with a modified commercial material and an experimental material based on a F-free glass. All three commercial materials came in capsules which were mixed as makers directed, the experimental material was mixed as in previous papers. Mixed cement was placed polyethylene moulds to create 3 × 2 mm thick discs. These were either allowed to standard set for 6 min or set with ultrasound for 55 s. 18 samples were made for each material/set. Three samples were placed in 4 ml of 0.2% NaF solution for 24 h at 37°C. The cylinders were removed and the F concentration of the solutions measured by ISE using TISAB decomplexant. F uptake was determined by difference from the original NaF concentration. The two conventional GICs showed reductions of 17.4 and 8.5% for ultrasound compared to standard set whereas the modified material increased by 32.3% and the experimental one by 20.6%. It is suggested that the effect of ultrasound may increase the surface area of the residual glass particles in the GIC which would increase F uptake. In GICs where considerable F ion is released into the cement matrix by the enhanced reaction caused by ultrasound this may be sufficient to reverse the former effect producing the reduced uptake observed. PMID:21221738

Shahid, S; Billington, R W; Hill, R G



The effect of heating and ultrasound on the shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement.  


The aim of this study was to compare the influence of externally applied "command set" methods (heat, ultrasound) on shear bond strength to enamel of several glass ionomer cements (GIC). The vestibular surfaces of 180 extracted premolars were wet ground until a flat enamel surface was created, and divided into three groups. Three restorative GICs (Fuji IX GP Fast, Fuji Triage, Ionofil Molar AC) were cured in three ways: standard (SC), ultrasonic excitation (UC) and by an external heat source (HC). In each group, teeth were conditioned in two ways: 30 with 10% polyacrylic acid and 30 without conditioning. The GIC were used to fill teflon molds (3 x 4 mm). The samples were loaded in a Universal testing machine (Lrx Material Testing Machine) at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Results showed that heat cured Fuji IX on conditioning enamel had significantly greater shear bond strength (13.3 MPa) than all other tested groups (8.6-10.8 MPa) (p < 0.001). The mean shear bond strength in GIC with SC and without enamel conditioning was 3.6-5 MPa and had significantly lower bond strength. Heating of GIC increase bond strength, improves the properties of GIC restoration and can be recommended for use as a "command set" method. PMID:23390826

Gorseta, Kristina; Skrinjari?, Tomislav; Glavina, Domagoj



Antibacterial activity and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing antibiotics.  


This study evaluated the antibacterial effects, physical properties and bonding strengths of conventional glass-ionomer cements (GICs) containing antibiotics and determined the optimal concentration of antibiotics addition for use with the ART approach. Fuji IX GIC was used as a control. Three antibiotic mixtures, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline, were added to powdered GIC (Fuji IX) to obtain concentration ratios of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w. The antibacterial activity of each GIC was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus casei using agar-diffusion methods. The release of antibiotics was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compressive strength and bonding strength to dentin were measured and compared with those of control samples. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon test. All tested groups showed a significantly greater inhibition with growth of the selected bacteria in comparison to the control groups (p < 0.01). However, the 3% and 4.5% concentration ratios of antibiotics had significantly lower compressive strength and lower bond strength to dentin than the control group (p = 0.003). The GIC-containing antibiotics were effective in inhibiting S Mutans and L Casei. The addition of a 1.5% antibiotic mixture was optimal to giving appropriate physical and bonding properties. PMID:19192833

Yesilyurt, Cemal; Er, Kursat; Tasdemir, Tamer; Buruk, Kurtulus; Celik, Davut



Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for uncooperative patients according to surface protection treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Even today, use of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) as restorative material is indicated for uncooperative patients. Aim The study aimed at estimating the surface roughness of different GICs using or not their proprietary surface coatings and at observing the interfaces between cement and coating through SEM. Materials and methods Forty specimens have been obtained and divided into 4 groups: Fuji IX (IX), Fuji IX/G-Coat Plus (IXC), Vitremer (V), Vitremer/Finishing Gloss (VFG). Samples were obtained using silicone moulds to simulate class I restorations. All specimens were processed for profilometric evaluation. The statistical differences of surface roughness between groups were assessed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) (p<0.05). The Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-Way ANOVA) was used to evaluate the influence of two factors: restoration material and presence of coating. Coated restoration specimens (IXC and VFG) were sectioned perpendicular to the restoration surface and processed for SEM evaluation. Results No statistical differences in roughness could be noticed between groups or factors. Following microscopic observation, interfaces between restoration material and coating were better for group IXC than for group VFG. Conclusions When specimens are obtained simulating normal clinical procedures, the presence of surface protection does not significantly improve the surface roughness of GICs.

Pacifici, Edoardo; Bossu, Maurizio; Giovannetti, Agostino; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio; Polimeni, Antonella



Factors that influence the setting characteristics of encapsulated glass ionomer cements.  


The slow rate of the setting reaction of glass ionomer cements (GICs) is one of the problems associated with their clinical use. The manufacturers of these materials suggest that increasing the mixing time will increase the rate of reaction and it was the purpose of this study to investigate the limits of this relationship. The method used to monitor the setting reaction with Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The results obtained using DTA were compared with those obtained using the ISO penetrometer method as defined in the ISO standard for water-based cements, ISO 9917:1991E. It was shown that increasing the mixing time of cements did not significantly reduce the setting time (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of the study it was only possible to measure a working time for the Chemfil II (and then only if it was mixed for less than 12 s). Storing the capsules at 4 degrees C did enable a working time to be measured using the DTA for all the materials, however these storage conditions also produced a significant increase in the setting time which would be undesirable to the clinician. The penetrometer method underestimated the duration of the setting reaction by up to 32% compared with the DTA method. However it was a quick and reproducible method of measuring setting time and as such may still be an appropriate method for use in the ISO standards. PMID:8027462

Kilpatrick, N M; McCabe, J F; Murray, J J



Effectiveness of surface protection of resin modified glass ionomer cements evaluated spectrophotometrically.  


The effectiveness of four surface protectors for resin-modified glass ionomer cements was evaluated by spectrophotometrically determining dye uptake. Ninety specimens, 3.0 mm in diameter and 1.0 mm in height, were made with Photac-Fil, Fuji II LC and Vitremer and divided into six groups for each material. Positive and negative controls were not protected while experimental specimens were protected with proprietary glaze, nail varnish, flowable resin and glaze. The discs were immersed in 0.1% methylene blue solution for 10 minutes after mixing, except for those negative control specimens that were immersed in deionized-water. After 24 hours, the specimens were washed and the protectors trimmed with Sof-Lex discs. The specimens were then removed from the matrixes and individually placed in 1.5 mL of 65% nitric acid for five hours. The absorbance was determined spectrophotometrically at 590 nm. Dye uptake was expressed in microgram dye/specimen. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests. All surface protectors tested were effective. For Fuji II LC and Vitremer no differences were observed among tested protections. For Photac-Fil, nail varnish showed better performance than the proprietary glaze. PMID:11504441

Cefaly, D F; Seabra, B G; Tapety, C M; Taga, E M; Valera, F; Navarro, M F



Water sorption of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements photoactivated with LED.  


The Light Emitting Diodes (LED) technology has been used to photoactivate composite resins and there is a great number of published studies in this area. However, there are no studies regarding resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGIC), which also need photoactivation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate water sorption of two RMGIC photoactivated with LED and to compare this property to that obtained with a halogen light curing unit. A resin composite was used as control. Five specimens of 15.0 mm in diameter x 1.0 mm in height were prepared for each combination of material (Fuji II LC Improved, Vitremer, and Filtek Z250) and curing unit (Radii and Optilight Plus) and transferred to desiccators until a constant mass was obtained. Then the specimens were immersed into deionized water for 7 days, weighed and reconditioned to a constant mass in desiccators. Water sorption was calculated based on weight and volume of specimens. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05). Specimens photocured with LED presented significantly more water sorption than those photocured with halogen light. The RMGIC absorbed statistically significant more water than the resin composite. The type of light curing unit affected water sorption characteristics of the RMGIC. PMID:17242796

Cefaly, Daniela Francisca Gigo; Wang, Linda; de Mello, Liliam Lucia Carrara Paes; dos Santos, Janaína Lima; dos Santos, Jean Rodrigo; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira



Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials using a no-rinse conditioner.  


A paste-paste resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restorative material has been introduced recently with a new conditioner that requires no rinsing. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of an encapsulated RMGI (Fuji II LC) and a new paste-paste RMGI (Fuji Filling LC) to dentin conditioned with 20% polyacrylic acid (Cavity Conditioner), a new no-rinse conditioner (Self Conditioner,), or no conditioner. Mounted human third molars were flattened and the dentin surface was conditioned. The RMGI restorative materials were mixed and incrementally inserted into a mold and photocured. The specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. Fuji II LC had significantly greater bond strength to dentin than Fuji Filling LC. The use of Cavity Conditioner or Self Conditioner resulted in bond strengths that were not significantly different from each other; however, both produced greater bond strengths than those in the non-conditioned groups. PMID:23220322

Suihkonen, Rian W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Dossett, Jon M



Glass ionomer-silver cermet Class II tunnel-restorations for primary molars.  


Tunnel preparations preserve the anatomical marginal ridge and minimize the loss of healthy tooth structure adjacent to the carious lesion. When the practitioner has developed proficiency in restoring class II carious lesions with tunnel restorations, less treatment time is required than with traditional class II preparations. The technique for restoring a primary first molar with a class II carious lesion, using a tunnel preparation and Ketac-Silver restorative material is described. PMID:2968382

Croll, T P



Effects of nanocrystalline calcium deficient hydroxyapatite incorporation in glass ionomer cements.  


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are clinically attractive filling materials often employed in the field of dentistry as restorative and luting materials. The present work aims to formulate bioactive nanocrystalline calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (nCDHA)-GIC composite cements with improved mechanical and resorption properties of the set cement than GICs. The nCDHA was synthesized via an accelerated microwave process and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods. The synthesized nCDHA was mixed with GIC in different compositions (5, 10 and 15 wt%) maintaining the powder to liquid ratio. Cylinders of dimensions 8 mm height and 4 mm diameter were formed using a Teflon mold following a conventional cement forming technique. The XRD and FT-IR of the cylinders showed increased intensity and characteristic bands of CDHA with increase in nCDHA content. The surface cracks and the elemental composition of the set cements were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Decreased surface hardness was observed for composite cements with increase in nCDHA addition. The cement cylinders were tested for ionic release in Millipore water (pH=7) via inductive coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy and in demineralization solution of pH=5 to find out the weight loss in an acidic environment at 37 °C performed periodically for 5 weeks. The ionic release percentage, weight loss and compressive strength were observed to increase with an increase in nCDHA addition. PMID:22340686

Goenka, Sumit; Balu, Rajkamal; Sampath Kumar, T S



Discolouration of glass-ionomer cement at different fluoride concentration levels.  


Background: Although application of professionally applied Acidulated Phosphate fluoride (APF) gel is effective in prevention of dental caries, APF-induced discolouration and/or surface degradation of dental restorations has been reported. However, no publication has reported a dose-response effect of APF gel on Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) restorations in vivo and/or human teeth. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the discolouration effect of APF gel at various concentration levels on GIC restorations of human teeth in vitro. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human teeth were used. Each was restored with GIC and then topically applied with a different dilution of APF gel. Change of shade and/or colour of restorations was assessed by a trained examiner. Results: GIC discolouration was detected on 4 (5.71%) and 23 specimens (32.86%) after the first and the second APF applications, respectively. The discolouration rate increased with APF gel concentration on the second application (?(2)=38.314, df=1, p<0.001) but not the first ( ?(2) =2.352, df=1, p=0.125). Discolouration of GIC restorations was more likely to form under application of a higher concentration of APF gel (OR=1.099, 95%CI=1.052, 1.148), a higher concentration of fluoride (OR=1.001, 95%CI=1.000, 1.001) and/or a lower pH value (OR=0.002, 95%CI=0.000, 0.039). Conclusions: Discolouration of GIC was associated with concentration and frequency of APF gel application in extracted natural human teeth in vitro. Increasing discolouration rates were related to increased fluoride concentration and increasing acidity of APF gel. Further investigation is indicated. PMID:24984633

Wang, Eric; Huang, Boyen



In vivo study of pulp reaction to glass ionomer cements and dentin adhesives.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate histopathologically the pulp tissue response of the researched materials 7 and 30 days after their application. The reaction of pulp tissue has been examined on first upper molars in 24 Wistar rats, following the previously set parameters. For that purpose, 48 class V cavities were prepared with a high-speed handpiece using a diamond burr under copious water-cooling. The cavities were divided into four groups. In the cavities from the first group we applied Fuji Lining LC, and in the secound group cavities we applied Fuji IX as a base. In the third and fourth group cavities we applied Prime and Bond and G Bong as a base. All the cavities were restored with liquid light cured composite. Seven days after the application, 3 rats from each group were killed and the restored teeth were extracted and immersed in a fixative solution, Osteomol. After removing the Osteomol, the specimens were processed according to histological procedures. The histological evaluation was made using a light microscope connected to a video camera. Thirty days after the application of the dental materials we re-did the procedure with the other restored teeth. For Fuji Lining LC and Fuji IX most of the specimens exhibited no pulpal response or slight inflammatory reaction associated with slight tissue disorganization during a seven-day period. A slight to moderate inflammatory pulpal response occurred in the specimens restored with G Bond, while Prime and Bond exhibited the strongest toxic effect on the pulp tissue. After 30 days the pulp tissue in all groups recovered and displayed a normal appearance. Key wards: Biocompatibility, dentin adhesives, glass ionomer cements, pulpal respon-se. PMID:22983105

Rendjova, V; Gjorgoski, I; Ristoski, T; Apostolska, S



Degree of conversion and hardness of two different systems of the Vitrebond™ glass ionomer cement light cured with blue LED.  


This study investigated the physicochemical properties of the new formulation of the glass ionomer cements through hardness test and degree of conversion by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Forty specimens (n = 40) were made in a metallic mold (4 mm diameter x 2 mm thickness) with two resin-modified glass ionomer cements, Vitrebond™ and Vitrebond™ Plus (3M/ ESPE). Each specimen was light cured with blue LED with power density of 500 mW/cm(2) during 30 s. Immediately after light curing, 24h, 48h and 7 days the hardness and degree of conversion was determined. The Vickers hardness was performed by the MMT-3 microhardness tester using load of 50 gm force for 30 seconds. For degree of conversion, the specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR (Nexus 470). The statistical analysis of the data by ANOVA showed that the Vitrebond™ and Vitrebond™ Plus were no difference significant between the same storage times (p > 0.05). For degree of conversion, the Vitrebond™ and Vitrebond™ Plus were statistically different in all storage times after light curing. The Vitrebond™ showed higher values than Vitrebond™ Plus (p < 0.05). The performance of Vitrebond™ had greater results for degree of conversion than Vitrebond™ Plus. The correlation between hardness and degree of conversion was no evidence in this study. PMID:23811653

Calixto, Luiz Rafael; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Barros, Erico Damasceno; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Lima, Fabricio Viana Pereira; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho



Ultrasonically set novel NVC-containing glass-ionomer cements for applications in restorative dentistry.  


The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of application of ultrasound on the physical properties of a novel NVC (N-vinylcaprolactam)-containing conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Experimental GIC (EXP) samples were made from the acrylic acid (AA)-itaconic acid (IA)-NVC synthesized terpolymer with Fuji IX powder in a 3.6:1 P/L ratio as recommended by the manufacturer. Specimens were mixed and fabricated at room temperature and were conditioned in distilled water at 37°C for 1 day up to 4 week. Ultrasound (US) was applied 20 s after mixing by placing the dental scaler tip on the top of the cement and applying light hand pressure to ensure the tip remained in contact with cement without causing any deformation. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester. The working and setting times were determined using a Gillmore needle. Water sorption was also investigated. Commercial Fuji IX was used as control for comparison (CON). The data obtained for the EXP GIC set through conventional set (CS) and ultrasonically set (US) were compared with the CON group, using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey multiple range test at ? = 0.05. Not only ultrasonic (US) application accelerated the curing process of both EXP cement and CON group but also improved the surface hardness of all the specimens. US set samples showed significantly lower water sorption values (P < 0.05) due to improved acid-base reaction within the GIC matrix and accelerated maturation process. According to the statistical analysis of data, significant increase was observed in the surface hardness properties of CS and US specimens both in EXP samples and the CON groups. It was concluded that it is possible to command set GICs by the application of ultrasound, leading to GICs with enhanced physical and handling properties. US application might be a potential way to broaden the clinical applications of conventional GICs in restorative dentistry for procedures such as class V cavity restorations. PMID:21769626

Moshaverinia, Alireza; Ansari, Sahar; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Schricker, Scott R; Chee, Winston W L



Effect of time on the diametral tensile strength of resin-modified restorative glass ionomer cements and compomer.  


The aim of this study was to analyze the diametral tensile strengths of three resin-modified restorative glass ionomer cements--Vitremer, Fuji II LC and Photac Fil and one compomer--Dyract. They were tested at 1 hour, 1 day and 1 week. Kratos testing machine was used to load the specimens at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test that showed statistically significant differences among the materials. The tested materials presented an increase in strength from 1 hour to 1 week and were as follows for each material respectively: Vitremer (19.22-27.29), Fuji II LC (23.91-28.67), Photac Fil (19.35-22.86), Dyract (28.83-46.95). Dyract presented the highest strengths. PMID:11696919

Cefaly, D F; Valarelli, F P; Seabra, B G; Mondelli, R F; Navarro, M F



The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of fluorine concentration in glass ionomer cement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of He atmosphere and gate width in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) determination of fluorine concentration was investigated in detail. The measurements were realized on two double pulse LIBS devices featuring different parameters. Calibration curves, describing the relationship between the fluorine concentration and the corresponding intensity of the LIBS signal, were constructed for both LIBS devices, with and without He flow, respectively. Detection limits achieved were in the range 1.18-0.47 wt.%. The best LOD value was obtained in He atmosphere. The LIBS measurement of fluorine content is influenced by different gate widths and the atmosphere in the working chamber. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of fluorine concentration in glass ionomer cements.

Kratochvíl, T.; Pouzar, M.; Novotný, K.; Havránek, V.; ?ernohorský, T.; Zvolská, M.



Synthesis and application of novel multi-arm poly(carboxylic acid)s for glass-ionomer restoratives.  


We have developed a novel glass-ionomer cement system composed of multi-arm poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid)s. These polyacids were synthesized via a chain-transfer polymerization reaction using newly synthesized multi-arm chain-transfer agents. The cements formulated with the multi-arm polyacids showed significantly lower viscosities in water as compared to those formulated with the linear polyacids. Due to the lower viscosities, the MW of the polyacids can be significantly increased for enhanced mechanical strengths, while keeping the ease of mixing and handling. The experimental cements showed significantly improved compressive strengths as compared to Fuji II after aged in water for 3 months. PMID:19033326

Xie, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Weng, Yiming



Clinical evaluation of the retention and wear of a light-cured pit and fissure glass ionomer sealant.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month retention and wear of an experimental light-cured glass ionomer for pit and fissure sealing. A total of 25 patients 7-14 years-old were selected from the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The patients resided in areas without fluoridated water. Each tooth was isolated with cotton rolls, dried with oil-free compressed air and GC Dentin Conditioner applied with a small disposable brush to the pits and fissures for 20 seconds. The teeth were rinsed with water and gently air dried using an air/water syringe. The teeth were not desiccated. GC experimental glass ionomer for pit and fissures was used. The powder/liquid ratio was dispensed at 1.4 gm/1.0 gm (one level spoonful of powder to one drop of liquid). The powder was mixed for 15-20 seconds. An explorer was used to apply the mixed sealant to the tooth and teased into all pits and fissures. The sealant was then cured for 20 seconds. Occlusion was corrected after the sealant was light-cured. Immediately, a color slide and a vinyl polysiloxane impressions were taken. The impressions were poured in epoxy resin. Color slides, impressions and epoxy models were also made at 3, 6, 9 and 12-month recalls. A total of 95 sealants were placed and follow-up for 12 months. The results showed that with the clinical visual inspection all sealants were present at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. At 12 months, only 20% of the sealants were clinically evident.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7547485

Aranda, M; Garcia-Godoy, F



Effect of Marginal Sealant on Shear Bond Strength of Glass Ionomer Cement: Used as A Luting Agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Moisture sensitivity and dissolution has been a known drawback of glass ionomer cement (GIC). When used as a luting agent for cementation of casted indirect restoration, the exposed cement at the margins is often a primary factor for marginal leakage and consequent failure of the restoration. The following in vitro study was planned to evaluate the effect of a marginal sealant on GIC used as luting agent. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy extracted premolars were selected and prepared to receive metal-ceramic prosthesis. The prepared restorations were cemented using GIC and were divided randomly into two groups. The specimens in Group A were directly immersed in artificial saliva solution without any protection at the margins, while the exposed cement for Group B specimens was protected using a marginal sealant before immersing it in the artificial saliva solution. The specimens were tested after 24 h using a crown pull test on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength of the cement. Result: The specimens in Group B showed statistically significant difference from the specimens in Group A with the mean shear bond strength of 6.60 Mpa and 5.32 respectively. Conclusion: Protection of GIC exposed at the margins of indirect cast restorations with a marginal sealant can significantly increase the longevity of the prosthesis by reducing the marginal leakage and perlocation of fluids. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Badgujar M, Gaikwad B, Bhanushali S, Nalawade S. Effect of marginal sealant on shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement: Used as a luting agent. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):65-9

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Badgujar, Mayura; Gaikwad, Bhushan; Bhanushali, Shilpa; Nalawade, Sumit



Clinical and microbiological performance of resin-modified glass-ionomer liners after incomplete dentine caries removal.  


The aims of this study were to evaluate clinically and microbiologically the effects of two resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) used as liners after incomplete dentine caries removal and to identify Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus strains isolated from dentine samples, before and after indirect pulp treatment. Twenty-seven primary molars with deep carious lesions, but without signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis, were submitted to indirect pulp treatment. Treatment consisted of incomplete excavation of the carious dentine, application of one of the RMGICs (Vitrebond or Fuji Lining LC) or calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal), and sealing for 3 months. Clinical evaluation (consistency, color, and wetness of dentine) and carious dentine collects were performed before temporary sealing and after the experimental period. Microbiological samples were cultivated in specific media for subsequent counting of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB). MS colonies were selected for identification of S. mutans and S. sobrinus by polymerase chain reaction. After 3 months, the remaining dentine was hard and dry, and there was a significant decrease in the number of MS and LB, in all groups, although complete elimination was not achieved in 33% and 26% of the teeth for MS and LB, respectively. From 243 MS colonies selected, 216 (88.9%) were identified as S. mutans and only 2 (0.8%) as S. sobrinus. The use of resin-modified glass-ionomer liners after incomplete caries removal, as well as a calcium hydroxide cement, promoted significant reduction of the viable residual cariogenic bacteria in addition to favorable clinical changes in the remaining carious dentine. PMID:19548010

Duque, Cristiane; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri



Evaluation of surface roughness and hardness of different glass ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate surface roughness and hardness of a nanofiller GIC, a resin-modified GIC, three conventional GICs, and a silver-reinforced GIC. Methods: For each material, 11 spcecimens were prepared and then stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h. The surface roughness of 5 specimens was measured using a surface profilometer before polishing and after polishing with coarse, medium, fine, superfine aluminum oxide abrasive Sof-Lex discs respectively. The hardness of the upper surfaces of the remaining 6 specimens was measured with a Vickers microhardness measuring instrument. Results: All tested GICs showed lower surface roughness values after the polishing procedure. Surface finish of nanofiller GIC was smoother than the other tested GICs after polishing. This was followed by resin-modified GIC, Fuji II LC; then silver-reinforced GIC, Argion Molar, conventional GICs, Aqua Ionofil Plus, Fuji IX, and Ionofil Molar, respectively. The result of the hardness test indicated that the microhardness value of silver-reinforced GIC was greater than that of the other GICs. When the hardness values of all tested GICs were compared, the differences between materials (except Aqua Ionofil Plus with Ionofil Molar and Ketac N100 with Fuji II LC (P>.05)) were found statistically significant (P<.05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the differences in the composition of GICs may affect their surface roughness and hardness.

Bala, Oya; Arisu, Hacer Deniz; Yikilgan, Ihsan; Arslan, Seda; Gullu, Abdulkadir



Shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cements to Er:YAG laser-treated tooth structure.  


This study evaluated the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation of enamel and dentin on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIC). Twenty molars were selected and the roots removed. The crowns were bisected, embedded in polyester resin and ground to plane the enamel or expose the dentin. The bonding site was delimited, and samples were randomly assigned according to the cavity preparation device: I--Er.YAG laser (350mJ/2Hz); II--Carbide bur (control group). They were subdivided according to the restorative material employed: A) Fuji II LC (GC); B) Vitremer (3M). Samples were then fixed to a metallic device where ionomer cylinders were prepared. Sequentially, the molars were stored for 24 hours and subjected to a shear bond strength test (50Kgf at 0.5 mm/minute). Means in MPa were: Enamel--IA) 4.77 (+/- 1.12); IB) 4.36 (+/- 1.50); IIA) 7.70 (+/- 1.53); IIB) 7.34 (+/- 1.52) and Dentin--IA) 3.13 (+/- 1.15); IB) 2.67 (+/- 0.74); IIA) 6.38 (+/- 1.44); IIB) 5.58 (+/-2.09). Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA. Adhesion for enamel was more efficient than for dentin (p < 0.01). The cavities prepared with a conventional bur (control group) presented higher bond strength values than those recorded for Er:YAG laser (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed between the restorative materials. Based on these results, it was concluded that Er:YAG laser adversely affected the shear bond strength of RMGIC for both enamel and dentin. PMID:16827024

de Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori



Connective tissue graft and resin glass ionomer for the treatment of gingival recession associated with noncarious cervical lesions: a case series.  


This article describes the treatment of gingival recession associated with noncarious cervical lesions by a connective tissue graft in combination with a resin-modified glass-ionomer restoration (CTG + R). Eleven patients showing the association of recession and lesions were selected and treated by CTG + R. Bleeding on probing, probing depth, relative gingival recession, clinical attachment level, noncarious cervical lesion height, and dentin sensitivity were measured. The treatment provided statistically significant gains in clinical attachment level and shallow probing depths. The percentage of cervical lesion height covered was 74.0% ± 22.90%. It can be concluded that the presence of resin-modified glass-ionomer filling did not interfere with coverage achieved by the connective tissue graft. PMID:21845238

Santamaría, Mauro Pedrine; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Nociti, Francisco Humberto; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Sallum, Enilson Antônio



Three-Year Survival of One-Surface ART Restorations and Glass-Ionomer Sealants in a School Oral Health Programme in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oral health care programme in secondary schools using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach for dental caries was started in 1993. Glass ionomer (restorative type II, 1) was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed using the ‘press-finger’ technique. Results after 3 years revealed a survival percentage for one-surface ART restorations of 85.3 (95% CL: 89.7–80.9%),

J. E. Frencken; F. Makoni; W. D. Sithole; E. Hackenitz



Effect of acid and laser etching on shear bond strength of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to composite resin.  


Success in sandwich technique procedures can be achieved through an acceptable bond between the materials. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 35% phosphoric acid and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on shear bond strength of conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) to composite resin in sandwich technique. Sixty-six specimens were prepared from each type of glass-ionomer cements and divided into three treatment groups as follows: without pretreatment, acid etching by 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s, and 1-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment for 15 s with a 600-?m-diameter tip aligned perpendicular to the target area at a distance of 1 mm from the surface. Energy density of laser irradiation was 17.7 J/cm(2). Two specimens in each group were prepared for evaluation under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after surface treatment and the remainder underwent bonding procedure with a bonding agent and composite resin. Then the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Two-factor analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey test showed that the cement type, surface treatment method, and the interaction of these two factors significantly affect the shear bond strength between glass-ionomer cements and composite resin (p < 0.05). Surface treatment with phosphoric acid or Er,Cr:YSGG laser increased the shear bond strength of GIC to composite resin; however, in RMGIC only laser etching resulted in significantly higher bond strength. These findings were supported by SEM results. The fracture mode was evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×20. PMID:21234634

Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Oskoee, Parnian Alizadeh; Bahari, Mahmoud; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Ghojazadeh, Morteza



Effect of different light curing systems on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement and polyacid-modified composite resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine in vitro shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and polyacid-modified composite resin (PMCR) polymerized with conventional halogen light curing unit (LCU) or light emitting diode (LED). Twenty-four mandibular molar teeth were used. Enamel was removed from buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth to expose superficial dentin. Teeth were

Oya Bala; Hacer Deniz Arisu; Bagdagul Helvacioglu Kivanc; Sara Samur


Effects of conventional and high-intensity light-curing on enamel shear bond strength of composite resin and resin-modified glass-ionomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths of a composite resin (Transbond XT; 3M\\/Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and a resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America Inc, Alsip, Ill) cured with 2 different light-curing units: a conventional visible light unit (Ortholux XT; 3M Dental Products, St Paul, Minn) and a xenon arc light unit (Plasma

Maria Francesca Sfondrini; Vittorio Cacciafesta; Angela Pistorio; Giuseppe Sfondrini



Minimal intervention dentistry II: part 7. Minimal intervention in cariology: the role of glass-ionomer cements in the preservation of tooth structures against caries.  


Glass-ionomer cements (GICs) are essential materials in clinical practice because of their versatility, self-adhesion to enamel and dentine, and good biocompatibility. In addition, being chemically cured, with no shrinkage stress, makes them well suited for minimally invasive restorative techniques. This article looks at some of the clinical situations where the chemical adhesion and high biocompatibility of GIC are important for clinical success: excavation of deep carious lesions, fissure sealing and protection of root surfaces against caries. PMID:24852986

Ngo, H; Opsahl-Vital, S



Evaluation and comparison of the effect of different surface preparations on bond strength of glass ionomer cement with nickel-chrome metal-ceramic alloy: a laboratory study.  


Retention of fixed partial dentures is mostly dependent upon the bond between metal and cement as well as cement and tooth structure. However, most of the time clinical failure of bond has been observed at metal and cement interface. The treatment of metal surface, prior to luting, plays a crucial role in bonding cement with the metal. This study is conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of different surface preparations on the bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement with nickel-chromium metal ceramic alloy. Fifty caries-free extracted molar teeth were made flat until the dentin of the occlusal surface was exposed. After fabrication of the wax patterns and subsequent castings, the castings were subjected to porcelain firing cycles. The nickel-chromium metal ceramic alloy discs were also divided into five groups and subjected to various surface treatments: (1) Unsandblasted (U), (2) sandblasted (S), (3) sandblasted and treated with 10% aqueous solution of KMnO4 (SK), (4) unsandblasted and roughened with diamond abrasive points (UD) and (5) unsandblasted and roughened with diamond abrasive points and treated with 10% aqueous solution of KMnO(4) (UDK). After surface treatments, the castings were cemented using Fuji PLUS encapsulated resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The obtained values of all the groups were subjected to statistical analysis for Tensile and Shear bond strength. Different surface treatments of the metal affects the bond strength values of resin-modified glass ionomer cement when used as luting agent. PMID:22379300

Hasti, Kalpana; Jagadeesh, H G; Patil, Narendra P



Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.



In vitro antibacterial effects of glass-ionomer cement containing ethanolic extract of propolis on Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) containing propolis against Streptococcus mutans and its effect on the in vitro S. mutans biofilm formation. Methods: Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was prepared at two concentrations as 25 and 50%. Three different experimental GIC disks were prepared using pure liquid and liquid solutions diluted with 25 and 50 percent of EEP concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EEP on the growth of S. mutans ATCC 25175 was determined by using agar dilution method. Agar diffusion test and an in vitro S. mutans biofilm assay for GIC disks with and without EEP were performed. Results: MIC values of Turkish propolis for S. mutans ATCC 25175 was found as 25 ?g/mL. Experimental GICs containing propolis exhibited inhibition zones and their dry biofilm weights were less than the pure GIC. The bacterial density was lower in the GIC containing 50% EEP. Conclusions: A distinct antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of propolis containing GIC on S. mutans has been observed. Although further research is needed to show clinical results, antibacterial GIC containing propolis would be a promising material for restoration.

Topcuoglu, Nursen; Ozan, Fatih; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Kulekci, Guven



A novel star-shaped poly(carboxylic acid) for resin-modified glass-ionomer restoratives.  


We have developed a novel glass-ionomer cement (GIC) system composed of photo-curable star-shaped poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid)s. These polyacids were synthesized via a chain-transfer radical polymerization using a newly synthesized multi-arm chain-transfer agent. The star-shaped polyacids showed significantly lower viscosities in water as compared to the linear polyacids. Due to the lower viscosities, the molecular weight (MW) of the polyacids can be significantly increased for enhancing the mechanical strengths while keeping the ease of mixing and handling. The effects of MW, GM-tethering ratio, P/L ratio, and aging on the compressive properties of the experimental cements were significant. The light-cured experimental cements showed significantly improved mechanical strengths i.e. 49% in yield strength, 41% in modulus, 25% in CS, 20% in DTS, and 36% in FS, higher than commercial Fuji II LC. After aging in water for 1 month, the compressive strength of the novel light-cured experimental cement reached 343?MPa, which was 34% and 42% higher than Fuji II and Fuji II LC, respectively. This one-month aged experimental cement was also 23% higher than itself after one day aging, indicating that aging in water can significantly enhance salt-bridge formation for this novel star-shaped polyacid-comprised GIC. PMID:24865692

Weng, Y; Howard, L; Xie, D



Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer and Composite Resin to Three Pulp Capping Agents  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Present study was designed to compare the bonding strength of resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA mixed with Na2HPO4 (NAMTA), and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and methods. Thirty specimens of each CEM, NAMTA, and MTA were prepared. Composite and RMGI restorations were then placed on the samples (15 samples in six subgroups). Shear bond strength was assessed using universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test. To compare the bond strength in subgroups, one-away ANOVA was applied. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results. Bond strength was significantly higher to composite samples compared to RMGI samples (p<0.001). The difference in bond strength of composite samples between MTA and CEM subgroups (P=0.026) as well as MTA and NAMTA subgroups (P= 0.019) was significant, but the difference between NAMTA and CEM subgroups (P=0.56) was not significant. The differences in bond strength in subgroups of RMGI group were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion. Regarding shear bond strength to the tested substrates, composite was shown to be superior to RMGI. The bond of resin composite to MTA was weaker than that to CEM and NAMTA.

Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Abed Kahnamoui, Mehdi; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Daneshpooy, Mehdi



Cytotoxicity evaluation of a new fast set highly viscous conventional glass ionomer cement with L929 fibroblast cell line  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a new fast set highly viscous conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) with L929 fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: The cement capsule was mixed and introduced into a paraffin wax mould. After setting, the cement was incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. Six replicates of the material extract were added to the culture medium in 96-well plates. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were added into the wells and then incubated for 48 h. Dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide test was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation. Results: The results showed that this GIC brand did not yield a half-maximal inhibitory concentration value, IC50, as the cell viability was above 50% at all concentrations. Cell viability over 90% was observed at the concentrations of 3.125 and 1.5625 mg/ml. Maximum concentration of the material showed cell viability of 59.4%. Conclusions: This new fast set highly viscous conventional GIC showed low cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast cells, and it can be suggested as a substitute for dental cements exhibiting a long setting time.

Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly; Omar, Nor Shamsuria; Luddin, Norhayati; Saini, Rajan; Saini, Deepti



The effect of pre-warming and delayed irradiation on marginal integrity of a resin-modified glass-ionomer.  


Recent studies have indicated that the acid-base reactions and polymerization of resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGIs) compete with and inhibit each other; however, external energy can also influence the properties of RMGIs. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of pre-warming and/or delayed light irradiation on marginal integrity of RMGIs in cervical restorations. Standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal aspects of 60 human maxillary premolars. Each cavity was treated with a cavity conditioner for 10 seconds, rinsed, and gently air-dried. An RMGI was applied to the prepared cavities as dictated by the study protocol. Group 1 samples were treated per manufacturers' instructions. Group 2 samples were photocured after a delay of 2 minutes. For samples in Group 3, the encapsulated material was pre-warmed (at 40° C) for 90 seconds; for Group 4 samples, capsules were pre-warmed and photocuring was delayed for 2.4 minutes. Microleakage scores were determined using dye penetration technique; Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis (? = 0.05). The enamel groups exhibited statistically significant differences (P = 0.036), while the dentin groups did not (P = 0.122); however, in both cases, Group 2 demonstrated the highest marginal integrity. Based on the results of this study, pre-warming could jeopardize the marginal integrity of RMGIs in cervical restorations, while delaying the curing process might improve it (particularly for enamel). PMID:23220316

Khoroushi, Maryam; Mansoori-Karvandi, Tayebeh; Hadi, Saeed



Atraumatic restorative treatment and glass-ionomer sealants in a school oral health programme in Zimbabwe: evaluation after 1 year.  


An oral health care programme in secondary schools using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique for dental caries was started in 1993. Glass-ionomer was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed using the "press finger' technique. Results after 1 year revealed a survival percentage for one-surface ART restorations of 93.4 whilst the complete and partial retention percentages for sealants were 60.3 and 13.4, respectively. No caries was observed in teeth restored using ART, and only 0.8% of surfaces diagnosed as having early enamel lesions at the start of the programme and sealed consequently had progressed into active dentinal lesions after 1 year. The sealant retention percentage and the survival percentage of ART restorations were influenced by an operator effect. The majority of restorations were carried out without administering local anaesthesia. The mean treatment time for one-surface ART restorations was 22.1 min (range per operator of 19.8-23.6 min), whilst the mean time for placing sealants was 9.4 min (range per operator of 8.2-10.8 min). Post-operative sensitivity was reported for 6% of the teeth restored. 95% of the students were satisfied with ART as a treatment modality. It is concluded that ART may in part be the answer to the unavailability of restorative care for many population groups globally. PMID:8946101

Frencken, J E; Makoni, F; Sithole, W D



Reactions in glass ionomer cements: V. Effect of incorporating tartaric acid in the cement liquid.  


A description is give of the effect on the ASPA cement reaction of tartaric acid incorporated in the cement liquid. Tartaric acid acts as an accelerator that aids in the extraction of ions from the aluminosilicate glass and facilitates their binding to the polyanion chains. Postgelation hardening is significantly increased. Working time is unaffected possibly because cations are initially present as complexes. PMID:187629

Crisp, S; Wilson, A D



Effect of novel chitosan-fluoroaluminosilicate resin modified glass ionomer cement supplemented with translationally controlled tumor protein on pulp cells.  


Dental materials that can promote cell proliferation and function is required for regenerative pulp therapy. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), a broadly used liner or restorative material, can cause apoptosis to pulp cells mainly due to HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), the released residual monomer. Recent studies found that chitosan and albumin could promote release of protein in GIC while translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) has an anti-apoptotic activity against HEMA. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chitosan and albumin modified RMGIC (Exp-RMGIC) supplemented with TCTP on pulp cell viability and mineralization. Exp-RMGIC+TCTP was composed of RMGIC powder incorporated with 15 % of chitosan, 5 % albumin and supplemented with TCTP mixed with the same liquid components of RMGIC. The effect of each specimen on pulp cells was examined using the Transwell plate. From the MTT assay, Exp-RMGIC+TCTP had the highest percentages of viable cells (P < 0.05) at both 24 and 74 h. Flow cytometry revealed that, after 24 h, Exp-RMGIC+TCTP gave the lowest percentages of apoptotic cells compared to other groups. There was no difference in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity among different formula of the specimens, while cells cultured in media with TCTP had higher ALP activity. Von Kossa staining revealed that RMGIC+TCTP, and Exp-RMGIC+TCTP had higher percentages of calcium deposit area compared to those without TCTP. It was concluded that Exp-RMGIC supplemented with TCTP had less cytotoxicity than RMGIC and can protect cells from apoptosis better than RMGIC supplemented with TCTP. PMID:24398913

Wanachottrakul, Nattaporn; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn



Comparative evaluation of effect of polymerizable and non-polymerizable desensitizing agents on crown-retentive-strength of zinc-phosphate, glass-ionomer and compomer cements.  


The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymerizable and non-polymerizable dentine desensitizers on retention of complete cast crowns cemented with three different types of cements. Freshly extracted human molars (n = 90) were prepared for standardized crown preparation (6-degree taper 4-mm height). The axial surface area of each preparation was determined and specimens were distributed equally among groups (n = 10). Dentine desensitizers, cementing agents, glass ionomer cement and compomer cement. Teeth were prepared and individual castings were made using high noble porcelain-metal alloy. Castings were cemented, thermo-cycled and removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine. Tooth surface as well as inner surface of the casting was examined and nature of cement failure was determined. Compomer cement exhibited the highest retentive strength and all dentine treatments resulted in significantly different retentive values. Zinc phosphate was the least retentive. Crown retentive values of Compomer cement were improved with Prime & Bond NT and Gluma Desensitizer Retentive values of zinc phosphate cement with Prime & Bond NT were decreased and not affected with Gluma Desensitizer Retentive values of Glass ionomer cement were not affected by any of the desensitizers used in the study. PMID:23101176

Patil, P G; Parkhedkar, R D; Patil, S P; Bhowmik, H S



Comparison of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements in the retention of post-crowns by fatigue loading.  


Fatigue testing may be used for in vitro evaluation of luting cements, allowing comparison of materials under controlled conditions. It is recognized that glass-ionomer cements are materials which are susceptible to microcracking, even during curing prior to load application, and their failure can be related to crack propagation. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of post-crowns cemented with conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, the latter having significantly greater fracture toughness, under cyclic loads which are representative of physiological service. A custom-designed fatigue machine was used for three tests each comprising 18 specimens in a modified randomized complete block programme. Correlation of load amplitude to endurance was low, as expected from static test experience, but cement comparison was made through Kaplan-Meier survival and cumulative hazard functions. Differences in the performance of the cements were indicated, but were not statistically significant in this study, although analysis by Cox's proportional hazards model indicated that significance may be gained by a larger study. PMID:9687122

Mitchell, C A; Orr, J F



Comparison of bracket debonding force between two conventional resin adhesives and a resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement: an in vitro and in vivo study.  


The purpose of this study was to compare the debonding force of orthodontic brackets bonded with two conventional resin adhesives (Resilience L3 and Light Bond) and a resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC). For the in vitro part of the study, 80 extracted premolars were randomly divided into four groups. In groups A and B, brackets were bonded to unetched enamel using Fuji Ortho LC cement in wet and dry conditions, respectively. In groups C and D, brackets were bonded to etched enamel using Resilience L3 and Light Bond, respectively. Debonding force was determined using a servohydraulic testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test at p<0.05. A significant difference was found in debonding force between unetched Fuji Ortho LC and the two conventional resins. There was no significant difference between the two conventional resins or between unetched resin-reinforced glass ionomer in the wet and dry conditions. For the in vivo part of the study, 30 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three bonding material groups. Bracket survival rates and distributions were obtained by following these patients for 1.2 years. Data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates of survivorship function. Bond failure interface was determined using a modified adhesive remnant index (ARI). These results showed no significant difference between survival rates and distributions among the three bonding materials with respect to the type of malocclusion, type of orthodontic treatment, or location of bracket. There were significant differences between survival distributions of males and females in the unetched Fuji Ortho LC group and among type of teeth in the conventional resin groups. The predominant mode of bracket failure for the unetched Fuji Ortho LC cement was at the enamel-adhesive interface, and for conventional resins, the enamel-adhesive interface and the bracket-adhesive interface. These results suggest that resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces despite having a bond strength lower than that of conventional resin adhesives. PMID:10515145

Shammaa, I; Ngan, P; Kim, H; Kao, E; Gladwin, M; Gunel, E; Brown, C



Three-year survival of one-surface ART restorations and glass-ionomer sealants in a school oral health programme in Zimbabwe.  


An oral health care programme in secondary schools using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach for dental caries was started in 1993. Glass ionomer (restorative type II, 1) was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed using the 'press-finger' technique. Results after 3 years revealed a survival percentage for one-surface ART restorations of 85.3 (95% CL: 89.7-80.9%), which ranged from 96.1 to 69.3% per operator. Failures were related to 'unacceptable marginal defects' (8.1%), 'falling out' (6.1%) and 'excessive wear' (2.5%). Of the 33 failed one-surface ART restorations, 17 were material-related, 7 had caries and no information was available for 9 restorations. Sealants were placed only on surfaces diagnosed as early enamel lesions and on some small dentinal lesions. After 3 years, 50.1% (95% CL: 55.1-45.1%) of the fully and partially retained sealants survived with a range of 68.5-25.9% per operator. Regardless of the low rate of retention, the sealed surfaces had a 4 times lower chance of developing caries than unsealed surfaces with early enamel lesions over the 3-year period. The retention of sealants and the survival of one-surface ART restorations were influenced by an operator effect. The mean treatment time for one-surface ART restorations without chairside assistance was 22.1 min (range per operator of 19.8-23.6 min), whilst the mean time for placing sealants was 9.3 min (range per operator of 8.2-10.8 min). It is concluded that the ART approach and the use of glass-ionomer sealants have made preventive and restorative dental care available for this student population and further that ART seems to be appropriate for population groups currently not receiving preventive and restorative dental care. PMID:9544860

Frencken, J E; Makoni, F; Sithole, W D; Hackenitz, E



Methods and preliminary findings of a cost-effectiveness study of glass-ionomer-based and composite resin sealant materials after 2 yr.  


The cost-effectiveness of glass-carbomer, conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) [without or with heat (light-emitting diode (LED) thermocuring) application], and composite resin sealants were compared after 2 yr in function. Estimated net costs per sealant were obtained from data on personnel time (measured with activity sampling), transportation, materials, instruments and equipment, and restoration costs for replacing failed sealants from a community trial involving 7- to 9-yr-old Chinese children. Cost data were standardized to reflect the placement of 1,000 sealants per group. Outcomes were the differences in the number of dentine caries lesions that developed between groups. The average sealant application time ranged from 5.40 min (for composite resin) to 8.09 min (for LED thermocured HVGIC), and the average cost per sealant for 1,000 performed per group (simulation sample) ranged from $US3.73 (for composite resin) to $US7.50 (for glass-carbomer). The incremental cost-effectiveness of LED thermocured HVGIC to prevent one additional caries lesion per 1,000 sealants performed was $US1,106 compared with composite resin. Sensitivity analyses showed that differences in the cost of materials across groups had minimal impact on the overall cost. Cost and effectiveness data enhance policymakers' ability to address issues of availability, access, and compliance associated with poor oral-health outcomes, particularly when large numbers of children are excluded from care, in economies where oral health services are still developing. PMID:24799118

Goldman, Ann S; Chen, Xi; Fan, Mingwen; Frencken, Jo E



Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to glass-ionomer cement using self-etching bonding agents with different pH: In vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the bonding ability of composite to unset glass-ionomer cement (GIC) using different self-etching bonding systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples of composite bonded to unset GIC were prepared and were divided into four groups. In Group A, composite was bonded to unset GIC employing a strong (pH 1) self-etch primer was used. In Group B, intermediary strong (pH 1.4) self-etch primer was employed. In Group C and D, mild (pH 2) and (pH 2.2) self-etch primer was employed. Shear bond strength analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: Statistical analysis performed with one way analysis of variance and Tukey's test showed that the bond strength of composite to unset GIC was significantly higher for the mild self-etch primer group. In addition, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis was used to determine the composition of various structural phases identified by FE-SEM along the GIC-bonding agent interfaces. Conclusion: Hence this present study concludes that clinically the use of mild self-etching bonding agent over unset GIC has improved bond strength compared to the use of strong and intermediate self-etching bonding agent.

Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Rajan, Karunamoorthy Jeyavel; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Porkodi, Ilango



Comparison of the Shear Bond Strength of Resin Modified Glass Ionomer to Enamel in Bur-Prepared or Lased Teeth (Er:YAG)  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Er:YAG laser on the shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) to enamel. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted caries-free human premolars were selected. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin. The buccal surfaces of each sample were ground to plane enamel with carbonated disc. The teeth were randomly divided in two groups. In the first group, the surfaces were treated by Er:YAG laser (350mJ/10Hz). The second group was prepared by carbide bur. Fuji IX RMGI was adhered to surfaces of the samples in both groups in rod shape. The shear bond strength of samples was measured by a universal testing machine. The results of the two groups were analyzed by T- test. Results: The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength of the laser-treated group and the bur-treated group were 6.75 ± 1.99 and 4.41 ± 1.62 Mpa, respectively. There is significant difference in the shear bond strength of RMGI between the two groups (P-value=0.01). Conclusion: The laser group showed better results. Er:YAG laser can be an alternative technology in restorative dentistry.

Jafari, Ahmad; Shahabi, Sima; Chiniforush, Nasim; Shariat, Ali



Effects of uncontrolled outdoor storage on the polymerization, manipulation, and appearance of visible light-cured composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer materials.  


Four light-cured composite resins (Z100, Heliomolar RO, Herculite XRV, and Prisma APH) and two resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials (Fuji II LC and VariGlas VLC) were placed in an uncooled, unheated outdoor storage shed for 12 months. Maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded every 24 hours. Each month, samples were polymerized with a visible light source and alterations in polymerization were assessed using a scratch test. Problems with manipulation or changes in appearance were also monitored. Samples stored outdoors were compared to control samples maintained at room temperature [68-74 degrees F (20-23.3 degrees C)]. Results showed that polymerization of all materials tested was apparently unaffected to any significant clinical degree by outdoor storage at temperatures ranging from 20 to 112 degrees F (-6.6-44.4 degrees C) over 12 months. Eight months into the study, the VariGlas VLC liquid had separated into a viscous gel and watery component. None of the other remaining materials demonstrated any changes in manipulation or appearance. All materials tested except VariGlas VLC appear suitable for use during military deployment or field training exercises under similar environmental conditions. PMID:8855062

Fallo, G J; Wakefield, C W; Czerw, R J



The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars  

PubMed Central

Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations.

Kemoli, Arthur M



In vitro evaluation of the marginal microleakage of amalgam restorations associated with dentin adhesive, glass ionomer cement and cavity varnish by means of different evaluation methods.  


This in vitro study evaluated the marginal microleakage of amalgam restorations associated with the cavity varnish Copalite - Cooley & Cooley (GI-CP), dentin adhesive OptiBond Solo - Kerr (GII-OS) and the glass ionomer cement Vitremer - 3M (GIII-VT). Forty-five premolars were employed, which were submitted to independent class II preparations at the mesial and distal aspects comprising the marginal ridges and were restored with Dispersalloy - Dentsply. Afterwards, the teeth were thermocycled and stored in 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours. The evaluations were conducted on a light microscope with 150x magnification and on the Sigma Scan software with employment of a single line and segmented lines. Data analysis allowed to establish that none of the materials was able to eliminate the marginal microleakage, having the GI - CP presented greater and statistically significant values in relation to the other groups in all evaluation methods (p<0.05). The lowest values were displayed by the GIII-VT, yet with no statistically significant difference when compared to GII-OS, except for the evaluation at the Sigma Scan in single line. The three evaluation methods showed a strong positive relationship to each other. PMID:20944873

Hoshi, Adriano Tomio; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio da; Pavarini, Aymar



Effect of light-cure initiation time on polymerization and orthodontic bond strength with a resin-modified glass-ionomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The polymerization and acid-base reactions in resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGI) are thought to compete with and inhibit one another. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of visible light-cure (VLC) delay on the polymerization efficiency and orthodontic bond strength of a dual-cured RMGI. Methods: An RMGI light-cured immediately, 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes after mixing comprised the experimental groups. Isothermal and dynamic temperature scan differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the RMGI was performed to determine extents of VLC polymerization and acid-base reaction exotherms. Human premolars (n = 18/group) were bonded with the RMGI. Shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined. Results: DSC results showed the 10 minute delay RMGI group experienced significantly (P <0.05) lower VLC polymerization compared to the other groups. Acid-base reaction exotherms were undetected in all groups except the 10 minute delay group. No significant differences (P >0.05) were noted among the groups for mean shear bond strength. A chi-square test showed no significant difference (P = 0.428) in ARI scores between groups. Conclusions: Delay in light-curing may reduce polymerization efficiency and alter the structure of the RMGI, but orthodontic shear bond strength does not appear to be compromised.

Thomas, Jess


Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement to Bleached Teeth  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Bleaching can considerably reduce shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite adhesives. Application of antioxidants is a method to reverse the negative effect of bleaching on composite-to-enamel bond. However, the efficacy of antioxidants in increasing the SBS of brackets bonded using resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) has not been studied, which was the aim of this study. Materials and methods Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary first premolars were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office Bleaching, SDI). Sodium ascorbate 10% was applied to the experimental specimens (n=25). All the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Ivoclar/Vivadent) and bonded using RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC). The specimens were subjected to incubation (37°C, 24h) and thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 1 min). The SBS was measured at 0.5 mm/min debonding crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored under ×10 magni-fication. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, one- and independent-samples t-test, and Fisher’sexact test (?=0.05). Results The mean SBS of experimental and control groups were 11.97 ± 4.49 and 7.7 ± 3.19 MPa, respectively. The dif-ference was statistically significant (P=0.000 by t-test). SBS of both control (P=0.014) and experimental (P=0.000) groups were significantly higher than the minimum acceptable SBS of 6 MPa, according to one-sample t-test. Conclusion Application of ascorbic acid can guarantee a strong bond when RMGIC is to be used. However, RMGIC might tolerate the negative effect of bleaching with minimum SA treatments (or perhaps without treatments), which de-serves further studies.

Khosravanifard, Behnam; Rakhshan, Vahid; Araghi, Solmaz; Parhiz, Hadi



A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs), due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel) and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min) of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1) Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2) Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3) Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4) Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC.

Sharma, Padmaja; Valiathan, Ashima; Arora, Ankit; Agarwal, Sachin



Nafion Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides some information on Nafion perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes. This particular ionomer is used in several applications including liquid and gas separations, fuel cells, and the chlor-alkali industries. The structure of the material and its chemical makeup is discussed here in depth. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.



Biodegradable aliphatic polyester ionomers.  


A series of polyester-based ionomers containing dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate sodium salt (DMSI) with up to 5 mol-% diacid units was synthesized by two-step polycondensation. Furthermore a polylactic acid (PLA) was modified by introducing poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomers with different ion groups, such as Na, Li, and Zn, using the melt blending method. This review examines the effect of the ionic group on the dynamic mechanical properties, melt rheology, crystallization behavior, degradation behavior, and biocompatibility with human dermal cells, as well as the nucleating effect of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomer in PLA. PMID:15468209

Han, Sang-Il; Yoo, Youngtai; Kim, Dong Kook; Im, Seung Soon



Durability of cermet ionomer cement conditioned in different media.  


The glass ionomer cement has exhibited significant adhesion to hard tooth structures, and good cariostatic properties. The sintering of the silver alloy powder and glass ionomer cement "cermet cement" has provided additional improvement in the physical properties of the restorative material. These were flexural resistance, wear resistance, increased radio-opacity, hardness and porosity. The improvement in the physical properties of the cermet glass cements has provided an extension in their clinical use as core build up, lining for inlays, amalgam and composite restoratives, fissure filling, restoration of primary teeth, class II tunnel preparation, treatment of root caries and repair of defective metal margins in crown and inlays. PMID:1343996

el-Din, I M



Plasticizer Influence on Ionic Morphology and Transport in PEO Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfonated poly(ethylene oxide) ionomers have been blended with a miscible, oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) in order to study the effect of plasticizers on ionomer performance. Plasticizers can increase ionic conductivity in ionomers by depressing the glass transition temperature and dissolving ionic aggregates. In this study, the relative volume fractions of ionic aggregates in various blend compositions is investigated by curve fitting the X-ray scattering aggregate peak. Two fitting parameters are utilized to quantify aggregate composition, peak area and peak position. Fitting results conclude that plasticizer content dilutes and dissolves ionic aggregates, providing higher conducting ion density than comparable neat ionomers. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy data confirms that ionic conductivity improves with plasticizer content. Similar curve fitting methods were executed for FT-IR signals, and quantification of aggregate structure is compared with X-ray scattering.

O'Reilly, Michael; Masser, Hanqing; King, Daniel; Painter, Paul; Colby, Ralph; Runt, James; Winey, Karen



Ionomer Design Principles for Single Ion-Conducting Energy Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-ion conducting ionomers with low glass transition temperature, high dielectric constant and containing bulky ions with diffuse charge, are needed for polymer membranes that transport small counterions. Overarching design principles emerging from quantum chemistry calculations suggest that diffuse charge can be attained from simple considerations of atomic electronegativity. For lithium or sodium batteries, perfluorinated tetraphenyl borate ionomers with solvating polar comonomers are proposed. For fluoride or hydroxide batteries and for iodide transporting solar cells, tetra-alkyl phosphonium ionomers with anion receptors are proposed. First attempts to construct such ionomers to test these ideas will be discussed, with results from dielectric spectroscopy to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and number density of simultaneously conducting ions.

Colby, Ralph; Liang, Siwei; Liu, Wenjuan; Hyeok Choi, U.; Runt, James; Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael



An in vitro study of apical and coronal microleakage of laterally condensed gutta percha with Ketac-Endo and AH26  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare both apical and coronal dye penetration when Ketac-Endo and AH-26 sealers were used with laterally condensed gutta percha. Crowns were removed from 28 teeth and the root canals were biomechanically prepared. The teeth were divided into two groups of 12 teeth each and a control g r o u p

Christopher M. Oliver; Paul V. Abbott



An ex vivo study to evaluate the remineralizing and antimicrobial efficacy of silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer cement type VII for their proposed use as indirect pulp capping materials - Part I  

PubMed Central

Aim: Indirect pulp capping (IPC) preserves the pulp vitality by disinfecting and remineralizing remaining carious dentin. In the present study, glass ionomer (GC, FUJI VII) and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) were tested and compared to calcium hydroxide for their antimicrobial efficacy and remineralizing potential. Materials and Methods: Dentin disks prepared from 45 freshly extracted first premolars were divided into three groups (n = 15). Each disk was cut into two equal parts, in which one half formed the control. Thirty dentin samples were used for ion estimation and the other 15 for microhardness testing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetric and potentiometric titration analyses were performed for calcium, phosphate and fluoride ion detection, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy was analyzed using pure culture of Streptococcus mutans and mixed flora. Results: Increase in the levels of calcium and phosphate ions was the highest in calcium hydroxide group. Both SDF and GC VII groups showed significant increase in fluoride ion levels. Samples treated with GC VII showed maximum increase in micro hardness. The highest zone of bacterial inhibition was found with SDF group. Conclusions: This in vitro study documented the remineralizing, re-hardening and antimicrobial efficacy of both SDF and GC VII and hence can act as effective IPC materials.

Gupta, A; Sinha, N; Logani, A; Shah, N



Counterion Diffusion in Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of Cs counterions to the air/ionomer film interface is followed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and results compared with the "sticky reptation" model[1]. The ionomer system is poly(styrene-ran-methacrylic acid) (Cs-SMAA) neutralized at 100% by Cs. The concentration profiles exhibit a surface excess, z*, of Cs followed by a depletion of Cs. The z* and depletion layer thickness grow as t1/2, consistent with diffusion limited growth. Annealing studies at 130 °C, 145 °C and 208 °C were used to extract the diffusion coefficient, D. In all cases, D is greater than that of the matrix chains. These results suggest that the diffusion rate is controlled by the fraction of counterions that disassociate from the acid groups and migrate through the matrix. Moreover, the "sticky reptation" model doesn't appear to predict the diffusion behavior in the Cs-SMAA system. [1] Leibler, L, Ludwick, L., Rubinstein, M., Colby, R.H., Macromolecules 24 (1991) 4701.

Walter, Russell; Winey, Karen; Kim, Joon-Seop; Composto, Russell



Polyurethane ionomers having shape memory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyurethane (PU) ionomers and non-ionomers with various soft segment contents (SSC) and lengths have been synthesized from polycaprolactone diols (PCL), 4,4?-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 1,4-butanediol (BD) and dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA), and tested for shape memory behaviour as well as for mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. It was found that ionomers gave higher hardness, modulus and strength as compared with non-ionomers, and

Byung Kyu Kim; Sang Yup Lee; Jeong Sam Lee; Sang Hyun Baek; Young Jin Choi; Jang Oo Lee; Mao Xu



Comb-like ionomers from sustainable resources: Copolymers of itaconic anhydride-co-stearyl methacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comb-like random copolymers of itaconic anhydride (ITA) and stearyl methacrylate (SM) copolymers were synthesized by free-radical polymerization. Both monomers are derived from natural and renewable resources. Ionomers (Na, Ca or Zn carboxylates) were prepared by partial neutralization of the copolymers. The incorporation of the ionic groups decreased the melting point, which was lower than the glass transition temperature (Tg) and

Shurui Shang; Samuel J. Huang; R. A. Weiss



Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak ?), an intermediate peak (peak ?), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ?). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça



Multielement Analytical Spectroscopy in Plant Ionomics Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the ionome (ionomics) is defined as quantitative and simultaneous measurement of the element composition of living organisms and changes in this composition in response to physiological stimuli, development stage and genetic modifications (Salt et al. 2008). The necessity to understand the regulation processes of elements in the organisms demands determination of many elements in organism, tissue and cell

Rumyana Djingova; Veronika Mihaylova; Valentina Lyubomirova; Dimiter L. Tsalev



Encapsulant Material For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications  


An encapsulant material includes a layer of metallocene polyethylene disposed between two layers of ionomer. More specifically, the layer of metallocene polyethylene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the first ionomer layer, and a second layer of ionomer is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the layer of metallocene polyethylene. The encapsulant material can be used in solar cell module and laminated glass applications.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA)



Next-generation ionomer encapsulants for thin film technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic properties of newly developed ionomer-based encapsulants are highlighted along with an in-depth analysis of moisture ingress, electrical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of these encapsulants with their high stiffness and strength have been found to allow the use of thinner glass and a possible shift from tempered to annealed glass. Lower-cost mounting options may be explored through full-module stress/deflection measurement capability and competencies developed in world-class finite-element modeling of system parameters. The superior electrical and moisture properties may allow modules to be produced without the use of an additional edge seal. These new materials have improved melt flow properties when compared to other encapsulant families such as EVA or PVB. This allows for faster processing which reduces production cost by shortening the lamination cycle. During the lamination process the sheets show excellent dimensional stability and low shrinkage behavior; and there is no need for curing, thus energy costs are lower due to lower lamination temperature. As advancement of technology proceeds across the entire PV industry, next generation ionomer encapsulants have been developed to keep up with the pace.

Czyzewicz, Robin; Smith, C. Anthony



Comparative evaluation of microleakage in conventional glass ionomer cements and triclosan incorporated glass ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Aim and Objective: The aim of the following study is to comparatively evaluate the microleakage of triclosan incorporated GIC with conventional restorative GIC. Materials and Methods: Triclosan in powder form was added to conventional GIC to formulate a concentration of 2.5%. Class five cavities were prepared in non-carious extracted molars and were respectively restored with conventional restorative GIC and triclosan incorporated GIC. Samples were kept in 10% methylene blue dye. Ground sections were obtained and were observed under a binocular microscope for dye penetration. Result: No significant difference was found in the microleakage of two groups. Conclusion: Triclosan incorporated GIC can be considered as an alternative to GIC with enhanced antibacterial property.

Somani, Rani; Jaidka, Shipra; Jawa, Deepti; Mishra, Shreya



Structural studies of polyurethane ionomer solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Except for a number of conductivity and viscometric measurements, structural studies of polyurethane ionomer solutions are lacking in literature. Polyurethane ionomers in polar solvents are shown to exhibit polyelectrolyte behavior. So these ionomer solutions also form model systems to investigate the characteristic behavior of salt free polyelectrolyte solutions. In this study, viscometry and light scattering experiments have been performed on model polyurethane ionomers, which have regularly positioned ionic groups. The model system is synthesized as a 1:1 copolymer of polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) and 4-4'-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) which is subsequently ionized by abstraction with sodium hydride (NaH) and derivatization with 1,3 propane sultone. The separation distance between the ionic groups is varied by varying the molecular weight of PTMO. Viscometric measurements of these ionomers in a polar solvent, N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), have verified that they exhibit polyelectrolyte behavior. Static and Dynamic Light Scattering have been applied to these ionomer solutions to reveal important information about the structures in solution. The results of the analysis of the light scattering data will be presented.

Nomula, Srinivas; Cooper, Stuart



Ionic Association States in Polyester Copolymer Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of random copolyester ionomers were previously synthesized from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO600) and poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO650) oligomers, separated by the lithium or sodium salt of a sulfonated phthalate. PEO exhibits better solvating ability, while PTMO based ionomers have somewhat lower Tg. By changing the ratio of PEO/PTMO, the polymer's ability to solvate ions at the same ion content was varied, in order to explore the trade-off between ion solvation and lower Tg. Ionomers with different PEO/PTMO ratios were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The results show a systematic change in the ion association states and ion aggregation geometries with PEO/PTMO ratio and temperature. Ionomers with sodium cations have more ion pairs compared to the Lithium ionomers at the same PEO/PTMO ratio, which correspond to the higher dielectric constants in the sodium ionomers. These findings agree with previous X-ray scattering and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy results that the system microphase separates into PEO-rich and a PTMO-rich microphases and the majority of the cations reside in the PEO-rich microphase.

Masser, Hanqing; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph; Painter, Paul; Runt, James



Oxygen reduction at platimun/ionomer interface: effects of phase separation of ionomer  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the interface between platinum and recast ionomers (Nafion EW 1100 and 950 and 6F-40) was studied at different temperatures (20--80{sup o}C) and humidities (10--100%) employing smooth Pt and Pt-black-covered ultramicroelectrodes. ORR was strongly inhibited on smooth electrodes. The inhibition increased with the reduction time, temperature and humidity, but was absent for Nafion EW 1100 in contact with liquid water. It was attributed to the hydrophobic component of ionomer blocking both active sites and oxygen transport. It was postulated that the dynamic changes in interfacial phase separation of ionomer are facilitated by the attractive interactions between the hydrophobic component of ionomer and bare platinum and between oxide-covered Pt and the hydrophilic component of ionomer. These interactions were also proposed to be responsible for the differences in ORR voltammetry for films prepared and equilibrated under different conditions. The decrease in ORR inhibition, Nafion EW 950> Nafion EW 1100> 6F-40, was correlated with physical and molecular properties of the ionomers. The lack of inhibition for Pt-black-covered electrodes was attributed to the more random distribution of ionomer chains and the high activation barriers for the ionomer restructuring at rough interfaces.

Chlistunoff, Jerzy [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Compressive strength of some polyalkenoates with or without dental amalgam alloy incorporation.  


The present study compares the compressive strength after one week of some conventional glass-ionomer restorative materials with that of glass ionomers reinforced by the addition of ceramic-coated silver or dental amalgam alloy particles to the aluminosilicate glass powder. Apart from the commercially available Ketac Silver and Miracle Mix, experimental mixtures of Fuji II glass-ionomer powder, the old as well as the new version, with various amounts of either a spherical or lathe-cut amalgam alloy were investigated. For the conventional glass ionomers, the mean compressive strength based on all measurements amounts to 159.9 +/- 4.5 MPa. Both formulations of Fuji II have a comparable strength after one-week maturation. The compressive strength of Ketac Silver does not differ significantly from that of Ketac Fill or from that of the conventional glass ionomers investigated. The effect of admixing amalgam alloy on the compressive strength is found to be determined by the shape and the amount of the alloy particles. Moreover, both parameters are interactive with the formulation of the Fuji glass ionomer used for preparation of the mixture. The results indicate that when dental amalgam alloy is added to the glass ionomer, lathe-cut particles are to be preferred but only in an amount up to 20% by weight. PMID:1813336

Beyls, H M; Verbeeck, R M; Martens, L C; Lemaitre, L



Fabrication technology to increase surface area of ionomer membrane material and its application towards high surface area electric double-layer capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application friendly technique to increase the surface area of the ionomer membrane such as Aquivion™ has been developed. By utilizing existing micro-fabrication technologies, square pillars were fabricated onto glass and silicon substrates. In combination with a low cost heat press, the glass and silicon stamps were used to successfully hot emboss micro-features onto the ionomer membrane. Consequently, the surface area of the Aquivion™ membrane was drastically increased enabling potential improvement of sensing and energy storage technologies. Preliminary results show successful fabrication of devices with systematic higher surface area and an improved capacitance.

Chang, Alberto A.; Patel, Jasbir N.; Cordoba, Cristina; Kaminska, Bozena; Kavanagh, Karen



Comparative physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of polyphosphoester ionomers with bisphosphonates.  


This work reports the effect of polyphosphoester ionomers on mineralization and cell viability in comparison with the fundamental actions of bisphosphonates. Poly(2-benzoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane-co-2-ethoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane) was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization using an organocatalyst. The benzyl group of polyphosphoesters was completely deprotected as a result of preparing polyphosphoester ionomers. The sodium salt of the ionomer was also prepared by neutralization with an aqueous NaOH solution. The amount of polyphosphoester ionomers adsorbed on hydroxyapatite (HAp) microparticles increased with an increase in the number of ionized units in the polyphosphoesters. The affinity of the ionomers for the HAp microparticles was enhanced by the formation of sodium salt. The adsorption mass of the ionomers having 0.09 ionized unit fraction was approximately equal to that of pamidronate when in contact with HAp microparticles from their 24??M solution. Compared to pamidronate, polyphosphoester ionomers could significantly reduce HAp formation. Furthermore, similar to that of pamidronate, the resorption of HAp was also reduced with the addition of polyphosphoester ionomers. The cytotoxicity of polyphosphoester ionomers was significantly lower than that of pamidronate and the cell compatibility of the polyphosphoester ionomer was further improved by sodium salt formation. Selective adsorption of polyphosphoester ionomers on the mineral deposits generated from MC3T3-E1 cells was also observed. PMID:23594075

Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Koichi; Yoshida, Munehiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko



Ionomer Design, Synthesis and Characterization for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conductors that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions; the commonly studied dual-ion conductors simply will not be used in the next generation of materials for these applications. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations at 0 K in vacuum characterize ion interactions and ion solvation by various functional groups, allowing identification of constituents with weak interactions to be incorporated in ionomers for facile ion transport. Simple ideas for estimating the ion interactions and solvation at practical temperatures and dielectric constants are presented that indicate the rank ordering observed at 0 K in vacuum should be preserved. Hence, such ab initio calculations are useful for screening the plethora of combinations of polymer-ion, counterion and polar functional groups, to decide which are worthy of synthesis for new ionomers. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on these calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for ionic actuators and battery separators. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. Examples are shown of how ab initio calculations can be used to understand experimental observations of dielectric constant, glass transition temperature and conductivity of polymerized ionic liquids with counterions being either lithium, sodium, fluoride, hydroxide (for batteries) or bulky ionic liquids (for ionic actuators).

Colby, Ralph H.



Investigation of ionomers as dispersants for single wall carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel conjugated ionomer was prepared from a diamine and a bis(pyrylium salt). Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were dispersed in solutions of the ionomer in N,N-dimethylacetamide resulting in homogenous suspensions or quasi-solutions. These suspensions were used to cast unoriented thin films. In addition, the ionomer\\/SWNT solutions were used to aid in the dispersal of SWNTs in a soluble, low color

D. M. Delozier; D. M. Tigelaar; K. A. Watson; J SMITHJR; D. J. Klein; P. T. Lillehei; J. W. Connell



Thermodynamics of aggregation in associating ionomer solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small angle neutron scattering has been used to study the aggregation behaviour of a sodium sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) with a molecular weight of 105 g mol?1 and a sulfonation level of 0.95 mol% in dilute p-xylene solution. The variation with concentration of both the average aggregate molecular weight and the average aggregate radius of gyration at temperatures ranging from

D. G. Peiffer; M. Y. Lin



Ionomer Degradation in Electrodes of PEM Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) durability related studies have increased dramatically since 2004, studies on ionomer degradation of the composite electrodes has received far less attention than that of the proton exchange membranes, electrocatalysts, and catalyst supports. The catalyst layer ionomer unavoidably gets involved in other components degradation processes since it is subjected to exposure to different operating effects, including the presence of the catalyst, catalyst support, and the porous nature of the electrode layer which includes 2-phase flow. PEMFC durability issues cannot be fully resolved without understanding the contribution of ionomer degradation in electrode to the performance decay in life time. However, addressing the impact of changes to the catalyst layer ionomer during durability tests is experimentally difficult mainly because of the need to separate the ionomer in the electrode from other components during chemical, electrical and materials characterization. The catalyst layer ionomer is essentially chemically identical to the membrane ionomeric material, and is composed of low atomic number elements, making characterization difficult. In the present work, MEAs with different Nafion ionomer types: stabilized and non-stablized ionomer in the electrode layer (Type I) and mixed membrane/ionomer MEAs (Type II) were designed to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation, as shown in Figure (1a) and (b) respectively. Stabilized and non stabilized ionomers were 5% Nafion{reg_sign} solutions (Ion Power, New Castle, Delaware). The non-stabilized version is the typical Nafion chemical structure with carboxylic acid (-COOH) end groups; these end groups are thought to be a susceptible point of degradative peroxide attack. The stabilized version replaces the -COOH end groups with -CF{sub 3} end groups to prevent peroxide attack at the end groups. Type I MEAs were designed to compare ionomer degradation and its effect on performance decay. Since F{sup -} ions are released only from PFSA based membranes, and not from non-PFSA based membranes, Type II MEAs use a hydrocarbon membrane with no fluorine with a PFSA (Nafion{reg_sign}) ionomer in the catalyst layer for FER measurements. Any F{sup -} ions measured will then have come only for the catalyst layer ionomer during degradation experiments. Type II MEAs allow more detailed chemical characterization exclusively of the catalyst layer ionomer to better understand its degradation.

Borup, Rodney L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Mesoscale modeling of hydrated morphologies of sulfonated polysulfone ionomers.  


The hydrated morphologies of sulfonated poly(phenylene) sulfone (sPSO2) ionomers as a function of equivalent weight (EW), molecular weight (MW), and water content were investigated by using mesoscale dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The morphological changes were characterized by analyzing the water distribution and plotting the radial distribution functions for the water particles. The results were compared to typical PFSA ionomers (i.e., Nafion and Aquivion) to evaluate the effects of backbone and side chain chemistry. Our results show that water is more likely to be equally distributed within the hydrophilic domains of the sPSO2 ionomers particularly at low water content, which is in contrast to strong phase separation observed in PFSA ionomers at the same level of hydration. As the degree of sulfonation is increased (i.e., decreasing the EW), well-connected water clusters develop in the sPSO2 ionomers even at low water content which are less affected by changes in the MW than observed for PFSA ionomers. The size of the water clusters is estimated to be from 1.2 to 1.5 nm (compared to ? 3.5 nm in Nafion) at a water content of 7H2O/SO3H, which is consistent with results determined from previous experiments. This suggests that the high proton conductivity observed in the sPSO2 ionomers is due to the well-connected hydrophilic pathways. PMID:24651930

Wang, Chen; Paddison, Stephen J



Coassembly of Fatty Acid Salts and Semicrystalline Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acid salts, such as magnesium stearate and oleate, are oligomeric analogs of ethylene-based ionomers. Adding 30-40 weight percent fatty acid salt to an ethylene-alkyl acrylate-(meth)acrylic acid terpolymer ionomer nearly eliminates crystallinity after initial molding, but the material's tensile modulus increases progressively over a period of months. High temperature SAXS on the ionomer/fatty acid salt blends shows that the ionic units of the ionomer and the head groups of the fatty acid coassemble in the melt to form a single population of ionic aggregates. Parallel SAXS and DSC measurements reveal that extended room temperature annealing permits crystallization of the fatty acid tails, including co-crystallization with polyethylene segments of the ionomer. In stearate-modified ionomers, upon slow heating, these crystals serve to nucleate a pure phase of fatty acid salt, which coexists with an ionomer-rich phase over a 30^oC range. However, if the crystals are melted rapidly, no phase separation is observed over the same temperature range; the material has the structure of the supercooled single-phase melt. The slow kinetics of both phase separation and crystallization reflect the strong ionic associations present.

Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki; Register, Richard A.



Size-exclusion chromatography of perfluorosulfonated ionomers.  


A size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method in N,N-dimethylformamide containing 0.1 M LiNO(3) is shown to be suitable for the determination of molar mass distributions of three classes of perfluorosulfonated ionomers, including Nafion(®). Autoclaving sample preparation is optimized to prepare molecular solutions free of aggregates, and a solvent exchange method concentrates the autoclaved samples to enable the use of molar-mass-sensitive detection. Calibration curves obtained from light scattering and viscometry detection suggest minor variation in the specific refractive index increment across the molecular size distributions, which introduces inaccuracies in the calculation of local absolute molar masses and intrinsic viscosities. Conformation plots that combine apparent molar masses from light scattering detection with apparent intrinsic viscosities from viscometry detection partially compensate for the variations in refractive index increment. The conformation plots are consistent with compact polymer conformations, and they provide Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants that can be used to calculate molar mass distributions without molar-mass-sensitive detection. Unperturbed dimensions and characteristic ratios calculated from viscosity-molar mass relationships indicate unusually free rotation of the perfluoroalkane backbones and may suggest limitations to applying two-parameter excluded volume theories for these ionomers. PMID:21782181

Mourey, T H; Slater, L A; Galipo, R C; Koestner, R J



A novel furanone-modified antibacterial dental glass ionomer cement.  


A novel furanone derivative and a polyacid constructed from it were synthesized, characterized and formulated into experimental high strength cements. The compressive strength (CS) and Streptococcus mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the cements. The effect of human saliva and aging were investigated. The antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus sp. and cytotoxicity to human pulp cells were also evaluated. The results show that all the formulated furanone-containing cements showed antibacterial activity, with an initial reduction in CS. The effect of the furanone derivative loading was significant. Increasing loading enhanced the antibacterial activity but reduced the initial CS of the formed cements. The derivative showed antibacterial activity against both S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp. Human saliva did not affect the antibacterial activity of the cement. The cytotoxicity study with human dental pulp cells shows that the furanone-modified cement was biocompatible. A 30 day aging study indicated that the cements may have long-lasting antibacterial activity. Within the limitations of this study it appears that the experimental cement could be a clinically attractive dental restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function. PMID:22554887

Weng, Yiming; Howard, Leah; Chong, Voon Joe; Sun, Jun; Gregory, Richard L; Xie, Dong



Crystallization kinetics of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene ionomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypropylene (PP) was lightly maleated by solid-state graft polymerization and further neutralized to prepare semicrystalline ionomers, H+-, Na+-, Ca2+- and Mn2+-form maleated PP (mPP). The crystallization kinetics of pure PP and these ionomers have been investigated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Under both conditions, the introduction of pendant groups along the PP chains increases the crystallization rate and does not

J. Yu; J. He



Chemomechanics of acidic ionomers: Hydration isotherms and physical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydration isotherms of various ionomers (Nafion, Sulfonated Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, Sulfonated Poly-Phenyl-Sulfone) were measured and described by a thermodynamic model, assuming ideality and a linear relation between the thermodynamic osmotic pressure and the volume of the internal electrolytic solution. The only two parameters used are related to measurable physical properties: the deformation parameter, inversely proportional to the elastic modulus of the ionomer, and the free volume parameter. The experimental trends are well reproduced by the model, showing that it captures the main physical features and is suitable for semi-quantitative analysis of ionomer hydration. It indicates that the ionomers behave in good approximation like elastic solids in the studied range of water activities (0 < a(H2O) < 0.95). The implications for practical improvement of ionomer properties by thermal cross-linking and annealing treatments are discussed. Cross-linked ionomers do not only better resist swelling at high humidity, but also dehydration at low humidity, which should increase their durability.

Knauth, P.; Sgreccia, E.; Di Vona, M. L.



Structure-property relationships in semicrystalline copolymers and ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many outstanding physical properties of ethylene/(meth)acrylic acid (E/(M)AA) copolymers and ionomers are associated with their nanometer-scale morphology, which consists of ethylene crystallites, amorphous segments, and acid/ionic functional groups. The goal of this dissertation is a fundamental understanding of the interplay between these structural motifs and the consequent effects on the material properties. We identify small-strain modulus as a key mechanical property and investigate its dependence upon material structure through X-ray scattering, calorimetry, and mechanical property measurements. We first treat E/(M)AA copolymers as composites of polyethylene crystallites and amorphous regions, and establish a quantitative combining rule to describe the copolymer modulus. At temperatures above the Tg of the copolymers, a monotonic increase in modulus with crystallinity is quantitatively described by the Davies equation for two-phase composites, which serves as the basis for separating the effects of amorphous and crystalline phases throughout this dissertation. The room-temperature modulus of E/(M)AA copolymers is concurrently affected by ethylene crystallinity and proximity to the amorphous phase Tg, which rises through room temperature with increasing comonomer content. In E/(M)AA ionomers, phase separation and aggregation of ionic groups provide additional stiffness and toughness. Ionomers are modeled as composites of crystallites and ionically crosslinked rubber, whose amorphous phase modulus far above the ionomer Tg is satisfactorily described by simple rubber elasticity theory. Thermomechanical analyses probe the multi-step relaxation behavior of E/(M)AA ionomers and lead to the development of a new semicrystalline ionomer morphological model, wherein secondary crystallites and ionic aggregates together form rigid percolated pathways throughout the amorphous phase. Metal soaps are oligomeric analogs of E/(M)AA ionomers, which can be blended into ionomers to achieve high ion content and in turn desirable physical properties. We assess the compatibility of various types of metal soaps with E/(M)AA ionomers, and investigate how the soap modifies the ionomers' structure and properties. The mechanical properties and phase behavior of these hybrids, which are found to differ significantly depending on the neutralizing cation type and crystallinizability of the metal soap, are traced back to various levels of molecular coassembly involving the hydrocarbon chains and/or the ionic groups of both entities.

Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki


The Plant Ionome Revisited by the Nutrient Balance Concept  

PubMed Central

Tissue analysis is commonly used in ecology and agronomy to portray plant nutrient signatures. Nutrient concentration data, or ionomes, belong to the compositional data class, i.e., multivariate data that are proportions of some whole, hence carrying important numerical properties. Statistics computed across raw or ordinary log-transformed nutrient data are intrinsically biased, hence possibly leading to wrong inferences. Our objective was to present a sound and robust approach based on a novel nutrient balance concept to classify plant ionomes. We analyzed leaf N, P, K, Ca, and Mg of two wild and six domesticated fruit species from Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand sampled during reproductive stages. Nutrient concentrations were (1) analyzed without transformation, (2) ordinary log-transformed as commonly but incorrectly applied in practice, (3) additive log-ratio (alr) transformed as surrogate to stoichiometric rules, and (4) converted to isometric log-ratios (ilr) arranged as sound nutrient balance variables. Raw concentration and ordinary log transformation both led to biased multivariate analysis due to redundancy between interacting nutrients. The alr- and ilr-transformed data provided unbiased discriminant analyses of plant ionomes, where wild and domesticated species formed distinct groups and the ionomes of species and cultivars were differentiated without numerical bias. The ilr nutrient balance concept is preferable to alr, because the ilr technique projects the most important interactions between nutrients into a convenient Euclidean space. This novel numerical approach allows rectifying historical biases and supervising phenotypic plasticity in plant nutrition studies.

Parent, Serge-Etienne; Parent, Leon Etienne; Egozcue, Juan Jose; Rozane, Danilo-Eduardo; Hernandes, Amanda; Lapointe, Line; Hebert-Gentile, Valerie; Naess, Kristine; Marchand, Sebastien; Lafond, Jean; Mattos, Dirceu; Barlow, Philip; Natale, William



Confinement-driven increase in ionomer thin-film modulus.  


Ion-conductive polymers, or ionomers, are critical materials for a wide range of electrochemical technologies. For optimizing the complex heterogeneous structures in which they occur, there is a need to elucidate the governing structure-property relationships, especially at nanoscale dimensions where interfacial interactions dominate the overall materials response due to confinement effects. It is widely acknowledged that polymer physical behavior can be drastically altered from the bulk when under confinement and the literature is replete with examples thereof. However, there is a deficit in the understanding of ionomers when confined to the nanoscale, although it is apparent from literature that confinement can influence ionomer properties. Herein we show that as one particular ionomer, Nafion, is confined to thin films, there is a drastic increase in the modulus over the bulk value, and we demonstrate that this stiffening can explain previously observed deviations in materials properties such as water transport and uptake upon confinement. Moreover, we provide insight into the underlying confinement-induced stiffening through the application of a simple theoretical framework based on self-consistent micromechanics. This framework can be applied to other polymer systems and assumes that as the polymer is confined the mechanical response becomes dominated by the modulus of individual polymer chains. PMID:24773397

Page, Kirt A; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Stafford, Christopher M; Kim, Sangcheol; Kline, R Joseph; Weber, Adam Z



Some Recent Studies With the Solid-Ionomer Electrochemical Capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giner, Inc., has developed a high-energy-density, all-solid-ionomer electro-chemical capacitor, completely free of liquid electrolyte. The novel features of this device include: (1) a three-dimensional metal oxide-particulate-ionomer composite electrode structure and (2) a unitized repeating cell element. The composite electrode structures are bonded to opposite sides of a thin sheet of a solid proton-conducting ionomer membrane and form an integrally bonded membrane and electrode assembly (MEA). Individual MEAs can be stacked in series as bipolar elements to form a multiple cell device. The discharge characteristics and energy storage properties of these devices are described. Typical capacitance measured for a unit cell is 1 F/cm. Life testing of a multicell capacitor on an intermittent basis has shown that, over a 10,000-hour period, the capacitance and resistance of the cell has remained invariant. There has been no maintenance required on the device since it was fabricated. Other multicell units of shorter life duration have exhibited similar reliable performance characteristics. Recent work has focused on increasing the capacitance of the unitized structure and improving the low-temperature characteristics. The approaches and experimental results will be presented. Some possible advanced NASA applications for these unique all-solid-ionomer devices will be discussed.

Sarangapani, S.; Forchione, J.; Griffith, A.; LaConti, A.; Baldwin, R.



Self-Healing Behavior of Ethylene-Based Ionomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The self-healing behavior of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA)-based ionomers holds tremendous potential for use in a wide variety of unique applications. However, to effectively utilize this self-healing behavior and to design novel materials which possess this ability, the mechanism by which they heal must first be understood ionomers are a class of polymers that can be described as copolymers containing less than 15 mol% ionic content whereby the bulk properties are governed by ionic interactions within the polymer. These ionic groups aggregate into discrete regions known as multiplets which overlap forming clusters that act as physical cross-links profoundly influencing the bulk physical properties. These clusters possess an order-disorder transition (T(sub i)) where the clustered regions may rearrange themselves given time and stimuli. Recognizing the strong influence of these ionic regions on other well understood ionomer properties, their role in self-heating behavior will be assessed. The self-healing behavior is observed following projectile puncture. It has been suggested that during impact energy is passed to the ionomer material, heating it to the melt state. After penetration, it is proposed that the ionic regions maintain their attractions and flow together patching the hole. Thus, the importance of this ionic character and is unique interaction must be established. This will be accomplished through examination of materials with varying ionic content and through the analysis of the T(sub i). The specific ionomer systems examined include a number of ethylene-based materials. Materials of varying ionic content, including the non-ionic base copolymers, will be examined by peel tests, projectile impact and DSC analysis. The information will also be compared with some basic data on LDPE material.

Kalista, Stephen J., Jr.; Ward, Thomas C.; Oyetunji, Zainab



Estimation of electrode ionomer oxygen permeability and ionomer-phase oxygen transport resistance in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.  


The oxygen permeability of perfluorinated and hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs; Nafion®, SPEEK and SPSU), which are used as electrolytes and electrode ionomers in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), was estimated using chronoamperometry using a modified fuel cell set-up. A thin, cylindrical microelectrode was embedded into the PEM and used as the working electrode. The PEM was sandwiched between 2 gas diffusion electrodes, one of which was catalyzed and served as the counter and pseudo-reference electrode. Independently, from fuel cell experiments, the oxygen transport resistance arising due to transport through the ionomer film covering the catalyst active sites was estimated at the limiting current and decoupled from the overall mass transport resistance. The in situ oxygen permeability measured at 80 °C and 75% RH of perfluorinated ionomers such as Nafion® (3.85 × 10(12) mol cm(-1) s(-1)) was observed to be an order of magnitude higher than that of hydrocarbon-based PEMs such as SPEEK (0.27 × 10(12) mol cm(-1) s(-1)) and SPSU (0.15 × 10(12) mol cm(-1) s(-1)). The obtained oxygen transport (through ionomer film) resistance values (Nafion® - 1.6 s cm(-1), SPEEK - 2.2 s cm(-1) and SPSU - 3.0 s cm(-1); at 80 °C and 75% RH) correlated well with the measured oxygen permeabilities in these ion-containing polymers. PMID:23912796

Sambandam, Satheesh; Parrondo, Javier; Ramani, Vijay



Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The surfaces after CVD of silane exhibited water contact angle of 152° and the water droplet stuck to the surfaces without falling even when tilted upside down. This kind of sticky superhydrophobic surface would have potential applications in no-loss transport of liquid, and cleaning robots.

Wang, Xueyuan


Morphologies of precise polyethylene-based acid copolymers and ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid copolymers and ionomers are polymers that contain a small fraction of covalently bound acidic or ionic groups, respectively. For the specific case of polyethylene (PE), acid and ionic pendants enhance many of the physical properties such as toughness, adhesion and rheological properties. These improved properties result from microphase separated aggregates of the polar pendants in the non-polar PE matrix. Despite the widespread industrial use of these materials, rigorous chemical structure---morphology---property relationships remain elusive due to the inevitable structural heterogeneities in the historically-available acid copolymers and ionomers. Recently, precise acid copolymers and ionomers were successfully synthesized by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. These precise materials are linear, high molecular weight PEs with pendant acid or ionic functional groups separated by a precisely controlled number of carbon atoms. The morphologies of nine precise acid copolymers and eleven precise ionomers were investigated by X-ray scattering, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, the morphologies of linear PEs with pseudo-random placement of the pendant groups were also studied. Previous studies of precise copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) found that the microstructural precision produces a new morphology in which PE crystals drive the acid aggregates into layers perpendicular to the chain axes and presumably at the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases. In this dissertation, a second new morphology for acid copolymers is identified in which the aggregates arrange on cubic lattices. The fist report of a cubic morphology was observed at room and elevated temperatures for a copolymer functionalized with two phosphonic acid (PA) groups on every 21st carbon atom. The cubic lattice has been identified as face-centered cubic (FCC). Overall, three morphology types have been identified for precise acid copolymers and ionomers at room temperature: (1) liquid-like order of aggregates dispersed throughout an amorphous PE matrix, (2) one-dimensional long-range order of aggregates in layers coexisting with PE crystals, and (3) three-dimensional periodicity of aggregates in cubic lattices in a PE matrix featuring defective packing. The liquid-like morphology is a result of high content of acid or ionic substituents deterring PE crystallinity due to steric hindrance. The layered morphology occurs when the content of pendants is low and the PE segments are long enough to crystallize. The cubic morphologies occur in precise copolymers with geminal substitution of phosphonic acid (PA) groups and long, flexible PE segments. At temperatures above the thermal transitions of the PE matrix, all but one material present a liquid-like morphology. Those conditions are ideal to study the evolution of the interaggregate spacing (d*) in X-ray scattering as a function of PE segment length between pendants, pendant type and pendant architecture (specifically, mono or geminal substitution). Also at elevated temperatures, the morphologies of precise acrylic acid (AA) copolymers and ionomers were investigated further via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations complement X-ray scattering by providing real space visualization of the aggregates, demonstrating the occurrence of isolated, string-like and even percolated aggregate structures. This is the first dissertation completely devoted to the morphology of precise acid copolymers and precise ionomers. The complete analysis of the morphologies in these novel materials provides new insights into the shapes of aggregates in acid copolymers and ionomers in general. A key aspect of this thesis is the complementary use of experimental and simulation methods to unlock a wealth of new understanding.

Buitrago, C. Francisco


Synthesis of multiblock ionomers by copolymerization in inverse microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of ionomers with randomly distributed ionic blocks was achieved by free radical copolymerization of a hydrophobic\\u000a monomer with an ionic comonomer in inverse microemulsions. The ionic monomer, sodium acrylate (approximately 1?mol% based\\u000a on the monomer feed) is encapsulated in the aqueous compartments of inverse micelles of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate.\\u000a The hydrophobic monomer, methyl methacrylate or butyl acrylate, is dissolved

F. Essler; F. Candau



An easy way of preparing side-chain liquid crystalline ionomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple synthesis method is shown to be effective to produce side-chain liquid crystalline ionomers. The method is based on random copolymerization of a methacrylate monomer bearing a mesogenic group with the methacrylic acid as comonomer; the copolymer is partially neutralized to various degrees to form ionomers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show that the liquid crystalline behavior is modified by

Huanli Lei; Yue Zhao



Complexation of ionomers and surfactant molecules of the same charge in a nonpolar solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexation between sulfonated polystyrene ionomers and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (aerosol OT, AOT) surfactant molecules in m-xylene was studied by ultracentrifugation, vapor pressure osmometry, viscometry, and dynamic light scattering. When the dilute ionomer solution is mixed with the AOT solution, complexation takes place for both the slightly aggregated state of AOT and reversed micelles of AOT containing water. In the

Kirill N. Bakeev; Sergey A. Chugunov; A. B. Zezin; V. A. Kabanov; I. Teraoka; W. J. MacKnight



Morphology of styrene-based ionomers: SAXS investigations using correlation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation function analysis on the SAXS profiles for ionomers containing alkali metals based on copolymers of styrene-acrylic acid and styrene-methacrylic acid obtained in emulsion are presented. The analysis was performed based on the liquid-like model of ionomer structure introduced by Yarusso and Cooper. A study has been made on the influence of content, type of salt and type of alkali metal in styrene- based ionomers on the state of ion aggregation. In all cases the state of ion aggregation is independent on the content of introduced acrylate or methacrylate and is dependent type of introduced alkali metal. The obtained results indicate that in the case of ionomers containing cesium acrylate aggregates of larger sizes are formed than containing cesium methacrylate. For all investigated ionomers the increase of temperature causes the increase of sizes and volume fraction of clusters.

Slusarczyk, Czeslaw; Wlochowicz, Andrzej; Suchocka-Galas, Kazimiera



Interfacial Nanostructure of the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer Constructed with Different Ionomer Contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibrous carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofilaments (CNFs) have attracted attention for use in the polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). We have applied one type of fibrous carbon materials named Marimo carbon (MC) as the catalyst support. The modified nanocolloidal method was used preparing the Marimo carbon supported Pt catalyst (Pt/MC). And then, ionomer/carbon ratio in the cathode catalyst layer of the PEFC has been investigated for its effect on performance and structure of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The morphologies and cell performance of cathode catalyst layer using Marimo carbon changed dramatically with ionomer content. In case of excess ionomer, the air volume between CNFs was plugged up by ionomer, and blocked supply fuel gas diffusion caused decrease cell performance. PEFC cell performance was increase with decreasing ionomer content.

Baba, Koki; Iwasawa, Kenta; Eguchi, Mika; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Kobori, Maya; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka; Ando, Toshihiro



Prevalence andDepthofArtificial Caries-like Lesions Adsjacent toCavities Prepared inRoots andRestored withaGlass Tonomer oraDentin-bonded Composite Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onepotential advantage ofglass-ionomer materials forthetreatment ofrootcaries istheir ability to release fluoride andsoresist cariogenic attack. A commercially available composite material hasalsobeen reported torelease fluoride whichreduced caries lesions in thetooth tissue adjacent toit. Theaimofthis study wasto assess theeffectiveness ofaconventional glass-ionomer restoration compared withadentin-bonded, fluoride- releasing, composite restoration whenexposedtoa microbial artificial caries system. Artificial caries-like lesions produced inrelation totherestorations wereexamined and classified either

A. S. M. Gilmour; D. H. Edmunds; G. Newcombe


Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0?mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16?mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (? = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard.

Reis, Jose Mauricio dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Erica Gouveia; Ribeiro, Joao Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario



The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts  

PubMed Central

Background: Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure variations to which divers are exposed on the pull out strength of glass fiber post luted with different cements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 120 extracted, single-rooted lower premolars were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into six groups and restored using the glass fiber post (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and the following luting agents: Zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, resin cement with etch-and-rinse adhesive, resin cement with self-etching adhesive, and self-adhesive resin cement. Each group was randomly divided into two equal subgroups, one as a control, and the other to be used experimentally. After 7 days of storage, experimental groups were pressure cycled. The force required to dislodge each post was recorded in Newton (N) on Universal testing machine (Star Testing System) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and Student's t-test (P < 0.001). Results: The pull out strength of posts cemented with zinc phosphate and conventional glass ionomer in pressure cycle group was significantly less than their control group. Although, no significant difference was found between pressure cycle and control group using resin reinforced glass ionomer cement and resin cements. Conclusion: Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling.

Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip



Influence of ionomer content in catalyst layers on direct methanol fuel cell performance  

SciTech Connect

The ionomer content in catalyst layers has a marked influence on direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance. In an anode which contains unsupported PtRu as the catalyst, the recast ionomer may not always be necessary because the protonic conductivity of hydrous RuOx, the presence of which is inferred from the X-ray diffraction pattern, may be sufficient to allow effective utilization of catalyst sites. To examine interpenetration of catalyst and membrane material as a possible explanation for the lack of an apparent need of added ionomer, ultramicrotomed thin sections of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic examination of such MEA cross sections revealed significant porosity in layers made by mixing unsupported catalysts with recast ionomer. Images of such sections did not reveal significant interpenetration, supporting the interpretation that hydrous RuOx may by itself provide sufficient protonic conductivity in PtRu catalyst layers prepared with no added ionomer. In contrast they show that the presence of recast ionomer in DMFC cathodes based on unsupported Pt as the catalyst is essential for optimum DMFC performance, because the recast ionomer is the primary source of protonic conductivity in the latter case. Having shown its potential function as proton conductor, they stress that Ru oxide is apparently not the key for maximizing DMFC anodic activity.

Thomas, S.C.; Ren, X.; Gottesfeld, S.



Structure of Secondary Crystals in Ethylene-Based Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical DSC thermogram of an ethylene-(meth)acrylic acid ionomer displays two melting endotherms: one near 100^oC reflecting the melting of primary ethylene crystals, and one at 40-60^oC which we have shown via simultaneous SAXS/WAXS/DSC to arise from the melting of interlamellar secondary crystals. Dynamic DSC (DDSC) confirms that the two peaks reflect a bimodal crystal thickness distribution, rather than a superposition of melting and recrystallization events. The melting temperature of these secondary crystals, estimated to be 2.5-3.5 nm thick, is sensitive to annealing history. DDSC also indicates that these secondary crystals melt irreversibly, as expected if each must be individually nucleated. The 2-D SAXS patterns of highly-oriented blown films of such ionomers show intense peaks, arising from the polyethylene lamellar crystallites, along the direction of principal orientation. Comparing the azimuthal variation in SAXS peak intensity at temperatures below and above the low-temperature endotherm reveals that the secondary crystallites are significantly oriented, but less so than the primary lamellae. Thus, the secondary interlamellar crystals also have a lamellar (anisotropic) habit, rather than resembling fringed micelles (isotropic).

Wakabayashi, K.; Loo, Y.-L.; Huang, Y. E.; Lee, L.-B. W.; Register, R. A.



Silk ionomers for encapsulation and differentiation of human MSCs  

PubMed Central

The response of human bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in silk ionomer hydrogels was studied. Silk aqueous solutions with silk-poly-L-lysine or silk-poly-L-glutamate were formed into hydrogels via ultrasonication in situ with different net charges. hMSCs were encapsulated within the hydrogels and the impact of matrix charge was assessed over weeks in osteogenic, adipogenic and maintenance growth media. These modified silk charged polymers supported cell viability and proliferative potential, and the hMSCs were able to differentiate toward osteogenic or adipogenic lineages in the corresponding differentiation media. The silk/silk-poly-L-lysine hydrogels exhibited a positive effect on selective osteogenesis of hMSCs, inducing differentiation toward an osteogenic lineage even in the absence of osteogenic supplements, while also inhibiting adipogenesis. In contrast, silk/silk fibroin-poly-L-glutamate hydrogels supported both osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs when cultured under induction conditions. The results demonstrate the potential utility of silk-based ionomers in gel formats for hMSCs encapsulation and for directing hMSCs long term functional differentiation toward specific lineages.

Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L.



Mechanism of Ion Diffusion in Coarse-Grained Ionomer Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionomers (polymers with a small amount of charged groups) have been identified as possible single ion conducting battery electrolytes. A barrier their use in such applications is that the strong electrostatic interactions lead to ionic aggregation and can make ion diffusion very slow. In order to understand the physics underlying ionomer dynamics and especially how charge transport occurs, we perform molecular dynamics simulations. Our model has polymers with charged groups either in the backbone or pendant to it, explicit counterions, and long-range Coulomb interactions. Depending on placement, amount, and spacing of the ionic groups, various morphologies of ionic aggregates are formed. We find for all systems, ions can rearrange locally within the ionic aggregates on a relatively short timescale. Ions can move a longer distance when they rearrange collectively on a longer timescale, that is especially long for systems with discrete ionic aggregates. Because of this, a typical ion trajectory shows mostly small movements and rare large, sudden movements. However, these features are not due to `hopping' as typically understood. Instead, nearby aggregates of ions join together, rearrange, and later break apart, during which time some ions are exchanged and appear to have `hopped'.

Hall, Lisa M.; Stevens, Mark J.; Frischknecht, Amalie L.



In vivo disintegration of four different luting agents.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4?mm diameter and 2?mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results. PMID:22007219

Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros



In Vivo Disintegration of Four Different Luting Agents  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4?mm diameter and 2?mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results.

Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros



[Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers  

SciTech Connect

The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

Not Available



Property Control of (Perfluorinated Ionomer)/(Inorganic Oxide) Composites by Tailoring the Nanoscale Morphology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphology and properties of perfluorosulfonate ionomers (PFSI's) can be significantly altered by simple changes in the type of counterion used to neutralize the membrane. Furthermore, with a range of counterions, different solution and melt-processin...

K. A. Mauritz R. B. Moore



Synthesis, characterisation and counterion dependent mesoscopic modifications of ionomer nanocomposites having different dimensional silver nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different dimensional silver nanostructures were synthesized in the cation exchange ionomer matrix Nafion-117 by varying temperature. The nanostructures formed were different sizes spherical nanoparticles depending upon the in situ reduction temperature. Mesoscopic architecture of the nanocomposite thin films containing different dimensional silver nanostructures has been studied by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in different counterionic environment. Investigation of the modifications in nanostructure pattern along with modification in self-assembling morphology of the ionomer in metal-ionomer nanocomposites in different post reduction counterionic environment was found to be unique. The post reduction neutralization by different counterions having different degree of hydration resulted to reorganization of the embedded nanostructures along with the crystalline polymer backbone of the ionomer. This influenced the polydispersity of the nanostructures significantly.

Patra, Sabyasachi; Sen, Debasis; Agarwal, Chhavi; Pandey, Ashok K.; Mazumder, S.; Goswami, A.



Effect of ionic interaction on linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties of ethylene based ionomer melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ionic interaction on linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties was investigated using poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (E\\/MAA) and its ionomers which were partially neutralized by zinc or sodium. Dynamic shear viscosity and step-shear stress relaxation studies were performed. Stress relaxation moduli G(t, y) of the E\\/MAA and its sodium or zinc ionomers were factorized into linear relaxation moduli G°(t) and

Tatsuhiro Takahashi; Jun Watanabe; Keiji Minagawa; Jun-ichi Takimoto; Kenji Iwakura; Kiyohito Koyama



Investigation of the Microphase Separation in Blends of Polyurethane-Based Ionomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of an anion containing polyurethane (PU1) and polyaminourethane (PU2) were investigated. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used in a study of the molecular mobility and microphase morphology and their dependence on the composition of these ionomers. Dielectric thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurements of the ionomer blends showed four relaxation




Dynamic light scattering and rheology of associating sulfonated polystyrene ionomers in non-polar solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic light scattering and reduced viscosity measurements on dilute solutions of sodium sulfonated polystyrene (NaSPS) ionomers of molecular weight 1 × 105 g mol?1 and sulfonation levels of 0, 0.62, 0.95 and 1.39 mol% in xylene are described and compared with earlier static light and small-angle neutron scattering studies. The unsulfonated polystyrene and 0.62 mol% ionomer are present in dilute

A. M. Young; R. Garcia; J. S. Higgins; A. M. Timbo; D. G. Peiffer



Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT–ionomer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites with 0–3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT–Zn ionomer and PZT–EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT–Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT–EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT–Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.



Novel covalently cross-linked poly(etheretherketone) ionomer membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfinated PEEK was synthesized via reduction of sulfochlorinated PEEK. The degree of sulfination was determined by redox titration. By partial reduction of sulfochlorinated PEEK, PEEK carrying both SO 2Cl and sulfinate groups could be obtained. From these polymers, covalently cross-linked ionomer membranes were prepared by reaction with the cross-linker diiodobutane and subsequent hydrolysis of the sulfochloride groups by aqueous post-treatment. The membranes show strongly reduced swelling connected with good H +-conductivity. Moreover, due to the fact that in these membranes all macromolecules are integrated into the covalent network, no leaching out of soluble substance took place during immersion in 90 °C hot DMAc for 5 days. One of the membranes was tested in a DMFC and exhibited stable performance up to T = 130 °C.

Zhang, Wei; Gogel, Viktor; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Kerres, Jochen


Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.  


Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. PMID:21594275

Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam



Poly(vinylidene fluoride) based anion conductive ionomer as a catalyst binder for application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anion conductive polymeric ionomer incorporated into the electrodes of an anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) can help to enhance anion transport in the catalyst layer of electrode, and thus improve the catalyst efficiency and performance of AEMFC. In this work, we report the synthesis and properties of a new type of anion conductive ionomer, which is synthesized by

Fengxiang Zhang; Huamin Zhang; Chao Qu; Junxia Ren



Deformation and Fracture of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomer/Polystyrene Blends: Effect of Ion Content. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The micromorphology, deformation mechanisms and fracture behavior of ionomer/PS(10/90 and 30/70) blends were studied as a function of the ion content of the ionomer-rich second phase. All blend samples studied showed a phase separated microstructure. The ...

M. Bellinger J. A. Sauer M. Hara



CAD\\/CAM Zirconia vs. slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina\\/Zirconia all-ceramic crowns: 2-year results of a randomized controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain

Murat Cavit Çehreli; Ali Murat Kökat; Kivanç Akça



Puncture-Healing Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Filled Ionomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionomers are polymers that contain ionic groups in relatively low concentrations along the polymer backbone. These ionic groups, in the presence of oppositely charged ions, form aggregates that lead to novel physical properties of the polymer. React-A-Seal(trademark) and Surlyn(trademark) are poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) ionomer-based materials and Nucrel(trademark) is the EMAA acid copolymer neutralized to produce Surlyn(trademark). React-A-Seal(trademark), Surlyn(trademark), and Nucrel(trademark) recover into their original shapes following a high impact puncture at velocities ranging from 300 to 1200 ft/s ('self-healing'). This self-healing process may be of great benefit in space applications where structures are exposed to matter impacts. A thermal IR camera indicated a temperature increase to 98 C for Nucrel(trademark) 925, Surlyn(trademark) 8940, React-A-Seal(trademark), and Surlyn(trademark) 8920 after initial penetration. To understand and generalize the observed phenomena, questions concerning the mechanism of the puncture resealing must be answered. One suggestion is that the elastic character of the melt created by the puncture drives the self-healing. This inference is based on the observed temperature rise of approx. 3 C above the melting temperature of the samples (approx. 95 C) during the impact. With the expectation of gaining additional insight into the self-healing phenomenon, a thermodynamic and viscoelastic investigation was conducted using primarily DSC and DMA. Surlyn(trademark) and React-A-Seal(trademark) showed the characteristic order-disorder transition at approx. 52 C that has been reported in literature. Master curves were constructed from the creep isotherms for the four EMAA samples. An aging study was performed to investigate the irreproducibility and "tailing effect" observed in the creep data. The aging study indicated that, with increased aging time and temperature, changes in the polyethylene matrix lead to complexities in morphology resulting in changes in the magnitude and shape of the creep curves.

Ward, Thomas C.



Water-ionomer interfacial interactions investigated by infrared spectroscopy and computational methods.  


Structures for interfacial water condensed in pores and channels of the fluorinated ionomer Nafion from low relative humidity atmosphere were probed through the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and support from classical and quantum chemical calculations. Modern FTIR spectra of H2O and the O-H stretching region for the deuterium-substituted HOD species interacting at the water-ionomer interface in Nafion exchanged by sodium cations are reported and compared to characteristics observed in the earlier studies that employed a dispersive infrared spectrometer and unspecified spectral resolution. Molecular simulations that examine the orientations of water molecules in the vicinity of ionomer were applied to understand the appearance of multiple free O-H stretching bands and the effect of HOD addition. One computational approach was based on a classical force field model, and the other employed density functional theory (DFT) to investigate atomic-scale interactions of water with regions of different hydrophobicity and charge on a perfluorosulfonate ionomer segment. The results suggest hydrogen bonding stabilizes the types of water-ionomer environments that can lead to multiple free O-H stretching vibrational features in experimental spectra. The studies shed light on the structure of H2O at interfaces inside ion conducting membrane materials and have potential for application in elucidating structure at different types of water interfaces. PMID:24111660

Liu, Shu; Aquino, Adelia J A; Korzeniewski, Carol



In Silico Ionomics Segregates Parasitic from Free-Living Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Ion transporters are fundamental to life. Due to their ancient origin and conservation in sequence, ion transporters are also particularly well suited for comparative genomics of distantly related species. Here, we perform genome-wide ion transporter profiling as a basis for comparative genomics of eukaryotes. From a given predicted proteome, we identify all bona fide ion channels, ion porters, and ion pumps. Concentrating on unicellular eukaryotes (n = 37), we demonstrate that clustering of species according to their repertoire of ion transporters segregates obligate endoparasites (n = 23) on the one hand, from free-living species and facultative parasites (n = 14) on the other hand. This surprising finding indicates strong convergent evolution of the parasites regarding the acquisition and homeostasis of inorganic ions. Random forest classification identifies transporters of ammonia, plus transporters of iron and other transition metals, as the most informative for distinguishing the obligate parasites. Thus, in silico ionomics further underscores the importance of iron in infection biology and suggests access to host sources of nitrogen and transition metals to be selective forces in the evolution of parasitism. This finding is in agreement with the phenomenon of iron withholding as a primordial antimicrobial strategy of infected mammals.

Greganova, Eva; Steinmann, Michael; Maser, Pascal; Fankhauser, Niklaus



Molecular dynamics simulation of swollen membrane of perfluorinated ionomer.  


Molecular dynamics simulations of the swollen membrane of perfluorinated ionomer, which is composed of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) backbones and perfluosulfonic pendant side chains, have been undertaken to analyze the static and dynamic properties of the water and the side chain in the membrane. The calculations were carried out for four different water contents, 5, 10, 20 and 40 wt %, at 358.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The sulfonic acid is the unique site to which water molecules can bind, and the other sites in the pendant side chain have no bound water even at high water concentration. (2) Sulfonic acids aggregate in the short range within 4.6-7.7 A despite the electrostatic repulsion between them. In such aggregates, a water molecule bridges two sulfonic acids. (3) Pendant side chains prefer to orient perpendicular to the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface, and long-range correlation of side chain orientations is observed at 20 and 40 wt % water uptake membranes. (4) In a low water uptake membrane, the dynamics of water is substantially restricted due to strong attractive interactions with acidic sites. In contrast, at high water content, even the water locating near the sulfonic acid is relatively mobile. The short residence time of the bound water reveals that such water can frequently exchange position with relatively free water, which locates in the center of water cluster, in highly swollen membranes. PMID:16851491

Urata, Shingo; Irisawa, Jun; Takada, Akira; Shinoda, Wataru; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Mikami, Masuhiro



Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies  

SciTech Connect

The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER



In vivo Cariostatic Effect of Resin Modified Glass lonomer Cement and Amalgam on Dentine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride-releasing materials have been reported to be bactericidal in vitro. This may be of benefit to modern dentistry, which is directed to the preservation of tooth tissue during restorative treatment. Little is known about in vivo effects. The aim is to investigate the influence of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) on carious dentine that remains under restorations, compared to

C. M. Kreulen; J. J. Soet; K. L. Weerheijm; W. E. van Amerongen



[Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers]. [Annual report, April 1, 1989--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

Not Available



Melt-intercalation of sodium-montmorillonite with alkylamine and quarternized ammonium salts of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Na-Montmorillonite (Na-Mmt) was melt-intercalated with alkylamine and quarternized ammonium salts of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers (SPS) with no other organic modification. Mixtures of SPS and polystyrene (PS) also exhibited similar intercalation, indicating that the ionomer was an effective compatibilizer for a non-polar polymer such as PS. The materials were mixed in a co-rotating, non-intermeshing twin-screw extruder. The intercalation was relatively insensitive

Nikhil N. Bhiwankar; R. A. Weiss



Atraumatic Restorative Treatment and Glass-lonomer Sealants in a School Oral Health Programme in Zimbabwe: Evaluation after 1 Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oral health care programme in secondary schools using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique for dental caries was started in 1993. Glass-ionomer was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed using the ‘press finger’ technique. Results after 1 year revealed a survival percentage for one-surface ART restorations of 93.4 whilst the complete and partial retention percentages

J. E. Frencken; F. Makoni; W. D. Sithole



Natural Genetic Variation in Selected Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana Is Associated with Ionomic Differences  

PubMed Central

Controlling elemental composition is critical for plant growth and development as well as the nutrition of humans who utilize plants for food. Uncovering the genetic architecture underlying mineral ion homeostasis in plants is a critical first step towards understanding the biochemical networks that regulate a plant's elemental composition (ionome). Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana provide a rich source of genetic diversity that leads to phenotypic differences. We analyzed the concentrations of 17 different elements in 12 A. thaliana accessions and three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations grown in several different environments using high-throughput inductively coupled plasma- mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Significant differences were detected between the accessions for most elements and we identified over a hundred QTLs for elemental accumulation in the RIL populations. Altering the environment the plants were grown in had a strong effect on the correlations between different elements and the QTLs controlling elemental accumulation. All ionomic data presented is publicly available at

Buescher, Elizabeth; Achberger, Tilman; Amusan, Idris; Giannini, Anthony; Ochsenfeld, Cherie; Rus, Ana; Lahner, Brett; Hoekenga, Owen; Yakubova, Elena; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Zhang, Min; Salt, David E.; Baxter, Ivan R.



Synthesis and properties of side chain liquid crystalline ionomers containing quaternary ammonium salt groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

New thermotropic side chain liquid crystalline ionomers (LCIs), containing 4-(4-allyloxybenzyloxy)-4?-alkoxybiphenyl (IM) as mesogenic unit and allyltriethylammonium bromide (ATAB) as non-mesogenic unit, were synthesized by graft copolymerization upon polymethylhydrosiloxane. The chemical structures of the polymers were confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the thermal properties of these polymers; the mesogenic properties were characterized by polarizing

Bin Tong; Yan Yu; Rongji Dai; Yulin Deng



Plant ionome diagnosis using sound balances: case study with mango (Mangifera Indica).  


Plant ionomes and soil nutrients are commonly diagnosed in agronomy using concentration and nutrient ratio ranges. However, both diagnoses are biased by redundancy of information, subcompositional incoherence and non-normal distribution inherent to compositional data, potentially leading to conflicting results and wrong inferences. Our objective was to present an unbiased statistical approach of plant nutrient diagnosis using a balance concept and mango (Mangifera indica) as test crop. We collected foliar samples at flowering stage in 175 mango orchards. The ionomes comprised 11 nutrients (S, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe). Traditional multivariate methods were found to be biased. Ionomes were thus represented by unbiased balances computed as isometric log ratios (ilr). Soil fertility attributes (pH and bioavailable nutrients) were transformed into balances to conduct discriminant analysis. The orchards differed more from genotype than soil nutrient signatures. A customized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) iterative procedure was developed to classify tissue ionomes between balanced/misbalanced and high/low-yielders. The ROC partitioning procedure showed that the critical Mahalanobis distance of 4.08 separating balanced from imbalanced specimens about yield cut-off of 128.5 kg fruit tree(-1) proved to be a fairly informative test (area under curve = 0.84-0.92). The [P | N,S] and [Mn | Cu,Zn] balances were found to be potential sources of misbalance in the less productive orchards, and should thus be further investigated in field experiments. We propose using a coherent pan balance diagnostic method with median ilr values of top yielders centered at fulcrums of a mobile and the critical Mahalanobis distance as a guide for global nutrient balance. Nutrient concentrations in weighing pans assisted appreciating nutrients as relative shortage, adequacy or excess in balances. PMID:24273548

Parent, Serge-Étienne; Parent, Léon E; Rozane, Danilo Eduardo; Natale, William



Effect of aggregation on the single-chain dimensions of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers in xylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to determine the dimensions of single chains within the aggregates formed in the solvent p-xylene by a sodium sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS). This polymer has a molecular weight of 105 g mol?1 and sulfonation level of 1.25 mol %. The dimensions were obtained by using a mixture of normal and deuterated polymer to achieve

A. R. Rennie



Synthesis and characterisation of novel PBT and PCCD telechelic ionomers prepared by end capping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) (PCCD) ionomers containing terminal ionic units, derived from a novel sodiosulfonate epoxy molecule, were synthesised using an end capping technique in solution. The sulfonated epoxide has the fundamental feature of selectively reacting with the polymer carboxylic terminal groups and therefore, creating polymers with terminal ionic groups. The presence of the sodiosulfonate end groups was

Corrado Berti; Maurizio Fiorini; Paola Marchese; Laura Sisti



Influence of ionomer content on the structure and performance of PEFC membrane electrode assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Nafion ionomer content of the cathode catalyst-layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), made by the decal hot pressing method, has been investigated for its effect on performance and structure of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Varying Nafion content was shown to have an effect on performance within the entire range of polarization curves (i.e. kinetic, ohmic, and mass-transport regions) as well as on the structure. AFM analysis shows the effect of Nafion on the dispersion of carbon aggregates. Further analysis using TEM demonstrates the effect of Nafion on both the dispersion of carbon aggregates and the distribution and thickness of the Nafion ionomer films surrounding the catalyst/carbon aggregates. The MEA structure change correlates well with the MEA performance on both kinetics and mass-transport region. The determining factors on the performance of MEA are the interfacial zone (between the ionomer and catalyst particle), the dispersion of catalyst/carbon aggregates and the distribution/thickness of Nafion films. An optimized Nafion content in the range of 27 6 wt.% for the cathode was determined for an E-TEK 20% Pt3Cr/C catalyst at a loading of 0.20mg Pt/cm2.

Xie, Jian [Indiana University and Purdue University; Xu, Fan [Indiana University and Purdue University; WoodIII, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Wayne H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)



Shape-Memory Polymers Based on Fatty Acid-Filled Elastomeric Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have applications as medical devices, actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, switches, smart textiles, and self-deployable structures. All previous design of SMPs has involved synthesizing new polymers or modifying existing polymers. This paper describes a new type of SMP based on blends of an elastomeric ionomer and low molar mass fatty acids or their salts (FAS). Shape memory elastomers were prepared from mixtures of a sulfonated EPDM ionomer and various amounts of a FAS (e.g., zinc stearate, zinc oleate, and various aliphalic acids). Nanophase separation of the metal sulfonate groups provided the ``permanent'' crosslinks, while sub-microscopic crystals of the low molecular weight FAS provided a physical crosslink needed for the temporary shape. The material was deformed above the melting point of the FAS and the new shape was fixed by cooling the material while under stress to below the melting point of the FAS. Polar interactions between the ionomer and the FAS stabilized the dispersion of the FAS in the polymer and provided the continuity between the phases that allowed the crystals of the FAS to provide a second network of physical crosslinks. The temporary shape was erased and the material returned to the primary shape by heating above the melting point of the FAS.

Izzo, Elise; Weiss, Robert



[Parodontal tissues reaction to filling of dental root defect with different materials in experiment].  


In experimental study on 4 mongrel 4-5 year old dogs under intravenous anesthesia (rometar) after turning back of mucous-periosteum flap and forming artificial defects of hard tissues in the upper third of a dental root the defects were filled with glass-ionomer cement (Ketac-molar, 3M-Espe), composite light cured material (Heliomolar flow, Ivoclar-Vivadent), amalgam with high silver content (Amalcap Plus regular non-Gamma-2, Ivoclar-Vivadent) or with material for dental root perforation closure (PRO-Poot mta, Dentsply). It was found that parodontium reacted to these filling materials by inflammation. The glass-ionomer cement and material for dental root perforation closure had lesser effect on parodontium in comparison with composite and amalgam. PMID:17495804

Barer, G M; Volozhin, A I; Bo?kov, M I



Chalcogenide Glasses,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although there are some significant exceptions, most important glass-forming systems contain elements from the sixth, or chalcogenide, column of the periodic table (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). The glasses which contain oxygen are typically in...

P. C. Taylor



Optimization of nafion ionomer content using synthesized Pt/carbon nanofibers catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.  


In this study, carbon nanofiber (CNF) was used as a support in which 47.5 wt% Pt/CNFs catalyst was prepared by a modified polyol method. The platinum particle size and dispersion on the CNFs are approximately 2-4 nm as determined by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was approximated as 55.90 m2/g by BET analysis. Electrodes were prepared by the spray method and have a size of 5 cm2. A commercial catalyst (TKK, 46 wt% Pt/C) was used as the anode and the cathode was Pt/CNFs. Different amounts of Nafion ionomer (Aldrich, 5 wt% solution, in the range of 0-20 wt%) were coated on a membrane (Dupont, Nafion 212) with 0.4 mg/cm2 of Pt catalyst at the cathode side. The resulting polarization, ohmic and mass transfer resistances changed significantly based on the Nafion ionomer content. Optimum Nafion ionomer content in the 47.5 wt% Pt/CNFs was 5 wt%. The well-dispersed Nafion ionomer was observed on the catalyst surface area using SEM-EDAX analysis. A sufficient triple-phase boundary was formed by a small amount of Nation ionomer due to the BET surface area of the Pt/CNFs. PMID:22966581

Jung, Ju-Hae; Cha, Moon-Soon; Kim, Jun-Bom



Structure and Mechanical Property Modifications by Blending Alkyl Carboxylate Salts into Ethylene-co-(Meth)Acrylic Acid Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous studies have shown that the addition of magnesium stearate, a saturated linear alkyl carboxylate salt, has a significant effect on the behavior of ethylene-based ionomers, such as the initial suppression of polymer crystallinity and a gradual but substantial increase in the elastic modulus following room temperature annealing. This behavior is believed to originate in the coassembly of the two components, both co-aggregation of the ionic groups and co-crystallization of the alkyl segments. We test this hypothesis by blending either crystallizable or noncrystallizable alkyl carboxylates into ethylene-co-(meth)acrylic acid ionomers. DSC, WAXS and SAXS on a stearate-modified ionomer show that the alkyl chain segments are packed in a more organized fashion compared to the unmodified ionomer, while the resulting crystals are much thinner than those typically found in polyethylene. The non-crystalline magnesium oleate still coassembles with the ionomer in the melt, but does not crystallize at room temperature, acting instead as a plasticizer for the amorphous phase.

Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki; Register, Richard A.



Water, proton, and oxygen transport in high IEC, short side chain PFSA ionomer membranes: consequences of a frustrated network.  


The effect of ion exchange capacity (IEC) on the water sorption properties of high IEC, short side chain (SSC) PFSA ionomer membranes, and the relationships between water content, proton conductivity, proton mobility, water permeation, oxygen diffusion, and oxygen permeation are investigated. SSC PFSA ionomer membranes possessing 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 mmol g(-1) IEC are compared to a series of long side chain (LSC) PFSA ionomer membranes ranging in IEC from 0.9 to 1.13 mmol g(-1). At 25 °C, fully-hydrated SSC ionomer membranes are characterized as possessing higher water contents (56-75 vol%), moderate ? values (15-18), high analytical acid concentrations (2-2.8 M), and moderate conductivity (88-115 mS/cm); but lower than anticipated effective proton mobility. Complementary measurements of water permeability, oxygen diffusion, and oxygen permeability also yield lower than expected values given their much higher water contents. Potential benefits afforded by reducing the side chain length of PFSA ionomer membranes, such as increased crystallinity, higher IEC, and high hydrated acid concentration are offset by a less-developed, frustrated hydrophilic percolation network, which provides a motivation for future improvements of transport properties for this class of material. PMID:21915410

Luo, Xiaoyan; Holdcroft, Steven; Mani, Ana; Zhang, Yongming; Shi, Zhiqing



Glass Artworks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several NASA technologies have played part in growth and cost containment of studio glass art, among them a foam type insulation developed to meet a need for lightweight material that would reduce flame spread in aircraft fire. Foam comes in several forms and is widely used by glass artists, chiefly as an insulator for the various types of ovens used in glass working. Another Spinoff is alumina crucibles to contain molten glass. Before alumina crucibles were used, glass tanks were made of firebrick which tended to erode under high temperatures and cause impurities; this not only improved quality but made the process more cost effective. One more NASA technology that found its way into glass art working is a material known as graphite board, a special form of graphite originally developed for rocket motor applications. This graphite is used to exact compound angles and creates molds for poured glass artworks of dramatic design.



Influence of Ion Content, Cation Size and Polymerization Method on Ion Association States of Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of ion content, cation size and polymerization method on ion association states are systemically studied using FTIR spectroscopy in a series of ionomers with short ethylene oxide and ionic sulfonated styrene side chains. Ion content is controlled by the ratio of these side chains. When comparing similar ionomers with different ion content, there are more free ions at higher ion content. Free radical and RAFT polymerizations yield ionomers with different molecular weights, polydispersity and ionic side chain distributions. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrates that the ionomers synthesized via free radical polymerization have more free ions compared to their RAFT analogs. The ionomers with larger cations, such as tetrammonium, have higher free ion contents. Information on ion association states is then related to ion conductivity and crystallinity characterized by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and wide angle X-ray scattering, respectively.

Masser, Hanqing; Wang, Jing-Han Helen; Colby, Ralph; Painter, Paul; Runt, James



Thermal processing as a means to prepare durable, submicron thickness ionomer films for study by transmission infrared spectroscopy.  


A high temperature solution processing method was adapted to prepare durable, freestanding, submicrometer thickness films for transmission infrared spectroscopy studies of ionomer membrane. The materials retain structural integrity following cleaning and ion-exchange steps in boiling solutions, similar to a commercial fuel cell membrane. Unlike commercial membrane, which typically has thicknesses of >25 ?m, the structural properties of the submicrometer thickness materials can be probed in mid-infrared spectral measurements with the use of transmission sampling. Relative to the infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique, transmission measurements can sample ionomer membrane materials more uniformly and suffer less distortion from optical effects. Spectra are reported for thermally processed Nafion and related perfluoroalkyl ionomer materials containing phosphonate and phosphinate moieties substituted for the sulfonate end group on the side chain. Band assignments for complex or unexpected features are aided by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. PMID:22947127

Byun, Chang Kyu; Parker, Tifani; Liang, Chunchao; Kendrick, Ian; Dimakis, Nicholas; Smotkin, Eugene S; Jin, Li-Mei; Zhuang, Dongqing; DesMarteau, Darryl D; Creager, Stephen E; Korzeniewski, Carol



Glass research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research efforts span three general areas of glass science: glass refining, gel-derived glasses, and nucleation and crystallization of glasses. Gas bubbles which are present in a glass product are defects which may render the glass totally useless for the end application. For example, optical glasses, laser host glasses, and a variety of other specialty glasses must be prepared virtually defect free to be employable. Since a major mechanism of bubble removal, buoyant rise, is virtually inoperative in microgravity, glass fining will be especially difficult in space. On the other hand, the suppression of buoyant rise and the ability to perform containerless melting experiments in space allows the opportunity to carry out several unique bubble experiments in space. Gas bubble dissolution studies may be performed at elevated temperatures for large bubbles with negligible bubble motion. Also, bubble nucleation studies may be performed without the disturbing feature of heterogeneous bubble nucleation at the platinum walls. Ground based research efforts are being performed in support of these potential flight experiments.

Weinberg, M. C.



glass ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass sample with a composition of Li1.3Nb0.3Fe1.7(PO4)3, prepared by a conventional melt-quenching method, was heat treated to obtain glass ceramics of NASICON type. Glass transition ( T g) and crystallization ( T c) temperatures of as-quenched glass sample were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns also confirmed the formation of glass sample. After heat treatment above T c, precipitation of crystalline particles with NASICON-type structure was confirmed by XRD. Valency and local structure of Fe atoms were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. DC-conductivity and impedance measurements of the glass ceramics proved the increased electrical conduction caused by heat treatment.

Hassaan, M. Y.; Salem, S. M.; Moustafa, M. G.; Kubuki, S.; Matsuda, K.; Nishida, T.



Morphological and physical characterization of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers and ionomers thereof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers made by living cationic polymerization using a difunctional initiator and the sequential monomer addition technique were analyzed using curve-resolution software in conjunction with high-resolution GPC. Fractional precipitation and selective solvent extraction were applied to a representative sample in order to confirm the identity of contaminating species. The latter were found to be low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymer, diblock copolymer, and higher molecular weight segmented block copolymers formed by intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution linking reactions occurring late in the polymerization of the styrene outer blocks. Solvent-cast films of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (PS-PIB-PS) block copolymers and block ionomers were analyzed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four block copolymer samples with center block molecular weights of 52,000 g/mol and PS volume fractions (o sbPS) ranging from 0.17 to 0.31 were studied. All samples exhibited hexagonally packed cylinders of PS within the PIB matrix. Cylinder spacing was in the range 32 to 36 nm for most samples, while cylinder diameters varied from 14 to 21 nm. Porod analysis of the scattering data indicated the presence of isolated phase mixing and sharp phase boundaries. PS-PIB-PS block copolymers and ionomers therefrom were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile testing. The study encompassed five block copolymer samples with similar PIB center blocks with molecular weights of approx52,000 g/mol and PS weight fractions ranging from 0.127 to 0.337. Ionomers were prepared from two of these materials by lightly sulfonating the PS outer blocks. Sulfonation levels varied from 1.7 to 4.7 mol % and the sodium and potassium neutralized forms were compared to the parent block copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the block copolymer films indicated the existence of a third phase attributed to PIB chains near the PS domain interface which experience reduced mobility due to their firm attachment to the hard PS domain. The relative amount of this phase decreased in samples with larger PS blocks, while the temperature of the associated transition increased. Tensile testing showed increased tensile strength but decreased elongation at break with larger PS blocks. DMA of the ionomers indicated improved dynamic modulus at temperatures above 100spcirc$C. Tensile testing of the ionomers indicated slight improvements in tensile strength with little loss in elongation at break. PS-PIB-PS block copolymer ionomer (BCP01, center block molecular weight = 53,000 g/mole; 25.5 wt % polystyrene, 4.7% sulfonation of phenyl units, 100% neutralized with KOH) was compounded with various organic and inorganic acid salts of 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethyl aminobenzoate (ODAB) to explore the efficacy of these compounds as ionic plasticizers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Baugh, Daniel Webster, III


An investigation of long and short range ion motions within the cluster morphology of electrolyte-containing perfluoro-sulfonate ionomer membranes  

SciTech Connect

An equivalent circuit model was postulated for PFSI (perfluoro-sulfanate-ionomer) polymers. It successfully models three different dielectric relaxation mechanisms taking place within long and short sidechain PFSI's in an alternating electric field. The three dielectric processes are long-range ion inter-cluster hopping in the low frequency region, short-range intra-cluster polarization occurred in frequencies at about 10[sup 3] to 10[sup 6] Hz, and Debye-like orientation of water molecules taking place at very high frequencies. When membranes are annealed in the proximity of the glass transition temperature of ionic clusters, the packing of sulfonate groups becomes more efficient. This is by the fact that the symmetrical parameter of the distribution of relaxation time of the Cole-Cole equation increases with annealing time. The cluster activities of the long and short sidechain polymers act differently in different electrolyte solutions. The sidechains of the long sidechain polymer act like a spring, it contracts while the material was equilibrated in low concentration solutions and it expands as equilibrated in concentrated solutions. The cluster dimension of the long sidechain material does not vary too much. The cluster dimension of short sidechain polymers can vary significantly on different electrolyte solutions.

Su, S.



The role of acrylonitrile in controlling the structure and properties of nanostructured ionomer films.  


Ionomers are polymers which contain ionic groups that are covalently bound to the main chain. The presence of a small percentage of ionic groups strongly affects the polymer's mechanical properties. Here, we examine a new family of nanostructured ionomer films prepared from core-shell polymer nanoparticles containing acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (Bd) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Three new AN-containing dispersions were investigated in this study. The core-shell nanoparticles contained a PBd core. The shells contained copolymerised Bd, AN and MAA, i.e., PBd-AN-MAA. Three types of crosslinking were present in these films: covalent crosslinks (from Bd); strong physical crosslinks (involving ionic bonding of RCOO(-) and Zn(2+)) and weaker physical crosslinks (from AN). We examined and compared the roles of AN and ionic crosslinking (from added Zn(2+)) on the structure and mechanical properties of the films. The FTIR spectroscopy data showed evidence for RCOOH-nitrile hydrogen bonding with tetrahedral geometry. DMTA studies showed that AN copolymerised within the PBd-AN-MAA phase uniformly. Tensile stress-strain data showed that inclusion of AN increased elasticity and toughness. Analysis showed that about 33 AN groups were required to provide an elastically-effective chain. However, only 1.5 to 2 ionically bonded RCOO(-) groups were required to generate an elastically-effective chain. By contrast to ionic bonding, AN inclusion increased the modulus without compromising ductility. Our results show that AN is an attractive, versatile, monomer for increasing the toughness of nanostructured ionomers and this should also be the case for other nanostructured polymer elastomers. PMID:24852137

Tungchaiwattana, Somjit; Musa, Muhamad Sharan; Yan, Junfeng; Lovell, Peter A; Shaw, Peter; Saunders, Brian R



Glass Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is a glass electrolyte for use in sodium/sulfur batteries that has a low resistivity (100 ohm-cm at 300 exp 0 C) and is stable in the cell environment. Experiments in this program are focussed on glasses in the quaternary sy...



Metallic glasses.  


Amorphous metallic alloys, relative newcomers to the world of glasses, have properties that are unusual for solid metals. The metallic glasses, which exist in a very wide variety of compositions, combine fundamental interest with practical applications. They also serve as precursors for exciting new nanocrystalline materials. Their magnetic (soft and hard) and mechanical properties are of particular interest. PMID:17770105

Greer, A L



Rainbow Glasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore light, color and rainbows by making their own rainbow glasses. Learners glue "rainbow optics paper" onto the glasses cutout, add decorations and attach pipe cleaner earpieces. Learners name the different colors they observe and notice that the colors always appear in the same order. This activity guide includes open-ended questions to help learners explore these topics further.




Frosty Glasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore why frost forms. They create their own frost using a solution of ice water and salt in a glass. The salt allows the temperature of the water to drop below the normal freezing point, so that water vapor in the air turns directly into solid ice on the surface of the glass.




Exploring Li+ Potential Energy Surface in Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Sulfonate Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-containing polymers are of interest as single-ion conductors for use as electrolytes in electrochemical devices, including lithium ion batteries. Current ion conductivities of the best ionomers are roughly 100X too small for practical applications and have a small fraction of their Li+ counterions participating in conduction. We are using ab initio methods to investigate the Li+ conduction mechanism, and specifically the role of transient positive triple ions (Li+A-Li+) in the conduction process. The positive triple ion has a lower energy separated state that allows for facile transport, if there is a pair within 1.4 nm. We will discuss the competition between cation solvation with ether oxygen atoms and cation-anion interaction. The importance of anion-anion separation in altering Li+ hopping barriers will be examined, as well as the variation in hopping rates with solvent identity. Ab initio calculations are used to evaluate the relative energy of ion states (contact and separated states), and this analysis is used to explain experimental phenomena of Li+ mobility in ionomers.

Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael J.; Colby, Ralph H.



Toward Reconciliation of STEM and SAXS Data from Ionomers by Investigating Gold Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently pioneered the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for direct, model independent imaging of the nano-scale morphology of ionomers. To date, the sizes of ionic aggregates determined in STEM experiments are inconsistent with SAXS data interpreted by the Yarusso-Cooper model. To address this discrepancy we have investigated a pair of model nanoparticles (11 and 55 atom Au clusters) with both STEM and SAXS. Using this model system we have improved our method of measuring nanometer scale objects and evaluated the importance of STEM probe size and specimen thickness. While the size of the STEM probe was inconsequential, specimen thicker than 50 nm showed significant depreciation of image quality, which limits our ability to accurately measure particle size. SAXS was performed on dilute suspensions of nanoparticles and fit using a monodisperse, hard-sphere form factor model. For Au11, STEM finds a diameter of 1.3 nm + .14 and SAXS finds a diameter of 1.4 nm. Similarly, both STEM and SAXS determine a diameter of 1.7 nm for Au55. Analysis of these model systems have allowed us to evaluate several factors of potential importance in reconciling STEM and SAXS data from ionomers.

Benetatos, Nicholas; Smith, Brian; Heiney, Paul; Winey, Karen



Cluster-continuum quantum mechanical models to guide the choice of anions for Li{sup +}-conducting ionomers  

SciTech Connect

A quantum-mechanical investigation on Li poly(ethylene oxide)-based ionomers was performed in the cluster-continuum solvation model (CCM) that includes specific solvation in the first shell surrounding the cation, all surrounded by a polarizable continuum. A four-state model, including a free Li cation, Li{sup +}-anion pair, triple ion, and quadrupole was used to represent the states of Li{sup +} within the ionomer in the CCM. The relative energy of each state was calculated for Li{sup +} with various anions, with dimethyl ether representing the ether oxygen solvation. The population distribution of Li{sup +} ions among states was estimated by applying Boltzmann statistics to the CCM energies. Entropy difference estimates are needed for populations to better match the true ionomer system. The total entropy change is considered to consist of four contributions: translational, rotational, electrostatic, and solvent immobilization entropies. The population of ion states is reported as a function of Bjerrum length divided by ion-pair separation with/without entropy considered to investigate the transition between states. Predicted concentrations of Li{sup +}-conducting states (free Li{sup +} and positive triple ions) are compared among a series of anions to indicate favorable features for design of an optimal Li{sup +}-conducting ionomer; the perfluorotetraphenylborate anion maximizes the conducting positive triple ion population among the series of anions considered.

Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Liu, Wenjuan; Colby, Ralph H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)



Antibacterial Properties of Dental Luting Agents: Potential to Hinder the Development of Secondary Caries  

PubMed Central

A modified direct contact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of four commercially available dental luting agents (RelyX Unicem, Ketac Cem, Ceramir Crown & Bridge and Harvard Cement) and two reference materials (glass-ionomer cement and calcium aluminate cement) compared to a negative-control material (PMMA). Streptococcus mutans bacteria were placed in direct contact with specimens that had been aged for 10?min, 1?day, and 7?days, in order to test the antibacterial properties of the materials. A metabolic assay containing resazurin was used to quantify the amount of viable bacteria remaining after the direct contact tests. The effects of pH and fluoride on bacteria proliferation were also evaluated. Strongest antibacterial properties were found for calcium aluminate cement, followed by Ceramir Crown & Bridge and RelyX Unicem. Ketac Cem, Harvard Cement, and the reference glass-ionomer cement showed bacteria content either higher than or not significantly different from the PMMA control in all instances. pH levels below 6.3 and above 9.0 were found to have negative effects on bacterial proliferation. No correlation between either acidic materials or fluoride release and antibacterial properties could be seen; rather, basic materials showed stronger antibacterial properties.

Unosson, Erik; Cai, Yanling; Jiang, Xiyuan; Loof, Jesper; Welch, Ken; Engqvist, Hakan



Antibacterial properties of dental luting agents: potential to hinder the development of secondary caries.  


A modified direct contact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of four commercially available dental luting agents (RelyX Unicem, Ketac Cem, Ceramir Crown & Bridge and Harvard Cement) and two reference materials (glass-ionomer cement and calcium aluminate cement) compared to a negative-control material (PMMA). Streptococcus mutans bacteria were placed in direct contact with specimens that had been aged for 10?min, 1?day, and 7?days, in order to test the antibacterial properties of the materials. A metabolic assay containing resazurin was used to quantify the amount of viable bacteria remaining after the direct contact tests. The effects of pH and fluoride on bacteria proliferation were also evaluated. Strongest antibacterial properties were found for calcium aluminate cement, followed by Ceramir Crown & Bridge and RelyX Unicem. Ketac Cem, Harvard Cement, and the reference glass-ionomer cement showed bacteria content either higher than or not significantly different from the PMMA control in all instances. pH levels below 6.3 and above 9.0 were found to have negative effects on bacterial proliferation. No correlation between either acidic materials or fluoride release and antibacterial properties could be seen; rather, basic materials showed stronger antibacterial properties. PMID:22505901

Unosson, Erik; Cai, Yanling; Jiang, Xiyuan; Lööf, Jesper; Welch, Ken; Engqvist, Håkan



Lithium Polymer Electrolytes Based On PMMA / PEG And Penetrant Diffusion In Kraton Penta-Block Ionomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of diffusion in polymeric material is critical to many research fields and applications, such as polymer morphology, protective coatings (paints and varnishes), separation membranes, transport phenomena, polymer electrolytes, polymer melt, and controlled release of drugs from polymer carriers [1-9]. However, it is still a challenge to understand, predict and control the diffusion of molecules and ions of different sizes in polymers [2]. This work studied the medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) in solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEG/PMMA) for Li-based batteries, and polymeric permselective membranes via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance. Over the past decades polymer electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their promising technological application as an ion-conducting medium in solid-state batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and chemical sensors [10, 11]. However, despite numerous studies related to ionic transport in these electrolytes the understanding of the migration mechanism is still far from being complete, and progress in the field remains largely empirical [10, 12-15]. Among various candidates for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) material, the miscible polymer pair, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA), is an attractive one, because there is a huge difference in mobility between PEO and PMMA in their blends, and PEO chains remain exceptionally mobile in the blend even at temperature below the glass transition temperature of the blend [ 16]. Thus the mechanical strength and dimensional stability is maintained by PMMA component, while the chain motions or rearrangements of the PEO component virtually contribute to the ion transport [17]. The current work prepared two types of SPE based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) /PMMA (40/60 by weight) for Li-based batteries: lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (LiN(SO2CF3)2, LiTFSI) doped SPE and single-ion SPE. PEG, which is the very low molecular weight version of PEO, was used instead of PLO due to PEG's advantages of being noncrystalline, higher mobility, and having relatively high ionic conductivity when doped with alkali metal salts [18]. The medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) were studied via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance, along with other properties. For the LiTFSI doped system, the samples are named with their F0 to Li ratios. The order of diffusivity of ions is 16:1> 24:1> 8:1, while the order of a.c. conductivity is 24:1 > 16:1> 8:1. The largest diffusion 7Li coefficient is 1.4 x 108 cm 2/s in 16:1 at 77°C , and the largest a.c. conductivity is 1.43x 10-5S/cm for 24:1 at 68°C. The discrepancy between the diffusivity order and conductivity order is attributed to the formation of neutral contact ion pairs by a substantial fraction of ions in 16:1 . As the salt concentration is increased as 24:1?16:1?8:1, there is the transition of mostly free ions (i.e., 24:1)?free ions+contact ion pairs (i.e.. 16:1)?free ions+contact ion pairs+higher aggregates (i.e., 8:1). For the single-ion system, ion pairing of lithium PMMA ionomer is a serious problem due to the relatively low acidity of its corresponding acid and the low dielectric constant of the solvent (i.e. PEG). The Li+ diffusivity is fair (on the order of 10-8 cm2/s at 65°C, 77°C, and 89°C), but the fraction of free Li+ is only 1-2%. This severely limits the resulting a.c. conductivity, which is 2.72x 10-7 S/cm for 40P600 at 81°C. The second project involves studying the transport properties of a sulfonated pentablock copolymer, poly(para-methylstyrene)--b-hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polystyrene-bhydrogenated polybutadiene - b-poly(para-methylstyrene) with polystyrene sulfonated in the midblock(PMS-HPB-sS-HPB-PMS), as pemrselective membranes for protective clothing, with high permeability to water and low permeability to hazardous organic chemicals. In addition, this work also contribute

Meng, Yan


Optical Glass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an optical glass which contains SiO2, B2O3, GA2O3, NA2O, LI2O. A noncrystallizing glass with shortened partial dispersion in the blue portion of the spectrum is produced by using (in wt %): SiO2--30-60; B2O3--less than 12; GA2O3--30-4...

G. T. Petrovskii



Edible Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the principles of edible glass by making a supersaturated sugar solution. The goal of this activity is to provide an interesting experiment which learners of many different levels can perform. The write-up for this activity provides explanatory information that presents the experiment from several different perspectives. This activity includes an introduction to common sugars, as well as some discussion of temperature and thermometry, basic thermodynamics, and the experimental procedure to make the candy glass.

Pomeroy, Josh



Side-chain functionalized liquid crystalline polymers and blends, 10: phase behavior and structure of side-chain liquid crystalline ionomers containing ions of d-metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel side-chain liquid crystalline (LC) ionomers containing d-metals Co(II) and Ni(II) were synthesized and characterized. Both families of the ionomers are characterized by the same influence of charged group content in polymer on their phase behavior. The incorporation of 2–3mol% of metal ions in the nematic polymer matrix leads to the induction of SmA phase and rise in the clearing

E. B Barmatov; D. A Pebalk; M. V Barmatova; V. P Shibaev



Fluoride release and uptake in vitro from a composite resin and two orthodontic adhesives.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the fluoride release and uptake characteristics of a composite resin (Tetric) and two orthodontic adhesives (VP 862 and Saga Bond), with a type-II glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil) as a control. Test specimens in 2 ml deionized water released fluoride over a period of 33 days. Ketac Fil released 54 and 15 times more fluoride than Tetric after 24 h and 1 month, respectively, whereas the two adhesives released amounts between these values. Specimen exposure to 1000-ppm NaF solution increased the 24-h fluoride release from all materials, with near pre-exposure levels reached after 2-3 days. Ketac Fil had a tendency to recharge not seen with the other materials. The ytterbium trifluoride filler in Tetric has a very low water solubility, and it is therefore suggested that the increases in fluoride release from Tetric after exposure to fluoride were most probably due to release of surface-retained fluoride. PMID:8876732

Young, A; von der Fehr, F R; Sønju, T; Nordbø, H



Clinical evaluation of multisurface ART restorations.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two different glass-ionomer cements: a high-density (Ketac Molar - ESPE) and a resin-modified cement (Fuji VIII - GC) using the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment technique to restore multisurface cavities in permanent teeth. A total of 60 ART restorations (30 with each material) were placed in schoolchildren (9-16 years of age) by two operators. After a period of 6 months, two independent examiners evaluated 59 restorations according to the criteria used in previous ART studies. Data were submitted to McNemar and Fischer tests. The success rate of the treatment was 98.3%. One restoration (Ketac Molar) was replaced by another material and was recorded as failure. The success rates of the restorations were 100% and 96.6% for Fuji VIII and Ketac Molar, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the restorations success between baseline and 6 months (p>0.05). In the same way, no significant differences were found between materials, cavity types or operators (p>0.05). The ART approach was highly appropriate and effective in restorations involving two or more tooth surfaces, after 6 months. The results showed a promising performance of the ART technique with both materials. PMID:20944874

Cefaly, Daniela Francisca Gigo; Barata, Terezinha de Jesus Esteves; Tapety, Celiane Mary Carneiro; Bresciani, Eduardo; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima



Anion conductive aromatic ionomers containing a 1,2-dibenzoylbenzene moiety for alkaline fuel cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel anion-exchange membranes with high conductivities have been prepared for application to alkaline fuel cells. A quaternary ammonium poly(dibenzoylbenzene ether sulfone) membrane was synthesized by chloromethylation, followed by substitution with trimethylamine with an ion-exchange reaction. The quaternary ammonium groups were selectively substituted in the para-position of the pendant phenyl groups of the dibenzoylbenzene unit. The di-quaternary ammonium hydroxide polymers showed an elevated molecular weight and exhibited excellent solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Quaternization and the subsequent ion-exchange reactions were quantitative such that the obtained ionomer membranes had a high ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of up to 1.69 mmolg-1. The resultant polymer membranes were studied by 1H NMR, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), IEC, water uptake analysis, and ion conductivity analysis.

Hossain, Md. Awlad; Lim, Young-Don; Jang, Ho-Hyoun; Jeon, Young-Tae; Lim, Jin-Sung; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Whan-Gi; Jeon, Heung-Seok



Quantum mechanical calculation of ion chains in Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Sulfonate Ionomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-containing polymers are of interest as single-ion conductors for use as electrolytes in electrochemical devices, including lithium ion batteries. Current ion conductivities of the best ionomers are roughly 100X too small for practical applications and have a small fraction of their Li^+ counterions participating in conduction. Ab initio methods are used to investigate the dissociation/association of ionic chain aggregates. The binding energy as a function of distance between ions is explored, in which the energy at each separation is optimized with respect to the number and location of solvating ether oxygen moieties. We study the barrier between the solvated and bound states as a function of distance between the ions, including the barrier to break ion chain aggregates in different positions along the chain. This is prerequisite to mesoscale simulations capable of reproducing the equilibrium between various ion chain aggregates, with realistic dynamics, from which conductivity pathways can be investigated.

Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael; Colby, Ralph



Structures and properties of sulfonated ionomers probed by transport and mechanical measurements: The role of solute activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is focused on advancing the understanding of the structures and properties of sulfonated ionomer membranes in the context of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell applications by transport and mechanical measurements. Transport and mechanical properties are two critical elements of ionomer membranes that govern the performance and longevity of fuel cells. Additionally, transport and mechanical property measurements can also provide valuable information about the structure of the ionomer membranes. It is essential to develop a comprehensive understanding of them under well controlled environmental conditions. The mechanism of water transport through Nafion membranes was found to be governed by water diffusivity, swelling of the hydrophilic phase and the interfacial transport across membrane/vapor interface. A transport model incorporating these parameters was developed and successfully employed to resolve water activity profiles in the membrane and make quantitative predictions under steady state and dynamic conditions. Experimental results of diffusivity, volume of mixing and tortuosity also provided hints about the hydration shell structure around in the hydrophilic domains of Nafion. The alcohol sorption and transport was found to be qualitatively similar to the behavior of water and the quantitative differences were attributed to the difference in molecular size. The transport of alcohol water mixtures through Nafion displayed significant non-ideality which was connected to the abnormal swelling and incomplete mixing within the hydrophilic domains. The mechanical properties of several perfluoro-sulfonated ionomer (PFSI) membranes were studied as functions of temperature and solute activity. The thermal transition found between 60-100°C was described as an order-disorder transition of the ionic clusters. Water and other polar solutes were found to plasticize PFSI below the transition but stiffen PFSI above the transition. The stiffening effect was attributed to polar solute induced re-clustering of the ionic domains. Two hydrocarbon model ionomer SPS and SPEEK were studied to further understand the structural-property relationships of ionomers. Water sorption and proton conductivity were enhanced with increasing ion content but water content was independent of ion content and proton conductivity scaled with hydrophilic volume fraction. Water transport was dependent on diffusion and interfacial transport, both of which were affected by the size and shape of the hydrophilic domains.

Zhao, Qiao


The room temperature annealing peak in ionomers: Ionic crystallites or water absorption  

SciTech Connect

A quaternized diol, 3-(trimethylammonio)-1,2-propanediol neutralized with either bromine or iodine, was used to produce a polyurethane cationomer with a poly(tetramethylene oxide) soft segment and a 4,4[prime]-diphenylmethane diisocyanate hard segment. If those cationomers were annealed at room temperature for a period of approximately 1 month in a desiccator filled with dry CaSO[sub 4], differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed an endotherm centered near 70 C which was not present in the unannealed polymer and did not reappear upon subsequent cooling and heating cycles in the DSC. Some authors have suggested that a very similar endotherm found in other ionomers, most notably ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA) copolymer ionomers, was due to an order-disorder transition within the ionic aggregates, i.e. ionic crystallite melting. In order to isolate the origin of this endotherm, the local environment around the anion in compression molded bromine neutralized samples was measured using the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. By measuring the change in the local environment over the temperature range corresponding to the DSC endotherm, it has been shown that this endotherm corresponds to water leaving the bromine coordination shell, rather than ionic crystallite melting. Other studies which include thoroughly drying the material in a vacuum oven below the transition temperature to remove the water suggest that the endotherm is due to the energetic change associated with water leaving the coordination environment of the anion in combination with water vaporization.

Goddard, R.J.; Grady, B.P.; Cooper, S.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)



Glass ionomer ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in fissure caries prevention - results from a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background The relative performance of ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in preventing fissure caries in permanent molars was compared in a randomized clinical trial conducted in southern China ( NCT01829334). Methods After obtaining ethical approval, healthy schoolchildren who had permanent first molars with occlusal fissures which were sound but deep or presented with only incipient caries were recruited for the study. Included molars were randomly allocated into one of four parallel study groups in units of left/right teeth per mouth. Two of the four groups adopted the methods of ART or fluoride-releasing resin sealant placement while the other two groups adopted the topical fluoride application methods. Fissure status of the molars in each group was evaluated every 6 months. Development of dentine caries and sealant retention over 24 months in the molars in the two sealant-using groups was compared in this report. Outcome on cost-effectiveness of all four groups over 36 months will be reported elsewhere. Results At baseline, a total of 280 children (383 molars) with mean age 7.8 years were involved for the two sealant groups. After 24 months, 261 children (357 molars) were followed. Proportions of molars with dentine caries were 7.3% and 3.9% in the ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant groups, respectively (chi-square test, p?=?0.171). Life-table survival analysis showed that sealant retention (full and partial) rate over 24 months for the resin sealant (73%) was significantly higher than that (50%) for the ART sealant (p?



Comparison of Tissue Reaction of Pulp Chamber Perforations in Dogs' Teeth Treated with MTA, Light Cured Glass Ionomer and Amalgam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem: Perforations are significant complications that can occur during root canal therapy and may result in the destruction of adjacent periodontal tissues. An ideal material for repairing a perforation should be biocompatible and have a high sealing ability. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare histologic tissue responses of experimentally induced pulp chamber perforations in dogs'

K. Ashofteh-Yazdi; M. Masoodi; N. Shokouhinejad


In vitro evaluation of the cariostatic action of esthetic restorative materials in bovine teeth under severe cariogenic challenge.  


Considering that caries around restorations is a serious problem in dentistry, and some restorative materials with fluoride may be important in inhibiting these lesions, this research is aimed at performing an in vitro evaluation of the cariostatic action of some esthetic restorative materials. Standardized cavities were prepared in the center of either intact blocks of bovine enamel or with bovine teeth containing early artificial carious lesions. The specimens were restored with a high viscosity glass ionomer cement (Molar Ketac), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract AP) and a conventional resin composite (Z-250). In addition to the restored specimens, four corresponding control groups were evaluated. All groups, except for two control groups, were subjected to a demineralization/remineralization cycling model for 14 days, simulating a situation of severe cariogenic challenge. The blocks were then longitudinally sectioned through the restorations. Mineral loss was evaluated in these specimens using the Knoop microhardness profiles in longitudinal sections at three different distances of the cavities and at eight distinct depths in relation to the external enamel surface. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the groups, although none of the study materials completely inhibited creation of the lesions. Vitremer demonstrated the best cariostatic action in intact bovine enamel. Ketac Molar, in intact or demineralized enamel, and Vitremer, in demineralized enamel, presented intermediate cariostatic potential. Z-250 and Dyract AP did not demonstrate any cariostatic effect. The data suggests that glass ionomer cements demonstrated better cariostatic action compared to the other restorative materials. PMID:15986958

Pin, Maria Ligia Gerdullo; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Pavarini, Aymar; Marta, Sara Nader



Metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

The novel internal structures of metallic glasses lead to exceptional strength, corrosion resistance, and ease of magnetization. Combined with low manufacturing costs, these properties make glassy ribbons attractive for many applications. These materials also have scientific fascination because their compositions, structures, and properties have unexpected features.

Gilman, J.J.



Pinhole Glasses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean



An electrochemical glucose biosensor exploiting a polyaniline grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube\\/perfluorosulfonate ionomer–silica nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glucose biosensor was fabricated with loading of glucose oxidase (GOx) into a new organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite. The preparation involves formation of silica network into a Nafion (perfluorosulfonate ionomer) and subsequent loading of polyaniline grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-g-PANI) onto Nafion–silica nanocomposite. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of Nafion–silica\\/MWNT-g-PANI composite reveals the presence of spherical silica particles (sizes in

Anantha I. Gopalan; Kwang P. Lee; Dhanusuraman Ragupathy; Se H. Lee; Jong W. Lee



Unprecedented effect of impurity cations on the oxygen reduction kinetics at platinum electrodes covered with perfluorinated ionomer  

SciTech Connect

Platinum electrodes covered with a perfluoro-sulfonated ionomer membrane show unique behaviors in comparison with bare platinum immersed in aqueous solutions. The electrochemical interface between the metal and the polymer can be different from the interface between the metal and the solution phase. In this context, platinum electrodes covered with such a polymer membrane are an interesting system, and deserve detailed study. Here the oxygen reduction reaction at the platinum surface covered with a perfluoro-sulfonated ionomer membrane is investigated kinetically in 0.1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the presence of 0.001 N Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, or Ca{sup 2+} ions, using rotating disk electrodes. It is discovered that the impurity ions, even in a small amount, hinder enormously the rate of the charge transfer step of oxygen reduction at the platinum covered with perfluoro-sulfonated ionomer. Especially the effect of Na{sup +} in the membrane is very serious considering the fact that there exists only 2% NA{sup +} of the exchange site in the membrane phase at this condition. Platinum covered with perfluoro-sulfonated ionomer membrane has historically attracted much research interest, based on the fact that oxygen concentration and H{sup +} ion concentration in the membrane are both larger than those in normal acidic solutions, and could show larger catalytic activity than in bare platinum. However, this expectation encountered disappointing failure. Results here indicate that such a paradox could be accounted for by the effect of the metal-polymer interface that alters the reaction conditions of oxygen reduction.

Okada, Tatsuhiro; Dale, J.; Ayato, Yuusuke; Asbjoernsen, O.A.; Yuasa, Makoto; Sekine, Isao



Effect of sulfonation level on the single chain dimensions and aggregation of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers in xylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small angle neutron scattering has been used to determine the dimensions and extent of aggregation of dilute solutions of sodium sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers of molecular weight 105 g mol?1 and sulfonation levels of 0.95 and 1.65 mol% in p-xylene. At concentrations below 0.1 × 10?2 g ml?1 the 0.95 mol% SPS was present as mainly single chains of considerably

A. R. Rennie



Phenotypic profile linked to inhibition of the major Zn influx system in Salmonella enterica: proteomics and ionomics investigations.  


Zinc is required for a wide variety of cellular functions and plays a key role in bacterial metabolism and virulence. However, Zn can also be toxic and, therefore, its influx is tightly regulated. The high affinity zinc uptake transporter ZnuABC is the main Zn influx system in Salmonella enterica under conditions of Zn starvation. It has been shown that deletion of the gene encoding for its periplasmic subunit ZnuA significantly affects S. Typhimurium growth rate and virulence, highlighting the importance of this system in the host-pathogen interaction. To gain further insight into the mechanisms involved in Zn influx regulation, we characterized the main alterations in the ionome and proteome of S. Typhimurium wild type and znuA mutant strains grown either under Zn starvation or under Zn-replete conditions. We found significant differences in the element profile and protein expression that were reversed by Zn supplementation. In particular, several of the differentially regulated proteins are predicted to be metal-binding proteins. Interestingly, their over-expression in the znuA mutant strain strictly depends on Zn starvation and correlates with the differences found at the ionome level. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that inhibition of Zn influx has relevant effects either on the bacterial ionome or proteome and shed new light on the role of the ZnuABC system and Zn influx in S. Typhimurium pathogenicity. PMID:20959928

Ciavardelli, Domenico; Ammendola, Serena; Ronci, Maurizio; Consalvo, Ada; Marzano, Valeria; Lipoma, Mario; Sacchetta, Paolo; Federici, Giorgio; Di Ilio, Carmine; Battistoni, Andrea; Urbani, Andrea



Effect of soft segment crystallization and hard segment physical crosslink on shape memory function in antibacterial segmented polyurethane ionomers.  


Shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) ionomers containing constant 75 wt.% soft segment content were synthesized using poly(epsilon-caprolactone)diol, 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 1,4-butanediol and/or N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-isonicotinamide. To introduce substrate bonding antibacterial activity, pyridinium was prepared through a neutralization reaction using 1-iodooctane as neutralization agent. For the SMPU ionomer film obtained, tensile testing at 70 degrees C and dynamic mechanical analysis suggests that, at temperatures>T(ms) (the melting point of soft segments), 6.72 and 29.55 mol.% pyridinium within hard segments significantly decreased the mechanical properties such as the stress at 100% elongation (70 degrees C), the initial modulus (70 degrees C) and the elastic modulus (75-110 degrees C). Cyclic tensile investigation demonstrated that the two factors, soft segment crystallization and hard segment physical crosslink, play a very important role in shape memory function in SMPU ionomers. For the each individual specimen, the fixity ratio increased, and the recovery ratio decreased with the extension of cooling time. After sufficient cooling time, the fixity ratio of all specimens can reach a high value (approximately 95%). Owing to the disrupted physical crosslink in the sample containing 29.55 mol.% pyridinium, the crystallization rate of soft segments has less effect on shape fixity. Therefore, a high fixity ratio (93.8%) can be achieved in a short cooling time (30 s). In the control sample, the fixity ratio is only 73.7% after 30 s cooling. In addition, the admirable substrate bonding antibacterial activity of prepared SMPU ionomers was verified using standards AACTT 147 and ASTM E2149 in comparison with the control sample. The antibacterial activity of SMPU ionomers on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) is significant, and the rate of reduction of bacteria is 100%; the antibacterial activity on Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae) increases from 83.6% to 90.7% with increase in pyridinium content from 6.72 to 29.55 mol.%. PMID:19460466

Zhu, Y; Hu, J; Yeung, K



Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials.  


This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days). Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM) or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (? = 0.05). Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001). For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested. PMID:22714927

Cruz, Janaina Barros; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; Raggio, Daniela Prócida



Evaluation of the sealing ability of resin cement used as a root canal sealer: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the apical seal of root canals obturated with resin cement as a root canal sealer and compare with that of the glass ionomer and zinc oxide eugenol sealers using a cold lateral condensation gutta-percha technique. Background: Successful root canal treatment requires three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system with nonirritating biomaterials. None of the available materials are capable of providing a fluid tight seal. Materials and Methods: The prepared teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 15 each to be obturated using three different sealers. Group I: zinc oxide eugenol (Tubliseal), Group II: Glass ionomer (Ketac Endo), and Group III: resin cement (C & B Superbond). All the specimens were stored in 100% relative humidity at 37° for 24 h. The specimens were placed in 2% methylene blue dye for 48 h and sectioned. The dye penetration was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Results: The “Kruskal” Wallis test was carried out to test the equality of mean. All the specimens showed dye leakage, and there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) among the groups. The specimens in Group III showed a minimal leakage and the specimens in Group I showed a maximum leakage. Conclusion: Resin cement sealed the root canals significantly better when compared with zinc oxide eugenol and glass ionomer sealers.

Kumar, R Vinod; Shruthi, CS



Ionizing radiation-induced copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid and ionomer formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionizing radiation-induced polymerization of acrylate esters is a technique employed for the curing of such materials for a variety of adhesive, coating, ink, and lithographic applications. The work presented in this dissertation involves the synthesis of a copolymer composed of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and acrylic acid (AA) using pulsed electron beam and gamma irradiation. The structure and synthesis kinetics of this copolymer were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron pulse radiolysis with kinetic spectroscopic detection (PR-KSD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of total dose, dose rate, and acrylic acid content on the polymerization reaction were studied. The conversion of 2-EHA monomer into polymer at a given total dose was found to be enhanced at lower dose rates and higher concentrations of acrylic acid. The pulse radiolysis investigation of the polymerization of 2-EHA and AA was performed through studies of four different types of systems: (i) neat 2-EHA, (ii) 2-EHA/methanol (MeOH) solutions, (iii) mixtures of 2-EHA and AA, and (iv) 2-EHA/AA/MeOH solutions. The build-up of carbon-centered neutral 2-EHA free radicals in neat 2-EHA was found to obey a second order rate law with a rate coefficient of ((7 +/- 3) x 108)epsilon EHA·, whereas in 2-EHA/AA mixtures it was found to obey a pseudo-first order rate law with a rate coefficient of (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10 10 mol-1 dm3 s-1. This phenomenon is suggested to originate in the increased H+ ion concentration in the presence of acrylic acid, which leads to a faster neutralization step of 2-EHA radical anions as they are transformed into neutral free radicals during the initiation step of the reaction. An investigation of the formation of ion-containing copolymers (known as ionomers) was performed using the radiation-synthesized poly(2-EHA-co-AA) and iron cations. Verification of successful incorporation of iron into the copolymer was identified by an asymmetric carboxylate stretch at 1600 cm -1 of the FTIR spectrum. TEM analysis of poly(2-EHA-co-AA)/Fe 2+ ionomers formed from formulated compositions involving a 2:1 mole ratio of ferrous acetate to acrylic acid exhibited ionic clusters of approximately 100 nm in diameter, which may include up to 350 ferrous cations.

Weaver, Alia


Ionomic profiling of Nicotiana langsdorffii wild-type and mutant genotypes exposed to abiotic stresses.  


To provide a new insight into the response of plants to abiotic stresses, the ionomic profiles of Nicotiana langsdorffii specimens have been determined before and after exposure to toxic metals (chromium) or drought conditions. The plants were genetically transformed with the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or the gene for Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC, because these modifications are known to produce an imbalance in phytohormone equilibria and a significant change in the defence response of the plant. Elemental profiles were obtained by developing and applying analytical procedures based on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). In particular, the removal of isobaric interferences affecting the determination of Cr and V by ICP-MS was accomplished by use of a dynamic reaction cell, after optimization of the relevant conditions. The combined use of ICP atomic emission and mass spectrometry enabled the determination of 29 major and trace elements (Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, S, Sb, Sn, Sr, Te, V, W, Y, and Zn) in different parts of the plants (roots, stems, and leaves), with high accuracy and precision. Multivariate data processing and study of element distribution patterns provided new information about the ionomic response of the target organism to chemical treatment or water stress. Genetic modification mainly affected the distribution of Bi, Cr, Mo, Na, and S, indicating that these elements were involved in biochemical processes controlled by the GR or rolC genes. Chemical stress strongly affected accumulation of several elements (Ba, Ca, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sn, Te, V, and Zn) in different ways; for Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Na, and P the effect was quite similar to that observed in other studies after treatment with other transition elements, for example Cu and Cd. The effect of water deficit was less evident, mainly consisting in a decrease of Ba, Cr, Na, and Sr in roots. PMID:22580418

Ardini, Francisco; Soggia, Francesco; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Magi, Emanuele; Grotti, Marco



OPTIMAS-DW: A comprehensive transcriptomics, metabolomics, ionomics, proteomics and phenomics data resource for maize  

PubMed Central

Background Maize is a major crop plant, grown for human and animal nutrition, as well as a renewable resource for bioenergy. When looking at the problems of limited fossil fuels, the growth of the world’s population or the world’s climate change, it is important to find ways to increase the yield and biomass of maize and to study how it reacts to specific abiotic and biotic stress situations. Within the OPTIMAS systems biology project maize plants were grown under a large set of controlled stress conditions, phenotypically characterised and plant material was harvested to analyse the effect of specific environmental conditions or developmental stages. Transcriptomic, metabolomic, ionomic and proteomic parameters were measured from the same plant material allowing the comparison of results across different omics domains. A data warehouse was developed to store experimental data as well as analysis results of the performed experiments. Description The OPTIMAS Data Warehouse (OPTIMAS-DW) is a comprehensive data collection for maize and integrates data from different data domains such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, ionomics, proteomics and phenomics. Within the OPTIMAS project, a 44K oligo chip was designed and annotated to describe the functions of the selected unigenes. Several treatment- and plant growth stage experiments were performed and measured data were filled into data templates and imported into the data warehouse by a Java based import tool. A web interface allows users to browse through all stored experiment data in OPTIMAS-DW including all data domains. Furthermore, the user can filter the data to extract information of particular interest. All data can be exported into different file formats for further data analysis and visualisation. The data analysis integrates data from different data domains and enables the user to find answers to different systems biology questions. Finally, maize specific pathway information is provided. Conclusions With OPTIMAS-DW a data warehouse for maize was established, which is able to handle different data domains, comprises several analysis results that will support researchers within their work and supports systems biological research in particular. The system is available at



Single-Kernel Ionomic Profiles Are Highly Heritable Indicators of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Elemental Accumulation in Maize Grain (Zea mays)  

PubMed Central

The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel can be viewed in at least two distinct ways. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food and feed for people and animals. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can summarize the life history of a plant, combining genetic programs and environmental interactions. We assert that single-kernel-based phenotyping of the ionome is an effective method of analysis, as it represents a reasonable compromise between precision, efficiency, and power. Here, we evaluate potential pitfalls of this sampling strategy using several field-grown maize sample sets. We demonstrate that there is enough genetically determined diversity in accumulation of many of the elements assayed to overcome potential artifacts. Further, we demonstrate that environmental signals are detectable through their influence on the kernel ionome. We conclude that using single kernels as the sampling unit is a valid approach for understanding genetic and environmental effects on the maize kernel ionome.

Baxter, Ivan R.; Ziegler, Gregory; Lahner, Brett; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Foley, Rachel; Danku, John; Armstrong, Paul; Salt, David E.; Hoekenga, Owen A.



Modulation of fibroblast inflammatory response by surface modification of a perfluorinated ionomer.  


An ideal surface for implantable glucose sensors would be able to evade the events leading to chronic inflammation and fibrosis, thereby extending its utility in an in vivo environment. Nafion™, a perfluorinated ionomer, is the membrane material preferred for in situ glucose sensors. Unfortunately, the surface properties of Nafion™ promote random protein adsorption and eventual foreign body encapsulation, thus leading to loss of glucose signal over time. Details of the techniques to render Nafion™ nonprotein fouling are given in a previous article [T. I. Valdes et al., Biomaterials 29, 1356 (2008)]. Once random protein adsorption is prevented, a biologically active peptide can be covalently bonded to the treated Nafion™ to induce cellular adhesion. Cellular responses to these novel decorated Nafion™ surfaces are detailed here, including cell viability, cell spreading, and type I collagen synthesis. Normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were cultured on control and modified Nafion™ surfaces. Findings indicate that Nafion™ modified with 10% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 90% tetraglyme created a nonfouling surface that was subsequently decorated with the YRGDS peptide. NHDFs were shown to have exhibited decreased type I collagen production in comparison to NHDF cells on unmodified Nafion™ surfaces. Here, the authors report evidence that proves that optimizing conditions to prevent protein adsorption and enhance cellular adhesion may eliminate fibrous encapsulation of an implant. PMID:21721839

Valdes, Thelma I; Ciridon, Winston; Ratner, Buddy D; Bryers, James D



Morphological Transitions in a Triblock Copolymer and Its Sulfonated Ionomer: Thermal Annealing and Solvent Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microphase separation behavior of poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS), as well as its sulfonated ionomer (S-SEBS), was studied using TEM and SAXS. The SEBS triblock used in this study has 30 wt % styrene and is expected to form a cylindrical morphology. Upon casting from toluene, a slightly preferential solvent for styrene, however, SEBS revealed a lamellar morphology in TEM, as confirmed by SAXS. After thermal annealing, the morphology changed to core-shell cylinders with EB as the core and styrene as the shell. SAXS confirmed the formation of cylinders in annealed SEBS. The S-SEBS studied has an intermediate sulfonation level of 23 mol %. S-SEBS cast from toluene formed disordered spheres, while S-SEBS cast from THF revealed disordered lamellae. Thermal annealing resulted in little change in the morphology for both samples. Initial examination of S-SEBS samples cast from these two solvents suggested much different viscoelastic properties and quantitative measurements are being conducted using dynamic mechanical analysis.

Chen, Shujun



A perfluorosulfonated ionomer end-column electrical decoupler for capillary electrophoresis/electrochemical detection.  


An end-column electrical decoupler contructed with perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion) is described. This decoupler was fabricated at the cathodic end of the separation capillary by casting liquid Nafion ion exchange powder over a copper-plated tungsten wire. The internal diameter of the flow channel was controlled by adjusting the thickness of the copper plating. This design overcomes problems of conventional end-column detection such as low sensitivity due to low collection efficiency of analytes at the detection electrode, difficulty in precise placement of the detection electrode, and the need to use small-bore capillaries (<-25 micron). The loss of cationic analytes observed with long-cast Nafion on-column decouplers was significantly reduced. The high current shunting capability of the long Nafion decoupler was maintained in this configuration. Elimination of the detection capillary required for on-column electrical decouplers provided higher separation efficiency by maintaining plug-type flow throughout the system. Four model catecholamines were well separated within 5 min with separation efficiency of up to 230 000 plates and migration time reproducibilities of <0.6% RSD. With the optimized experimental conditions, detection limits of 3 nM for the catecholamines were achieved in a Ringer's solution matrix (to model a microdialysis sample). PMID:8651479

Park, S; Lunte, C E



Novel dual drug-loaded block ionomer complex micelles for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments.  


Combination of two or more drugs has emerged as a promising strategy to elicit synergistic therapeutic responses that can overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells at various stages of the growth cycle. In the current study, we investigated the efficacy of two drugs, mitoxantrone (MTX) and doxorubicin (DOX), co-encapsulated in a polyethylene oxide-b-polyacrylic acid polymer. The resulting block ionomer complex (BIC)-based combination chemotherapy provides a novel method for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapies. The BIC micelles were very stable at physiological pH, and showed a temporally sequenced release profile for the co-encapsulated drugs at tumor pH. This suggests that the micelles can deliver chemotherapeutic agents at the appropriate cellular stage. At a predetermined and carefully controlled ratio (MTX:DOX = 2:1), the two drugs worked synergistically within A549 small lung cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the synergistic activity of ratiometrically controlled drug combinations can enhance their chemotherapeutic action and overall therapeutic index. PMID:24804551

Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Kim, Jeonghwan; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh



Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Single Chain Pentablock Ionomer in Dilute Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-polymers are in the core of many applications such as fuel cells, batteries and purification membranes that require transport across membranes. The challenge remains however that under the condition that transport is optimized, the stability of the membranes is compromised. To surmount this challenge, co-polymers with blocks targeting specific roles have been designed. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studies the structure and dynamics of ionic single chain pentablock copolymer (A-B-C-B-A) containing randomly sulfonated polystyrene in the center, tethered to poly-ethylene-r-propylene end-capped by poly-t-butyl styrene. The ionic block facilitates transport while the A and B componenet are incorporated for mechanical stability. The conformation and dynamics of single pentablock ionomer of molecular weight Mw = 50,000g/mol in an implicit poor solvent with dielectric constant of 1 and 77.7, water, and mixture (1:1) of cyclohexane and n-heptane at 300K and 500K will be presented. The effect of solvents on conformation of a single molecule of pentablock was determined and compared with experiment, providing a stepping stone to the understanding phase behavior of this polymer.

Aryal, Dipak; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.



Holograms writing on glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic gratings recorded in photoresist, are used by common techniques of lithography, for writing on glass. We present a study of the technique used to erode the glass using hydrofluoric acid and copy the holographic element on the glass. We observe that holograms written in glass are very strong and durable. The behavior of the dispersion caused by the glass erosion also is studied.

Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Toxqui-López, Santa



A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)  

PubMed Central

Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 °C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer’s size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC’s performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation.

Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia



Strength of inorganic glass  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

Kurkjian, C.R.



Grafted ionomer complexes and their effect on protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone surfaces  

PubMed Central

We have studied the formation and the stability of ionomer complexes from grafted copolymers (GICs) in solution and the influence of GIC coatings on the adsorption of the proteins ?-lactoglobulin (?-lac), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme (Lsz) on silica and polysulfone. The GICs consist of the grafted copolymer PAA28-co-PAPEO22 {poly(acrylic acid)-co-poly[acrylate methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)]} with negatively charged AA and neutral APEO groups, and the positively charged homopolymers: P2MVPI43 [poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)] and PAH?HCl160 [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)]. In solution, these aggregates are characterized by means of dynamic and static light scattering. They appear to be assemblies with hydrodynamic radii of 8 nm (GIC-PAPEO22/P2MVPI43) and 22 nm (GIC-PAPEO22/PAH?HCl160), respectively. The GICs partly disintegrate in solution at salt concentrations above 10 mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs and proteins has been studied with fixed angle optical reflectometry at salt concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs results in high density PEO side chains on the surface. Higher densities were obtained for GICs consisting of PAH?HCl160 (1.6?÷?1.9 chains/nm2) than of P2MVPI43 (0.6?÷?1.5 chains/nm2). Both GIC coatings strongly suppress adsorption of all proteins on silica (>90%); however, reduction of protein adsorption on polysulfone depends on the composition of the coating and the type of protein. We observed a moderate reduction of ?-lac and Lsz adsorption (>60%). Adsorption of BSA on the GIC-PAPEO22/P2MVPI43 coating is moderately reduced, but on the GIC-PAPEO22/PAH?HCl160 coating it is enhanced.

de Keizer, Arie; Detrembleur, Christophe; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Norde, Willem



Glass Compositions Having Fluorescence Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns glasses such as borate glass, phosphate glass, calibo glass and germanate glass containing predetermined quantities of certain components adapted to result in the emission of radiation in the desired spectral range, and at ...

R. Reisfeld Y. Eckstein L. Boehm



Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.



Effects of total and selective bonding on marginal adaptation and microleakage of Class I resin composite restorations in vitro.  


This study assessed the marginal integrity and microleakage of standardized Class I resin composite restorations when placed with either "total" or "selective bonding" techniques. Sixty standardized Class I cavities comprising the main fissure system were prepared (9 mm length and 7 mm width). Cavity depth was set at 2.5 mm. In cavities where a glass ionomer liner was placed, the cavity was deepened by an additional 0.5 mm. In "total bonding" specimens, enamel and dentin were conditioned using a four-step adhesive system (Syntac Classic). In teeth with "selective bonding," a chemical curing conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC; Ketac Fil) and light-curing resin-modified glass ionomer liner (RMGI; Vitrebond) or three-step adhesive bonding liner (Syntac) were applied. The cavity margins of the latter specimens were finished with water-spray, acid-etched and a bonding agent was applied. All restorations were placed in two oblique increments. Totally bonded ceramic inlays (Cerec) served as the control. All specimens were subjected to thermo-mechanical loading (1.2 Mio cycles) and marginal quality and microleakage were assessed. The highest percentage of margins rated as "perfect" was found in selective bonding samples with glass ionomer liners and totally bonded inlay restorations. All the other groups showed significantly decreased marginal quality (p < 0.05). The same results were found for the microleakage assessment. The authors of the current study concluded that the application of a GIC liner significantly improved the overall marginal adaptation of direct Class I restorations. The use of an adhesive bonding agent for cavity sealing as currently used is not recommended. PMID:19051855

Schmidlin, Patrick R; Huber, Thomas; Göhring, Till N; Attin, Thomas; Bindl, Andreas



Repairing cracked glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.



Ultraviolet Faraday Rotator Glass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Faraday rotator glass composition based on a fluoride glass, phosphate glass, fluorophosphate glass or a mixture there of is dope with a lanthanide in concentration sufficient to provide a Verdet constant above at least 2870 deg/Tesla-meter (1 MIN/CM-Oe...

J. L. Dexter D. G. Cooper D. H. Blackburn



Formation of Nanoparticles during Melt mixing a Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polyester and Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers: Morphology and Origin of Formation  

SciTech Connect

The formation of nanoparticles and the mechanism of their formation in a blend of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester (LCP) and the zinc salt of a lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (Zn-SPS) were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to study the morphology of the blends and structure of nanoparticles. The origin of nanoparticle formation appeared to be related to the development of phenyl acetate chain ends on the LCP that arose due to a chemical reaction between the LCP and residual catalytic amounts of zinc acetate and/or acetic acid that were present from the neutralization step in the preparation of the ionomer. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns for the blends revealed that chain-packing within nanoparticles was different than that of the LCP or the homopolymers prepared from the LCP co-monomers. The crystals formed in the nanoparticles were also stable to much higher temperature (>350 C) than the parent LCP crystallites that melted at {approx}280 C.

Lee,H.; Zhu, L.; Weiss, R.



Sphingolipids in the Root Play an Important Role in Regulating the Leaf Ionome in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipid synthesis is initiated by condensation of Ser with palmitoyl-CoA producing 3-ketodihydrosphinganine (3-KDS), which is reduced by a 3-KDS reductase to dihydrosphinganine. Ser palmitoyltransferase is essential for plant viability. Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes (At3g06060/TSC10A and At5g19200/TSC10B) encoding proteins with significant similarity to the yeast 3-KDS reductase, Tsc10p. Heterologous expression in yeast of either Arabidopsis gene restored 3-KDS reductase activity to the yeast tsc10? mutant, confirming both as bona fide 3-KDS reductase genes. Consistent with sphingolipids having essential functions in plants, double mutant progeny lacking both genes were not recovered from crosses of single tsc10A and tsc10B mutants. Although the 3-KDS reductase genes are functionally redundant and ubiquitously expressed in Arabidopsis, 3-KDS reductase activity was reduced to 10% of wild-type levels in the loss-of-function tsc10a mutant, leading to an altered sphingolipid profile. This perturbation of sphingolipid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tsc10a mutant leads an altered leaf ionome, including increases in Na, K, and Rb and decreases in Mg, Ca, Fe, and Mo. Reciprocal grafting revealed that these changes in the leaf ionome are driven by the root and are associated with increases in root suberin and alterations in Fe homeostasis.

Chao, Dai-Yin; Gable, Kenneth; Chen, Ming; Baxter, Ivan; Dietrich, Charles R.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lahner, Brett; Lu, Shiyou; Markham, Jonathan E.; Morrissey, Joe; Han, Gongshe; Gupta, Sita D.; Harmon, Jeffrey M.; Jaworski, Jan G.; Dunn, Teresa M.; Salt, David E.



Investigation of the microstructure in the catalyst layer and effects of both perfluorosulfonate ionomer and PTFE-loaded carbon on the catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer (PFSI) and of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) loaded carbon (PTFE-C) on the catalyst layer in the electrode of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) prepared by a new method based on the process of PFSI-colloid formation were investigated by electrochemical techniques and a mercury pore sizer. The microstructure of the catalyst layer and its effect on

Makoto Uchida; Yuko Aoyama; Nobuo Eda; Akira Ohta



Picture Wall (Glass Structures)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photo shows a subway station in Toronto, Ontario, which is entirely glass-enclosed. The all-glass structure was made possible by a unique glazing concept developed by PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of flat glass. In the TVS glazing system, transparent glass "fins" replace conventional vertical support members used to provide support for wind load resistance. For stiffening, silicone sealant bonds the fins to adjacent glass panels. At its glass research center near Pittsburgh, PPG Industries uses the NASTRAN computer program to analyze the stability of enclosures made entirely of glass. The company also uses NASTRAN to simulate stresses on large containers of molten glass and to analyze stress effects of solar heating on flat glass.



Reaction cured glass and glass coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to reaction cured glass and glass coatings prepared by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, other boron silicides, boron and mixtures with a reactive glass frit composed of a porous high silica borosilicate glass and boron oxide. The glassy composites of the present invention are useful as coatings on low density fibrous porous silica insulations used as heat shields and for articles such as reaction vessels that are subjected to high temperatures with rapid heating and cooling and that require resistance to temperature and repeated thermal shock at temperatures up to about 1482C (2700PF).

Goldstein, H. E.; Leiser, D. B.; Katvala, V. W. (inventors)



6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE


Effects of bleaching agents on surface roughness of filling materials.  


The aim of this study was to use a non-tactile optical measurement system to assess the effects of three bleaching agents' concentrations on the surface roughness of dental restoration materials. Two composites (Grandio, Venus) and one glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus) were used in this in vitro study. Specimens were treated with three different bleaching agents (16% and 22% carbamide peroxide (Polanight) and 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost)). Surface roughness was measured with an optical profilometer (Infinite Focus G3) before and after the bleaching treatment. Surface roughness increased in all tested specimens after bleaching treatment (p<0.05). Our in vitro study showed that dental bleaching agents influenced the surface roughness of different restoration materials, and the restoration material itself was shown to have an impact on alteration susceptibility. There seemed to be no clinical relevance in case of an optimal finish. PMID:24492113

Markovic, Ljubisa; Jordan, Rainer Andreas; Glasser, Marie-Claire; Arnold, Wolfgang Hermann; Nebel, Jan; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Thomas; Zimmer, Stefan



In vitro measurement of enamel demineralization in the assessment of fluoride-leaching orthodontic bonding agents.  


The aim of this study was to measure in vitro demineralization around orthodontic brackets, bonded with five different bonding agents. Two conventional bonding agents, two fluoride-leaching agents, and a glass ionomer were tested. A sixth group utilized a fluoride varnish after bonding. The amount of dissolved enamel mineral was determined from increases in the phosphorus concentration in the demineralizing solution and measurements were made over a 4 week period. The results confirmed that when fluoride is present in the form of a fluoride-leaching bonding agent or a fluoride varnish, resistance to demineralization is enhanced. Analysis of variance showed that Ketac-cem, Concise with Duraphat, and Pulpdent O.B.A. performed statistically significantly better than Concise, Bond-fast, and Rely-a-bond, in resisting enamel demineralization. PMID:8985572

Kindelan, J D



Foam Glass Insulation from Waste Glass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste glass has proven to be effective for the production of foam glass insulation both in the bulk or rigid board form and pellet form. Problems inherent with the use of water, carbon black and calcium carbonate as the foaming agents, have been identifie...

W. G. Oakseson J. G. Lee S. K. Goyal T. Robson I. B. Cutler



Glass tube splitting tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.



Prussian blue nanocontainers: selectively permeable hollow metal-organic capsules from block ionomer emulsion-induced assembly.  


Hollow polymer-based particles are useful for the encapsulation, protection, and release of active compounds. Adding a metal-organic coordination framework shell to nanocontainers is an attractive goal because it should help control their stability and permeability while yielding new properties and functions. We have discovered that polymer capsules with a Prussian blue analogue inner shell can be synthesized by emulsion-induced assembly of a metal-containing amphiphilic block ionomer. The capsules are selectively permeable and were used as nanocontainers to encapsulate and release a model compound. Further, these nanomaterials are tunable in size and organize into 2-D close-packed arrays in the solid state. Potential applications for these materials include the encapsulation and nanopatterning of pharmaceutical, biological, and catalytic compounds. PMID:21557609

Roy, Xavier; Hui, Joseph K-H; Rabnawaz, Muhammad; Liu, Guojun; MacLachlan, Mark J



Selective formation of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals by electron beam irradiation and their reactivity with perfluorosulfonated acid ionomer.  


Selective formation and reactivity of hydrogen (H(•)) and hydroxyl (HO(•)) radicals with perfluorinated sulfonated ionomer membrane, Nafion 211, is described. Selective formation of radicals was achieved by electron beam irradiation of aqueous solutions of H2O2 or H2SO4 to form HO(•) and H(•), respectively, and confirmed by ESR spectroscopy using a spin trap. The structure of Nafion 211 after reaction with H(•) or HO(•) was determined using calibrated (19)F magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. Soluble residues of degradation were analyzed by liquid and solid-state NMR. NMR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, together with determination of ion exchange capacity, water uptake, proton conductivity, and fluoride ion release, strongly indicate that attack by H(•) occurs at the tertiary carbon C-F bond on both the main and side chain; whereas attack by HO(•) occurs solely on the side chain, specifically, the ?-O-C bond. PMID:24074044

Ghassemzadeh, Lida; Peckham, Timothy J; Weissbach, Thomas; Luo, Xiaoyan; Holdcroft, Steven



Silicon Oxycarbide Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first attempts to introduce carbon into glass date back to 1951. But up until recently, the use of carbon or carbide raw materials, and the oxidation, volatilization and decomposition that accompany high temperature melting, have limited the synthesis of true silicon oxycarbide glasses. Here, the term silicon-oxycarbide refers specifically to a carbon-containing silicate glass wherein oxygen and carbon atoms

Carlo G. Pantano; Anant K. Singh; Hanxi Zhang



Spin-glass dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin glasses are magnetic systems with conflicting and random interactions between the individual spins. The dynamics of spin glasses, as of structural glasses, reflect their complexity. Both in experimental and numerical work the relaxation below the freezing temperature depends strongly on the annealing conditions (aging) and, above the freezing point, relaxation in equilibrium is slow and non-exponential. In this Forum,

I. A. Campbell; J. Hammann; H. Kawamura; R. H. McKenzie; P. Nordblad; R. Orbach; H. Takayama



Optical properties of glass  

SciTech Connect

The author deals in depth with reflection, refraction, absorption, scatter, polarization, birefringence, and interference (the effects of the interaction of radiation with glass). The most significant optical phenomena have been approached from the points of view of theory, measurement, and the dependence of optical phenomena on the chemical composition, temperature, thermal history, etc. Attention is also given to the classification of glasses according to their optical properties, and chapters have been included on colour generation in glasses, modification of the optical properties of glasses by the application of coating, and glasses exhibiting special optical properties.

Fanderlick, I.



Radiation coloration resistant glass  


A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)



A study of cements formed by aqueous lactic acid and aluminosilicate glass.  


A study is reported of the formation of cements from aqueous lactic acid and aluminosilicate glass of the type used in dental glass-ionomer cements. These cements were found to set quickly, and were shown by infrared spectroscopy to have undergone a neutralization reaction to yield mainly calcium lactate. They were very soluble in water at 1 h, but became progressively less so over time; when matured for 6 h before being placed in water, they had become almost insoluble. No spectroscopic differences could be detected between the cements at 1 h or 6 h, indicating that insolubilization arises from a reaction that does not alter the part of the infrared spectrum examined. This suggested that a wholly inorganic reaction between the ion-depleted glass fragments is responsible for the formation of the insoluble structure. After 24 h, the cements were found to have compressive strengths in the range 9-35 MPa, the actual value varying with concentration of lactic acid used to form the cement, and there was no statistically significant increase in strength for the strongest of these after one month. PMID:15348618

Nicholson, John W; Tawfik, Hamsa; Czarnecka, Beata



A Simple and Efficient Synthesis of an Acid-labile Polyphosphoramidate by Organobase-catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization and Transformation to Polyphosphoester Ionomers by Acid Treatment  

PubMed Central

The direct synthesis of an acid-labile polyphosphoramidate by organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and an overall two-step preparation of polyphosphodiester ionomers (PPEI) by acid-assisted cleavage of the phosphoramidate bonds along the backbone of the polyphosphoramidate were developed in this study. The ultrafast organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of a cyclic phospholane methoxyethyl amidate monomer initiated by benzyl alcohol allowed for the preparation of well-defined polyphosphoramidates (PPA) with predictable molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions (PDI<1.10), and well-defined chain ends. Cleavage of the acid-labile phosphoramidate bonds on the polyphosphoramidate repeat units was evaluated under acidic conditions over a pH range of 1–5, and the complete hydrolysis produced polyphosphodiesters. The thermal properties of the resulting polyphosphoester ionomer acid and polyphosphoester ionomer sodium salt exhibited significant thermal stability. The parent PPA and both forms of the PPEIs showed low cytotoxicities toward HeLa cells and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The synthetic methodology developed here has enriched the family of water-soluble polymers prepared by rapid and convenient organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerizations and straightforward chemical medication reactions, which are designed to be hydrolytically degradable and have promise for numerous biomedical and other applications.

Zhang, Shiyi; Wang, Hai; Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Fuwu; Seetho, Kellie; Zou, Jiong; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Dove, Andrew P.; Wooley, Karen L.



Optimization of the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane-electrode assemblies : roles of curing parameters on the catalyst and ionomer structures and morphology.  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the origin of performance variations in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a series of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) with identical electrode layer compositions were prepared using different electrode curing conditions, their performances were evaluated, and their morphologies determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polarization curves varied markedly primarily due to differences in morphologies of electrodes, which were dictated by the curing processes. The highest performing MEAs (1.46 W cm{sup -2} peak power density at 3.2 A cm{sup -2} and 80 C) were prepared using a slow curing process at a lower temperature, whereas those MEAs prepared using a faster curing process performed poorly (0.1948 W cm{sup -2} peak power density at 440 mA cm{sup -2} and 80 C). The slowly cured MEAs showed uniform electrode catalyst and ionomer distributions, as revealed in SEM images and elemental maps. The relatively faster cured materials exhibited uneven distribution of ionomer with significant catalyst clustering. Collectively, these results indicate that to achieve optimal performance, factors that affect the dynamics of the curing process, such as rate of solvent evaporation, must be carefully controlled to avoid solvent trapping, minimize catalyst coagulation, and promote even distribution of ionomer.

Bose, A. B.; Shaik, R.; Mawdsley, J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Northern Illinois Univ.



Scintillating Fluorohafnate Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the roentgenoluminescence and gamma-radiation resistance of Ce3+-doped fluorohafnate glasses prepared under different redox conditions and containing different additions. The glasses are shown to contain several types of luminescence centers and radiation-induced color centers, whose concentrations are governed by the preparation conditions and the nature of the dopants. The radiation resistance and light output of the glasses

S. Kh. Batygov; M. N. Brekhovskikh; N. N. Vinogradova; L. N. Dmitruk; L. V. Moiseeva; V. A. Fedorov



Containerless processing of glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-based research on the containerless melting of glass and experiments performed during a flight on the SPAR 6 are described. Experiments leading to selection of the flight sample composition, a silica-modified gallia/calcia glass, and the preparation of a one quarter inch diameter flight sample are described. During the flight experiment, a sample of the glass was containerless melted and cooled to a clear glass in a single axis acoustic positioning apparatus. The functioning of the flight experimental hardware was evaluated. The evaluation of the sample is presented.

Happe, R. A.



A method for producing controlled fluoride release from an orthodontic bracket.  


The aim of this study was to manufacture and test, in vitro, a novel modification to provide fluoride-releasing orthodontic brackets. Thirty-two orthodontic brackets were drilled to produce a recess (approximately 1.3 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in depth) at the centre of the bracket base. Four materials, with and without the addition of sodium fluoride, a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem micro), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Fuji Ortho LC), a zinc phosphate (Zinc Cement Improved), and a resin (Transbond XT) were used to fill the recess in the bracket base. Fluoride release was measured daily during the first week and then weekly for 10 weeks. An ion chromatograph with suppressed conductivity was used for free fluoride ion determination. Statistical analysis to determine the amount of flouride release was undertaken using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. During the first 2 weeks, the resin group, with the addition of 38 per cent sodium fluoride added, released significantly more free fluoride (P < 0.05), but after 2 weeks the fluoride release markedly decreased. After 5 weeks, the RMGIC group, with 15 per cent added sodium fluoride, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily fluoride release than the other groups. The findings demonstrated that an appropriate fluoridated material can be used as a fluoride-releasing reservoir in a modified orthodontic bracket to enable it to release fluoride over the period of fixed appliance treatment. PMID:17804428

Li, Song; Hobson, Ross S; Bai, Yuxing; Yan, Zhuoqun; Carrick, Thomas E; McCabe, John F



[In vitro evaluation of fracture resistance of teeth with incomplete root development and intracanal reinforcement with different materials].  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of teeth with incomplete root development and intracanal reinforcement with adhesives materials. 50 human central and lateral incisors were instrumented and prepared to simulate an immature tooth and filled apically with MTA. The samples were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. Group 1: resin composite Filtek P90; Group 2: glass Ionomer Vitremer; Group 3: resin composite Filtek Z350 XT; Group 4: glass Ionomer Ketac N 100; Group 5: negative control (instrumented but not reinforced). After, the fracture test was performed using a fracture universal testing machine (Instron). The maximum values of resistance before catastrophic fracture were collected and analyzed by Anova (p = 0.05). The results show a significant difference between the groups compared (p = 0.02). A significant difference was found between group 1 (847.73 N) and group 5 (474.77 N) (p = 0.02) applying the Bonferroni test. Despite the limitations of the study, the conclusion is that micro-hybrid composite resins are ideal materials to strengthen teeth with incomplete root development endodontically treated. PMID:23248970

Cabrales Salgado, Ricardo; Carvajal Cabrales, Katherine; Pupo Marrugo, Stella; Hernández González, Daniel Fernando; Gracia Bárcenas, José Luis



Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors  

SciTech Connect

The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang



Digitization of stained glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital photography was applied to the capture of images of the stained glass windows in the historic parish church in Fairford, Gloucestershire, England. Because of their size, the windows had to be photographed in 45 separate sections in order to capture all the detail present in the painting on the glass. The digital images of each section, approximately 3000 by

Lindsay W. MacDonald



Fluoride Glass Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to Fluoride-based glasses that exhibit a high degree of transparency throughout the near ultraviolet visible and mid infrared portions of the spectrum. The glasses are composed of MgF2 and ZnF2 as essential compositional ingredients...

O. El-Bayoumi



Supercooled Liquids and Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected aspects of recent progress in the study of supercooled liquids and glasses are presented in this review. As an introduction for nonspecialists, several basic features of the dynamics and thermodynamics of supercooled liquids and glasses are described. Among these are nonexponential relaxation functions, non-Arrhenius temperature dependences, and the Kauzmann temperature. Various theoretical models which attempt to explain these basic

M. D. Ediger; C. A. Angell; Sidney R. Nagel



Surface Conductive Glass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.



Stained Glass Glue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners use glue instead of glass to create artwork that can be hung in a window. Discover how the chemicals in various materials mix together to make a colorful, translucent "stained glass" creation.

Society, American C.



Morphology and electrochemical properties of perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers for vanadium flow battery applications: effect of side-chain length.  


Perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers (PFSI) with different side-chain lengths have been investigated with respect to their morphology and electrochemical properties in vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The results indicated that the membrane with the shortest side chains (SSC-M2) displayed small ion clusters and a low degree of hydrophobic-hydrophilic separation, which is favourable to reduce the cross-over of vanadium ions in the VFB. SSC-M2 shows a similar proton conductivity to Nafion, which carries longer ionic side chains but with much lower ion permeability. As a result, the VFB assembled with SSC-M2 exhibited a superior coulombic efficiency and a voltage efficiency close to that of Nafion115. In situ mass transfer revealed that SSC-M2 had a remarkably low degree of vanadium and water transfer across the membrane, which resulted in lower capacity fading than in the case of Nafion115. These results indicate that a membrane with short side chains is an ideal option in the fabrication of high-performance VFBs with low capacity loss. PMID:23775947

Ding, Cong; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongzhang; Yao, Chuan; Shi, Dingqin



Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition  

PubMed Central

Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome—the mineral and trace-element composition—of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans. This study shows that eCO2 reduces the overall mineral concentrations (?8%, 95% confidence interval: ?9.1 to ?6.9, p<0.00001) and increases TNC:minerals > carbon:minerals in C3 plants. The meta-analysis of 7761 observations, including 2264 observations at state of the art FACE centers, covers 130 species/cultivars. The attained statistical power reveals that the shift is systemic and global. Its potential to exacerbate the prevalence of ‘hidden hunger’ and obesity is discussed. DOI:

Loladze, Irakli



Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition.  


Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome-the mineral and trace-element composition-of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans. This study shows that eCO2 reduces the overall mineral concentrations (-8%, 95% confidence interval: -9.1 to -6.9, p<0.00001) and increases TNC:minerals > carbon:minerals in C3 plants. The meta-analysis of 7761 observations, including 2264 observations at state of the art FACE centers, covers 130 species/cultivars. The attained statistical power reveals that the shift is systemic and global. Its potential to exacerbate the prevalence of 'hidden hunger' and obesity is discussed.DOI: PMID:24867639

Loladze, Irakli



A macroscopic model of proton transport through the membrane-ionomer interface of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The membrane-ionomer interface is the critical interlink of the electrodes and catalyst to the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM); together forming the membrane electrode assembly in current state-of-the-art PEM fuel cells. In this paper, proton conduction through the interface is investigated to understand its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The water containing domains at this interface were modeled as cylindrical pores/channels with the anionic groups (i.e., -SO3-) assumed to be fixed on the pore wall. The interactions of each species with all other species and an applied external field were examined. Molecular-based interaction potential energies were computed in a small test element of the pore and were scaled up in terms of macroscopic variables. Evolution equations of the density and momentum of the species (water molecules and hydronium ions) were derived within a framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The resulting evolution equations for the species were solved analytically using an order-of-magnitude analysis to obtain an expression for the proton conductivity. Results show that the conductivity increases with increasing water content and pore radius, and strongly depends on the separation distance between the sulfonate groups and their distribution on the pore wall. It was also determined that the conductivity of two similar pores of different radii in series is limited by the pore with the smaller radius.

Kumar, Milan; Edwards, Brian J.; Paddison, Stephen J.



Influence of ultrasound, with and without water spray cooling, on removal of posts cemented with resin or glass ionomer cements: An in-vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aims/objectives: To evaluate in vitro the ultrasonic vibration efficacy with and without water spray cooling on the reduction of the amount of force necessary to dislodge the cast posts cemented with resin cement and to compare it with those cemented with GIC Type I luting cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples were divided into six groups: groups 1, 2, 3, posts cemented with GIC; groups 4, 5, 6, posts cemented with resin; groups 1 and 4 (controls), no ultrasound; groups 2 and 5, ultrasound without water spray; and groups 3 and 6, ultrasound with water spray. Instron testing machine was used to dislodge the posts from the root canals and the data was statistically analyzed. Results: Ultrasound with water spray (group 3) among the GIC groups reduced the traction force necessary to extract posts by 53.33% whereas ultrasound without water spray (group 5) among the resin groups reduced by 59.5% compared to control. Conclusion: Ultrasound with water is more effective in removing posts cemented with GIC because of the ultrasonic energy being transferred to the post. Ultasonics without water is more effective in removing posts fixed with resin cement probably by the indirect action of heat production.

Adarsha, M S; Lata, D A



Clinical evaluation of giomer- and resin-modified glass ionomer cement in class V noncarious cervical lesions: An in vivo study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate and compare the clinical performance of Giomer (Beautifil II) and RMGIC (Fuji II LC) in noncarious cervical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two subjects with one or two pairs of noncarious cervical lesions were included in the study. Each pair of lesion was restored with either giomer or RMGIC assigned randomly. Clinical evaluation of restorations was done using USPHS criteria. Data was formulated in a predesigned format and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi square test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between RMGIC and Giomer with respect to surface roughness with P value <0.001. Conclusion: Giomer showed superior surface finish compared to RMGIC. Both Giomer and RMGIC showed equal retention ability.

Jyothi, KN; Annapurna, S; Kumar, Anil S; Venugopal, P; Jayashankara, CM



40 CFR Requirements - Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the...Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63...Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and...



CCMR: Study of Mixed Glass Former Phenomena in Glasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water concentration in varying compositions of sodium borosilicate glass was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This is to further explore the Mixed Glass Former Effect (MGFE) in glasses with two or more network formers. Previous data shows that the water concentration increases with time.1 Thick and thin sample analysis was carried out on the glass to validate this data.

Clark, Braeden



Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored by silorane-based composite with or without fiber or nano-ionomer  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This in vitro study investigated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored using silorane- or methacrylate-based composite along with or without fiber or nano-ionomer base. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety-six intact maxillary premolars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 12). G1 (negative control) was the intact teeth. In Groups 2-8, root canal treatment with mesio-occlusodistal preparation was performed. G2 (positive control) was kept unrestored. The other groups were restored using composite resin as follows: G3, methacrylate-based composite (Z250); G4, methacrylate composite (Z250) with polyethylene fiber; G5 and G6, silorane-based composite (Filtek P90) without and with the fiber, respectively; G7 and G8, methacrylate- and silorane-based composite with nano-ionomer base, respectively. After aging period and thermocycling for 1000 cycles, fracture strength was tested and fracture patterns were inspected. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (?=0.05). RESULTS Mean fracture resistance for the eight groups (in Newton) were G1: 1200 ± 169a, G2: 360 ± 93b, G3: 632 ± 196c, G4: 692 ± 195c, G5: 917 ± 159d, G6: 1013 ± 125ad, G7: 959 ± 148d, G8: 947 ± 105d (different superscript letters revealed significant difference among groups). Most of the fractures in all the groups were restorable, except Group 3. CONCLUSION Silorane-based composite revealed significantly higher strength of the restored premolars compared to that of methacrylate one. Fiber insertion demonstrated no additional effect on the strength of both composite restorations; however, it increased the prevalence of restorable fracture of methacrylate-based composite restored teeth. Using nano-ionomer base under methacrylate-based composite had a positive effect on fracture resistance and pattern. Only fiber-reinforced silorane composite restoration resulted in a strength similar to that of the intact teeth.

Shafiei, Fereshteh; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Fattah, Zahra



Glass Ceiling Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Existing from 1991-1996, the Glass Ceiling Commission was a federally funded commission which considered the "invisible, artificial barriers that prevent qualified individuals from advancing within their organization and reaching full potential." While the term "Glass Ceiling" originally referred to women, it was expanded to also include minorities. The Catherwood Library at the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University has electronically archived the reports and findings of the commission, as well as a host of papers written on the Glass Ceiling Commission. The Commission summaries, reports, and findings are annotated, as are the accompanying papers.

Commission., United S.


Residual stresses in glasses.  


The history dependence of glasses formed from flow-melted steady states by a sudden cessation of the shear rate ?[over ?] is studied in colloidal suspensions, by molecular dynamics simulations and by mode-coupling theory. In an ideal glass, stresses relax only partially, leaving behind a finite persistent residual stress. For intermediate times, relaxation curves scale as a function of ?[over ?]t, even though no flow is present. The macroscopic stress evolution is connected to a length scale of residual liquefaction displayed by microscopic mean-squared displacements. The theory describes this history dependence of glasses sharing the same thermodynamic state variables but differing static properties. PMID:23745896

Ballauff, M; Brader, J M; Egelhaaf, S U; Fuchs, M; Horbach, J; Koumakis, N; Krüger, M; Laurati, M; Mutch, K J; Petekidis, G; Siebenbürger, M; Voigtmann, Th; Zausch, J



40 CFR Requirements - Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations Requirements Compliance...Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission...



Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass.

Mohamed N. Rahaman; Delbert E. Day; B. Sonny Bal; Qiang Fu; Steven B. Jung; Lynda F. Bonewald; Antoni P. Tomsia



Photoelectric Effect from Borosilicate Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values of the photoelectric quantum efficiency of glass for different wavelengths have been determined and data have been obtained on the status of electrons placed on glass surfaces. One of the borosilicate glasses commonly used in discharge tube manufacture and soda glass were studied in vacuum with 2537 A photons from a quartz Heraeus mercury arc and with light from

Vijay Kumar Rohatgi



Thick Film Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technicA1 literature was reviewed in order to characterize the thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and wetting behavior as functions of composition for glasses of present or potential use in thick film formulations. The applicability of the ...

R. W. Vest



Glass formation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of containerless glass-forming experiments conducted aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985, using a single-axis acoustic levitator furnace apparatus. An attempt was made to obtain quantitative evidence for the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation/crystallization in containerless melts under microgravity conditions, as well as to study melt homogenization in the absence of gravity-driven convection and assess the feasibility of laser fusion target glass microsphere preparation with a microgravity apparatus of the present type. A ternary calcia-gallia-silica glass thus obtained indicated a 2-3-fold increase in glass-formation tendency for this material composition in microgravity, by comparison with 1g.

Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.




SciTech Connect

The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.




CCMR: Water in Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water uptake for various compositions of the model glass (Fe2O3)0.01(B2O3)0.048(Na2O)0.142(SiO2)0.8x(Al2O3)0.8(1âx) under fixed annealing conditions was studied via FTIR. Glasses of this formulation were found to take up water at both 300 and 380 °C. The time dependence of their water uptake entails that the governing kinetics are determined by the diffusion of water molecules in the glass network. The experimental approach used was validated by confirming previous water concentration results regarding glasses of the composition (Na2O)0.2[(BO1.5)x(SiO2)1âx]0.8.

Harrell, Stuart



Ultrastable nanostructured polymer glasses.  


Owing to the kinetic nature of the glass transition, the ability to significantly alter the properties of amorphous solids by the typical routes to the vitreous state is restricted. For instance, an order of magnitude change in the cooling rate merely modifies the value of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) by a few degrees. Here we show that matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) can be used to form ultrastable and nanostructured glassy polymer films which, relative to the standard poly(methyl methacrylate) glass formed on cooling at standard rates, are 40% less dense, have a 40 K higher T(g), and exhibit a two orders of magnitude enhancement in kinetic stability at high temperatures. The unique set of properties of MAPLE-deposited glasses may make them attractive in technologies where weight and stability are central design issues. PMID:22306770

Guo, Yunlong; Morozov, Anatoli; Schneider, Dirk; Chung, Jae Woo; Zhang, Chuan; Waldmann, Maike; Yao, Nan; Fytas, George; Arnold, Craig B; Priestley, Rodney D



Super ionic conductive glass  


An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)



Seeing Glass Contractors Clearly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers seven tips for finding and working with an effective glass contractor. For example, schools should consider the company's reputation and longevity of service, and whether it has in-house engineering capabilities. (EV)

Deliberato, Jerry



Laser Phosphate Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book gives a detailed description of the physical properties of effective new laser materials - phosphate glasses doped with rare-earth ions, and demonstrates the possibilities and prospects for their use in various types of lasers. Data are presente...

M. E. Zhabotinskii N. E. Alekseev V. B. Kravchenko V. P. Gapontsev Y. P. Rudnitskii



Whisker reinforced glass ceramic  

SciTech Connect

The process for making an in-situ whisker reinforced glass-ceramic that is up to 1.5 times as strong as conventional glass-ceramics was developed at Virginia Tech and patented in 1993. This technology has been identified as having commercial potential for use in high temperature heat exchanger applications for the electric power generation field by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). This technology was licensed by MATVA, Inc., a small Virginia business, for further development. In particular, the goal of this project was to develop a property database and conduct initial testing of heat exchanger prototypes to demonstrate its potential application. This final report describes how the glass precursor was formed, physical properties of the glass-ceramic, techniques for making heat exchanger prototypes.

Hirschfeld, D.A.; Brown, J.J. Jr.



Glasses and Contact Lenses  


... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ... trouble, it's often a refractive problem. Glasses or contact lenses work so well because they can correct ...


Low Melting Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methods of preparation of glasses containing zinc, lead, tellurium, thallium, molybdenum, vanadium, borates, phosphates, chalcogenides, oxychalcogenides, and other elements and compounds are reviewed and their structure discussed. The properties given...

N. M. Pavlushin



Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab



Fluoride glass compositions  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to Fluoride-based glasses that exhibit a high degree of transparency throughout the near ultraviolet visible and mid infrared portions of the spectrum. The glasses are composed of MgF2 and ZnF2 as essential compositional ingredients together with at least two other metallic fluorides from the group of YbF3, ThF4, PbF2, A1F3 and MnF2.

El-Bayoumi, O.



Metallic glass composition  


A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC) [Raleigh, NC



Glasses formed by hypervelocity impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents description, classification, and geological setting of impact glasses, which are formed as a result of meteorite impacts with the planetary surface, and discusses the impact-glass formation process in the context of cratering mechanics. Impact glasses can be classified as belonging to two major groups: (1) mineral glasses, which are identical in composition to a mineral, and (2) rock glasses, which have the composition of a rock or a mixture of various rocks. Rock glasses may be (1) melt ejecta, (2) parts of a coherent melt layer inside the crater cavity, or (3) dikes or veins. The composition of rock glasses at a particular crater can be matched by that of the target. In nonporous rocks, the formation of rock glasses requires peak pressures in excess of 60-80 GPa, while mineral glasses are formed in the pressure range of about 25 to 55 GPa; in porous rocks, interstitial glass forms at pressures as low as 5 GPa.

Stoeffler, D.



Profiling the ionome of rice and its use in discriminating geographical origins at the regional scale, China.  


Element profile was investigated for their use to trace the geographical origin of rice (Oryza sativa L.) samples. The concentrations of 13 elements (calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd)) were determined in the rice samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectrometry. Most of the essential elements for human health in rice were within normal ranges except for Mo and Se. Mo concentrations were twice as high as those in rice from Vietnam and Spain. Meanwhile, Se concentrations were three times lower in the whole province compared to the Chinese average level of 0.088 mg/kg. About 12% of the rice samples failed the Chinese national food safety standard of 0.2 mg/kg for Cd. Combined with the multi-elemental profile in rice, the principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA) and Fibonacci index analysis (FIA) were applied to discriminate geographical origins of the samples. Results indicated that the FIA method could achieve a more effective geographical origin classification compared with PCA and DFA, due to its efficiency in making the grouping even when the elemental variability was so high that PCA and DFA showed little discriminatory power. Furthermore, some elements were identified as the most powerful indicators of geographical origin: Ca, Ni, Fe and Cd. This suggests that the newly established methodology of FIA based on the ionome profile can be applied to determine the geographical origin of rice. PMID:23586309

Li, Gang; Nunes, Luis; Wang, Yijie; Williams, Paul N; Zheng, Maozhong; Zhang, Qiufang; Zhu, Yongguan



Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas



Sequential optimization of methotrexate encapsulation in micellar nano-networks of polyethyleneimine ionomer containing redox-sensitive cross-links  

PubMed Central

A functional polycation nanonetwork was developed for delivery of water soluble chemotherapeutic agents. The complexes of polyethyleneimine grafted methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEI-g-mPEG) and Zn2+ were utilized as the micellar template for cross-linking with dithiodipropionic acid, followed by an acidic pH dialysis to remove the metal ion from the micellar template. The synthesis method was optimized according to pH, the molar ratio of Zn2+, and the cross-link ratio. The atomic force microscopy showed soft, discrete, and uniform nano-networks. They were sensitive to the simulated reductive environment as determined by Ellman’s assay. They showed few positive ? potential and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 162±10 nm, which decreased to 49±11 nm upon dehydration. The ionic character of the nano-networks allowed the achievement of a higher-loading capacity of methotrexate (MTX), approximately 57% weight per weight, depending on the cross-link and the drug feed ratios. The nano-networks actively loaded with MTX presented some suitable properties, such as the hydrodynamic size of 117±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.22, and a prolonged swelling-controlled release profile over 24 hours that boosted following reductive activation of the nanonetwork biodegradation. Unlike the PEI ionomer, the nano-networks provided an acceptable cytotoxicity profile. The drug-loaded nano-networks exhibited more specific cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells if compared to free MTX at concentrations above 1 ?M. The enhanced antitumor activity in vitro might be attributed to endocytic entry of MTX-loaded nano-networks that was found in the epifluorescence microscopy experiment for the fluorophore-labeled nano-networks.

Abolmaali, Samira Sadat; Tamaddon, Ali; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Javidnia, Katayoun; Dinarvand, Rasoul



Towards ultrastrong glasses.  


The development of new glassy materials is key for addressing major global challenges in energy, medicine, and advanced communications systems. For example, thin, flexible, and large-area glass substrates will play an enabling role in the development of flexible displays, roll-to-roll processing of solar cells, next-generation touch-screen devices, and encapsulation of organic semiconductors. The main drawback of glass and its limitation for these applications is its brittle fracture behavior, especially in the presence of surface flaws, which can significantly reduce the practical strength of a glass product. Hence, the design of new ultrastrong glassy materials and strengthening techniques is of crucial importance. The main issues regarding glass strength are discussed, with an emphasis on the underlying microscopic mechanisms that are responsible for mechanical properties. The relationship among elastic properties and fracture behavior is also addressed, focusing on both oxide and metallic glasses. From a theoretical perspective, atomistic modeling of mechanical properties of glassy materials is considered. The topological origin of these properties is also discussed, including its relation to structural and chemical heterogeneities. Finally, comments are given on several toughening strategies for increasing the damage resistance of glass products. PMID:22103001

Wondraczek, Lothar; Mauro, John C; Eckert, Jürgen; Kühn, Uta; Horbach, Jürgen; Deubener, Joachim; Rouxel, Tanguy



Perspective: The glass transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide here a brief perspective on the glass transition field. It is an assessment, written from the point of view of theory, of where the field is and where it seems to be heading. We first give an overview of the main phenomenological characteristics, or ``stylised facts,'' of the glass transition problem, i.e., the central observations that a theory of the physics of glass formation should aim to explain in a unified manner. We describe recent developments, with a particular focus on real space properties, including dynamical heterogeneity and facilitation, the search for underlying spatial or structural correlations, and the relation between the thermal glass transition and athermal jamming. We then discuss briefly how competing theories of the glass transition have adapted and evolved to account for such real space issues. We consider in detail two conceptual and methodological approaches put forward recently, that aim to access the fundamental critical phenomenon underlying the glass transition, be it thermodynamic or dynamic in origin, by means of biasing of ensembles, of configurations in the thermodynamic case, or of trajectories in the dynamic case. We end with a short outlook.

Biroli, Giulio; Garrahan, Juan P.



Containerless synthesis of interesting glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One aspect of containerless glass experimentation was thoroughly examined: glass forming ability. It is argued that although containerless processing will abet glass formation, other ground-based methods can do the job better. However, these methods have limitations, such as sample dimensions and concomitant ability to make property measurements. Most importantly, perhaps, is the observation that glass properties are a function of preparation procedure. Thus, it seems as though there still is an argument for use of containerless processing for glass forming.

Weinberg, Michael C.



Competitive formation of glasses and glass-matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

By systematically investigating the effect of chemical composition on the competitive formation of glasses in various systems, we attempt to address two long-standing scientific puzzles upon metallic glasses, i.e., (i) which composition is the best for forming glasses and glass-matrix composites and (ii) what determines the easy glass-forming composition range in a given alloy system. Our findings have led to the construction of a qualitative microstructure selection map, which is useful for guiding the design of bulkier metallic glasses and glass-matrix composites. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that the classical kinetic treatment of glass formation is insufficient; to analyze glass formation properly, it is necessary to go beyond simple assumptions of single polymorphic solidification during crystallization.

Lu, Zhao Ping [ORNL; Ma, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Chang, Y. Austin [University of Wisconsin, Madison




SciTech Connect

DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B



Glass microsphere lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris



Crystallization and melting behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) and its blend with styrene-based ionomer using time-resolved SAXS/WAXS experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved synchrotron wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments were used to investigate the crystallization behavior and microstructure development of neat poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and its 50/50 blend with ionomer containing 6.4 mol% of sodium acrylate. The apparent lateral crystal sizes D(1 2 0) and D(1 1 2)/(0 0 4) were derived from the WAXS profiles. It was found that D(1 2 0) and D(1 1 2)/(0 0 4) of PEO in the blend are almost independent of temperature and are smaller when compared to those of neat PEO sample. The evolution of morphological parameters extracted from time-resolved SAXS profiles such as the long period L, the lamellar crystal thickness lC and the amorphous layer thickness lA, shows that the crystallization process of neat PEO follows the nucleation theory. The lamellar crystal thickness lC shows a single linear dependence on inverse supercooling, over the whole temperature range investigated. In contrast, the crystallization process of PEO in the blend (i.e. in the presence of interactions with the ionomer) follows the nucleation theory only in the narrow supercooling range. It was found also that the morphology of the blend consists of a broad population of lamellar crystal thicknesses. During heating lamellae melt in the reversed sequence of their formation.

?lusarczyk, Czes?aw



Jet penetration in glass  

SciTech Connect

We describe a phenomenological model which accounts for the mechanical response of glass to intense impulsive loading. An important aspect of this response is the dilatancy accompanying fracture. We have also conducted a number of experiments with 38.1-mm diameter precision shaped charges to establish the performance against various targets and to allow evaluation of our model. At 3 charge diameters standoff, the data indicate that both virgin and damaged glass offer better (Bernoulli-scaled) resistance to penetration than either of 4340 steel, or 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Time-resolved measurements indicate two distinct phases of jet penetration in glass: An initial hydrodynamic phase, and a second phase characterized by a slower penetration velocity. Our calculations show that at early time, a crater is formed around the jet and only the tip of the undisturbed jet interacts with the glass. At late time the glass has collapsed on the jet and degraded penetration continues via a disturbed and fragmented jet.

Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.; Kusubov, A.



Recycling of waste glasses into partially crystallized glass foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste soda-lime glass, alone or mixed with wastes from the manufacturing of glass fibers, was successfully converted into\\u000a partially crystallized glass foams by a particularly simple and economic processing, consisting of a direct heating of glass\\u000a powders at temperatures from 900 to 1050 °C. The foaming operated by the oxidation of SiC, inserted as powder additive, was\\u000a found to depend on

Enrico Bernardo; Giovanni Scarinci; Paolo Bertuzzi; Piero Ercole; Ludovico Ramon



Laser zone texturing on glass and glass-ceramic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RF driven CO2 laser is used to create laser bumps on glass and glass-ceramic substrates. The resulting bump height is found to be a function of laser parameters such as pulse width, spot size, and pulse energy. Composition, structure and chemical strengthening of the substrates also affect the laser bump topography. Laser bumps on glass-ceramic, non-strengthened glass, or strengthened

David Kuo; Stan D. Vierk; O. Rauch; Don Polensky



Transient nucleation in glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

Kelton, K. F.



Glass matrix composites from coal flyash and waste glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass matrix composites have been fabricated from waste materials by means of powder technology. Flyash from coal power stations and waste glass, residue of float glass production, were used. Commercial alumina platelets were employed as the reinforcing component. For flyash contents up to 20% by weight nearly fully dense compacts could be fabricated by using relatively low sintering temperatures (650°C).

Aldo R. Boccaccini; Michael Bücker; Jörg Bossert; Konstantin Marszalek



Borate Glasses, Crystals and Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Final Proceedings for Borate, Glasses, Crystals and Melts, 22 July 1996 - 25 July 1996. This is an interdisciplinary conference. Topics include glass forming systems, triborate systems, structural studies, modeling and computer simulation, super-ionic...



Characterizing glass frits for slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glass frit can be mixed with consistently reproducible properties even from different batches of glass frit using technique to measure one quantity that determines integrated properties of frit for combination with given liquid.

Nakano, H. N.



Containerless processing of fluoride glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-based experiments on glass formation, crystallization, surface tension, vaporization, and chemical durability of a zirconium-barium-lanthanum (ZBL) fluoride glass are summarized. In a container large, columnar grains grew out from the container-glass interface during cooling. The main crystalline phase was alpha BaZrF6. A ZBL glass sphere was levitated acoustically during Shuttle flight STS-11. The glass was melted and then cooled while being levitated (containerless). Crystallization in the recovered sample was very fine and mainly beta BaZr2F10, showing the influence of the container on the nucleation and microstructure of crystallization in the glass. Glass formation should be easier for a containerless glass than in a container.

Doremus, Robert H.



Gradient index in borate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of aluminum-borate glasses has been developed for producing gradient index glasses by exchanging. Both positive and negative axial gradient were fabricated in the glasses by exchange of Li+ for Na+ and Na+ for Li+, respectively. Index change to 0.03 and gradient index Abble number larger than +100 were achieved. The diffusion coefficients of Na+ and Li+ in borate glasses were calculated by fitting the profiles of refractive index to complimentary error function.

Sun, Yunan; Kindred, Douglas S.; Moore, Duncan T.



Glass and ceramics. [lunar resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of glasses and ceramics can be produced from bulk lunar materials or from separated components. Glassy products include sintered regolith, quenched molten basalt, and transparent glass formed from fused plagioclase. No research has been carried out on lunar material or close simulants, so properties are not known in detail; however, common glass technologies such as molding and spinning seem feasible. Possible methods for producing glass and ceramic materials are discussed along with some potential uses of the resulting products.

Haskin, Larry A.



Making Highly Pure Glass Rods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

Naumann, R. J.



Enthalpy of diaplectic labradorite glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthalpies of solution in molten 2PbO·B2O3 at ~988 K have been measured for diaplectic labradorite glass from the Manicouagan impact crater and a fused glass formed from the same material. The enthalpies of solution of the diaplectic and fusion-formed glasses are 4,347 and 2,023 cal mol-1, respectively. The more endothermic enthalpy of solution of the diaplectic glass indicates a greater

K. L. Geisinger; A. Navrotsky; J. Arndt



Glass-matrix biocomposites.  


CaO-SiO(2) base glass-matrix/Ti particle biocomposite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates have been prepared by means of Vacuum Plasma Spray. The base glass is considered bioactive, because, when soaked in a fluid that simulates the inorganic ion concentration of human plasma (SBF), it develops a bonelike apatite layer on its surface. The aim of this research activity was to toughen this brittle bioactive material and to broaden its biomedical applications. Pure titanium was chosen as toughening phase because of its well-known biocompatibility, and Ti6Al4V alloy as substrate because of both its biocompatibility and its mechanical reliability. At first the composites were prepared as bulk materials, by means of a simple sintering process. Then, by ball-milling the sintered composite, the as-obtained "composite powders" were sprayed by Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) on the substrate. By means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the characteristic temperatures of the base glasses were determined. The thermal properties of mixtures of glass powders and different vol% Ti particles were studied by means of DTA, DSC, hot-stage microscopy, and dilatometry, with the aim of optimizing the sintering conditions. Both the bulk and the coated samples have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compositional analysis (EDS), Vickers indentations, and leaching tests after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). PMID:10898882

Verné, E; Brovarone, C V; Milanese, D



Laser damage in glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are described which suggest that a laser beam focused inside a sample of glass produces a superheated liquid, and that the resulting internal pressure can only be released by internal fracturing, and, in some cases, also by fragmentation of the sample. The evidence is that the Brillouin scattered energy, demonstrated by Chiao, Townes, and Stoicheff is necessary, but not

D W Harper



Light Bends Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Physical Review Focus, describes a recent experiment to find out how the momentum of a photon changes when it passes from a glass fiber into air. The article describes the 100-year-old controversy on this question and explains the results of this experiment. Links are provided for more information.



Glass Static Fatigue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase separation in the sodium borosilicate system was studied, as well as reasons for immiscibility in silicate. Models for the alkali ion peak and a higher temperature peak in the internal friction in alkali silicate glasses were developed. Models for s...

R. H. Doremus



What Glass Ceiling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine



Stained-Glass Pastels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

Laird, Shirley



Work with magnifying glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

At workplaces with optical aids workers complain more often from visual and musculoskeletal disorders compared to those working in offices. These complaints concern more often workers using magnifying glasses than those using stereo-microscopes. Bad working-postures at workplaces with loupes and the worse optical quality of todays loupes are two causes. In addition, the measured magnification was less than the theoretical




Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper investigated the thermal properties and optical properties of typical nonsilica glasses, including viscosity, surface tension, thermal conductivity, transmission, linear and nonlinear refractive index, and fiber attenuation in order to judge the feasibility of using nonsilica glasses as the background material of holey fibers (HFs). Novel techniques were presented to fabricate the nonsilica glass microstructured fiber

Xian Feng; Arshad K. Mairaj; Daniel W. Hewak; Tanya M. Monro



Containerless Processing of Advanced Glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of containerless processing of glass, conducted in preparation of gravity-free processing experiments on board Space Shuttle. 105 candidate glass materials screened. Large number of oxide proportions studied and ternary phase diagram of glass formation developed as result.

Happe, R.; Kim, K.



New Cerium Activated Scintillating Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of cerium activated scintillating glasses is being continued, and two new types have been developed. One of these, a magnesium aluminum borate, is similar to the alkali borate glasses reported previously and was made in an effort to provide a scintillating glass with the highest possible boron content in which a reasonable pulse height could be retained. Its

Robert J. Ginther



Method for manufacturing glass frit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of manufacturing a glass frit for use in the manufacture of uniform glass microspheres to serve as containers for laser fusion fuel to be exposed to laser energy which includes the formation of a glass gel which is then dried, pulverized, and very accurately sized to particles in a range of, for example, 125 to 149 micrometers. The

Ronald G. Budrick; Frank T. King; Nolen Jr. Robert L; David E. Solomon



Glass for Solid State Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

Bailey, R. F.



Heliostat glass survey and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glass characterization and specification task included a comprehensive survey of both foreign and domestic sources of low distortion, low iron, .125 nominal flat glass for use in heliostat applications. PNL attempted to determine the availability of production lines, estimate industry interest, lead times, and costs for producing glass for second surface heliostat mirrors for the Barstow pilot plant and

M. A. Lind; J. M. Russin



Water's second glass transition  

PubMed Central

The glassy states of water are of common interest as the majority of H2O in space is in the glassy state and especially because a proper description of this phenomenon is considered to be the key to our understanding why liquid water shows exceptional properties, different from all other liquids. The occurrence of water’s calorimetric glass transition of low-density amorphous ice at 136 K has been discussed controversially for many years because its calorimetric signature is very feeble. Here, we report that high-density amorphous ice at ambient pressure shows a distinct calorimetric glass transitions at 116 K and present evidence that this second glass transition involves liquid-like translational mobility of water molecules. This “double Tg scenario” is related to the coexistence of two liquid phases. The calorimetric signature of the second glass transition is much less feeble, with a heat capacity increase at Tg,2 about five times as large as at Tg,1. By using broadband-dielectric spectroscopy we resolve loss peaks yielding relaxation times near 100 s at 126 K for low-density amorphous ice and at 110 K for high-density amorphous ice as signatures of these two distinct glass transitions. Temperature-dependent dielectric data and heating-rate–dependent calorimetric data allow us to construct the relaxation map for the two distinct phases of water and to extract fragility indices m = 14 for the low-density and m = 20–25 for the high-density liquid. Thus, low-density liquid is classified as the strongest of all liquids known (“superstrong”), and also high-density liquid is classified as a strong liquid.

Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Nelson, Helge; Bohmer, Roland



Microleakage along glass-fibre posts cemented with three different materials after cyclic loading: a pilot study.  


The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage along glass-fibre posts cemented with three different cements after cyclic loading. After post-space preparation, fifty obturated root canals were randomly divided into three experimental groups and two control groups. In group 1, Glassix posts were cemented using Harvard cement, in group 2, Fuji PLUS cement was used and in group 3, Variolink II was used for post cementation. The specimens were artificially aged by loading in a special testing machine. Coronal leakage was evaluated using a fluid transport system. Posts cemented with Variolink II, showed significantly higher failure rate after loading, compared to group 1 and 2 (p = 0.009). Comparing microleakage in samples that have not failed, specimens cemented with Variolink II showed significantly less fluid transport than specimens cemented with zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements (p = 0.04 and p = 0.006, respectively). Variolink II cement exibited significantly less fluid movement compared with Harvard and Fuji PLUS cement. PMID:23940985

Barbi?, Marija Rogi?; Segovi?, Sanja; Baraba, Anja; Ribari?, Sonja Pezelj; Katunari?, Marina; Ani?, Ivica



Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

Doremus, R. H.



Does fully radioactive glass behave differently than simulated waste glass  

SciTech Connect

There has been interest in the comparison of the leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses, to assess the differences in reaction mechanism, type, and sequence of secondary phases, and the relative durability among the two types of glasses. The results from these comparisons will provide confidence in the use of the large amount of the data generated in the studies of simulated nuclear waste glass for the modeling of performance of radioactive glasses. Most of the previous comparison studies have been performed at a low to intermediate ratio of glass surface area to solution volume and for time periods of less than one year. These studies have generally concluded there is a little difference in leach behavior between the two glass types. This study reinvestigates that conclusion by utilizing an extensive test matrix, with SA/V ranging between 340 to 20,000 m[sup 1] on three waste glass compositions, for time periods planned up to eight years. The early results are consistent with other studies, in that the leach behavior of simulated waste glasses is similar to that of fully radioactive glasses. However, the longer-term tests at higher SA/V suggest that the leach behavior of the two types of glass diverges, under certain conditions. The longer-term comparison of the leach behavior is discussed.

Feng, X.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.



Does fully radioactive glass behave differently than simulated waste glass?  

SciTech Connect

There has been interest in the comparison of the leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses, to assess the differences in reaction mechanism, type, and sequence of secondary phases, and the relative durability among the two types of glasses. The results from these comparisons will provide confidence in the use of the large amount of the data generated in the studies of simulated nuclear waste glass for the modeling of performance of radioactive glasses. Most of the previous comparison studies have been performed at a low to intermediate ratio of glass surface area to solution volume and for time periods of less than one year. These studies have generally concluded there is a little difference in leach behavior between the two glass types. This study reinvestigates that conclusion by utilizing an extensive test matrix, with SA/V ranging between 340 to 20,000 m{sup 1} on three waste glass compositions, for time periods planned up to eight years. The early results are consistent with other studies, in that the leach behavior of simulated waste glasses is similar to that of fully radioactive glasses. However, the longer-term tests at higher SA/V suggest that the leach behavior of the two types of glass diverges, under certain conditions. The longer-term comparison of the leach behavior is discussed.

Feng, X.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.



Digitization of stained glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital photography was applied to the capture of images of the stained glass windows in the historic parish church in Fairford, Gloucestershire, England. Because of their size, the windows had to be photographed in 45 separate sections in order to capture all the detail present in the painting on the glass. The digital images of each section, approximately 3000 by 2300 pixels, were then mosaiced together in order to construct the very high resolution image needed for the complete window. A special backlight panel was constructed for the purpose, and techniques developed for minimizing the effects of reflected light and for calibrating the color of the images. Improvements in the technology for mounting and positioning the camera were identified as the most significant factors currently preventing the widespread adoption of this technology for virtual heritage applications.

MacDonald, Lindsay W.



Outgassing of Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas evolved from glass at temperatures below the softening point, which is of interest in bake-out problems, is primarily water. The water evolved from unit surface at constant temperature above 300°C is linear with respect to the square root of the time of bake-out. The intercept of the linear plot, which can be altered by different surface treatments, is

B. Johnson Todd



CCMR: Water in Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water uptake for various compositions of the model glass (CaO·Al2O3)x (2 SiO2)1-x under fixed annealing conditions was studied via FTIR. The water saturation concentration increased with time for certain sample sets, suggesting slow equilibration of the surface with the annealing atmosphere, while the water diffusion coefficient exhibited no appreciable time dependence. The saturation concentration and diffusion coefficient were not found to vary significantly with composition.

Uspal, William



Fluoride content and recharge ability of five glassionomer dental materials  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between fluoride content and fluoride release for glass-ionomer cements is not well understood. The aim of this laboratory study was: to determine the fluoride concentrations at the surfaces of glass-ionomer materials with respect to different storage media and different pH environments; to examine the recharge ability of the materials after NaF immersion; and to assess the morphological changes at the material surfaces using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopic techniques (SEM/EDS). Methods Five glass-ionomer materials, Fuji Triage (FT), Fuji II LC (FII), Fuji VIII (FVIII), Fuji IX GP (FIX), and Ketac N100 (KN), were analyzed in this study. Resin-based fluoride releasing material Helioseal F (HSF) was used as a comparison material. The sample consisted of 120 cured cement disks (n = 20 disks of each tested material, 10 × 1.5 mm). Five disks of each material were stored in 4 different storage media (I- saline, II- acidic solution ph = 2.5, III- acid solution ph = 5.5, IV- NaF solution (c = 500/106). After 7 days, two disks of each material were transferred from media I, II and III to the NaF solution for 3 min. EDS analysis was conducted in 3 randomly selected spots of each experimental disk. SEM was used to determine morphological characteristics of the material surface. Differences between the experimental groups have been analyzed using Student's t-test with the level of significance set at p < 0.001. Results FT showed the highest fluoride content at the surface of the material. The lowest amounts of fluoride ions were detected at the surfaces of the FT disks stored at low pH environments, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Glass-ionomers showed significantly higher fluoride concentrations when compared to the HSF (p < 0.001). After immersion in the NaF solution, fluoride concentrations at the surfaces of the disks increased when compared with previous storage media (FT>FVIII>KN>FII>FIX). SEM analysis of the surface morphology revealed numerous voids, cracks and microporosities in all experimental groups, except for KN and HSF. More homogenous material structure with more discrete cracks was observed in samples stored at neutral pH environment, compared to disks stored in acidic solutions. Conclusion The tested materials could be considered as promising dental materials with potential prophylactic characteristics due to their relatively high fluoride content, but also the ability to extensively reabsorb fluoride ions, especially in acidic environments.

Markovic, Dejan Lj; Petrovic, Bojan B; Peric, Tamara O



Athermal photofluidization of glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azobenzene and its derivatives are among the most important organic photonic materials, with their photo-induced trans-cis isomerization leading to applications ranging from holographic data storage and photoalignment to photoactuation and nanorobotics. A key element and enduring mystery in the photophysics of azobenzenes, central to all such applications, is athermal photofluidization: illumination that produces only a sub-Kelvin increase in average temperature can reduce, by many orders of magnitude, the viscosity of an organic glassy host at temperatures more than 100?K below its thermal glass transition. Here we analyse the relaxation dynamics of a dense monolayer glass of azobenzene-based molecules to obtain a measurement of the transient local effective temperature at which a photo-isomerizing molecule attacks its orientationally confining barriers. This high temperature (Tloc~800?K) leads directly to photofluidization, as each absorbed photon generates an event in which a local glass transition temperature is exceeded, enabling collective confining barriers to be attacked with near 100% quantum efficiency.

Fang, G. J.; Maclennan, J. E.; Yi, Y.; Glaser, M. A.; Farrow, M.; Korblova, E.; Walba, D. M.; Furtak, T. E.; Clark, N. A.



Cluster-assembled metallic glasses  

PubMed Central

A bottom-up approach to nanofabricate metallic glasses from metal clusters as building blocks is presented. Considering metallic glasses as a subclass of cluster-assembled materials, the relation between the two lively fields of metal clusters and metallic glasses is pointed out. Deposition of selected clusters or collections of them, generated by state-of-the-art cluster beam sources, could lead to the production of a well-defined amorphous material. In contrast to rapidly quenched glasses where only the composition of the glass can be controlled, in cluster-assembled glasses, one can precisely control the structural building blocks. Comparing properties of glasses with similar compositions but differing in building blocks and therefore different in structure will facilitate the study of structure–property correlation in metallic glasses. This bottom-up method provides a novel alternative path to the synthesis of glassy alloys and will contribute to improving fundamental understanding in the field of metallic glasses. It may even permit the production of glassy materials for alloys that cannot be quenched rapidly enough to circumvent crystallization. Additionally, gaining deeper insight into the parameters governing the structure–property relation in metallic glasses can have a great impact on understanding and design of other cluster-assembled materials.



Enthalpy of diaplectic labradorite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enthalpies of solution in molten 2PbO·B2O3 at ˜988 K have been measured for diaplectic labradorite glass from the Manicouagan impact crater and a fused glass formed from the same material. The enthalpies of solution of the diaplectic and fusion-formed glasses are 4,347 and 2,023 cal mol-1, respectively. The more endothermic enthalpy of solution of the diaplectic glass indicates a greater relative energetic stability of about 2.3 kcal mol-1. The data are consistent with Diemann and Arndt's (1984) structural model that suggests the diaplectic glass is more ordered than fusion-formed glass and with the presence of crystallites. Comparison of data to enthalpies of solution of crystalline labradorite (Carpenter et al. 1985) indicates a maximum percentage of crystalline relics of ˜15 18%, also consistent with Diemann and Arndt's (1984) estimate of <17%. Thus the diaplectic glass is intermediate in thermochemical properties between normal glass and crystal (much closer to glass) and does not represent any state more unstable than normal fusion-formed glass.

Geisinger, K. L.; Navrotsky, A.; Arndt, J.



Bioactive glass in tissue engineering.  


This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Bal, B Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B; Bonewald, Lynda F; Tomsia, Antoni P



Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed.

Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.



Inorganic glasses, glass-forming liquids and amorphizing solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take familiar inorganic oxide glasses and non-oxide glasses and the liquids from which they derive to review the current understanding of their atomic structure, ranging from the local environments of individual atoms to the long-range order which can cover many interatomic distances. The structural characteristics of important glasses and melts, like silicates, borates, alumino-silicates, halides and chalcogenides, are drawn

G. N. Greaves; S. Sen



Structures and optical properties of tellurite glasses and glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures and optical properties of (K2O)15(Nb 2O5)15(TeO2)70 glass and glass ceramic have been studied in order to understand the second harmonic generation observed from the glass ceramic. We have used 93Nb NMR, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, small angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and powder x-ray and neutron scattering. We find that there is a microstructure consistent with

Robert Theodore Hart Jr.



Glass fibre versus non-glass fibre splinting bandages.  


We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, comparing glass with non-glass fabrics and plaster-of-Paris. Physical and mechanical tests have been carried out and the opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff were recorded. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive and potentially more hazardous. However, non-glass bandages are lighter, less brittle, more radiolucent and less hazardous than glass fibre bandages and are preferred by both patients and applicators. PMID:1572703

Wytch, R; Ross, N; Wardlaw, D



New results on the visco-elastic behaviour of ionomer membranes and relations between T–RH plots and proton conductivity decay of Nafion ® 117 in the range 50–140 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colligative properties of acidic solution inside Nafion® 117 membranes have been investigated, in a large temperature range, by two different methods.1)The matrix counter-pressure index of the ionomer, nc, was first determined and then its relations with the molar fraction and molality of the inner proton solution were found.2)In order to calculate the density of the inner proton solutions, a

G. Alberti; M. L. Di Vona; R. Narducci


Fracture mechanics of cellular glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solr concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

Zwissler, J. G.; Adams, M. A.



Micromachining of glass inertial sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the feasibility of a powder blasting micro-erosion process for the micromachining of accelerometer devices in glass. Using high-speed abrasive microparticles and a metal contact mask, we structure millimeter-size cantilever beams from simple glass slides. By metalizing one side of the glass substrate, we demonstrate both capacitive and piezoresistive\\/strain gauge detection of the vibrating cantilever mass and measure the

Eric Belloy; Abdeljalil Sayah; Martin A. M. Gijs



Electronic structure of metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

This paper is organized in six sections and deals with (1) the glassy transition metal alloys, their d-band structure, the d-band shifts on alloying and their relation to the alloy heat of formation ( and the glass forming ability, (2) the glass to crystal phase transition viewed by valence band spectroscopy, (3) band structure calculations, (4) metallic glasses prepared by laser glazing, (5) glassy normal metal alloys, and (6) glassy hydrides.

Oelhafen, P.; Lapka, R.; Gubler, U.; Krieg, J.; DasGupta, A.; Guentherodt, H.J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Hague, C.; Kuebler, J.; Nagel, S.R.



New glasses with high photosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New germanosilicate glasses with high photosensitivity were fabricated and studied. Addition of sodium produced an increase of 6-fold Ge ions and the appearance of a UV absorption band at 285 nm in the as cast glasses. Laser exposure produced bleaching of such band, when present. Further studies are needed to correlate the two phenomena and find out the best composition in terms of photosensitivity. A new tin sodium silicate glass was also fabricated: glass fibers were produced and high temperature stable gratings were obtained by irradiation with a UV laser.

Ferraris, Monica; Milanese, Daniel; Chen, Qiuping; Menke, Yvonne; Monchiero, Elena



Glass corrosion in natural environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies of the effects of solutes which appear in natural aqueous environments, specifically Mg and Al, under controlled conditions, permit characterization of the retardation of silicate glass leaching in water containing such solutes. In the case of Mg the interaction with the glass appears to consist of exchange with alkali ions present in the glass to a depth of several microns. The effect of Al can be observed at much lower levels, indicating that the mechanism in the case of Al involves irreversible formation of aluminosilicate species at the glass surface.

Thorpe, Arthur N.



Glass corrosion in natural environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments carried out during the progress period are summarized. Experiments carried out involving glass samples exposed to solutions of Tris have shown the appearance of 'spikes' upon monitoring glass dissolution as a function of time. The periodic 'spikes' observed in Tris-based media were interpreted in terms of cracking due to excessive stress in the surface region of the glass. Studies of the interactions of silicate glasses with metal ions in buffered media were extended to systems containing Al. Caps buffer was used to establish the pH. The procedures used are described and the results are given. Preliminary studies were initiated as to the feasibility of adding a slowly dissolving solid compound of the additive to the glass-water system to maintain a supply of dissolved additive. It appears that several magnesium compounds have a suitable combination of solubility and affinity towards silicate glass surfaces to have a pronounced retarding effect on the extraction of uranium from the glass. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that introducing a magnesium source into geologic repositories for nuclear waste glass in the form of a sparingly soluble Mg-based backfill material may cause a substantial reduction in the extent of long-term glass corrosion. The studies described also provide mechanistic understanding of the roles of various metal solutes in the leachant. Such understanding forms the basis for developing long-term predictions of nuclear waste glass durability under repository conditions. From what is known about natural highly reduced glasses such as tektites, it is clear that iron is dissolved as ferrous iron with little or no ferric iron. The reducing conditions were high enough to cause metallic iron to exsolve out of the glass in the form of submicroscopic spherules. As the nuclear waste glass is much less reduced, a study was initiated on other natural glasses in addition to the nuclear waste glass. Extensive measurements were carried out on these glasses in order to characterize their magnetic properties. Results of these studies are described.

Thorpe, Arthur N.; Barkatt, Aaron



The Lévy spin glass transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the phase transition in the Lévy spin glass. A regularized model where the coupling constants smaller than some cutoff ? are neglected can be studied by the cavity method for diluted spin glasses. We show how to handle the ??0 limit and determine the de Almeida-Thouless transition temperature in the presence of an external field. Contrary to previous findings, in zero external field we do not find any stable replica-symmetric spin glass phase: the spin glass phase is always a replica-symmetry-broken phase.

Janzen, K.; Engel, A.; Mézard, M.



Water sprints uphill on glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a material, glass has been widely used in traditional fluidic devices and more recently in micro- and nanofluidic devices, and its wetting properties are crucially important in these applications. In this work, by using a high-intensity femtosecond laser structuring technique, we create a unique surface pattern on glass that transfer a regular glass surface to superwicking. As a result, water defies the gravity and sprints vertically uphill along the structured glass surface at an unprecedented velocity of 3.8 cm/sec. Our study shows that the dynamics of this fast self-propelled water flow follows a square root of time dependence.

Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei



Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability  

SciTech Connect

Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)



Method for heating a glass sheet  


A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

Boaz, P.T.



Creep in colloidal glasses.  


We investigate the nonlinear response to shear stress of a colloidal hard-sphere glass, identifying several regimes depending on time, sample age, and the magnitude of applied stress. This emphasizes a connection between stress-imposed deformation of soft and hard matter, in particular, colloidal and metallic systems. A generalized Maxwell model rationalizes logarithmic creep for long times and low stresses. We identify diverging time scales approaching a critical yield stress. At intermediate times, strong aging effects are seen, which we link to a stress overshoot seen in stress-strain curves. PMID:23004620

Siebenbürger, M; Ballauff, M; Voigtmann, Th



Low Temperature Sintering of P2O5-Added Cordierite Glass with Borosilicate Glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borosilicate glass was adopted as a sintering aid to improve the sinterability of P2O5-added cordierite glass. The flux effect of borosilicate glass aids the coalescence of cordierite glass particles, which promotes the densification. Crystallization of cordierite glass is the major reaction during the sintering of cordierite glass with borosilicate glass. Besides the advantage of lower sintering temperature, the addition of borosilicate glass lowers the dielectric constant of sintered composites.

Fu, Shen-Li; Chen, Lih-Shan



Low Temperature Sintering of P2O5-Added Cordierite Glass with Lead Borosilicate Glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cordierite was prepared by the sintering of cordierite glass and lead borosilicate glass. With the addition of lead borosilicate glass, P2O5-added cordierite glass can be densified at lower sintering temperature. Owing to the flux effect of lead borosilicate glass, the coalescence of glass particles was aided by the viscous flow of the glass. Besides the advantage of lower temperature sintering, the addition of lead borosilicate glass enhances the formation of ?-cordierite crystalline phase.

Chen, Lih-Shan; Fu, Shen-Li



Friction Between Glass Fiber and Resin in Glass Reinforced Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The glass fiber vs plastic friction phenomena and their consequences were measured on laminates of Buna G polyester and a hydrocarbon-based resin reinforced by a commercial twill-weave glass fiber fabric by determining the decay of a torsional vibration i...

G. Pohl



Foam glass insulation from waste glass. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste glass has proven to be effective for the production of foam glass insulation both in the bulk or rigid board form and pellet form. Problems inherent with the use of water, carbon black and calcium carbonate as the foaming agents, have been identified and many have been solved by various techniques. Water was found to be best suited for

W. G. Oakseson; J. Lee; S. K. Goyal; T. Robson; I. B. Cutler



Spin glasses and fragile glasses: Statics, dynamics, and complexity  

PubMed Central

In this paper I will briefly review some theoretical results that have been obtained in recent years for spin glasses and fragile glasses. I will concentrate my attention on the predictions coming from the so called broken replica symmetry approach and on their experimental verifications. I will also mention the relevance or these results for other fields, and in general for complex systems.

Parisi, Giorgio



Glass transition and viscosity of simple glasses and liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical understanding of liquids and glasses at an atomistic level lags well behind that of crystalline materials, even though they are important in many fields including biology and the medical sciences. We present a simple microscopic model for the glass transition based on topological fluctuations in the bonding network. The model makes predictions for important parameters of the glassy

Takeshi Egami; S. Joseph Poon; Valentin Levashov; Rachel Aga; James Morris



Sensitization of Nd3(+) laser glass and Faraday rotator glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven different fluorophosphate glass compositions were doped with cerium and terbium. Initial results indicated that these glasses, as they stood, had only a limited ability to dissolve the rare earth ions. A series of melt modifications was attempted to improve the solubility.

J. D. Myers



Quinary metallic glass alloys  


At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)



Quinary metallic glass alloys  


At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.



ConcepTest: Glass-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glass is made by melting silica-rich sand. The molten glass is then formed into shapes as it cools. Glass making could be seen as an analog for the formation of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...


Reactions and Bonding Between Glasses and Titanium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hermetic seals between titanium and both silicate and alkaline earth boroaluminate glasses have been made. Mechanical testing of pin-seal configurations indicate that the boroaluminate glass seals are at least 50% stronger than the silicate glass seals. T...

R. K. Brow R. D. Watkins



Basic Research on Oxynitride Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nitrogen has been partially substituted for oxygen in a wide variety of silicate systems to produce oxynitride glasses with improved properties. Nitrogen contents as high as 12 at% have been achieved. The glass-forming regions in the Y-Si-Al-O-N, Mg-Si-Al...

R. E. Loehman




Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one

G Wicks; L Leung Heung; R Ray Schumacher



Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC  

SciTech Connect

One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.



Glass Fiber Based Friction Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fibers have been considered as a reinforcing agent in friction linings as one component of a potential substitute for asbestos. The mechanical, thermal and frictional properties of six different grades of glass fibers have been evaluated in model phenolic resin based friction materials. The Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion and friction

N. Subramaniam; Brijnaresh R. Sinha; Frank D. Blum; Yung-Rwei Chen; L. R. Dharani



Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others



Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).


Method of determining glass durability  


A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.



Method of determining glass durability  


A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)



Porous Layers at Glass Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

PREVIOUS investigations have shown that porous modifications of the surfaces of glasses may be formed by the action of liquid water1 and water vapour2. I have now studied the formation of porosity in the surface of grains of soda-lime-silica glass in various conditions.

P. A. Sewell



Glass-An Environmental Protector  

SciTech Connect

From asbestos abatement to lead paint removal to nuclear waste stabilization and even to heavy metal removal using microorganisms, glass has great potential as a solution to many environmental problems. The ability to accommodate an array of chemical elements within the glass structure has facilitated the use of glass as a medium for the stabilization of numerous hazardous substances. The resulting glasses have proven to be durable enough for direct land disposal. In many cases, the stabilized forms have been deemed suitable for re-use in other applications. As recycling and hazardous material treatment become even more important in the global materials cycle, it is a certainty that glass will assume a prominent role.




Glass Nanofiber Fabrication and Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have integrated electric field assisted spinning (electrospinning) of polymeric materials with photolithography for the fabrication of glass nanostructures. We incorporated spin on glass (SOG) dielectric coating with poly-vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) and spun this solution over trenches etched in silicon. A calcination eliminated the PVP polymer from these fibers, while cross-linking the SOG, leaving silica glass fibers with diameters as small as 70 nm. We demonstrated the operation of these fibers as nanomechanical oscillators. We also spun heat depolymerizable polycarbonate (HDPC) fibers over silicon trenches. These fibers were coated with glass by chemical vapor deposition or sputtering, followed by thermal elimination of the polymer core. This yielded suspended glass channels of elliptical cross sections, with inner major and minor axes as small as 75 and 50 nm. These nanochannels offer a low background option for doing fluorescence detection, as demonstrated by single molecule detection, using a confocal microscope, of cellulase enzymes in these channels.

Verbridge, Scott; Edel, Joshua