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Sample records for glass ionomer ketac

  1. Thermal characterization of glass ionomer/vinyl IPN composites

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, A.D.; Bennett, B.; Shelby, A. Storey, R.

    1993-12-31

    In and attempt to improve some of the disadvantages of the conventional glass ionomers such as Ketac-fil, two photocurable glass ionomer restoratives have been introduced to the dental profession. The initial objective of this study was to compare the thermal expansion coefficients on the new formulations, Vari-Glass and Fuji II ionomer to the conventional glass ionomer composites using thermal mechanical analysis and to determine the residual monomer contents after photopolymerization using differential scanning calorimetry. Results suggest that these materials exhibit multiphase morphologies. Conventional glass ionomers exhibit two distinct glass transition temperatures. While Fuji II exhibits many of the characteristics of a conventional glass ionomer, Vari-Glass behaves more as a glass-filled resin composite. Fuji II and Ketac-fil exhibit expansion coefficients which are compatible with tooth structure below body temperature, but may cause significant stress on the bond to tooth structure due to shrinkage of the materials at temperatures slightly above body temperature. In contrast, the Vari-Glass formulation exhibits an expansion coefficient which is over three times that of tooth structure and will result in significant stresses above or below body temperature.

  2. Fluoride release from a new glass-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, P; John, S; Anand, S; Sureshbabu, N; Subbarao, C

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the amount and pattern of fluoride release from a new glass-ionomer-based material (nano-ionomer) with other restorative materials and correlated the surface area to volume of nano-sized filler with its capacity to release fluoride in the powder, more quickly increasing the fluoride. The materials evaluated were a nano-ionomer (Ketac N 100), a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GC Fuji II), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II LC), a compomer (Dyract F) and a fluoride-releasing resin composite (Tetric N Flow). A resin composite (Synergy Flow) served as the control. Ten specimens were fabricated from each of these materials using a customized metal mold. The fluoride release was measured every 24 hours for the first seven days, and on days 14, 21 and 28, a combination fluoride ion—selective electrode connected to an ion analyzer. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (p=0.05). An initial fluoride “burst effect” was seen with all of the materials, except for the control and compomer. The conventional glass-ionomer cement showed the highest fluoride release on the first three days. The nano-ionomer showed the maximum release of fluoride for the remaining days. A low constant level of fluoride release was seen from the compomer and fluoride-releasing resin composite throughout the study period. PMID:21488733

  3. Apical leakage of a new glass ionomer root canal sealer.

    PubMed

    Dalat, D M; Onal, B

    1998-03-01

    A new glass ionomer root canal sealer (Ketac-Endo) has been developed. The purpose of this study was to compare the apical leakage of Ketac-Endo and AH26 using two different filling techniques and a controlled vacuum procedure. Sixty-four extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented and divided into four groups of 15 roots each. The groups were obturated as follows: group 1, a single cone technique and Ketac-Endo; group 2, a lateral condensation technique and Ketac-Endo; group 3, a single cone technique and AH26; and group 4, a lateral condensation technique and AH26. After storage in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C for 1 wk, the root surfaces were coated with two layers of nail polish and sticky wax. All specimens were immersed in a vacuum flask containing 2% methylene blue dye solution. The air was evacuated with a vacuum pump. The roots were sectioned longitudinally, and the linear extent of dye penetration was measured. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between any of the groups. PMID:9558578

  4. Effect of dentine surface treatment on leakage of root fillings with a glass ionomer sealer.

    PubMed

    Holland, R; Sakashita, M S; Murata, S S; Junior, E D

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the quality of seal of the glass ionomer cement, Ketac-Endo, after treatment of the root canal wall. The root canals of 140 extracted human teeth were prepared biomechanically. The root canals were treated with either EDTA or received an intracanal dressing of calcium hydroxide or camphorated paramonochlorphenol. The root canals were filled by the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and the sealer Ketac-Endo, or zinc oxide-eugenol cement or Sealapex. The teeth were placed into a 2% methylene blue dye solution inside a flask, which was attached to a vacuum pump. Leakage was measured linearly. Sealapex exhibited significantly less leakage than Ketac-Endo or zinc oxide-eugenol cement (P<0.01). The use of EDTA and intermediary dressings reduced significantly (P<0.01) the leakage observed with the zinc oxide-eugenol sealer and Ketac-Endo. PMID:8595940

  5. Leaching from glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Bapna, M S; Mueller, H J

    1994-09-01

    This study compared the electrical conductivities, pH and leached ion (F-, Ca, Al, Si) concentrations in supernatant liquids obtained from four glassionomer cements, a buffered ionomer cement, a polycarboxylate cement and a zinc phosphate cement, at three different levels of settings. The result indicated that the measured parameters are highest for the unset condition of cements and decreases as the set condition is approached, except for pH, which shows the opposite trend. Two pulp sensitive glassionomer cements, Chem Bond and Ketac Cem showed high Ca:F ratios as well as high Ca and F concentrations. Further, it is suggested that the cytotoxicity of leached F-, Si, Al and Zn at high concentration and at low pH may induce sensitivity in tooth structure. PMID:7996341

  6. Microleakage of glass ionomer formulations after erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser preparation.

    PubMed

    Delm, Katleen I M; Deman, Peter J; De Bruyne, Mieke A A; Nammour, Samir; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microleakage in class V cavities restored with four conventionally setting glass ionomers (CGIs) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) following erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser or conventional preparation. Four hundred class V cavities were assigned to four groups: A and B were prepared by an Er:YAG laser; C and D were conventionally prepared. In groups B and D, the surface was additionally conditioned with Ketac conditioner. Each group was divided into five subgroups according to the glass ionomer cement (GIC) used: groups 1 (Ketac Fil), 2 (Ketac Molar), 3 (Ionofil Molar), 4 (Ionofil Molar Quick) and 5 (Photac Fil Quick). After thermocycling, a 2% methylene blue solution was used as dye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken to show the conditioner's effect. Complete marginal sealing could not be reached. PhotacFil showed less microleakage than the conventionally setting glass ionomer cements (CGICs) investigated. Conditioning laser-prepared cavities did not negatively influence microleakage results except for Ionofil Molar Quick. PMID:18716828

  7. Clinical comparison of postoperative sensitivity for a glass ionomer and a zinc phosphate luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Kleimeier, B; Schaller, H G; Strub, J R

    1996-02-01

    In 60 patients, 120 partial and full-coverage restorations were cemented on vital abutment teeth with either a glass ionomer or a zinc phosphate luting cement. A split-mouth design and a patient blind data acquisition protocol were used. During an average observation period of 17.3 months there were no differences between the two types of luting cements in regard to subjective and clinical parameters. A high incidence of postoperative hypersensitivity, which is often said to accompany the use of glass ionomer luting cements, was not observed. With the cementation method used in this study, the glass ionomer cement Ketac-Cem Maxicap was an acceptable alternative to conventional zinc phosphate cement. Capsule systems make the clinical handling of glass ionomer luting cements safe and easy and should be used routinely in dental practice. PMID:8667274

  8. Adhesion of a glass ionomer cement to human radicular dentine.

    PubMed

    Weiger, R; Heuchert, T; Hahn, R; Löst, C

    1995-10-01

    The adhesion of cements to root canal surfaces is a crucial factor for strengthening non-vital teeth--weakened due to extensive loss of tooth structure--by cemented posts. The aim of this study was to determine the tensile strength of a glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Cem) on root canal walls following pretreatment with conditioners. Upon cleaning and shaping, 56 straight root canals--divided into seven groups--were conditioned with one of the following solutions: NaOCl (1%) + EDTA (20%), H3PO4 (37%), HNO3 (2.5%), citric acid (6%), polyacrylic acid (10% and 20%) and NaCl (0.9%) as control. Standardized dentine cylinders were prepared out of the coronal half of each root perpendicular to the root axis and subsequently split. The exposed root canal areas were coated with Ketac-Cem. Using an universal testing machine a tensile force was applied to Ketac-Cem up to fracture. Pretreatment with EDTA-NaOCl provided the strongest bond strength (2.2 MPa). The median values for the other conditioning solutions ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 MPa. The significantly weakest bond (0.5 MPa) was recorded for NaCl. The elimination of the smear layer appeared to be an essential factor in order to improve the adhesion. PMID:8625934

  9. The role of sandblasting on the retention of metallic brackets applied with glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Millett, D; McCabe, J F; Gordon, P H

    1993-05-01

    A laboratory investigation of the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets applied with glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Cem) and a conventional adhesive (Right-on) is described. Sandblasting of the bracket base was undertaken in half of the sample bonded with Ketac-Cem and produced a significant reduction in the probability of failure relative to the unsandblasted sample. Brackets with sandblasted and unsandblasted bases, bonded with Ketac-Cem were subjected to mechanical fatigue in a ball mill for a total of 20 hours. Mean survival time (MST) was then calculated for each group and was found to be significantly improved by sandblasting of the bracket base (P < 0.01). PMID:8518265

  10. Availability of fluoride from glass-ionomer luting cements in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Rezk-Lega, F; Ogaard, B; Rölla, G

    1991-02-01

    Fluoride availability from two glass-ionomer luting agents, Ketac-Cement and Aqua-Cement, was monitored after a 1-h treatment in distilled water at pH 7. The recorded results were then compared to the ones obtained from those same cements, after 1 h, in saliva, in water pretreated with saliva (pH 7 and 4.5), and in albumen and phosphate buffer solutions (pH 7). The Mann-Whitney two-sample rank test was utilized in order to identify the differences. The presence of proteins and phosphate reduced fluoride availability. A reduction in the pH from 7 to 4.5 resulted in an increased rate of fluoride release, in water, from glass-ionomers pretreated with saliva. The present study indicates that fluoride availability from glass-ionomers, in vivo, is pH controlled. The rate controlling factors appear to be phosphate and proteins. PMID:2047755

  11. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; S, Marcus Vincius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Acccio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  12. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme

    2013-01-01

    Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the smart materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications. PMID:24130573

  13. Glass ionomer restorative cement systems: an update.

    PubMed

    Berg, Joel H; Croll, Theodore P

    2015-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements have been used in pediatric restorative dentistry for more than two decades. Their usefulness in clinical dentistry is preferential to other materials because of fluoride release from the glass component, biocompatibility, chemical adhesion to dentin and enamel, coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of tooth structure, and versatility. The purpose of this paper was to review the uses of glass ionomer materials in pediatric dentistry, specifically as pit and fissure sealants, dentin and enamel replacement repair materials, and luting cements, and for use in glass ionomer/resin-based composite stratification tooth restoration (the sandwich technique). This article can also be used as a guide to research and clinical references regarding specific aspects of the glass ionomer systems and how they are used for young patients. PMID:25905652

  14. [The utilization of glass ionomer sealing cements].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Van Zeghbroeck L

    1984-01-01

    In order to fix the reconstructive work, a luting cement is used. The main task of this cement is to retain the restoration on the tooth and to fill and seal the gap between them. The first glass ionomer luting cement came on the market in 1978. In the beginning, the cement did not perform as expected: high solubility, high viscosity and hypersensitivity, even followed by pulp death, were reported. The glass ionomer luting cement compares now favourably with the traditional non-adhesive cements. Nevertheless, the zinc phosphate cement is still the most commonly used cementing agent in the dental private practice. Studies have shown that the problems of hypersensitivity after the use of glass ionomer luting cements are more dentist related than material related. This article explains how to use the glass ionomer luting cements in order to achieve a successful cementation.

  15. Thermal diffusivity of glass ionomer cement systems.

    PubMed

    Brantley, W A; Kerby, R E

    1993-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity has been measured for 10 glass ionomer and resin-based materials: three conventional (water-hardened) glass ionomer cements, two silver-reinforced glass ionomers, an experimental stainless steel-reinforced glass ionomer, three visible light-cured (VLC) glass ionomer-resin hybrid materials, and a VLC resin-based product developed for the same clinical uses as the hybrid materials. Cube-shaped specimens, c. 10 x 10 x 10 mm, initially at room temperature were immersed in mercury surrounded by an ice-water bath. From the experimental cooling curve a semi-log plot of relative temperature decrease vs. time yielded a straight line whose slope is proportional to the thermal diffusivity. The values ranged from 1.74-5.16 x 10(-3) cm2 s-1, and all of the materials tested would have adequate insulating properties provided normal clinical thickness levels for lining materials are maintained. It was found that the thermal diffusivities for the three metal-reinforced glass ionomers, where composition information is available, do not follow a rule of mixtures applied to the individual components. PMID:8429424

  16. Do conventional glass ionomer cements release more fluoride than resin-modified glass ionomer cements?

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Maria Fernanda Costa; Martinho, Roberto Luiz de Menezes; Guedes-Neto, Manoel Valcácio; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) and resin-modified GICs. Materials and Methods The cements were grouped as follows: G1 (Vidrion R, SS White), G2 (Vitro Fil, DFL), G3 (Vitro Molar, DFL), G4 (Bioglass R, Biodinâmica), and G5 (Ketac Fil, 3M ESPE), as conventional GICs, and G6 (Vitremer, 3M ESPE), G7 (Vitro Fil LC, DFL), and G8 (Resiglass, Biodinâmica) as resin-modified GICs. Six specimens (8.60 mm in diameter; 1.65 mm in thickness) of each material were prepared using a stainless steel mold. The specimens were immersed in a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) for 6 hr and a remineralizing solution (pH 7.0) for 18 hr a day. The fluoride ions were measured for 15 days. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test with 5% significance were applied. Results The highest amounts of fluoride release were found during the first 24 hr for all cements, decreasing abruptly on day 2, and reaching gradually decreasing levels on day 7. Based on these results, the decreasing scale of fluoride release was as follows: G2 > G3 > G8 = G4 = G7 > G6 = G1 > G5 (p < 0.05). Conclusions There were wide variations among the materials in terms of the cumulative amount of fluoride ion released, and the amount of fluoride release could not be attributed to the category of cement, that is, conventional GICs or resin-modified GICs. PMID:26295024

  17. Fluoride release of glass ionomer restorations after bleaching with two different bleaching materials

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Tarakji, Bassel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of two bleaching agents on the fluoride release of three types of glass ionomer materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 specimens of the tested materials (Ketac Fil, Photac Fil and F2000) were prepared by a split Teflon ring with an internal diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 2 mm. The tested materials were applied and bleached according to manufacturer instructions. Fluoride release measurements were made by using specific ion electrode. Results: Results revealed that bleaching with opalescence Xtra caused little increase in fluoride release from Ketac Fil and Photac Fil but has no effect on F2000. However, Opalescence Quick had no significant effect on the three tested materials. Conclusions: Bleaching effect on fluoride release is material dependent and time has a significant role on fluoride release. PMID:24883026

  18. Thermal diffusivity of glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Tay, W M; Braden, M

    1987-05-01

    Thermal diffusivity, a property related to the thermal insulative efficiency of a material, was measured in nine glass-ionomer cements and compared with results from a silicate and a polycarboxylate cement. Each cement was mixed at various powder-liquid ratios (P/L) and moulded into a rectangular prism of approximate dimensions 2 cm cube with a thermocouple embedded in it. The prism was immersed in a constant-temperature bath at 1 degree C, and the fall in temperature was observed over a period of three min. Except for the initial and later stages, the plot of the logarithmic difference between external and internal temperatures of each block of cement against time showed a straight line in accord with theoretical prediction. From the slope, the thermal diffusivity of the material was calculated. The values for the silicate, polycarboxylate, and glass-ionomer-metal (cermet) showed a marked rise with increasing P/L, whereas at higher P/L, glass ionomer cements showed gradual change, with values being only slightly higher than the thermal diffusivity of dentin. Glass-ionomer cements are good thermal insulators over a wide range of P/L, and close agreement between experimental and theoretical data shows that glass-ionomer cements are homogenous isotropic materials. PMID:3475320

  19. Shear bond strengths of glass-ionomer cements to sound and to prepared carious dentine.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Beata; Deregowska-Nosowicz, Patricia; Limanowska-Shaw, Honorata; Nicholson, John W

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was determine whether bonding of glass-ionomer cements to non-carious dentine differed from that to carious dentine. Five commercial cements were used, namely Fuji IX GP, Fuji IX capsulated, Fuji IX Fast capsulated (all GC, Japan), Ketac-Molar and Ketac-Molar Aplicap (both 3M-ESPE, Germany). Following conditioning of the substrate with 10% poly (acrylic acid) for 10 s, sets of 10 samples of the cements were bonded to prepared teeth that had been removed for orthodontic reasons. The teeth used had either sound dentine or sclerotic dentine. Shear bond strengths were determined following 24 h storage. For the auto-mixed cements, shear bond strength to sound dentine was found not to differ statistically from shear bond strength to sclerotic dentine whereas for hand-mixed cements, shear bond to sound dentine was found to be higher than to carious dentine (to at least p < 0.05). This shows that the chemical effects arising from interactions of glass-ionomer cements with the mineral phase of the tooth are the most important in developing strong bonds, at least in the shorter term. PMID:17203413

  20. Heat transfer properties and thermal cure of glass-ionomer dental cements.

    PubMed

    Gavic, Lidia; Gorseta, Kristina; Glavina, Domagoj; Czarnecka, Beata; Nicholson, John W

    2015-10-01

    Under clinical conditions, conventional glass-ionomer dental cements can be cured by application of heat from dental cure lamps, which causes acceleration in the setting. In order for this to be successful, such heat must be able to spread sufficiently through the cement to enhance cure, but not transmit heat so effectively that the underlying dental pulp of the tooth is damaged. The current study was aimed at measuring heat transfer properties of modern restorative glass-ionomers to determine the extent to which they meet these twin requirements. Three commercial glass ionomer cements (Ionofil Molar, Ketac Molar and Equia™ Fill) were used in association with three different light emitting diode cure lamps designed for clinical use. In addition, for each cement, one set of specimens was allowed to cure without application of a lamp. Temperature changes were measured at three different depths (2, 3 and 4 mm) after cure times of 20, 40 and 60 s. The difference among the tested groups was evaluated by ANOVA (P < 0.05) and post hoc Newman-Keuls test. All brands of glass-ionomer showed a small inherent setting exotherm in the absence of heat irradiation, but much greater temperature increases when exposed to the cure lamp. However, temperature rises did not exceed 12.9 °C. Application of the cure lamp led to the establishment of a temperature gradient throughout each specimen. Differences were typically significant (P < 0.05) and did not reflect the nominal power of the lamps, because those lamps have variable cooling systems, and are designed to optimize light output, not heating effect. Because the thermal conductivity of glass-ionomers is low, temperature rises at 4 mm depths were much lower than at 2 mm. At no time did the temperature rise sufficiently to cause concern about potential damage to the pulp. PMID:26411445

  1. Histological evaluation of the response of apical tissues to glass ionomer and zinc oxide-eugenol based sealers in dog teeth after root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, M R; Almeida, W A; da Silva, L A; Utrilla, L S

    1998-12-01

    The object of the study was to compare two commercial root canal sealers: Ketac-Endo (a glass ionomer cement) and Fill Canal (a zinc oxide-eugenol cement). A total of 34 root canals from dog premolars with vital pulps were used. After instrumentation, the root canals were sealed with Ketac-Endo and Fill Canal cements using gutta-percha and a lateral condensation technique. After 270 days the animals were sacrificed with an anesthetic overdose and the maxillae and mandibles were removed and fixed in formalin for 48 h. After routine histological processing the sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Mallory trichrome stains. Microscopic analysis revealed that Ketac-Endo cement presented better results than Fill Canal cement. PMID:9972157

  2. Influence of citric acid on the surface texture of glass ionomer restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Dappili Swami Ranga; Kumar, Ramachandran Anil; Venkatesan, Sokkalingam Mothilal; Narayan, Gopal Shankar; Duraivel, Dasarathan; Indra, Rajamani

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study determined the effectiveness of G-coat plus surface protective agent over petroleum jelly on the surface texture of conventional Glass ionomer restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Three chemically cured conventional glass ionomer restorative materials type II, type IX and ketac molar were evaluated in this study. Sixty specimens were made for each restorative material. They were divided into two groups of thirty specimens each. Of the sixty specimens, thirty were coated with G-coat plus (a nano-filler coating) and the rest with petroleum jelly. Thirty samples of both protective coating agents were randomly divided into six groups of five specimens and conditioned in citric acid solutions of differing pH (pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7). Each specimen was kept in citric acid for three hours a day, and the rest of time stored in salivary substitute. This procedure was repeated for 8 days. After conditioning, the surface roughness (Ra, ?m) of each specimen was measured using a surface profilometer (Taylor & Habson, UK). Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The surface textures of all the tested glass ionomer restorative materials protected with G-coat plus were not significantly affected by acids at low pH. The surface textures of all the tested glass ionomer restorative materials protected with petroleum jelly coating were significantly affected by acids at low pH. Conclusion: The effects of pH on the surface texture of glass ionomer restoratives are material dependent. Among all the materials tested the surface texture of Type II GIC (Group I) revealed marked deterioration when conditioned in solutions of low pH and was statistically significant. Hence, a protective coating either with G-coat plus or with light polymerized low viscosity unfilled resin adhesives is mandatory for all the glass ionomer restorations to increase the wear resistance of the restorative materials. PMID:25298643

  3. Evaluating dentin surface treatments for resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Imbery, T A; Namboodiri, A; Duncan, A; Amos, R; Best, A M; Moon, P C

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of six surface treatments on the shear bond strength of three resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) to dentin. Occlusal surfaces of caries-free third molars were reduced to expose only dentin. Surface treatments were smear layer intact (negative control), Cavity Conditioner, EDTA, Ketac Primer, Self Conditioner, and etching with 35% phosphoric acid followed by the application of Optibond Solo Plus. Filtek Z250 composite resin bonded with Optibond Solo Plus served as a positive control. Conditioning agents were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. After surface treatments, Fuji II LC, Riva LC, Ketac Nano, and Filtek Z250 were placed in copper-band matrices 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height and were light-cured for 20 seconds. Specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24 hours, after which they were placed in deionized water for 24 hours at 37°C. They were then tested under shear forces in an Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference statistical analyses (p<0.05) indicated significant interaction between RMGIs and conditioning agents. Acid etching followed by Optibond Solo Plus provided highest bond strengths for all three RMGIs, which were not statistically different from the positive control. PMID:23088188

  4. Biaxial flexural strength of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements heat-cured with an LED lamp during setting.

    PubMed

    Fabián Molina, Gustavo; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Brain Lascano, Laura; Frencken, Jo E

    2013-01-01

    Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n = 30): without heating (Group 1), heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm(2) for 30 s while setting (Group 2), and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm(2) for 60 s while setting (Group 3). Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05). Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm(2) during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times. PMID:23841095

  5. The effect of glaze on restorative glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Hotta, M; Hirukawa, H; Aono, M

    1995-03-01

    The surface texture changes of three kinds of glass-ionomer cements were compared with various glazed and polished cement surfaces after the initial finishing. Method 1--the glazing agent--was used, and method 2 consisted of four different Shofu Super Snap discs. In method 3 specimens were compressed with a glass plate. The glazed and polished surfaces were used for investigating various properties such as the surface roughness, colour change, gloss, hardness, toothbrush wear, and were also subject to SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation in the laboratory. The period of 48 h after mixing was chosen for the various testing data. The smoothest surface was formed after compression with a glass plate, however, the glazing agent gave the highest gloss surface for glass-ionomer cement. The lower roughness generally observed was for glazing compared to polishing. The glazed surface is effective as a glass-ionomer cement restoration. PMID:7769514

  6. Candida albicans Adherence to Glass Ionomer Restorative Dental Material

    PubMed Central

    Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the coloni-zation and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable infor-mation about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little infor-mation available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. Materials and methods In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with differ-ent incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Stu-dent's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. Results In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes). However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. Conclusion The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ion-omer restorative material. PMID:23230482

  7. Application of glass ionomer cements in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Kamath, M P

    1999-01-01

    Dentistry was marked with radical changes in clinical restorative procedures. If the inherent characteristic of the ionomer cement was examined, it becomes very clear to the researcher as well as the dentist, that no other material has had an impact as comparable to glass ionomer cements on restorative dentistry. This scientific paper highlights the clinical applications of the cement in restorative dentistry. Glass ionomer cements are bioactive, by forming permanent adhesive bonds to dentin and enamel which enables them to prevent the development of secondary caries by providing an impermeable seal against the intrusion of oral fluids and other caries producing agents. The hydrophilic nature of the cement also makes them susceptible to the action of aqueous fluids before they are fully set, requiring that the freshly placed restoration be protected by varish, petroleum jelly or a low viscosity photo polymerizing bonding agent. PMID:10596621

  8. Effect of ultrasound application during setting on the mechanical properties of high viscous glass-ionomers used for ART restorations

    PubMed Central

    Daifalla, Lamia E.; Mobarak, Enas H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ultrasound application on the surface microhardness (VHN) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of three high viscous glass-ionomer restorative materials (HVGIRMs). For each test (VHN and DTS), a total of 180 specimens were prepared from three HVGIRMs (Ketac-Molar Aplicap, Fuji IX GP Fast, and ChemFil Rock). Specimens of each material (n=60) were further subdivided into three subgroups (n=20) according to the setting modality whether ultrasound (20 or 40s) was applied during setting or not (control). Specimens within each subgroup were then equally divided (n=10) and tested at 24h or 28days. For the VHN measurement, five indentations, with a 200g load and a dwell time for 20s, were made on the top surface of each specimen. The DTS test was done using Lloyd Testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min. Ultrasound application had no significant effect on the VHN. Fuji IX GP Fast revealed the highest VHN value, followed by Ketac-Molar Aplicap, and the least was recorded for ChemFil Rock. Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac-Molar Aplicap VHN values were significantly increased by time. ChemFil Rock recorded the highest DTS value at 24h and was the only material that showed significant improvement with both US application times. However, this improvement did not sustain till 28days. The ultrasound did not enhance the surface microhardness, but its positive effect on the diametral tensile strength values was material and time dependent. PMID:26644916

  9. Microleakage of glass ionomer/composite laminate Class V restorations.

    PubMed

    McInnes, P; Perkins, E; Weinberg, R

    1990-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects on microleakage of pretreating dentin with polyacrylic acid (PAA), prior to placing a glass ionomer base/composite laminate restoration. Class V erosion-type lesions with the incisal margin on enamel and the cervical margin below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), were prepared in 50 sound extracted teeth. These teeth were divided into five dentin treatment groups: A) 10% PAA; B) 20% PAA; C) and D) 40% PAA; E) no dentin preconditioning. In groups A, B, C and E, a glass ionomer base was placed within 1 mm of the margins. In group D the glass ionomer base extended to the cervical margin. The glass ionomer base and the incisal enamel were etched with 37% phosphoric acid prior to placing a bonding agent and restoring with a composite. The restorations were finished and polished and the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 7 days. They were thermocycled in 0.5% fuchsin dye for 500 cycles (5 degrees C to 60 degrees C), embedded in epoxy resin, and sectioned at 250 mu intervals through the restorations. The section of each tooth exhibiting the most severe dye penetration along the tooth/restoration interface was evaluated and scored both incisally and cervically: 0 = no leakage; 1 = leakage up to the glass ionomer base; 2 = leakage up to 1/2 the wall length; 3 = leakage exceeding 1/2 the wall length. Cervically, the median leakage for all groups was 3.0. Incisally, the median leakage for all the groups was 0.0.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2375848

  10. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of three restorative glass ionomer cements: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Diwanji, Amish; Dhar, Vineet; Arora, Ruchi; Madhusudan, A.; Rathore, Ambika Singh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomers (conventional and resin modified) with that of recently introduced nanoionomers. Materials and Methods: Standardized class I and class V cavities were prepared on 120 young permanent teeth. Samples were equally divided into group I (class I restorations) and group II (class V restorations), and further divided into subgroups. The subgroups were restored with Fuji IX, Fuji II LC, and newly introduced Ketac N 100 (KN 100). Samples were thermocycled and submerged in Acridine dye for 24 h. Samples were sectioned to view under fluorescent microscope and marginal leakage was evaluated by Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: Fuji IX showed the maximum leakage, followed by LC II and the least was observed in KN 100. In class I restorations, there was significant difference while comparing Fuji IX with Fuji LC II and KN 100 and nonsignificant difference between LC II and KN100. In class V restorations, Fuji IX and KN100, KN 100 and LC II showed significant difference. Fuji IX and LC II showed nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, Fuji IX showed the maximum microleakage. KN 100 showed minimum leakage, better sealing ability, and was more consistent. PMID:25097418

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Three Commercially Available Glass Ionomer Cements in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, S Srinivasa; Murthy, Gargi S

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aims to comparatively evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of three commercially available glass ionomer cements - Miracle Mix (MM) (GC America Inc., Alsip, USA), Ketac Molar (KM) (3M Corp., Minnesota, USA) and amalgomer CR (AM) (Advanced Healthcare Ltd., Kent, England) in primary teeth and later examine the mode of the adhesive failure at the interface. Materials and Methods: Totally, 90 extracted sound primary molars were selected, and dentin on the buccal surface of crowns was exposed. Specimens were randomly assigned into three groups according to the restorative materials being tested. SBS tests were performed, and the obtained values were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (P < 0.05). SBS mean values on were recorded in megapascals (MPa) and the mode of failure was assessed using a scanning electron microscope. Results: SBS (in MPa) was - MM-5.39, KM-4.84, AM-6.38. The predominant failure mode was cohesive. Conclusion: Amalgomer CR exhibited statistically significant higher SBS of 6.38 MPa to primary teeth and has better adhesion to the primary teeth compared to the other test materials and can be considered as a restorative material in pediatric dentistry. However, the results of this study should be corroborated with further investigation to reach a definitive conclusion. PMID:26464550

  12. The erosion kinetics of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements in acidic buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    Hazar-Yoruc, Binnaz; Bavbek, Andac Barkin; Özcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the erosion kinetics of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements in acidic buffer solutions as a function of time. Disc shaped specimens were prepared from conventional (Ketac-Cem: KTC) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Fuji Plus: FP) and immersed in three acidic buffer solutions (0.01 M) namely, acetic acid/sodium acetate (AA(B)), lactic acid/sodium lactate (LA(B)) and citric acid/sodium citrate (CA(B)) with a constant pH of 4.1 and stored for 1, 8, 24, 48, 80, 120 and 168 h. F concentration was determined using ion-specific electrode. Si, Ca and Al concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Ca, Al, Si and F solubility rates in both FP and KTC were the highest in CA(B) solution. The erosion rates of both FP and KTC in all buffer solutions increased as a function of immersion time. The amount of F eluted from FP was more than that of KTC. The total amount of elements released from FP was less than KTC in all solutions. PMID:23207217

  13. Modification of resin modified glass ionomer cement by addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Valanezhad, Alireza; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Udoh, Koichi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Sawase, Takashi; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, sol-gel derived nanoparticle calcium silicate bioactive glass was added to the resin-modified light cure glass-ionomer cement to assess the influence of additional bioactive glass nanoparticles on the mechanical and biological properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. The fabricated bioactive glass nanoparticles added resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GICs) were immersed in the phosphate buffer solution for 28 days to mimic real condition for the mechanical properties. Resin-modified GICs containing 3, 5 and 10 % bioactive glass nanoparticles improved the flexural strength compared to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and the samples containing 15 and 20 % bioactive glass nanoparticles before and after immersing in the phosphate buffer solution. Characterization of the samples successfully expressed the cause of the critical condition for mechanical properties. Cell study clarified that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement with high concentrations of bioactive glass nanoparticles has higher cell viability and better cell morphology compare to control groups. The results for mechanical properties and toxicity approved that the considering in selection of an optimum condition would have been a more satisfying conclusion for this study. PMID:26610926

  14. Artificially formed caries-like lesions around Class II glass ionomer restorations in primary molars.

    PubMed

    Sepet, E; Aytepe, Z; Guven, Y

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microleakage around Class II glass ionomer restorations in primary molars. Two different glass ionomer cements and one amalgam control were assessed in vitro by acidified gel technique. Assessment of caries-like lesions was performed using polarized light microscopy. The traditional glass ionomer (Chemfil II) with dentin conditioner provided the highest protection against caries attack and the amalgam restorations provided the least. PMID:8634193

  15. Class I gap-formation in highly-viscous glass-ionomer restorations: delayed vs immediate polishing.

    PubMed

    Irie, Masao; Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Nishgawa, Goro; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Watts, David C

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effects of delayed versus immediate polishing to permit maturation of interfacial gap-formation around highly viscous conventional glass-ionomer cement (HV-GIC) in Class I restorations, together with determining the associated mechanical properties. Cavity preparations were made on the occlusal surfaces of premolars. Three HV-GICs (Fuji IX GP, GlasIonomer FX-II and Ketac Molar) and one conventional glass-ionomer cement (C-GIC, Fuji II, as a control) were studied, with specimen subgroups (n=10) for each property measured. After polishing, either immediately (six minutes) after setting or after 24 hours storage, the restored teeth were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction through the center of the model Class I restorations. The presence or absence of interfacial-gaps was measured at 1000x magnification at 14 points (each 0.5-mm apart) along the cavity restoration interface (n=10; total points measured per group = 140). Marginal gaps were similarly measured in Teflon molds as swelling data, together with shear-bond-strength to enamel and dentin, flexural strength and moduli. For three HV-GICs and one C-GIC, significant differences (p<0.05) in gap-incidence were observed between polishing immediately and after one-day storage. In the former case, 80-100 gaps were found. In the latter case, only 9-21 gaps were observed. For all materials, their shear-bond-strengths, flexural strength and moduli increased significantly after 24-hour storage. PMID:18435195

  16. Fluoride Release by Glass Ionomer Cements, Compomer and Giomer

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa; Meyers, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Background: To measure the amounts of fluoride released from fluoride-containing materials, four glass ionomer cements (Fuji IX, Fuji VII, Fuji IX Extra and Fuji II LC), a compomer (Dyract Extra) and a giomer (Beautifil) were used in this study. Methods: Twenty cylindrical specimens were prepared from each material. The amount of released fluoride was measured during the first week and on the days 14 and 21 by using specific fluoride electrode and an ionanalyzer. The results were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) and Tukey Kramer multiple comparison tests (p=0.05). Results: Significant differences were seen in fluoride release of different days and materials (p<0.05). The maximum cumulative fluoride release of days 1-7 was related to Fuji VII, followed by Fuji IX Extra, Fuji II LC, Fuji IX, Dyract Extra and Beautifil in descending order and this order remained the same until the 21st day. Conclusion: Fuji IX, Fuji VII, Fuji IX Extra, and Fuji II LC released higher amounts of fluoride compared to Beautifil and Dyract Extra in this study. It seems that the extent of the glass ionomer matrix plays an important role in determining the fluoride releasing ability of glass ionomer cement materials. PMID:21528035

  17. Bonding strength of glass ionomers to dense synthetic hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Liu, Y; Liu, Y; Söremark, R

    1996-02-01

    The bonding strength of two glass ionomers, a resin-modified and a conventional one, to dense synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluoroapatite (FA) ceramics was compared by measuring the shear strength between the ionomers and the apatites. Before the glass ionomers were applied on the apatites, the surfaces of HA and FA plates were either fine-polished or acid-etched after fine polishing. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) plates were used as a control. The effects of polyacrylic acid (PAA) surface preconditioning on bonding strength were also studied. The results show that the ionomers bind to HA significantly more strongly than to FA in all cases. The resin-modified material showed a significantly higher shear strength to apatites than the conventional one. Acid etching increased the shear strength significantly for the conventional glass ionomer to both HA and FA, and 25% PAA preconditioning increased the shear strength significantly for the resin-modified glass ionomer to both HA and FA. It was concluded that glass ionomers seemed to bind to apatite chemically, and the bonding strength was influenced by the cohesive strength of the ionomers and the surface roughness of the apatites. The dense synthetic apatites seemed to be good test materials for bonding evaluations of glass ionomers to mineral tissue. PMID:8669236

  18. Laboratory evaluation of a compomer and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic bonding.

    PubMed

    Millett, D T; Cattanach, D; McFadzean, R; Pattison, J; McColl, J

    1999-02-01

    The mean shear debonding force of stainless steel orthodontic brackets with microetched bases bonded with either a compomer or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement was assessed. In addition, the amount of cement remaining on the enamel surface following bracket removal was evaluated. Finally, survival time of orthodontic brackets bonded with these materials was assessed following simulated mechanical stress in a ball mill. Debonding force and survival time data were compared with those obtained for brackets bonded with a chemically cured resin adhesive, a light-cured resin adhesive, and a conventional glass ionomer cement. There were no significant differences in mean shear debonding force of brackets bonded with the compomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, chemically cured resin adhesive, or the light-cured resin adhesive. Brackets bonded with a conventional glass ionomer cement had a significantly lower mean shear debonding force than that recorded for the other materials. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) mode score indicated that significantly less cement remained on the enamel following debonding of brackets cemented with resin-modified or conventional glass ionomers compared with other adhesives. The median survival time for brackets cemented with the compomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, chemically cured resin, or light-cured resin were significantly longer than for brackets cemented with conventional glass ionomer. The compomer and the resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive appear to offer viable alternatives to the more commonly used resin adhesives for bracket bonding. PMID:10022186

  19. Clinical Performance of Viscous Glass Ionomer Cement in Posterior Cavities over Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberger, Roland; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Krämer, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    In this controlled prospective clinical study the highly viscous glass ionomer cement Ketac Molar was clinically assessed in Class I and Class II cavities. Forty-nine subjects (mean age 32.3 years) received 108 restorations placed by six operators in conventional Black I and II type cavities with undercuts after excavating primary lesions or after removing insufficient restorations. At baseline, and after 6, 12, and 24 months, restorations were assessed by two independent investigators according to modified USPHS codes and criteria. Impressions of the restorations were taken and epoxy replicas were made. Between the baseline and the 24-month recall, 51 representative samples were analyzed at 130 × magnification by use of a stereo light microscope (SLM). Recall rates were 83% after 6 months, 50% after 12 months, and 24% after 24 months. Failure rates after 24 months were 8% for Class I and 40% for Class II fillings, mainly due to bulk fracture at occlusally loaded areas (Kaplan Meier survival analysis). Significant changes over time were found for the criteria “surface roughness”, “marginal integrity”, “restoration integrity”, and “overall judgement” (P < .05; Friedman test). SLM analysis revealed statistically significant differences for the following criteria over time (baseline/6 months/12 months (in % of entire evaluable margin length); P < .05; Friedman 2-way ANOVA): perfect margin 37/19/11, negative step formation 26/49/57, gap formation 2/7/9, and overhang 24/11/8. Replicas exhibited mainly negative step formation as main finding due to apparently inferior wear resistance (P < .05). Gap formations were more frequently observed in Class II restorations than in Class I (12% versus 3% after 12 months; P < .05, Mann-Whitney-U test). The evaluated margin lengths were not statistically different (P > .05, Friedman 2-way ANOVA). PMID:20339470

  20. Microleakage of Three Types of Glass Ionomer Cement Restorations: Effect of CPP-ACP Paste Tooth Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Alavi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) increases the mineral content of tooth structure. This may enhance the chemical bonding of glass ionomer cements (GIC) and marginal sealing of their restorations. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste pretreatment on the microleakage of three types of GIC. Materials and Method In this study, 72 Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in root. The cavities were divided into 6 groups. Cavities in group 1 and 2 were restored with Fuji II, group 3 and 4 with Fuji II LC, and group 5 and 6 with Ketac N100 with respect to the manufacturers’ instructions. In groups 2, 4 and 6, CPP-ACP containing paste (MI paste) was placed into the cavities for 3 minutes before being filled with GIC. The teeth were thermocycled, stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage under stereomicroscope. Kruskall-Wallis and Chi-Square tests were used to analyze the data. Result There were no statistically significant differences between the control and the CPP-ACP pretreatment groups in enamel and dentin margins. In pairwise comparisons, there were no significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in enamel margin, and in dentin margins of G1 and 2, G5 and 6; however, a significant differences was detected in dentin margins between G3 and 4 (p= 0.041). Conclusion CPP-ACP paste pretreatment did not affect the microleakage of Fuji II and Ketac N100 in enamel or dentin, but decreased the microleakage in dentine margins of Fuji II LC when cavity conditioner was applied before surface treatment. PMID:26331147

  1. Investigation of glass-ionomer cements using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S K; Atkins, E D

    1998-09-01

    Six commercial glass-ionomer cements commonly used for various dental applications have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The heat-flow behaviour and heat capacity of the cements were measured during isothermal (at 37 degrees C) setting reactions. The DSC results show that all materials undergo an exothermic setting process, but with different enthalpies of reactions and different heat capacities; there are no remaining endo- or exothermic reactions after the setting of the cement. All materials examined were found to be effective thermal insulators. PMID:15348851

  2. Ionomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ionomics is the study of elemental accumulation (e.g., Ca, K, P, and metal ions) in living systems using high-throughput elemental profiling. This approach has been applied extensively in plants for forward and reverse genetics, screening diversity panels and modeling of physiological states. In thi...

  3. Residual HEMA and TEGDMA Release and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement and Compomers Cured with Different Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Botsali, Murat Selim; Ku?gz, Adem; Altinta?, Subutay Han; lker, Hayriye Esra; Kili, Serdar; Ba?ak, Feridun; lker, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the elution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers from resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and compomers cured with halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). The effect of cured materials on the viability of L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. One RMGIC (Ketac N100) and two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinkystar) were tested. Materials were prepared in teflon disks and light-cured with LED or halogen LCUs. The residual monomers of resin materials in solution were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The fibroblast cells' viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The type of LCU did not have a significant effect on the elution of HEMA and TEGDMA. A greater amount of HEMA than TEGMDA was eluted. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Twinkystar was greater than Dyract Extra (P < 0.05) when cured with a halogen LCU. All material-LCU combinations decreased the fibroblast cells' viability more than the control group (P < 0.01), except for Dyract Extra cured with a halogen LCU (P > 0.05). Curing with the LED LCU decreased the cells' viability more than curing with the halogen LCU for compomers. For Ketac N100, the halogen LCU decreased the cells' viability more than the LED LCU. PMID:24592149

  4. Comparative laboratory investigation of dual-cured vs. conventional glass ionomer cements for band cementation.

    PubMed

    Millett, D T; Kamahli, K; McColl, J

    1998-08-01

    This laboratory study compared the mean tensile bond strength, mode of band failure, and survival time of orthodontic bands cemented with dual-cured cement or conventional glass ionomer cement. Survival time was assessed following application of mechanical stress in a ball mill. Mean tensile bond strength was significantly higher for bands cemented with the dual-cured cement (p < 0.01), and mean survival time was significantly greater. Bands cemented with glass ionomer failed mainly at the cement/band interface. The results suggest that dual-cured cement is superior to glass ionomer for band cementation. PMID:9709835

  5. Bonding of contemporary glass ionomer cements to different tooth substrates; microshear bond strength and scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    El Wakeel, Aliaa Mohamed; Elkassas, Dina Wafik; Yousry, Mai Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the microshear bond strength (?SBS) and ultramorphological characterization of glass ionomer (GI) cements; conventional GI cement (Fuji IX, CGI), resin modified GI (Fuji II LC, RMGI) and nano-ionomer (Ketac N100, NI) to enamel, dentin and cementum substrates. Materials and Methods: Forty-five lower molars were sectioned above the cemento-enamel junction. The occlusal surfaces were ground flat to obtain enamel and dentin substrates, meanwhile the cervical one-third of the root portion were utilized to evaluate the bonding efficacy to cementum substrate. Each substrate received microcylinders from the three tested materials; which were applied according to manufacturer instructions. ?SBS was assessed using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. Modes of failure were examined using stereomicroscope at 25 magnification. Interfacial analysis of the bonded specimens was carried out using environmental field emission scanning electron microscope. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed that materials, substrates and their interaction had a statistically significant effect on the mean ?SBS values at P values; ?0.0001, 0.0108 and 0.0037 respectively. RMGI showed statistically significant the highest ?SBS values to all examined tooth substrates. CGI and RMGI show substrate independent bonding efficiency, meanwhile; NI showed higher ?SBS values to dentin and cementum compared to enamel. Conclusion: Despite technological development of GI materials, mainly the nano-particles use, better results have not been achieved for both investigations, when compared to RMGI, independent of tooth substrate. PMID:26038646

  6. Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Setting Reaction Competition

    PubMed Central

    Berzins, D.W.; Abey, S.; Costache, M.C.; Wilkie, C.A.; Roberts, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGI) set by at least 2 mechanisms dependent upon reactant diffusion prior to gelation. Each reaction’s kinetics and setting mechanism may rely on and/or compete with the other. In this study, we investigated RMGI setting reaction interactions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by varying light-cure initiation times. A RMGI was analyzed with isothermal and dynamic temperature scan DSC with light-curing occurring immediately, or at 5 or 10 minutes after mixing as well as without light-activation. Results show that as time allowed for the acid-base reaction increased, the light-activation polymerization exotherm decreased. Conversely, analysis of DSC data suggests that earlier light-activation may limit the acid-base reaction and result in a different structured material. During early RMGI development, acid-base and light-polymerization reactions compete with and inhibit one another. PMID:19966038

  7. Cytotoxicity of glass ionomer cements containing silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana-Paula-Rodrigues; Pires, Wanessa-Carvalho; Pereira, Flávia-Castro; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela-Paula; Carrião, Marcus-Santos; Bakuzis, Andris-Figueiroa; Souza-Costa, Carlos-Alberto; Lopes, Lawrence-Gonzaga; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have investigated the possibility of incorporating silver nanoparticles (NAg) into dental materials to improve their antibacterial properties. However, the potential toxic effect of this material on pulp cells should be investigated in order to avoid additional damage to the pulp tissue. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GIC) with and without addition of NAg. Material and Methods NAg were added to the materials at two different concentrations by weight: 0.1% and 0.2%. Specimens with standardized dimensions were prepared, immersed in 400 µL of culture medium and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 48 h to prepare GIC liquid extracts, which were then incubated in contact with cells for 48 h. Culture medium and 0.78% NAg solution were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Cell viability was determined by MTT and Trypan Blue assays. ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. Results Both tests revealed a significant decrease in cell viability in all groups of resin modified cements (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups with and without NAg (p>0.05). The differences in cell viability between any group of conventional GIC and the negative control were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions NAg did not affect the cytotoxicity of the GIC under evaluation. Key words:Glass ionomer cements, totoxicity, cell culture techniques, nanotechnology, metal nanoparticles. PMID:26644839

  8. Strength properties of visible-light-cured resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Kerby, R E; Knobloch, L; Thakur, A

    1997-01-01

    A new generation of glass ionomers containing polymerizable methacrylate monomers and/or prepolymers are now available for use as direct esthetic restorative materials. Proper clinical application of these new resin-modified glass ionomers requires an understanding of their benefits and limitations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the compressive and diametral tensile strength at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days of three visible-light-cured glass-ionomer cements, a polyacid-modified composite resin, and a composite resin core build-up material under both light-cure and dark-cure conditions. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between several of the cements tested for both compressive and diametral tensile strengths at all three testing times (P > 0.05). Prosthodent composite resin and Vitremer tricure visible-light-cured glass-ionomer cement are significantly greater in both compressive and diametral tensile strength than any of the other materials tested after 7 days. PMID:9484165

  9. Effects of surface treatments of conventional glass-ionomer on shear bond strength to giomer

    PubMed Central

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Narmin; Oskoee, Parnian Alizadeh; Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel Ebrahimi; Bahari, Mahmood; Sadr, Alireza; Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Background: An appropriate bond between glass-ionomer and the superficial resin materials is very important for the success of sandwich technique. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments of conventional glass-ionomer on its shear bond strength to giomer. Materials and Methods: Sixty cylindrical specimens of a conventional glass-ionomer (GC Fuji II) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20). The specimens in groups 1 and 2 were treated with total-etch adhesive resin (Single Bond) along with acid etching, and self-etch adhesive resin (FL-Bond II) on the set glass-ionomer, respectively. Specimens in group 3 were treated with self-etch adhesive resin (FL-Bond II) before initial setting of the glass-ionomer was complete. Then a giomer restorative (Beautifil II) was added to the specimens. Subsequent to thermocycling, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test. Failure modes were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: There were statistically significant differences in bond strengths between the groups (P < 0.0005). Differences in bond strengths between group 2 and other groups were significant (P < 0.0005) while the differences between groups 1 and 3 were not significant. Failures were predominantly of the cohesive type in all the groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of self-etch adhesive resin (FL-Bond II) on the set glass-ionomer yielded the highest bond strength in the glass-ionomer/giomer sandwich technique. PMID:23559944

  10. Chlorhexidine release from an experimental glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Jones, F H; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    2004-10-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) can potentially be used as matrices for the slow release of active species, as has been shown previously for fluoride ions. This study investigated the use of an experimental GIC as a carrier for the release of chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) at included concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 13.0% of CHA by weight. Release into water was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography. All measurable chlorhexidine was released within 22 h1/2, however this was less than 10% of the total mass incorporated in the specimens. An increased percentage of CHA incorporated into the powder gave an increased release into the surrounding water. The bulk of the CHA was retained within the cement. For comparison, the surface chemistry of a CHA-containing GIC was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after prolonged immersion in water. This confirmed retention of a large amount of CHA. Spectra after leaching appeared very similar to those from a CHA-free GIC after immersion in a CHA solution. In order to explore the effect of CHA-inclusion on the cement properties, compressive strengths, working and setting times were also measured. In general, compressive strengths were found to be decreased in direct proportion to the quantity of CHA added, while working and setting times increased. PMID:15130727

  11. Effect of Vital Bleaching on Disintegration Tendency of Glass Ionomer Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Tarakji, Bassel; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study was designed to assess the effect of two bleaching agents on the disintegration tendency of three types of glass ionomers. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 specimens were prepared by using a split Teflon ring with an internal diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. The tested materials were applied and bleached according to manufacturers instructions. Dissolution measurements were made by calculating weight loss through different periods of the test; (one week, one month and three months) and they were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukeys post-hoc test. Results: All glass ionomer materials exhibited a degree of dissolution. Opalescence Xtra increased the dissolution of Photac Fil and F2000 significantly, while Opalescence Quick had no effect on dissolution of glass ionomer restoratives. Conclusion: Bleaching effect on dissolution of glass ionomers is material and time dependant. Care should be taken by clinicians When bleaching teeth that are restored by glass ionomer, because this dissolution may affect the physical properties of these restorations. PMID:24701538

  12. Improvement of enamel bond strengths for conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers: acid-etching vs. conditioning*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Tang, Tian; Zhang, Zhen-liang; Liang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-miao; Fu, Bai-ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study deals with the effect of phosphoric acid etching and conditioning on enamel micro-tensile bond strengths (μTBSs) of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs/RMGICs). Methods: Forty-eight bovine incisors were prepared into rectangular blocks. Highly-polished labial enamel surfaces were either acid-etched, conditioned with liquids of cements, or not further treated (control). Subsequently, two matching pre-treated enamel surfaces were cemented together with one of four cements [two GICs: Fuji I (GC), Ketac Cem Easymix (3M ESPE); two RMGICs: Fuji Plus (GC), RelyX Luting (3M ESPE)] in preparation for μTBS tests. Pre-treated enamel surfaces and cement-enamel interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBS of GICs/RMGICs. Conditioning with the liquids of the cements produced significantly weaker or equivalent enamel μTBS compared to the control. Regardless of etching, RMGICs yielded stronger enamel μTBS than GICs. A visible hybrid layer was found at certain enamel-cement interfaces of the etched enamels. Conclusions: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBSs of GICs/RMGICs. Phosphoric acid etching should be recommended to etch the enamel margins before the cementation of the prostheses such as inlays and onlays, using GICs/RMGICs to improve the bond strengths. RMGICs provided stronger enamel bond strength than GICs and conditioning did not increase enamel bond strength. PMID:24190447

  13. Surface texture and enamel-restoration interface of glass ionomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Sepet, E; Aytepe, Z; Oray, H

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface texture and enamel-restoration interface of Class II glass ionomer restorations in primary molars. A traditional (Chemfil II), a cermet (Chelon-Silver) cement and two light cured glass ionomer cements (Vitremer and Dyract) were used to restore the Class II cavities of 20 primary molars. The surface changes and enamel-restoration interface of restorative materials were evaluated by SEM, after a 12 month period. Microcracks and pores in surface were observed in all of the four different glass ionomer materials. Although, there was no marginal gap formation for Chemfil II, Chelon-Silver and Dyract samples, in 2 samples of Vitremer group gap formation was found with an ion-exchange layer. Also, in Dyract samples wear of restorations was considerable. PMID:9484132

  14. An in vitro evaluation of bond strength of three glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Fajen, V B; Duncanson, M G; Nanda, R S; Currier, G F; Angolkar, P V

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bond strength of three commercially available glass ionomer cements when used to bond mesh-backed medium twin (0.130 inch) brackets to enamel surface. Three different enamel surface conditions, which included use of pumice, pumice and polyacrylic acid, and pumice followed by acidulated phosphate fluoride, were also tested to determine their effect on the bond strength. In addition, bond strength of one composite resin was compared with those of glass ionomer cements. The teeth were bonded with all the materials according to manufacturers' instructions. Each specimen was embedded in Super-Die with the bonded facial surface exposed. A surveyor was used to align the teeth in the stone uniformly for all specimens. A special bracket holder was used to hold the brackets precisely under the wings during debonding. An Instron universal testing machine was used to measure the force required for bond failure. To stimulate oral conditions, the direction of pull was so designed that it included an element of torsional stress along with tensile force. The findings indicate that a large variation existed between the bond strengths of all materials tested. The bond strength of glass ionomer cements was significantly less than that composite resin. However, the bond strength of at least one glass ionomer cement appears to be adequate for clinical use. The different surface preparation before bonding did not significantly affect the bond strengths of glass ionomer cements. Further investigation is required to test the bond strengths of glass ionomer cements clinically. PMID:2181867

  15. Resin-modified glass ionomer cements for bonding orthodontic retainers.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Asli; Uysal, Tancan

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS), fracture mode, and wire pull out (WPO) resistance between resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and conventional orthodontic composite used as a lingual retainer adhesive. Forty lower human incisors were randomly divided into two equal groups. To determine the SBS, either Transbond-LR or Fuji Ortho-LC was applied to the lingual surface of the teeth by packing the material into cylindrical plastic matrices with an internal diameter of 2.34 mm and a height of 3 mm (Ultradent) to simulate the lingual retainer bonding area. To test WPO resistance, 20 samples were prepared for each composite where the wire was embedded in the composite material and cured, 20 seconds for Transbond-LR and 40 seconds for Fuji Ortho-LC. The ends of the wire were then drawn up and tensile stress was applied until failure of the resin. A Student's t-test for independent variables was used to compare the SBS and WPO data. Fracture modes were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Significance was determined at P < 0.05. The SBS values were 24.7 +/- 9.2 and 10.2 +/- 5.5 MPa and the mean WPO values 19.8 +/- 4.6 and 11.1 +/- 5.7 N for Transbond-LR and Fuji Ortho-LC, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the SBS and WPO values of Transbond-LR and Fuji Ortho-LC were significantly different (P < 0.001). No significant differences were present among the groups in terms of fracture mode. However, the RMGIC resulted in a significant decrease in SBS and WPO; it produced sufficient SBS values on the etched enamel surfaces, when used as a bonded orthodontic retainer adhesive. PMID:19793779

  16. Biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Iz, Sultan Gulce; Ertugrul, Fahinur; Eden, Ece; Gurhan, S. Ismet Deliloglu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements (GICs) with and without chlorhexidine (CHX) as well as coated with varnish or not using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Materials and Methods: Biocompatibility of Fuji IX, Fuji IX with varnish, Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate and Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate with varnish was determined with in vitro cytotoxicity assay by using L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblasts. After 72 h, cell viabilities were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay to determine the effects of the cements on the mitochondrial function and microscopic images were taken by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. 72 h after treatment, there were statistically significant differences between Fuji IX and Fuji IX-CHX (P < 0.001). In addition, the reduction of the cytotoxicity by coating the GICs with varnish was indicative and increased the cell viability ratio (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Fuji IX coated with varnish was found to be the most biocompatible one among others. Thus adding CHX significantly reduced the cell viability, it is assumed that, due to the leakage of CHX and the other components of the GICs to the cell culture medium, the cell viabilities were decreased, so it is highly recommended to use varnish not only to reduce the water loss from the GICs, but also to reduce the cytotoxicity of the GICs. PMID:24966735

  17. Glass ionomer cement in otological microsurgery: experience over 16 years.

    PubMed

    Righini-Grunder, F; Husler, R; Chongvisal, S; Caversaccio, M

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective evaluation of glass ionomer cement (GIC) in middle ear surgery with emphasis on short- and long-term safety was conducted at the tertiary referral center. GIC was applied between 1995 and 2006 in 444 patients in otologic surgery. Technical aspects, safety, benefits and complications due to GIC were analysed until 2011 (follow-up 5-16 years; mean 10 years). GIC was applied in stapes surgery (228 primary, 92 revisions), cochlear implants (108) and implantable hearing aids (7), ossiculoplasty (7), for coverage of opened mastoid air cells towards the external ear canal (1) and inner ear fistula closure (1). GIC turned out to be very handy in stapes surgery for optimal prosthesis fixation at the incus (260) and on the malleus handle (60) without complications. Results suggest that GIC may diminish the danger of incus necrosis in primary stapedotomy. In cochlear implants and implantable hearing aids, GIC was used for casing alone (74), casing and electrode fixation (27) and electrode alone fixation (14). Inflammatory reactions were observed in five cases (4.3%), mostly after trauma. Broken cement fragments appeared to promote foreign body rejection. In seven cases an incudo-stapedial gap was repaired with GIC with excellent hearing gain; in three cases (43%) revision surgery was needed due to cement breakage. In one case, GIC was applied for a watertight coverage of opened mastoid cells, and in the other for fistula closure of the lateral semi-circular canal over cartilage, covered with bone path; follow-up was uneventful. Targeted use of GIC in middle ear surgery rarely poses problems. GIC cannot be used in neuro-otosurgery in contact with cerebrospinal fluid because of possible aluminium encephalopathy. PMID:25209434

  18. Caries protection after orthodontic band cementation with glass ionomer.

    PubMed

    Marcushamer, M; Garcia-Godoy, F; Chan, D C

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the resistance of the enamel to an artificial caries challenge after removing orthodontic bands cemented with a glass ionomer cement (GIC). Ten extracted caries-free molars were cleaned with a slurry of pumice and randomly divided into 2 groups of 5 teeth each: Group 1: Cementation with GIC (Fuji) and Group 2: Cementation with a zinc phosphate cement (Mizzy). Both cements were handled according to manufacturer's instructions. Before cementing the bands, an area of S x S mm was masked with adhesive tape on the lingual surfaces of all teeth. The orthodontic bands were cemented over this adhesive tape. After band cementation, the occlusal and gingival margins of the band were delineated with a bur on the tooth surface. The teeth were thermocycled (200 cycles, 5-55 degrees C, 30-second dwell time) and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. Then, the bands and adhesive tape were removed and the teeth again stored in distilled water for a week, changing the water daily. The teeth were then varnished with the exception of a 5 x 5 mm window (including previously exposed and covered areas) on the buccal and lingual surfaces. All teeth were then placed in an acidified gel (pH 4.5) for 5 weeks to produce artificial caries. At least three sections from the exposed and covered areas were made from the buccal and lingual challenged areas. Sections were ground to approximately 100 microns. Polarized microscopy and image analysis were used to analyze the results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8258573

  19. Eight-year study on conventional glass ionomer and amalgam restorations in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Vibeke; Laurberg, Lone; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical study was to compare the longevity and the cariostatic effects of conventional glass ionomer and amalgam restorations in primary teeth placed in everyday practice in the Danish Public Dental Health Service. All restorations inserted during a 7-month period by 14 clinicians in 2 municipalities were included in the study. The sample consisted of 515 conventional glass ionomer restorations and 543 amalgam restorations in 666 children aged between 2.8 and 13.5 years. The restorations were in contact with 592 unrestored surfaces in primary and permanent teeth. The study was terminated after 8 years, with 2% of the restorations in function and 7% patient dropouts. Fifty percent of the teeth restored with glass ionomer and 63% of those with amalgam were exfoliated with the restoration in situ, while 42% of the glass ionomer and 20% of the amalgam restorations had been repaired or replaced. Fracture of restoration, endodontic complication, and loss of retention were the major reasons for failure. The 50% survival time for glass ionomer restorations in all cavity types was 42 months, while the median survival time for amalgam restorations could not be estimated but exceeded 7.8 years (P < 0.001). Progression of caries lesions on tooth surfaces adjacent to amalgam restorations required operative treatment on 30% of the teeth, while only on 16% of teeth adjacent to glass ionomer restorations. The 75% survival time was 40 months for surfaces in contact with glass ionomer compared to 25 months for surfaces in contact with amalgam (P = 0.005). Multivariate analyses were performed in order to assess the influence of a number of factors on the longevity of restorations, occurrence of prevalent failures, and caries treatment of surfaces in contact with the restorations. Owing to the high frequency of failures of the conventional glass ionomer restorations, it was concluded that they are not an appropriate, universal alternative to amalgam for restorations in primary teeth, although they reduce caries progression and the need for operative treatment of adjacent surfaces. PMID:15124781

  20. The effect of glass-ionomer cement on carious dentine: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Weerheijm, K L; de Soet, J J; van Amerongen, W E; de Graaff, J

    1993-01-01

    The effect of a glass-ionomer cement sealant on carious dentine was investigated clinically and bacteriologically. The study group consisted of 24 molar teeth, with small clinical visible occlusal dentine lesions, in 13 children (aged 7-18 years). Twenty of these molars were filled and sealed with a glass-ionomer cement (Fuji Ionomer Type III) and 4 with a resin sealant (Delton). From each molar, two dentine samples were collected aseptically with a time interval of 7 months. The first sample was taken after opening the lesion just beneath the dentino-enamel junction before application of the filling material (sample A), and the second beneath the removed filling material (sample B) 7 months later. Before collecting sample B the sealant was clinically evaluated and impressions were prepared in order to (re)evaluate the sealants later by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After taking the second sample, the remaining fissures were opened to a standard depth, the caries which was still present was removed, and a composite resin restoration was applied. In all teeth, more glass-ionomer cement material was found by SEM compared to the clinical evaluation. In both the glass-ionomer- and the resin sealant-treated group, the median value of the total number of microorganisms (CFU) on blood agar was 100 times smaller in the B sample. Microorganisms were found in 90% of the B samples in the group treated with glass-ionomer cement; hard dentine was also found in 45% of the B samples from this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8242680

  1. Effect of Adhesive Pretreatments on Marginal Sealing of Aged Nano-ionomer Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Akbarian, Sahar; Karim Etminan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Nano-ionomer (NI) interacts with tooth structures superficially, and there is a concern about the enamel bonding ability of mild self-etch Ketac primer. This study compared the effect of different adhesive procedures (self-etching and etch-and-rinse approach) on long-term marginal microleakage of nano-filled resin-modified glass-ionomer (NI) cervical restorations. Materials and methods. Class V cavities were prepared on 72 maxillary premolars. The teeth were divided into six groups: G1: No treatment (NC); G2: Ketac primer (K primer); G3: Etchant + Ketac primer (E+K primer); G4: Self-etch adhesive (Bond Force); G5: Etchant + Bond Force (E+Bond Force); G6: Etchant + Adper Single Bond (Etch and rinse adhesive). All the cavities were restored with Ketac N100. The samples were stored in water for 6 months and thermocycled for 2000 cycles. Marginal sealing was assessed using dye penetration technique. Data were analyzed with non-parametric tests (α=0.05). Results. All the adhesive pretreatments resulted in a lower marginal leakage than that of NC (P≤0.01), except for E+Bond Force at the dentin margin. There was no significant difference between K primer and Bond Force. Microleakage differed significantly between K primer pretreatment and E+K primer (P=0.003), E+Bond Force (P=0.002) and etch-and-rinse adhesive (P=0.001) at the enamel margin, but it did not differ at the dentin margin. E+ Bond Force group showed insignificantly lower leakage at the enamel margin and significantly higher leakage at the dentin margin (P=0.02). Conclusion. Etch-and-rinse adhesive and selective enamel etching along with self-etch adhesive/Ketac primer might improve marginal sealing of aged nano-ionomer restoration. PMID:26697146

  2. Initial Sliding Wear Kinetics of Two Types of Glass Ionomer Cement: A Tribological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponthiaux, Pierre; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Colon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the initial wear kinetics of two different types of glass ionomer cement used in dentistry (the conventional glass ionomer cement and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement) under sliding friction after 28-day storing in distilled water or Ringer's solution. Sliding friction was applied through a pin-on-disk tribometer, in sphere-on-plane contact conditions, under 5 N normal load and 120 rotations per minute. The test lasted 7500 cycles and replicas were performed at 2500, 5000 and 7500 cycles. A profilometer was used to evaluate the wear volume. Data were analysed using Student's t-test at a significant level of 5%. There is no statistical significant difference between the results obtained for a given material with the maturation media (P > 0.05). However, for a given maturation medium, there are significant statistical differences between the data obtained for the two materials at each measurement (P < 0.0001). The wear rates of both materials decrease continuously during the running-in period between 0 and 2500 cycles. After 2500 cycles, the wear rate becomes constant and equal for both materials. The resin matrix contained in the resin-modified glass ionomer cement weakens the tribological behaviour of this material. PMID:25093185

  3. Effects of dentin surface treatments on shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Lombardini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) to dentin. Materials and methods 80 bovine permanent incisors were used. 40 cylindrical specimens of a GIC (Fuji IX GP Extra) and 40 cylindrical specimens of a RMGIC (Fuji II LC) were attached to the dentin. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 8 groups of equal size (n=10), 4 for every type of glass-ionomer cement, corresponding to type of dentin surface treatments. Group 1: GC Cavity Conditioner; Group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel; Group 3: Clearfil SE Bond; Group 4: no dentin conditioning (control). The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Model 3343, Instron Corp., Canton, Mass., USA) and subsequently tested for shear bond strength (MPa). Results ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups. Post hoc Tukey test showed different values of shear bond strength for Fuji IX GP Extra and for Fuji II LC. The different conditioners variably influence the adhesion of the glass-ionomer cements tested. Conclusions. RMGIC shear bond to dentin was higher than GIC. The use of a Self-etch adhesive system improved the shear bond strength values of RMGIC and lowered the shear bond strength values of GIC significantly. PMID:24753797

  4. Management of a Large Internal Resorption Lesion with Metal Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Arora, Suraj; Sethi, Kunal; Kalra, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate is the mainstay of treatment of large internal resorption defects. But its cost may be a deterrent to its use in some patients. The present case report describes the successful endodontic management of an extensive internal resorptive lesion in a mandibular molar with metal reinforced glass ionomer cement. PMID:25436156

  5. Histological assessment of pulpal responses to resin modified glass ionomer cements in human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarizadeh, Ali; Parizi, Molook Torabi; Goroohi, Hossein; Badrian, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Khalighinejad, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The biocompatibility of resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) as a lining material is still under question. The present study evaluated the response of the pulp-dentin complex following application of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, calcium hydroxide and conventional glass-ionomer in deep cavities prepared in human teeth. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 30 deep class V buccal cavities (3 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm) were prepared in human premolars treatment planned to be extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into 3 groups. Groups were lined by a RMGI (Vivaglass), conventional glass Ionomer (Ionocid) and calcium hydroxide respectively. The cavities were subsequently filled with amalgam. Each group was then divided into two sub-groups according to time intervals 5 and 30 days. The patients were referred to Kerman Dental School and in accordance with orthodontic treatment plan; premolars were extracted and then prepared for histological assessment. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff techniques. All of the samples were examined using a number of criteria including odontoblastic changes, inflammatory cells response, reactionary dentin formation and presence of microorganisms. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was no significant difference among odontoblastic changes, reactionary dentin, presence of bacteria and inflammatory cells response of the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ionocid and Vivaglass resin-modified glass ionomers can be used as lining materials in human teeth. PMID:25878679

  6. Resin-modified glass ionomer, modified composite or conventional glass ionomer for band cementation?--an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Millett, D T; Cummings, A; Letters, S; Roger, E; Love, J

    2003-12-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the mean shear-peel bond strength and predominant site of bond failure of micro-etched orthodontic bands cemented with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; Fuji Ortho LC or 3M Multi-Cure), a modified composite or a conventional GIC. The survival time of bands was also assessed following simulated mechanical stress in a ball mill. One hundred and twenty molar bands were cemented to extracted human third molars. Eighty bands (20 cemented with each cement) were used to assess the debonding force and 40 bands (10 cemented with each cement) were used to determine survival time. The specimens were prepared in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions for each cement. After storage in a humidor at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, the shear debonding force was assessed for each specimen using a Nene M3000 testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The predominant site of band failure was recorded visually for all specimens as either at the band/cement or cement/enamel interface. Survival time was assessed following application of mechanical stress in a ball mill. There was no significant difference in mean shear-peel bond strength between the cement groups (P = 0.816). The proportion of specimens failing at each interface differed significantly between cement groups (P < 0.001). The predominant site of bond failure for bands cemented with the RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC) or the modified composite was at the enamel/cement interface, whereas bands cemented with 3M Multi-Cure failed predominantly at the cement/band interface. Conventional GIC specimens failed mostly at the enamel/cement interface. The mean survival time of bands cemented with either of the RMGICs or with the modified composite was significantly longer than for those cemented with the conventional GIC. The findings indicate that although there appears to be equivalence in the mean shear-peel bond strength of the band cements assessed, the fatigue properties of the conventional GIC when subjected to simulated mechanical stress seem inferior to those of the other cements for band cementation. PMID:14700267

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between the cost and properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana Flávia Bissoto; Kicuti, Ariane; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate microshear bond strength (μSBS), water sorption and solubility of glass ionomer cements (GIC) indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment (ART). Cylindrical specimens (6x2.4 mm) were used to test the sorption and solubility of each GIC (n = 5). The specimens were weighed before and after immersion in water and desiccation. For the μSBS test, 60 primary molars were ground to obtain flat surfaces from both enamel and dentin. The teeth were then assigned to the tested GIC (n = 10) groups, namely Fuji IX - FIX, Ketac Molar - KM and Maxxion R - MX. The exposed surfaces were pre-treated with GIC liquid. Polyethylene tubes were placed on the pre-treated surface and filled with one of the GIC. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to the μSBS test. The failure mode was assessed using a stereomicroscope (400x magnification). The powder to liquid ratio and cost of material were also determined (n = 3). The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Linear regression was used to determine the relation between cost and the other variables. Overall, MX showed lower μSBS values (enamel: 3.93 ± 0.38; dentin: 5.04 ± 0.70) than FIX (enamel: 5.95 ± 0.85; dentin: 7.01 ± 1.06) and KM (enamel: 5.91 ± 0.78; dentin: 6.88 ± 1.35), as well as higher sorption and solubility. The regression analyses showed a significant and positive correlation between cost and μSBS in enamel (R2 = 0.62; p < 0.001) and dentin (R2 = 0.43; p < 0.001); and a negative correlation between cost and water sorption (R2 = 0.93; p < 0.001) and solubility (R2 = 0.79; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the materials indicated for ART exhibit distinct physical and mechanical properties; in addition, low-priced materials may interfere with GIC properties. PMID:26676191

  8. How mobile are protons in the structure of dental glass ionomer cements?

    PubMed

    Benetti, Ana R; Jacobsen, Johan; Lehnhoff, Benedict; Momsen, Niels C R; Okhrimenko, Denis V; Telling, Mark T F; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Strobl, Markus; Seydel, Tilo; Manke, Ingo; Bordallo, Heloisa N

    2015-01-01

    The development of dental materials with improved properties and increased longevity can save costs and minimize discomfort for patients. Due to their good biocompatibility, glass ionomer cements are an interesting restorative option. However, these cements have limited mechanical strength to survive in the challenging oral environment. Therefore, a better understanding of the structure and hydration process of these cements can bring the necessary understanding to further developments. Neutrons and X-rays have been used to investigate the highly complex pore structure, as well as to assess the hydrogen mobility within these cements. Our findings suggest that the lower mechanical strength in glass ionomer cements results not only from the presence of pores, but also from the increased hydrogen mobility within the material. The relationship between microstructure, hydrogen mobility and strength brings insights into the material's durability, also demonstrating the need and opening the possibility for further research in these dental cements. PMID:25754555

  9. How mobile are protons in the structure of dental glass ionomer cements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Ana R.; Jacobsen, Johan; Lehnhoff, Benedict; Momsen, Niels C. R.; Okhrimenko, Denis V.; Telling, Mark T. F.; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Strobl, Markus; Seydel, Tilo; Manke, Ingo; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2015-03-01

    The development of dental materials with improved properties and increased longevity can save costs and minimize discomfort for patients. Due to their good biocompatibility, glass ionomer cements are an interesting restorative option. However, these cements have limited mechanical strength to survive in the challenging oral environment. Therefore, a better understanding of the structure and hydration process of these cements can bring the necessary understanding to further developments. Neutrons and X-rays have been used to investigate the highly complex pore structure, as well as to assess the hydrogen mobility within these cements. Our findings suggest that the lower mechanical strength in glass ionomer cements results not only from the presence of pores, but also from the increased hydrogen mobility within the material. The relationship between microstructure, hydrogen mobility and strength brings insights into the material's durability, also demonstrating the need and opening the possibility for further research in these dental cements.

  10. [Long-term stability of glass ionomer cement--method and results].

    PubMed

    Kraft, M; El-Natsheh, N; Boenick, U

    1996-01-01

    Glass ionomer cement already has many applications as a filling and fixation material in dentistry, and is now also being considered for use as a bone cement in orthopedics. The reason for this is that the high temperature that develops during polymerization of the PMMA bone cement currently employed, would then be avoided. On the other hand, however, it has the disadvantage of reduced mechanical strength. In order to evaluate the suitability of glass ionomer cement as a bone/implant interface it is necessary to supplement our present knowledge of its static properties by investigating its properties under dynamic loading conditions. This article describes an appropriate test method, the design of the testing set-up, and the results obtained. PMID:8851110

  11. Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Altenburger, Markus; Spitzmller, Bettina; Anderson, Annette; Hellwig, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. Methods. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive control. Results. Each of the tested materials significantly reduced the number of initially adhered CFUs; this reduction was even more pronounced after prior incubation in saliva. Antimicrobial effects on adherent bacteria were confirmed by live-dead staining. Conclusion. All five luting cements showed an antimicrobial potential which was increased by prior incubation with human saliva, suggesting an enhanced effect in vivo. PMID:24795539

  12. Diametral tensile strength and bonding to dentin of type I glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Galun, E A; Saleh, N; Lewinstein, I

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluated the diametral tensile strength of type I glass ionomer cements and measured their tensile and shear bond strengths to dentin with and without conditioning. Four brands of glass ionomer cement and one brand of zinc phosphate cement were tested. Disks of each cement type were prepared and the 7-day diametral compression test for tension was conducted. The shear and tensile tests, with and without 10% polyacrylic acid dentin conditioning, were performed with an Instron testing machine. Two additional groups, one for each bond test, were prepared and conditioned with 90% trichloracetic acid. No significant differences of the diametral strength were found among the various glass ionomer cements. The comparison of means suggests that, except for trichloracetic acid dentin pretreatment, the conditioning is an effective promoter of shear strength and has no significant effect (p < 0.01) on the tensile bond strength. However, trichloracetic acid was found to be a most effective dentin conditioner for both shear and tensile bond strengths (p < 0.01). PMID:7990049

  13. Effects of aging and cyclic loading on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Bapna, Mahendra S; Gadia, Christine M; Drummond, James L

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cyclic loading on the flexural strength and fracture toughness of a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), a metal containing GIC, hybrid GICs, and, for comparison, a composite. Two sets of specimens were evaluated: a set of controls (at 37 degrees C and 95% humidity) and a set aged for 9 months at 37 degrees C in water. The specimens were tested in static loading in air and water, and cyclic loaded in water. Cyclic loading and aging decreased the flexure strength of all materials significantly. However, wet static fracture toughness did not change on aging, and occasionally increased. Cyclic fracture toughness was lower with all materials except a hybrid glass ionomer without aging. Deterioration in properties was related to relative amount of glass ionomer vs. the resin component. Both flexural strength and fracture toughness of these materials were significantly affected by testing environment, aging and cyclic loading. The lower the resin component of the material, the lower the mechanical properties. The influence of these parameters should be given importance in considering their clinically durability in the oral environment. PMID:12206596

  14. The tensile strength of the union between various glass ionomer cements and various composite resins.

    PubMed

    Mount, G J

    1989-04-01

    Increasing use is being made of the glass ionomer cements as a lining for composite resin restorations, particularly when restoring posterior teeth. It has been suggested that it is possible to obtain a mechanical union between the two materials by etching the surface of the cement. This paper discusses the result of testing a broad variety of combinations of different glass ionomer cements and composite resins that have been reported on previously, and suggests that a number of factors need to be taken into account if the optimum physical properties are to be achieved from the union. There would appear to be four main factors which dictate the final strength of the union. The tensile strength of the cement itself is of primary importance and it seems the wettability of the resin bonding agent is also significant. When using some of the less heavily filled composite resins, the stresses set up by the setting contraction of the resin may be too great and, finally, the more heavily filled composite resins for restoration of posterior teeth often prove difficult to adapt to the underlying cement. With careful clinical handling, the so-called 'sandwich' technique is very useful. However, not all combinations of glass ionomer cement and composite resin will unite with sufficient strength to be successful clinically. PMID:2658936

  15. Effect of glass ionomer liners on bonding strength of laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Kedici, P S; Kalipcilar, B; Bilir, O G

    1992-07-01

    This study compared shear bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers, fabricated on refractory dies, which were lengthened incisally by 0.5 mm. Specimens were divided into four separate groups. In group A, the teeth were reduced 0.5 mm and the bonding was to enamel. The teeth of the remaining groups were reduced 1.0 mm and the bonding was to dentin. For two of the groups glass ionomer liners were applied before etching. Bonding to enamel was best, with cohesive fractures in porcelain. In the other groups, failure was adhesive in nature, occurring at the resin-tooth interface. PMID:1403914

  16. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (642 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukeys test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 110 was 11.661.79, 16.501.85, 18.471.77, 13.951.77, 15.271.49, 15.140.90, 20.031.19, 17.483.00, 16.241.98 and 16.031.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  17. Etching conditions for resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Valente, Rudolfo M; De Rijk, Waldemar G; Drummond, James L; Evans, Carla A

    2002-05-01

    This study reports the tensile bond strength of orthodontic eyelets (RMO, Inc, Denver, Colo) bonded to human extracted teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill) and various acid etchants (Etch-37 and All-Etch, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill; Ultra Etch, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for enamel preparation before bonding. The enamel etch conditions were as follows: 37% phosphoric acid with silica; 37% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% polyacrylic acid; and unetched enamel. Bond strength was measured by pulling in tension on the eyelet with a 0.018-in steel wire perpendicular to the enamel surface with a testing machine (Instron model 1125, Canton, Mass) at a speed of 2 mm/min. A light-cured resin cement (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) applied to enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid containing silica served as a control. Each group included 30 specimens. The Weibull distribution (m) was used for statistical analysis with a 90% CI. The different etchants used with RMGIC did not affect tensile bond strength. The resin cement group had the highest tensile strength. Significantly lower bond strengths were observed when glass ionomer cement was used to bond orthodontic attachments to nonetched teeth. However, unlike resin cement, RMGIC can bond effectively to etched teeth in a moist environment without an additional bonding agent. PMID:12045770

  18. Calcium polyphosphate as an additive to zinc-silicate glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Valliant, Esther Mae; Gagnier, David; Dickey, Brett Thomas; Boyd, Daniel; Filiaggi, Mark Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum-free glass ionomer cements (GICs) are under development for orthopedic applications, but are limited by their insufficient handling properties. Here, the addition of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) was investigated as an additive to an experimental zinc-silicate glass ionomer cement. A 50% maximum increase in working time was observed with CPP addition, though this was not clinically significant due to the short working times of the starting zinc-silicate GIC. Surprisingly, CPP also improved the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength which increased by ?33% after 30 days in TRIS buffer solution upon CPP addition up to 37.5?wt%. This strengthening may have been due to the formation of ionic crosslinks between the polyphosphate chains and polyacrylic acid. Thus, CPP is a potential additive to future GIC compositions as it has been shown to improve handling and mechanical properties. In addition, CPP may stimulate new bone growth and provide the ability for drug delivery, which are desirable modifications for an orthopedic cement. PMID:25627650

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Voids Present in Conventional and Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements Using Two Different Conditioners: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Roshni; Reddy, Pallavi; Udameshi, Pooja; Vallakuruchi Jayabal, Narmatha

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the presence of voids in powder-liquid and capsulated glass ionomer cement. 40 cavities were prepared on root surfaces of maxillary incisors and divided into four groups. Cavities were conditioned with glass ionomer cement liquid (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 1 and 3 and with dentin conditioner (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 2 and 4. Conventional powder-liquid glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used as a restorative material in Groups 1 and 2. Capsulated glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used in Groups 3 and 4. Samples were sectioned and viewed under stereomicroscope to check for the presence of voids within the cement and at the cement-tooth junction. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Group 4 showed statistically significant results (P < 0.05) when compared to Groups 1 and 2 for voids within the cement. However, for voids at the margins, the results were statistically insignificant. PMID:25544842

  20. Glass ionomer cement as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation defect.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the prognosis of molars that have experienced furcation invasion, is often a frustrating experience to the dental clinician and disappointing report to the patient involved. Although multiple treatment modalities have been attempted to retain teeth with severe furcation invasion, clinical success has not been predictable. A case report involving the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an occlusive barrier in the management of Class III furcation defect involving mandibular first molar is presented. A literature review on the subject matter was conducted using Medline, Google search engines, and manual library search. GIC restoration of Class III furcation invasion gives a satisfactory result. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are available for the management of the condition. GIC as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation invasion is an economical and less invasive treatment option. It also makes home care easy for the patient. PMID:22124057

  1. Effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tatiana Bahia Junqueira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hundred premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided into five groups (n = 20). Group 1 (control): enamel was etched with 35 per cent phosphoric acid, a thin layer of adhesive was applied, and the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. Group 2: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Group 3: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with conventional GIC. Group 4: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. Group 5: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours before they were submitted to shear testing. The results demonstrated that bond strength values of group 1 (17.08 ± 6.39 MPa) were significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. Groups 2 (3.43 ± 1.94 MPa) and 3 (3.92 ± 1.57 MPa) presented values below the average recommended in the literature. With regard to adhesive remnant index, the groups in which the enamel was treated with NaOCl showed a behaviour similar to that of the resin composite. It is conclude with enamel treatment with NaOCl increased bonding strength of brackets bonded with GIC and RMGIC, but increased bond strength was not statistically significant when compared to the untreated groups. PMID:22379131

  2. Bonded amalgam restorations: using a glass-ionomer as an adhesive liner.

    PubMed

    Chen, R S; Liu, C C; Cheng, M R; Lin, C P

    2000-01-01

    Due to the lack of adhesiveness of amalgam to tooth structure, several adhesive cements have been utilized in bonded amalgam restorations. This study evaluated whether Fuji-II glass-ionomer cement is an appropriate adhesive liner in bonded amalgam restorations. Two adhesive composite luting cements (Amalgambond Plus and Panavia-21) and Copalite cavity liner were compared. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first part, we quantitatively assessed the tensile bond strengths as well as the failure modes of amalgam bonded to human dentin, using different adhesive liners. In each group, the flat dentin surface was treated with the assigned adhesive cement with a Teflon mold, followed by condensation of amalgam (Valiant PhD) onto it. Each group's mean tensile bond strengths were recorded and the statistical analysis by one way ANOVA showed no significant differences among groups (p > 0.05). Similar to the fracture patterns of the Amalgambond Plus and Panavia-21 groups, the failure mode of Fuji-II group was predominantly adhesive fracture. In the second part, the fracture strengths of amalgam restored teeth were measured using different adhesive liners. Standard MOD cavities were prepared in each tooth except for the intact tooth group. After treatment with the assigned adhesives or varnish, the cavities were restored with amalgam. Fracture strengths were then measured and the fractured interfaces examined using a scanning electron microscope. The fracture strengths of the intact tooth, Amalgambond Plus, Panavia-21 and Fuji-II groups were significantly higher than those of the Copalite and prepared cavity without restoration groups (p < 0.01). Accordingly, Fuji-II glass-ionomer cement, when used as an adhesive liner of amalgam restoration, may effectively reinforce the remaining tooth structure and, therefore, enhance the fracture resistance of the amalgam-restored teeth. PMID:11203849

  3. Comparison of antibacterial activity of three fluorides- and zinc-releasing commercial glass ionomer cements on strains of mutans streptococci: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shashibhushan, K K; Basappa, N; Subba Reddy, V V

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of three commercially available fluoride- and zinc-releasing glass ionomer cements on strains of mutans streptococci. Three glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional, Fuji II Light Cure, and Fuji IX) were used. The antibacterial effect of glass ionomer cements were estimated by anaerobically growing mutans streptococci on a selective medium by inoculating human saliva and measuring the inhibition zones around the glass ionomer discs on the medium. Fluoride and zinc release were measured and compared with the antibacterial activity. The results, when statistically analyzed, showed a direct correlation between fluoride release and antibacterial activity, but there was no correlation between zinc release and antibacterial activity. PMID:19075449

  4. N-vinylpyrrolidone modified glass-ionomer resins for improved dental restoratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong

    The studies described in this dissertation focus on improvement of mechanical properties of current glass-ionomer cements. Thermal properties and microstructures of the cements were correlated with their mechanical strengths. The first study evaluated mechanical properties of selected commercial glass-ionomer cements and examined their microstructures. The results showed that resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM GICs) exhibited much higher flexural (FS) and diametral tensile strengths (DTS), compared to conventional GICs (C GICs). In addition, they exhibited comparable compressive strength (CS), relatively low microhardness and less wear resistance than C GICs. The C GICs exhibited brittle behavior, whereas the RM GICs underwent substantial plastic deformation in compression. The mechanical properties of the GICs were closely related to their microstructures. Factors such as the density of the microstructure, the integrity of the interface between the glass particles and polymer matrix, particle size and the number and size of voids have important roles in determining the mechanical properties. The second study evaluated thermal properties of these GICs. The results showed that the RM GICs exhibited higher thermal transition temperatures than those of the C GICs, thermal expansion coefficients of these cements were close to those of human teeth, and the indentation creep of the RM GICs were higher than the C GICs. The third study explored and evaluated the effect of a water-soluble monomer, N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), on the performance of current C GICs, indicating a significant improvement in both mechanical and working properties. The fourth study demonstrated the process of determining the optimal molar ratio of the NVP-containing copolymers, using design of experiment. The results showed that the optimal molar ratio for these copolymers was 7:1:3 for poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone), based on the FS test. The molar ratio of 8:2:1 (AA:IA:NVP) was considered as the best molar ratio for these copolymers, based on the DTS and CS tests. The fifth study formulated the NVP-containing RM GICs using a statistical design of experiment. The results indicated that the best graft ratio for 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (IEM) in this system was 15% of the terpolymer by a molar ratio. The optimal formulation was found to be at the weight ratio of 55:15:30 (RM NVP-containing terpolymer: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA): Hsb2O). Stress-strain curves showed that a relatively high amount of water in the formulation led to higher elastic modulus and proportional limit and lower malleability, whereas a relatively high amount of HEMA gave the opposite results. The sixth study evaluated the NVP modified GICs (NVPM GICs) with the best molar ratios and optimal formulations in the mechanical, thermal and working properties. The results showed that the effect of molecular weight on mechanical properties of the NVPM GICs were evident. Different glass powders exhibited different effects on properties of the NVPM GICs, due to different compositions, size and affinity. Powder/liquid ratios had significant effects on the mechanical properties of NVPM GICs, especially on FS. P/W ratios are only beneficial to the NVPM GICs mixed with the Fuji II glass powders. The NVPM GICs showed a higher WT than the models, due to water retention of the NVP ring. Thermal expansion coefficients for the NVPM GICs were close to those for the natural tooth. Mismatch between the glass powders used and the polymer matrix was a big concern in this study and should be solved in the future.

  5. Comparative study of radiopacity of resin-based and glass ionomer-based bulk-fill restoratives using digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Yasa, Bilal; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Yasa, Elif; Ertas, Elif T

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the radiopacity values of glass ionomer- and resin-based bulk-fill restoratives of different thicknesses using digital radiography. Two glass ionomer-based and three resin-based bulk-fill restoratives, and a conventional composite were studied. Five disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of these materials at three different thicknesses; specimens of enamel and dentin with the same thicknesses were also prepared. Materials were placed over a complementary metal oxide-semiconductor sensor together with the tooth specimen and an aluminum step-wedge, and then exposed using a dental X-ray unit. The images were analyzed using a software program to measure the mean gray values (MGVs), which were converted to equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the significance of differences among the groups. The GCP Glass Fill specimens showed the lowest radiopacity values, and the Quixfil specimens had the highest values. All materials had higher radiopacity values than enamel and dentin, except for GCP Glass Fill, which had a radiopacity similar to that of enamel. The resin-based bulk-fill restoratives had significantly higher radiopacity values than glass ionomer-based restoratives. All of the tested materials showed radiopacity values higher than that of dentin, as recommended by the ISO. PMID:26062855

  6. A Confocal Microscopic Evaluation of the Dehydration Effect on Conventional, Resin Reinforced Powder/Liquid and Paste to Paste Glass Ionomer Luting Cements

    PubMed Central

    George, Liza; Kandaswamy, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration of resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system, resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cements in three different quantities and to compare them with a conventional glass ionomer luting cement using confocal laser scanning microscope. Materials and Methods: A conventional glass ionomer (Group I), a resin modified powder/liquid system (Group II), and a resin-modified paste/paste system (Group III) were selected for the study. In Group III, there were three subgroups based on the quantity of material dispensed. 50 premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided among the groups with 10 samples in each. The teeth were ground flat to expose a flat occlusal dentin. A device was made to standardize the thickness of cement placed on the teeth. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and then longitudinally sectioned to examine the tooth dentin interface under a confocal microscope. The specimens were allowed to dehydrate under the microscope for different time intervals. The width of the crack after dehydration near the dentinal interface was measured at definite intervals in all the groups and analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test. Results: Conventional glass ionomer cement showed the maximum width of the crack followed by resin modified paste/paste system during the dehydration period. Resin modified powder/liquid system did not show cohesive failure. Conclusions: Conventional glass ionomer luting cement is more susceptible to cohesive failure when subjected to dehydration compared to resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cement. Among the luting cements, resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system showed the best results when subjected to dehydration. PMID:26464535

  7. Therapeutic ion-releasing bioactive glass ionomer cements with improved mechanical strength and radiopacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Maximilian; Gentleman, Eileen; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert; Brauer, Delia

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive glasses (BG) are used to regenerate bone, as they degrade and release therapeutic ions. Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are used in dentistry, can be delivered by injection and set in situ by a reaction between an acid-degradable glass and a polymeric acid. Our aim was to combine the advantages of BG and GIC, and we investigated the use of alkali-free BG (SiO2-CaO-CaF2-MgO) with 0 to 50% of calcium replaced by strontium, as the beneficial effects of strontium on bone formation are well documented. When mixing BG and poly(vinyl phosphonic-co-acrylic acid), ions were released fast (up to 90% within 15 minutes at pH 1), which resulted in GIC setting, as followed by infrared spectroscopy. GIC mixed well and set to hard cements (compressive strength up to 35 MPa), staying hard when in contact with aqueous solution. This is in contrast to GIC prepared with poly(acrylic acid), which were shown previously to become soft in contact with water. Strontium release from GIC increased linearly with strontium for calcium substitution, allowing for tailoring of strontium release depending on clinical requirements. Furthermore, strontium substitution increased GIC radiopacity. GIC passed ISO10993 cytotoxicity test, making them promising candidates for use as injectable bone cements.

  8. Comparison of the push-out shear bond strength of four types of glass ionomers when used to bond amalgam: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vinod Babu; Ramachandran, S; Indira, R; Shankar, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dental amalgam is the primary direct posterior restorative material used worldwide, but it have certain shortcomings due to the lack of adhesiveness to the cavity. The introduction of the concept of bonded amalgam helped improve the use of amalgam as a restorative material. Aim: Evaluation of the comparative push-out shear bond strength of four types of conventional glass ionomers used to bond amalgam to tooth in simulated class I situations. Materials and Methods: Four chemical cure glass ionomers are used: GC Fuji I, GC Fuji II, GC Fuji III and GC Fuji VII, and are compared with unbonded amalgam. The push-out bond strength was tested using the Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that the use of glass ionomer to bond amalgam resulted in an increase in the bond strength of amalgam. The Type VII glass ionomer showed the highest bond strength in comparison with the other glass ionomers. Conclusions: Conventional glass ionomer bonds to amalgam and shows a beneficial increase in the bond strength of the restoration in comparison with unbonded amalgam. PMID:22144798

  9. Synthesis of a proline-modified acrylic acid copolymer in supercritical CO2 for glass-ionomer dental cement applications.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2009-06-01

    Supercritical (sc-) fluids (such as sc-CO(2)) represent interesting media for the synthesis of polymers in dental and biomedical applications. Sc-CO(2) has several advantages for polymerization reactions in comparison to conventional organic solvents. It has several advantages in comparison to conventional polymerization solvents, such as enhanced kinetics, being less harmful to the environment and simplified solvent removal process. In our previous work, we synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PAA-IA-NVP) terpolymers in a supercritical CO(2)/methanol mixture for applications in glass-ionomer dental cements. In this study, proline-containing acrylic acid copolymers were synthesized, in a supercritical CO(2) mixture or in water. Subsequently, the synthesized polymers were used in commercially available glass-ionomer cement formulations (Fuji IX commercial GIC). Mechanical strength (compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and biaxial flexural strength (BFS)) and handling properties (working and setting time) of the resulting modified cements were evaluated. It was found that the polymerization reaction in an sc-CO(2)/methanol mixture was significantly faster than the corresponding polymerization reaction in water and the purification procedures were simpler for the former. Furthermore, glass-ionomer cement samples made from the terpolymer prepared in sc-CO(2)/methanol exhibited higher CS and DTS and comparable BFS compared to the same polymer synthesized in water. The working properties of glass-ionomer formulations made in sc-CO(2)/methanol were comparable and better than the values of those for polymers synthesized in water. PMID:19269267

  10. Effect of Nanoclay Dispersion on the Properties of a Commercial Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGV and PGN nanoclay) on Fuji-IX glass ionomer cement was investigated. Materials and Method. PGV and PGV nanoclays (2.0 wt%) were dispersed in the liquid portion of Fuji-IX. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to quantify acid-base reaction and the liquid portion of GIC. The mechanical properties (CS, DTS, FS, and Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured at 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 month. The microstructure was examined by cryo-SEM and TEM. Results. FTIR shows that the setting reaction involves the neutralisation of PAA by the glass powder which was linked with the formation of calcium and aluminium salt-complexes. The experimental GICs (C-V and C-N) exhibited mechanical properties in compliance to ISO standard requirement have higher values than Fuji-IX cement. There was no significant correlation of mechanical properties was found between C-V and C-N. The average Mw of Fuji-IX was 15,700 and the refractive index chromatogram peak area was 33,800. TEM observation confirmed that nanoclays were mostly exfoliated and dispersed in the matrix of GIC. Conclusion. The reinforcement of nanoclays in GICs may potentially produce cements with better mechanical properties without compromising the nature of polyacid neutralisation. PMID:25210518

  11. The incorporation of nanoparticles into conventional glass-ionomer dental restorative cements.

    PubMed

    Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Nicholson, John W; Coleman, Nichola J; Slipper, Ian J; Booth, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    Conventional glass-ionomer cements (GICs) are popular restorative materials, but their use is limited by their relatively low mechanical strength. This paper reports an attempt to improve these materials by incorporation of 10 wt% of three different types of nanoparticles, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, and titanium dioxide, into two commercial GICs (ChemFil Rock and EQUIA Fil). The results indicate that the nanoparticles readily dispersed into the cement matrix by hand mixing and reduced the porosity of set cements by filling the empty spaces between the glass particles. Both cements showed no significant difference in compressive strength with added alumina, and ChemFil Rock also showed no significant difference with zirconia. By contrast, ChemFil Rock showed significantly higher compressive strength with added titania, and EQUIA Fil showed significantly higher compressive strength with both zirconia and titania. Fewer air voids were observed in all nanoparticle-containing cements and this, in turn, reduced the development of cracks within the matrix of the cements. These changes in microstructure provide a likely reason for the observed increases in compressive strength, and overall the addition of nanoparticles appears to be a promising strategy for improving the physical properties of GICs. PMID:25691120

  12. INFLUENCE OF HEMA CONTENT ON THE MECHANICAL AND BONDING PROPERTIES OF EXPERIMENTAL HEMA-ADDED GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ho-Nam; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of incrementally added uncured HEMA in experimental HEMA-added glass ionomer cement (HAGICs) on the mechanical and shear bond strength (SBS) of these materials. Increasing contents of uncured HEMA (10-50 wt.%) were added to a commercial glass ionomer cement liquid (Fuji II, GC, Japan), and the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of the resulting HAGICs were measured. The SBS to non-precious alloy, precious alloy, enamel and dentin was also determined after these surfaces were subjected to either airborne-particle abrasion (Aa) or SiC abrasive paper grinding (Sp). Both strength properties of the HAGICs first increased and then decreased as the HEMA content increased, with a maximum value obtained when the HEMA content was 20% for the compressive strength and 40% for the tensile strength. The SBS was influenced by the HEMA content, the surface treatment, and the type of bonding surface (p<0.05). These results suggest that addition of an appropriate amount of HEMA to glass ionomer cement would increase diametral tensile strength as well as bond strength to alloys and teeth. These results also confirm that the optimal HEMA content ranged from 20 to 40% within the limitations of this experimental condition. PMID:19668995

  13. The effect of ultrasound on the uptake of fluoride by glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Shahid, S; Billington, R W; Hill, R G

    2011-02-01

    Ultrasound has been shown to improve the set of glass ionomer cements (GICs) and also other cement properties. In particular, the release of fluoride is enhanced. These cements also can take up fluoride ion from liquids. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ultrasound on this cement property. Two commercial dental restorative GICs were used together with a modified commercial material and an experimental material based on a F-free glass. All three commercial materials came in capsules which were mixed as makers directed, the experimental material was mixed as in previous papers. Mixed cement was placed polyethylene moulds to create 3נ2mm thick discs. These were either allowed to standard set for 6min or set with ultrasound for 55s. 18 samples were made for each material/set. Three samples were placed in 4ml of 0.2% NaF solution for 24h at 37C. The cylinders were removed and the F concentration of the solutions measured by ISE using TISAB decomplexant. F uptake was determined by difference from the original NaF concentration. The two conventional GICs showed reductions of 17.4 and 8.5% for ultrasound compared to standard set whereas the modified material increased by 32.3% and the experimental one by 20.6%. It is suggested that the effect of ultrasound may increase the surface area of the residual glass particles in the GIC which would increase F uptake. In GICs where considerable F ion is released into the cement matrix by the enhanced reaction caused by ultrasound this may be sufficient to reverse the former effect producing the reduced uptake observed. PMID:21221738

  14. Failure of a Glass Ionomer to Remineralize Apatite-depleted Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y.K.; Yiu, C.K.Y.; Kim, J.R.; Gu, L.; Kim, S.K.; Weller, R.N.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of demineralized dentin lesions adjacent to glass-ionomer cements (GICs) has been reported in the literature. This study tested the hypothesis that a strontium-based GIC can remineralize completely demineralized dentin by nucleation of new apatite crystallites within an apatite-free dentin matrix. Human dentin specimens were acid-etched, bonded with Fuji IXGP, and immersed in a calcium-and-phosphate-containing 1.5X simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1-4 months. Polyacrylic acid and polyvinylphosphonic acid biomimetic analogs were added to the SBFs to create 2 additional remineralization media. Specimens were processed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No apatite deposition could be identified in the completely demineralized dentin in any of the specimens immersed in the 3 remineralization media, despite TEM/EDX evidence of diffusion of ions specific to the strontium-based GIC into the demineralized dentin. The hypothesis was rejected; mineral concentration alone is not a sufficient endpoint for assessing the success of contemporary remineralization strategies. PMID:20110510

  15. Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials using a no-rinse conditioner.

    PubMed

    Suihkonen, Rian W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Dossett, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    A paste-paste resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restorative material has been introduced recently with a new conditioner that requires no rinsing. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of an encapsulated RMGI (Fuji II LC) and a new paste-paste RMGI (Fuji Filling LC) to dentin conditioned with 20% polyacrylic acid (Cavity Conditioner), a new no-rinse conditioner (Self Conditioner,), or no conditioner. Mounted human third molars were flattened and the dentin surface was conditioned. The RMGI restorative materials were mixed and incrementally inserted into a mold and photocured. The specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. Fuji II LC had significantly greater bond strength to dentin than Fuji Filling LC. The use of Cavity Conditioner or Self Conditioner resulted in bond strengths that were not significantly different from each other; however, both produced greater bond strengths than those in the non-conditioned groups. PMID:23220322

  16. Dental glass ionomer cement reinforced by cellulose microfibers and cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael M; Pereira, Fabiano V; Mota, Felipe A P; Watanabe, Evandro; Soares, Suelleng M C S; Santos, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate if the addition of cellulose microfibers (CmF) or cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) would improve the mechanical properties of a commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). Different amounts of CmF and CNC were previously prepared and then added to reinforce the GIC matrix while it was being manipulated. Test specimens with various concentrations of CmF or CNC in their total masses were fabricated and submitted to mechanical tests (to evaluate their compressive and diametral tensile strength,modulus, surface microhardness and wear resistance) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The incorporation of CmF in the GIC matrix did not greatly improve the mechanical properties of GIC. However, the addition of a small amount of CNC in the GIC led to significant improvements in all of the mechanical properties evaluated: compressive strength (increased up to 110% compared with the control group), elastic modulus increased by 161%, diametral tensile strength increased by 53%, and the mass loss decreased from 10.95 to 3.87%. Because the composites presented a considerable increase in mechanical properties, the modification of the conventional GIC with CNC can represent a new and promising dental restorative material. PMID:26478325

  17. Inhibitory effects on selected oral bacteria of antibacterial agents incorporated in a glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy, over time, of combining antibacterial agents with a glass ionomer cement (GIC). This was assessed using an agar diffusion test. Chlorhexidine hydrochloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetrimide and benzalkonium chloride were added to Fuji IX GIC at 0, 1, 2 and 4% w/w. Antibacterial-GIC specimens were placed onto agar plates inoculated with one of six bacterial species (Streptococcis, Lactobacillus, and Actinomyces, two each) and the area of inhibition calculated after 24 h incubation. The experiment was repeated weekly and at week 11 the surface of the specimen was abraded prior to replacing on inoculated agar plates. Control specimens of the GIC produced no bacterial inhibition. The antibacterial-GIC combination specimens showed significant inhibition which decreased at different rates over the test period. Resurfacing of the specimens showed a dramatic increase of antibacterial action similar to levels produced on week 1. CT-GIC showed the greatest (p < 0.005) inhibitory effect throughout the experimental period for 4 out of 6 test bacteria. The addition of antibacterial agents to Fuji IX creates a GIC material with significant antimicrobial action in vitro which is dependent on concentration and type of antibacterial agent, and appears to be associated primarily with a release of the antibacterial from the surface layer of the specimen. PMID:12652048

  18. A resin impression SEM technique for examining the glass-ionomer cement chemical fusion zone.

    PubMed

    Milicich, G

    2005-01-01

    Examination of the auto-cure glass-ionomer cement (GIC)-tooth interface using conventional SEM techniques causes severe dehydration and subsequent fracturing of the GIC, hampering accurate assessment of the GIC-tooth interface. A simple, accurate impression technique was developed to examine the GIC chemical fusion zone. Samples of GIC were bonded to prepared cavities and tooth surfaces that had been conditioned with 10% polyacrylic acid for 10 s and allowed to mature for 24 h in neutral buffered saline, sectioned under water and then acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s to remove sectioning smear layer and to highlight surface morphology, rinsed and gently dried. Optibond Solo Plus was then applied and photo-polymerized. Increments of posterior hybrid composite were then bonded onto the Optibond and photo-polymerized. The tooth sections with attached GIC were then dissolved off the bonded composite with 18% HCl for 4 days. Subsequent SEM examination of the resin impressions created with this technique provided high-quality, detailed images of the GIC chemical fusion zone, without the development of the fracture artefacts associated with the desiccation of GIC. The resin impression technique described proved to be a simple and successful method for providing accurate SEM images of the GIC-tooth chemical fusion. PMID:15655061

  19. Fluoride release from three glass ionomers after exposure to sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate fluoride gels

    PubMed Central

    Ghajari, Masoud Fallahinejad; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Safavi, Nassim; Sohrabi, Azin; Ardakani, Faezeh Fotouhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glass ionomer (GI) restorations exposed to fluoride have the ability to slowly release fluoride. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate fluoride release from three GIs before and after exposure to sodium fluoride (NaF) and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Materials and Methods: Fifteen disc-shaped samples (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) from three GIs (Fuji II, Fuji IX, Chem Flex) were made and suspended in a polypropylene recipient containing 10 mL distilled water and stored at 37C. At the 13th day, the samples of each GI were randomly divided into 3 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to NaF and APF gels for 4 min and group 3 served as control in distilled water. The fluoride released was measured at day 1, 4, 10, 13, 14, 17, 20 and 23 by potentiometer. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Fluoride release was highest after 24 h for the tested GIs, but Fuji II demonstrated the least amount. Fuji IX showed the highest fluoride release followed by Chem Flex. Exposure to fluoride gels significantly increased fluoride release for all materials (P < 0.05). The amount of fluoride release for the three GIs was significantly higher in APF groups during the test period. Conclusion: Highly viscous conventional GIs (Fuji IX and Chem Flex) released higher quantity of fluoride. PMID:25426154

  20. Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for uncooperative patients according to surface protection treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, Edoardo; Bossù, Maurizio; Giovannetti, Agostino; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Even today, use of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) as restorative material is indicated for uncooperative patients. Aim The study aimed at estimating the surface roughness of different GICs using or not their proprietary surface coatings and at observing the interfaces between cement and coating through SEM. Materials and methods Forty specimens have been obtained and divided into 4 groups: Fuji IX (IX), Fuji IX/G-Coat Plus (IXC), Vitremer (V), Vitremer/Finishing Gloss (VFG). Samples were obtained using silicone moulds to simulate class I restorations. All specimens were processed for profilometric evaluation. The statistical differences of surface roughness between groups were assessed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) (p<0.05). The Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-Way ANOVA) was used to evaluate the influence of two factors: restoration material and presence of coating. Coated restoration specimens (IXC and VFG) were sectioned perpendicular to the restoration surface and processed for SEM evaluation. Results No statistical differences in roughness could be noticed between groups or factors. Following microscopic observation, interfaces between restoration material and coating were better for group IXC than for group VFG. Conclusions When specimens are obtained simulating normal clinical procedures, the presence of surface protection does not significantly improve the surface roughness of GICs. PMID:24611090

  1. Effects of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) containing polyelectrolytes on surface properties of conventional glass-ionomer cements (GIC).

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Ansari, Sahar; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Schricker, Scott; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2009-10-01

    It has been found that polyacids containing an N-vinylpyrrolidinone (NVP) comonomer produces a glass inomer cement with improved mechanical and handling properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NVP modified polyelectrolytes on the surface properties and shear bond strength to dentin of glass ionomer cements. Poly(acrylic acid (AA)-co-itaconic acid (IA)-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The terpolymer was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and viscometry for solution properties. The synthesized polymers were used in glass ionomer cement formulations (Fuji II commercial GIC). Surface properties (wettability) of modified cements were studied by water contact angle measurements as a function of time. Work of adhesion values of different surfaces was also determined. The effect of NVP modified polyacid, on bond strength of glass-ionomer cement to dentin was also investigated. The mean data obtained from contact angle and bonding strength measurements were subjected to one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at alpha=0.05. Results showed that NVP modified glass ionomer cements showed significantly lower contact angles (theta=47 degrees) and higher work of adhesion (WA=59.4 erg/cm(2)) in comparison to commercially available Fuji II GIC (theta=60 degrees and WA=50.3 erg/cm(2), respectively). The wettability of dentin surfaces conditioned with NVP containing terpolymer was higher (theta=21 degrees, WA=74.2 erg/cm(2)) than dentin conditioned with Fuji conditioner (theta=30 degrees, WA=69 erg/cm(2)). The experimental cement also showed higher but not statistically significant values for shear bond strength to dentin (7.8 MPa), when compared to control group (7.3 MPa). It was concluded that NVP containing polyelectrolytes are better dentin conditioners than the commercially available dentin conditioner (Fuji Cavity Conditioner, GC). NVP containing terpolymers can enhance the surface properties of GICs and also increase their bond strength to the dentin. PMID:19556000

  2. PERFORMANCE OF BRAZILIAN AND IMPORTED GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS USED IN ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT (ART) REGARDING MICROLEAKAGE IN PRIMARY MOLARS

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; do Vale, Miriam Pimenta Parreira; Jansen, Wellington Corra; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the performance of Brazilian and imported glass ionomer cements (GIC) with regard to microleakage, 40 primary molars received two standard class II cavity preparations with margins in enamel. Twenty cavities were filled with Brazilian materials (Vidrion R and Vidrion RCaps) and the other 20 cavities were filled with imported materials (Fuji IX and Fuji IXGPFast capsule). All fillings were performed by a single operator according to the manufacturer's instructions. Teeth were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue and half-sectioned. Three independent calibrated examiners assessed microleakage using scores (0-3). Data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test and Wilcoxon analysis. High microleakage indexes were verified for all ionomer cements: 59.5% of the samples restored with Vidrion R or Vidrion RCaps and 83.4% of the samples restored with Fuji IX or Fuji IXGpFast capsule obtained the maximum score (3). The Brazilian ionomer cements presented less microleakage than imported cements, although this difference was only significant (p=0.003) among the encapsulated materials. PMID:19089050

  3. Longevity of extensive class II open-sandwich restorations with a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J W; Kieri, C; Carln, M

    1999-07-01

    Several new techniques have been introduced for use in the esthetic restoration of posterior cavities to substitute for the presumed toxicity of amalgam. Composite-laminated glass-ionomer cement restorations, the sandwich technique, have been recommended for caries-risk patients. Clinical evaluation of the use of conventional glass-ionomer cements in the open-sandwich restoration has shown a high failure rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the durability and cariostatic effect of a modified open-sandwich restoration utilizing a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) in large cavities. The materials consisted of 274 mostly extensive Class II Vitremer/Z100 restorations performed by four dentists in 168 adults. Six experimental groups were investigated. In four groups a thick and in two groups a thin layer of cement was placed. Cavity conditioning before application of the RMGIC self-etching primer was done in 3 groups with polyacrylic acid and in one group with maleic acid; in two groups, only water rinsing was performed. The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months according to modified USPHS criteria (van Dijken, 1986). After 3 years, 239 restorations were evaluated. Twelve (5%) were estimated as non-acceptable. Two were replaced, and seven were repaired with resin composite. Tooth fractures were observed in 2.5%. Slight erosion of the RMGIC part was seen in 4%, and in one case operative treatment was indicated. Post-operative sensitivity was reported for 9 teeth. Forty-three percent of the patients were considered as caries-risk patients. Only one restoration showed secondary caries. The three-year results indicated that the modified open-sandwich restoration is an appropriate alternative to amalgam including extensive restorations. PMID:10403459

  4. Effect of antibacterial agents on the surface hardness of a conventional glass-ionomer cement

    PubMed Central

    TZNER, Tamer; ULUSU, Tezer

    2012-01-01

    In atraumatic restorative treatment (ART), caries removal with hand excavation instruments is not as efficient as that with rotary burs in eliminating bacteria under the glass ionomer cements (GICs). Thus, different antibacterial agents have been used in recent studies to enhance the antibacterial properties of the GICs, without jeopardizing their basic physical properties. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial agents on the surface hardness of a conventional GIC (Fuji IX) using Vickers microhardness [Vickers hardness number (VHN)] test. Material and Methods Cetrimide (CT), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were added to the powder and benzalkonium chloride (BC) was added to the liquid of Fuji IX in concentrations of 1% and 2%, and served as the experimental groups. A control group containing no additive was also prepared. After the completion of setting reaction, VHN measurements were recorded at 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after storage in 37C distilled water. A one-way ANOVA was performed followed by a Dunnett t test and Tamhane T2 tests and also repeated measurements ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons in 95% confidence interval. Results VHN results showed significant differences between the control and the experimental groups at all time periods (p<0.05 for all). Significant differences were observed between all study periods for individual groups (p<0.05). After 7 days, VHNs were decreased in all experimental groups while they continued to increase in the control group. BC and CHX groups demonstrated the least whereas CT and CPC groups exhibited most adverse effect on the hardness of set cements. Conclusions Despite the decreased microhardness values in all experimental groups compared to the controls after 7 up to 90 days, incorporating certain antibacterial agents into Fuji IX GIC showed tolerable microhardness alterations within the limitations of this in vitro study. PMID:22437677

  5. EFFECT OF LIGHT CURING UNIT ON RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS: A MICROHARDNESS ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Cefaly, Daniela Francisca Gigo; de Mello, Liliam Lucia Carrara Paes; Wang, Linda; Lauris, Jos Roberto Pereira; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the microhardness of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) photoactivated with a blue light-emitting diode (LED) curing light. Material and Methods: Thirty specimens were distributed in 3 groups: Fuji II LC Improved/GC (RM1), Vitremer/3M ESPE (RM2) and Filtek Z250/ 3M ESPE (RM3). Two commercial light-curing units were used to polymerize the materials: LED/Ultrablue IS and a halogen light/XL3000 (QTH). After 24 h, Knoop microhardness test was performed. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. Results: At the top surface, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the microhardness was seen when the LED and QTH lights were used for all materials. At the bottom surface, microhardness mean value of RM2 was significantly higher when the QTH light was used (p<0.05). For RM1, statistically significant higher values (p<0.05) were seen when the LED light was used. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was seen at the bottom surface for RM3, irrespective of the light used. Top-to-bottom surface comparison showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) for both RMGICs, regardless of the light used. For RM3, microhardness mean value at the top was significantly higher (p<0.05) than bottom microhardness when both curing units were used. Conclusion: The microhardness values seen when a LED light was used varied depending on the restorative material tested. PMID:19466242

  6. Mechanical, antibacterial and bond strength properties of nano-titanium-enriched glass ionomer cement

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-CONTRERAS, Rene; SCOUGALL-VILCHIS, Rogelio Jose; CONTRERAS-BULNES, Rosalía; SAKAGAMI, Hiroshi; MORALES-LUCKIE, Raul Alberto; NAKAJIMA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a significant area of research in Dentistry. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the physical, antibacterial activity and bond strength properties of conventional base, core build and restorative of glass ionomer cement (GIC) compared to GIC supplemented with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowder at 3% and 5% (w/w). Material and Methods Vickers microhardness was estimated with diamond indenter. Compressive and flexural strengths were analyzed in a universal testing machine. Specimens were bonded to enamel and dentine, and tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine. Specimens were incubated with S. mutans suspension for evaluating antibacterial activity. Surface analysis of restorative conventional and modified GIC was performed with SEM and EDS. The analyses were carried out with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (post-hoc), Tukey test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney. Results Conventional GIC and GIC modified with TiO2 nanopowder for the base/liner cement and core build showed no differences for mechanical, antibacterial, and shear bond properties (p>0.05). In contrast, the supplementation of TiO2 NPs to restorative GIC significantly improved Vickers microhardness (p<0.05), flexural and compressive strength (p<0.05), and antibacterial activity (p<0.001), without interfering with adhesion to enamel and dentin. Conclusion GIC supplemented with TiO2 NPs (FX-II) is a promising material for restoration because of its potential antibacterial activity and durable restoration to withstand the mastication force. PMID:26221928

  7. Mechanical, antibacterial and bond strength properties of nano-titanium-enriched glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio Jose; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Morales-Luckie, Raul Alberto; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a significant area of research in Dentistry. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the physical, antibacterial activity and bond strength properties of conventional base, core build and restorative of glass ionomer cement (GIC) compared to GIC supplemented with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowder at 3% and 5% (w/w). Material and Methods Vickers microhardness was estimated with diamond indenter. Compressive and flexural strengths were analyzed in a universal testing machine. Specimens were bonded to enamel and dentine, and tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine. Specimens were incubated with S. mutans suspension for evaluating antibacterial activity. Surface analysis of restorative conventional and modified GIC was performed with SEM and EDS. The analyses were carried out with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (post-hoc), Tukey test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney. Results Conventional GIC and GIC modified with TiO2 nanopowder for the base/liner cement and core build showed no differences for mechanical, antibacterial, and shear bond properties (p>0.05). In contrast, the supplementation of TiO2 NPs to restorative GIC significantly improved Vickers microhardness (p<0.05), flexural and compressive strength (p<0.05), and antibacterial activity (p<0.001), without interfering with adhesion to enamel and dentin. Conclusion GIC supplemented with TiO2 NPs (FX-II) is a promising material for restoration because of its potential antibacterial activity and durable restoration to withstand the mastication force. PMID:26221928

  8. Nanoclay addition to a conventional glass ionomer cements: Influence on physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGN nanoclay) on physical properties of glass ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: The PGN nanoclay was dispersed in the liquid portion of GIC (HiFi, Advanced Healthcare, Kent, UK) at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify the polymer liquid of GICs after dispersion of nanoclay. The molecular weight (Mw) of HiFi liquid was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The compressive strength (CS), diametral-tensile strength, flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured after storage for 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. Fractured surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The working and setting time (WT and ST) of cements was measured by a modified Wilson's rheometer. Results: The FTIR results showed a new peak at 1041 cm?1 which increased in intensity with an increase in the nanoclay content and was related to the Si-O stretching mode in PGN nanoclay. The Mw of poly (acrylic acid) used to form cement was in the range of 53,000 g/mol. The nanoclay reinforced GICs containing <2% nanoclays exhibited higher CS and FS. The Ef cement with 1% nanoclays was significantly higher. The WT and ST of 1% nanoclay reinforced cement were similar to the control cement but were reduced with 2% and 4% nanoclay addition. Conclusion: The dispersion of nanoclays in GICs was achieved, and GIC containing 2 wt% nanoclay is a promising restorative materials with improved physical properties. PMID:25512724

  9. Effectiveness of a resin-modified glass ionomer liner in reducing hypersensitivity in posterior restorations

    PubMed Central

    Strober, Brad; Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Matthews, Abigail G.; Vena, Donald; Craig, Ronald G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this randomized comparative effectiveness study conducted by members of the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network were to determine whether using a resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) liner reduces postoperative hypersensitivity (POH) in dentin-bonded Class I and Class II resin-based composite (RBC) restorations, as well as to identify other factors (putative risk factors) associated with increased POH. Methods PEARL Network practitioner-investigators (P-Is) (n = 28) were trained to assess sensitivity determination, enamel and dentin caries activity rankings, evaluation for sleep bruxism, and materials and techniques used. The P-Is enrolled 341 participants who had hypersensitive posterior lesions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an RBC restoration with or without an RMGI liner before P-Is applied a one-step, self-etching bonding agent. P-Is conducted sensitivity evaluations at baseline, at one and four weeks after treatment, and at all visits according to patient-reported outcomes. Results P-Is collected complete data regarding 347 restorations (339 participants) at baseline, with 341 (98 percent) (333 participants) recalled at four weeks. Treatment groups were balanced across baseline characteristics and measures. RBC restorations with or without an RMGI liner had the same one-week and four-week POH outcomes, as measured clinically (by means of cold or air stimulation) and according to patient-reported outcomes. Conclusions Use of an RMGI liner did not reduce clinically measured or patient-reported POH in moderate-depth Class I and Class II restorations. Cold and air clinical stimulation findings were similar between groups. Practical Implications The time, effort and expense involved in placing an RMGI liner in these moderate-depth RBC restorations may be unnecessary, as the representative liner used did not improve hypersensitivity outcomes. PMID:23904575

  10. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant in children with special needs

    PubMed Central

    Nualart-Grollmus, Zacy-Carola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research is to evaluate the retention of sealants of resin and resin-modified ionomeric glass pits and fissures, on first permanent molars of special patients. Material and Methods: The sample was comprised by 32 children. The ages were between 7 and 18 years. The sealing procedure was made with the relative isolation of the molars to be sealed, through the use of cotton rolls. Two molars were sealed with Clinpro Sealant 3M Dental and the others with Vitremer. Checking of the sealants was made after 3 and 6 months of their placement, evaluating with 3 values: TR: Totally Restrained; PR: Partially Restrained; and CL: Completely Lost. Results: 67.18% of the resinous sealants, and 70.31% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful after three months. After six months, 57.81% of the resin-based sealants and 51.56% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful. When performing the Chi-square statistical analysis (P<0.05) no statistical significance was observed after 6 months. Conclusions: The retention of the resin sealant was similar to that of the glass ionomer cement at the end of six months and the retention of sealants on maxillary teeth was higher than on mandibular teeth. Key words:Sealant, glass ionomer, retention, caries, special needs. PMID:25674325

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomers, Compomers and Giomers An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, J. Sharada; Suhasini, K.; Hemachandrika, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental restorative materials, especially those applied in direct contact with the contaminated substrate, should have appropriate antibacterial activity in order to prevent residual bacteria from continuing their metabolic activity in addition to impairing new bacteria from reaching the tooth-restoration interface. Aim To determine the antibacterial efficacy of three different restorative materials against the common cariogenic microorganism i.e., Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods Three different restorative materials were evaluated in this study: Giomer (Beautifil), Compomer (F2000) & Resin modified Glass ionomer (Fuji II LC) for their anti microbial efficacy against Streptococcus mutans by standard agar diffusion method and zones of inhibition for each restorative material were calculated. Statistical Analysis Inhibition zones around each restorative material were measured and values were subjected to one-way ANOVA with least square difference (LSD) Post-hoc test. Results The mean inhibitory zones for Resin modified glass ionomers, Giomers & Compomers ranged from 10.1 6.90mm. Fuji II LC exhibited the highest mean inhibitory zone of 10.1 1.97 for S.mutans. Beautifil exhibited mean inhibitory zone of 8.20 1.62, whereas F2000 showed the least mean inhibitory zone of 6.90 1.29. Conclusion Based on the inhibitory zones of three restorative materials, Fuji II LC is recommended as the best restorative material among the three tested restorative materials. PMID:26393212

  12. Effects of aging and HEMA content on the translucency, fluorescence, and opalescence properties of experimental HEMA-added glass ionomers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Yu, Bin; Zhao, Guang-Feng; Lim, Jin Ik

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the translucency, fluorescence, and opalescence of experimental 10-50% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-added glass ionomers (HAGIs) after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling were determined and compared with those of commercial resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs). Changes in the translucency (TP), fluorescence (FL), and opalescence (OP) parameters were in the range of -3.5 to 0.2, -2.3 to 0.3 and -2.6 to 9.1 units respectively for HAGIs; and -0.9 to 0.3, -0.7 to 0.6, and 1.1 to 2.3 units respectively for RMGIs. Changes in the TP, FL, and OP of HAGIs were influenced by the HEMA content and powder shade, and were generally larger than those of RMGIs. Since the changes in TP, FL, and OP of experimental HAGIs were influenced by the HEMA content, there arises a need to determine the optimal HEMA ratio to attain high stability for these optical properties. In addition, results of this study showed that apart from optimal HEMA ratio, future studies should include other aspects and factors that contribute to age-dependent changes in optical properties. PMID:20379006

  13. Effect of different cavity conditioners on microleakage of glass ionomer cement with a high viscosity in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Romina; Pishevar, Leila; Shichani, Ava Vali; Geravandi, Sanas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glass ionomer cement is a common material used in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of high-viscosity glass ionomer restorations in deciduous teeth after conditioning with four different conditioners. Materials and Methods: Fifty intact primary canines were collected. Standard Class V cavities (2 mm × 1.5 mm × 3 mm) were prepared by one operator on all buccal tooth surfaces, including both enamel and dentin. The samples were divided into five groups with different conditioners (no conditioner, 20% acrylic acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 12% citric acid, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]). Two-way — ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were used to compare the means of microleakage between the five groups. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference between the means of microleakage in incisal (enamel) and gingival (dentin) margins (P = 0.34). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the means of microleakage in enamel and dentin margins (P = 0.4). There was a significant difference between the means of microleakage in different groups (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it is suggested that 20% acrylic acid and 17% EDTA be used for cavity conditioning which can result in better chemical and micromechanical adhesion. PMID:26288623

  14. Synthesis of N-vinylpyrrolidone modified acrylic acid copolymer in supercritical fluids and its application in dental glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Billington, Richard W; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2008-07-01

    Compressed fluids such as supercritical CO(2) offer marvellous opportunities for the synthesis of polymers, particularly in applications in medicine and dentistry. It has several advantages in comparison to conventional polymerisation solvents, such as enhanced kinetics and simplified solvent removal process. In this study, poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PAA-IA-NVP), a modified glass-ionomer polymer, was synthesised in supercritical CO(2) (sc-CO(2)) and methanol as a co-solvent. The synthesised polymer was characterized by (1)H-NMR, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and viscometry. The molecular weight of the final product was also measured using static light scattering method. The synthesised polymers were subsequently used in several glass ionomer cement formulations (Fuji II commercial GIC) in which mechanical strength (compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and biaxial flexural strength (BFS)) and handling properties (working and setting time) of the resulting cements were evaluated. The polymerisation reaction in sc-CO(2)/methanol was significantly faster than the corresponding polymerisation reaction in water and the purification procedures were simpler for the former. Furthermore, glass ionomer cement samples made from the terpolymer prepared in sc-CO(2)/methanol exhibited higher CS and DTS and comparable BFS compared to the same polymer synthesised in water. The working properties of glass ionomer formulations made in sc-CO(2)/methanol were comparable and in selected cases better than the values of those made from polymers synthesised in water. PMID:18283531

  15. Synthesis and application of novel multi-arm poly(carboxylic acid)s for glass-ionomer restoratives.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Weng, Yiming

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel glass-ionomer cement system composed of multi-arm poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid)s. These polyacids were synthesized via a chain-transfer polymerization reaction using newly synthesized multi-arm chain-transfer agents. The cements formulated with the multi-arm polyacids showed significantly lower viscosities in water as compared to those formulated with the linear polyacids. Due to the lower viscosities, the MW of the polyacids can be significantly increased for enhanced mechanical strengths, while keeping the ease of mixing and handling. The experimental cements showed significantly improved compressive strengths as compared to Fuji II after aged in water for 3 months. PMID:19033326

  16. Effect of Marginal Sealant on Shear Bond Strength of Glass Ionomer Cement: Used as A Luting Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Badgujar, Mayura; Gaikwad, Bhushan; Bhanushali, Shilpa; Nalawade, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Moisture sensitivity and dissolution has been a known drawback of glass ionomer cement (GIC). When used as a luting agent for cementation of casted indirect restoration, the exposed cement at the margins is often a primary factor for marginal leakage and consequent failure of the restoration. The following in vitro study was planned to evaluate the effect of a marginal sealant on GIC used as luting agent. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy extracted premolars were selected and prepared to receive metal-ceramic prosthesis. The prepared restorations were cemented using GIC and were divided randomly into two groups. The specimens in Group A were directly immersed in artificial saliva solution without any protection at the margins, while the exposed cement for Group B specimens was protected using a marginal sealant before immersing it in the artificial saliva solution. The specimens were tested after 24 h using a crown pull test on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength of the cement. Result: The specimens in Group B showed statistically significant difference from the specimens in Group A with the mean shear bond strength of 6.60 Mpa and 5.32 respectively. Conclusion: Protection of GIC exposed at the margins of indirect cast restorations with a marginal sealant can significantly increase the longevity of the prosthesis by reducing the marginal leakage and perlocation of fluids. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Badgujar M, Gaikwad B, Bhanushali S, Nalawade S. Effect of marginal sealant on shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement: Used as a luting agent. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):65-9 PMID:25083035

  17. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Raghunath Reddy, M H; Subba Reddy, V V; Basappa, N

    2010-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to compare the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements using Instron universal testing machine. Thirty preformed and pretrimmed stainless steel crowns were used for cementation on 30 extracted human primary molars which were divided into three groups of 10 teeth in each group. Then the teeth were stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. A load was applied on to the crown and was gradually increased till the crown showed dislodgement, and then the readings were recorded using Instron recorder and analyzed for statistical significance. The surface area of crown was measured by graphical method. The retentive strength was expressed in terms of kg/cm 2 , which was calculated by the equation load divided by area. Retentive strengths of zinc phosphate (ranged from a minimum of 16.93 to amaximum of 28.13 kg/cm 2 with mean of 21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cement (minimum of 13.69 - 28.15 kg/cm 2 with mean of 20.69 kg/cm 2 ) were greater than that of polycarboxylate cement (minimum of 13.26 - 22.69 kg/cm 2 with mean of 16.79 kg/cm 2 ). Negligible difference (0.59 kg/cm 2 ) of retentive strength was observed between zinc phosphate (21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cements (20.69 kg/cm 2 ). Glass ionomer cements can be recommended for cementation of stainless steel crowns because of its advantages and the retentive strength was almost similar to that of zinc phosphate cement. PMID:21273711

  18. Failure Rate of Direct High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Versus Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations in Posterior Permanent Teeth - a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally, resin composite restorations are claimed by reviews of the dental literature as being superior to glass-ionomer fillings in terms of restoration failures in posterior permanent teeth. The aim of this systematic review is to answer the clinical question, whether conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer restorations, in patients with single and/or multi-surface cavities in posterior permanent teeth, have indeed a higher failure rate than direct hybrid resin composite restorations. Methods Eight databases were searched until December 02, 2013. Trials were assessed for bias risks, in-between datasets heterogeneity and statistical sample size power. Effects sizes were computed and statistically compared. A total of 55 citations were identified through systematic literature search. From these, 46 were excluded. No trials related to high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus resin composite restorations for direct head-to-head comparison were found. Three trials related to high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam and three trials related to resin composite versus amalgam restorations could be included for adjusted indirect comparison, only. Results The available evidence suggests no difference in the failure rates between both types of restoration beyond the play of chance, is limited by lack of head-to-head comparisons and an insufficient number of trials, as well as by high bias and in-between-dataset heterogeneity risk. The current clinical evidence needs to be regarded as too poor in order to justify superiority claims regarding the failure rates of both restoration types. Sufficiently large-sized, parallel-group, randomised control trials with high internal validity are needed, in order to justify any clinically meaningful judgment to this topic. PMID:26962372

  19. One year comparative clinical evaluation of EQUIA with resin-modified glass ionomer and a nanohybrid composite in noncarious cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Deepa Sunil; Shah, Nimisha Chinmay; Bilgi, Priyanka Shripad

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Comparative evaluation of EQUIA with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Gold Label glass ionomer light cured universal restorative cement) and a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N-Ceram) in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Background: To establish the most suitable material for the restoration of NCCLs. Settings and Design: In vivo study. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven NCCLs were randomly restored with EQUIA, a RMGIC, and a nanohybrid composite. Clinical evaluation of the restorations was done following the Unites States Public Health criteria by a single-blinded investigator. Data were formulated, and statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test. Results: No significant difference was found between EQUIA, RMGIC, and nanohybrid composite at 1-month, at 6 months, and at 1-year (P > 0.05). Conclusions: EQUIA, resin-modified glass ionomer, and nanohybrid composite performed equally at 1-month, 6 months, and 1-year follow-up periods. PMID:26752837

  20. Comparative evaluation of sealing ability of glass ionomer-resin continuum as root-end filling materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Hitesh; Dewan, Harisha; Annapoorna, B. M.; Manjunath, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Root-end filling is a prudent procedure aimed at sealing the root canal to prevent penetration of tissue fluids into the root canals. An ideal root-end filling material should produce a complete apical seal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the leakage behavior of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight maxillary central incisors were obturated with laterally condensed gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The roots were resected at the level of 3 mm perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Root-end cavities were prepared with straight fissure stainless steel bur. The teeth were then divided into four experimental and two control groups, and cavities restored as per the groupings. The teeth were immersed in methylene blue for 48 h, split longitudinally, and dye penetration was measured. Results: A highly significant difference existed in the mean dye penetration of Group I (conventional glass ionomer) and the other groups (resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified composite, and composite resin). There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Conclusions: (1) Significant difference was found in the dye penetration values of conventional glass ionomer cement and other groups. (2) No statistically significant difference was found in the dye penetration values of groups II, III, and IV. PMID:26759803

  1. Evaluation and comparison of the effect of different surface preparations on bond strength of glass ionomer cement with nickel-chrome metal-ceramic alloy: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hasti, Kalpana; Jagadeesh, H G; Patil, Narendra P

    2011-03-01

    Retention of fixed partial dentures is mostly dependent upon the bond between metal and cement as well as cement and tooth structure. However, most of the time clinical failure of bond has been observed at metal and cement interface. The treatment of metal surface, prior to luting, plays a crucial role in bonding cement with the metal. This study is conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of different surface preparations on the bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement with nickel-chromium metal ceramic alloy. Fifty caries-free extracted molar teeth were made flat until the dentin of the occlusal surface was exposed. After fabrication of the wax patterns and subsequent castings, the castings were subjected to porcelain firing cycles. The nickel-chromium metal ceramic alloy discs were also divided into five groups and subjected to various surface treatments: (1) Unsandblasted (U), (2) sandblasted (S), (3) sandblasted and treated with 10% aqueous solution of KMnO4 (SK), (4) unsandblasted and roughened with diamond abrasive points (UD) and (5) unsandblasted and roughened with diamond abrasive points and treated with 10% aqueous solution of KMnO(4) (UDK). After surface treatments, the castings were cemented using Fuji PLUS encapsulated resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The obtained values of all the groups were subjected to statistical analysis for Tensile and Shear bond strength. Different surface treatments of the metal affects the bond strength values of resin-modified glass ionomer cement when used as luting agent. PMID:22379300

  2. A comparison study on the flexural strength and compressive strength of four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Xuehui; Xu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in flexural strength and compressive strength between four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements that are commonly used in clinics. Furthermore, this study investigates the influence of curing mode on the flexural strength and compressive strength of dual-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Initially, flexural strength and compressive strength test specimens were prepared for RL, NR, GCP, and GCC. The RL group and NR group were cured by the light-curing mode and chemical-curing mode. Five specimens were prepared for each test group, and the flexural strength and compressive strength of each were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with SPSS 13.0. Furthermore, the fracture morphology of the flexural specimens was observed by SEM. The result of the mean flexural strength of each group is as follows: the NR light-cured group > NR chemically-cured group > GCP > RL light-cured group > GCC > RL chemically-cured group. More specifically, the flexural strength of the NR light-cured group ((42.9034.242) MPa) is significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups, and in addition, the flexural strength of the light-curing mode is significantly higher (P<0. 05) than that of both the NR and RL chemically-cured groups. The result of the mean compressive strength of each group is as follows: GCP > NR chemically-cured group > NR light-cured group > GCC > RL light-cured group > RL chemically-cured group. Although the compressive strengths of the NR and GCP groups are higher than those of the GCC and RL groups, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between NR and GCP, and no significant differences between GCC and RL. Furthermore, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two curing modes on NR and RL. From the present study, it can be concluded that NR has superior flexural strength and compressive strength compared to the other three materials. Additionally, the curing mode can affect the flexural strength of dual-cured RMGIC because with the light-curing mode, the flexural strength is higher than with the chemical-curing mode. Therefore, light curing is an essential procedure when using dual-cured RMGIC in clinics. PMID:26406090

  3. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Dong-Ae, KIM; Hany, ABO-MOSALLAM; Hye-Young, LEE; Jung-Hwan, LEE; Hae-Won, KIM; Hae-Hyoung, LEE

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitro rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC. Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs. Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  4. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  5. Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

  6. Predicting composition-property relationships for glass ionomer cements: a multifactor central composite approach to material optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiri, Lauren; Boyd, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Adjusting powder-liquid ratio (P/L) and polyacrylic acid concentration (AC) has been documented as a means of tailoring the handling and mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs). This work implemented a novel approach in which the interactive effects of these two factors on three key GIC properties (working time, setting time, and compressive strength) were investigated using a central composite design of experiments. Using nonlinear regression analysis, formulation-property relationships were derived for each property, which enabled prediction of an optimal formulation (P/L and AC) through application of the desirability approach. A novel aluminum free GIC was investigated, as this material may present the first clinically viable GIC for use in injectable spinal applications, such as vertebroplasty. Ultimately, this study presents the first series of predictive regression models that explain the formulation-dependence of a GIC, and the first statistical method for optimizing both P/L and AC depending on user-defined inputs. PMID:25828159

  7. In vitro antibacterial effects of glass-ionomer cement containing ethanolic extract of propolis on Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Topcuoglu, Nursen; Ozan, Fatih; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Kulekci, Guven

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) containing propolis against Streptococcus mutans and its effect on the in vitro S. mutans biofilm formation. Methods: Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was prepared at two concentrations as 25 and 50%. Three different experimental GIC disks were prepared using pure liquid and liquid solutions diluted with 25 and 50 percent of EEP concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EEP on the growth of S. mutans ATCC 25175 was determined by using agar dilution method. Agar diffusion test and an in vitro S. mutans biofilm assay for GIC disks with and without EEP were performed. Results: MIC values of Turkish propolis for S. mutans ATCC 25175 was found as 25 μg/mL. Experimental GICs containing propolis exhibited inhibition zones and their dry biofilm weights were less than the pure GIC. The bacterial density was lower in the GIC containing 50% EEP. Conclusions: A distinct antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of propolis containing GIC on S. mutans has been observed. Although further research is needed to show clinical results, antibacterial GIC containing propolis would be a promising material for restoration. PMID:23077424

  8. Comparative study of fluoride released and recharged from conventional pit and fissure sealants versus surface prereacted glass ionomer technology

    PubMed Central

    Salmerón-Valdés, Elias Nahum; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Alanis-Tavira, Jorge; Morales-Luckie, Raúl Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Context: The fluoride release of sealants in vitro shows a marked decrease. Giomers are distinguishable from manufactured resin-based sealants and contain prereacted glass-ionomer particles (PRG). Aims: To compare the amounts of fluoride released from the main pit and fissure of a resin-based sealant with that from a Giomer and to assess the abilities of the sealant and the Giomer to recharge when exposed to regular use of fluoride rinse. Materials and Methods: The readings for the fluoride concentration were carried out for 60 days using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. After this period, the samples were recharged using a fluoride mouth rinse. The amount of fluoride released after this recharge was determined for 5 days. The data were analyzed using Student's t- and analysis of variance tests. Results: In general, all materials presented higher fluoride release in the first 24 h; G1 and G4 showed a higher fluoride release in this period. On the other hand, G3 and G1 presented the most constant fluoride release until the 8th day, wherein all the sealants considerably decreased in the amount of fluoride released. Conclusion: G1 and G3 released higher concentrations of fluoride, although no significant differences were found. Giomers recharged in the first 24 h after polymerization presented an improved and sustained fluoride release. PMID:26957792

  9. The effect of pre-warming and delayed irradiation on marginal integrity of a resin-modified glass-ionomer.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mansoori-Karvandi, Tayebeh; Hadi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the acid-base reactions and polymerization of resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGIs) compete with and inhibit each other; however, external energy can also influence the properties of RMGIs. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of pre-warming and/or delayed light irradiation on marginal integrity of RMGIs in cervical restorations. Standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal aspects of 60 human maxillary premolars. Each cavity was treated with a cavity conditioner for 10 seconds, rinsed, and gently air-dried. An RMGI was applied to the prepared cavities as dictated by the study protocol. Group 1 samples were treated per manufacturers' instructions. Group 2 samples were photocured after a delay of 2 minutes. For samples in Group 3, the encapsulated material was pre-warmed (at 40 C) for 90 seconds; for Group 4 samples, capsules were pre-warmed and photocuring was delayed for 2.4 minutes. Microleakage scores were determined using dye penetration technique; Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis (? = 0.05). The enamel groups exhibited statistically significant differences (P = 0.036), while the dentin groups did not (P = 0.122); however, in both cases, Group 2 demonstrated the highest marginal integrity. Based on the results of this study, pre-warming could jeopardize the marginal integrity of RMGIs in cervical restorations, while delaying the curing process might improve it (particularly for enamel). PMID:23220316

  10. A novel star-shaped poly(carboxylic acid) for resin-modified glass-ionomer restoratives.

    PubMed

    Weng, Y; Howard, L; Xie, D

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a novel glass-ionomer cement (GIC) system composed of photo-curable star-shaped poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid)s. These polyacids were synthesized via a chain-transfer radical polymerization using a newly synthesized multi-arm chain-transfer agent. The star-shaped polyacids showed significantly lower viscosities in water as compared to the linear polyacids. Due to the lower viscosities, the molecular weight (MW) of the polyacids can be significantly increased for enhancing the mechanical strengths while keeping the ease of mixing and handling. The effects of MW, GM-tethering ratio, P/L ratio, and aging on the compressive properties of the experimental cements were significant. The light-cured experimental cements showed significantly improved mechanical strengths i.e. 49% in yield strength, 41% in modulus, 25% in CS, 20% in DTS, and 36% in FS, higher than commercial Fuji II LC. After aging in water for 1 month, the compressive strength of the novel light-cured experimental cement reached 343 MPa, which was 34% and 42% higher than Fuji II and Fuji II LC, respectively. This one-month aged experimental cement was also 23% higher than itself after one day aging, indicating that aging in water can significantly enhance salt-bridge formation for this novel star-shaped polyacid-comprised GIC. PMID:24865692

  11. Evaluation of micro-shear bond strength of resin modified glass-ionomer to composite resins using various bonding systems

    PubMed Central

    Kasraie, Shahin; Shokripour, Mohadese; Safari, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare the micro-shear bond strength between composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) by different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 discs of RMGI with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4). Four cylinders of composite resin (z250) were bonded to the RMGI discs with Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond in Groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group was the control. Samples were tested by a mechanical testing machine with a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed under a stereo-microscope. Results: The means of micro-shear bond strength values for Groups 1-4 were 14.45, 23.49, 16.23 and 5.46 MPa, respectively. Using a bonding agent significantly increased micro-shear bond strength (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Micro-shear bond strength of RMGI to composite increased significantly with the use of adhesive resin. The bond strength of RMGI to composite resin could vary depending upon the type of adhesive system used. PMID:24347892

  12. Enhancing glass ionomer cement features by using the HA/YSZ nanocomposite: a feed forward neural network modelling.

    PubMed

    Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Nemati, Ali; Tavakoli, Razeih; Solati Hashjin, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Despite brilliant properties of glass ionomer cement (GIC), its weak mechanical property poses an obstacle for its use in medical applications. The present research aims to formulate hydroxyapatite/yttria-stabilized zirconia (HA/YSZ) in the composition of GIC to enhance mechanical properties and to improve fluoride release of GIC. HA/YSZ was synthesized via a sol-gel method and characterized by applying X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The synthesized nanocomposite was mixed with GIC at a fixed composition of 5wt%. The effect of different weight percentages of YSZ:HA on GIC was investigated by measuring the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride release. The results showed that, after 1 and 7 days of setting, the 20wt% nanohydroxyapatite/80wt% stabilized zirconia cement exhibited higher compressive strength (1857-245MPa), higher diametral tensile strength (11-14MPa) and greater microhardness (104-106MPa) as compared with the pure GIC (65-88MPa in compressive strength, 5-9.5MPa in diametral tensile strength and 70-89MPa in microhardness). The reinforced cement, also, exhibited higher fluoride release compared with pure GIC. The artificial neural network (ANN) was trained for modeling the system. Results obtained by ANN have proved to be completely in accordance with expectations. PMID:24140732

  13. Methotrexate-loaded glass ionomer cements for drug release in the skeleton: An examination of composition-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Kiri, Lauren; Filiaggi, Mark; Boyd, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic-loaded bone cement may be an effective method of drug delivery for the management of cancer-related vertebral fractures that require cement injection for pain relief. Recent advancements in the development of aluminum-free glass ionomer cements (GICs) have rendered this class of biomaterials clinically viable for such applications. To expand the therapeutic benefits of these materials, this study examined, for the first time, their drug delivery potential. Through incrementally loading the GIC with methotrexate (MTX) by up to 10-wt%, composition-property relationships were established, correlating MTX loading with working time and setting time, as well as compressive strength, drug release, and cytotoxic effect over 31 days. The most significant finding of this study was that MTX was readily released from the GIC, while maintaining cytotoxic activity. Release correlated linearly with initial loading and appeared to be diffusion mediated, delivering a total of 1-2% of the incorporated drug. MTX loading in this range exerted minimal effects to handling and strength, indicating the clinical utility of the material was not compromised by MTX loading. The MTX-GIC systems examined herein are promising materials for combined structural delivery applications. PMID:25940017

  14. Comparison of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restoration in Primary Teeth Prepared by Er: YAG Laser and the Conventional Method

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari, M.; Mighani, G.; Shahabi, S.; Chiniforush, N.; Shirmohammadi, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: One of the main criteria in evaluating the restorative materials is the degree of microleakage. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomer restored cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or turbine and bur. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted caries-free deciduous posterior teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups for cavity preparation. Cavities in group one were prepared by high speed turbine and bur. In the second group, Er:YAG laser with a 3W output power, 300 mJ energy and 10 Hz frequency was used. Cavities were restored with GC Fuji II LC. After thermocycling, the samples were immersed into 0.5% methylene blue solution. They were sectioned for examination under optic microscope. Results: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed no significant difference between microleakage of the laser group and the conventional group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Er:YAG laser with its advantages in pediatric dentistry may be suggested as an alternative device for cavity preparation. PMID:23119130

  15. Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial and physical properties of conventional glass ionomer cement containing chlorhexidine and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sudhir; Soni, Heena; Sharma, Devender Kumar; Mittal, Kavita; Pathania, Vasundhara; Sharma, Samridhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy and compressive strength of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) containing chlorhexidine and antibiotics at varying concentrations. Materials and Methods: Chlorhexidine diacetate and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline) were incorporated into GIC Fuji IX at 1.5% and 3% w/w ratio to form the experimental groups. The experimental GIC specimens were placed on brain heart infusion agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, and the area of inhibition was measured after 48 h. The 24-h compressive strength of the set specimens was evaluated using a Universal Testing Machine. Results: The control group demonstrated no zone of inhibition. All experimental groups showed inhibition against S. mutans (P < 0.05), with larger zones of inhibition found in the higher concentration groups. Compressive strength at the end of 24 h decreased in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P < 0.05), but no difference was found between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that experimental GICs containing chlorhexidine diacetate and antibiotics were effective in inhibiting S. mutans, and incorporation of 1.5% ABX was optimal to give the appropriate antibacterial and physical properties. PMID:26310885

  16. Surface Treatments that Demonstrate a Significant Positive Effect on the Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Resin-modified Glass Ionomer.

    PubMed

    Welch, D; Seesengood, B; Hopp, C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined surface treatment options used to repair resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI; GC Fuji II LC, GC America). Two hundred forty specimens were equally divided into four different water/temperature cycling environmental conditions. The conditions were 1) five-minute delay, 2) one-week delay with one thermocycle, 3) 500 thermocycles, and 4) 24-hour delay in a dry environment, followed by 500 thermocycles. Within each of the condition groups, the specimens were equally divided again into three different surface treatment groups with 20 specimens in each. The treatment groups comprised A) sanding, B) sanding and acid etch, and C) sanding, acid etch, and dental bonding agent. Our results suggest that RMGI is extremely susceptible to the simultaneous exposure of temperature cycling and water during the first 24 hours. Our main results reflect that 1) during the first five minutes after the initial placement, the surface treatments made no difference in terms of the shear bond strength (NS); and 2) when we weakened the RMGI by exposing it to water and temperature cycling immediately after initial placement, each of the treatments (A

  17. Microhardness of glass ionomer cements indicated for the ART technique according to surface protection treatment and storage time.

    PubMed

    Shintome, Luciana Keiko; Nagayassu, Marcos Paulo; Di Nicol, Rebeca; Myaki, Silvio Isso

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microhardness of 5 glass ionomer cements (GIC) - Vidrion R (V, SS White), Fuji IX (F, GC Corp.), Magic Glass ART (MG, Vigodent), Maxxion R (MR, FGM) and ChemFlex (CF, Dentsply) - in the presence or absence of a surface protection treatment, and after different storage periods. For each GIC, 36 test specimens were made, divided into 3 groups according to the surface protection treatment applied - no protection, varnish or nail varnish. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 and 30 days and the microhardness tests were performed at these times. The data obtained were submitted to the ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey tests (alpha = 5%). The results revealed that the mean microhardness values of the GICs were, in decreasing order, as follows: F > CF = MR > MG > V; that surface protection was significant for MR, at 24 h, without protection (64.2 + or - 3.6a), protected with GIC varnish (59.6 + or - 3.4b) and protected with nail varnish (62.7 + or - 2.8ab); for F, at 7 days, without protection (97.8 + or - 3.7ab), protected with varnish (95.9 + or - 3.2b) and protected with nail varnish (100.8 + or - 3.4a); and at 30 days, for F, without protection (98.8 + or - 2.6b), protected with varnish (103.3 + or - 4.4a) and protected with nail varnish (101 + or - 4.1ab) and, for V, without protection (46 + or - 1.3b), protected with varnish (49.6 + or - 1.7ab) and protected with nail varnish (51.1 + or - 2.6a). The increase in storage time produced an increase in microhardness. It was concluded that the different GICs, surface protection treatments and storage times could alter the microhardness values. PMID:20027452

  18. Present and future of glass-ionomers and calcium-silicate cements as bioactive materials in dentistry: Biophotonics-based interfacial analyses in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Timothy F.; Atmeh, Amre R.; Sajini, Shara; Cook, Richard J.; Festy, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since their introduction, calcium silicate cements have primarily found use as endodontic sealers, due to long setting times. While similar in chemistry, recent variations such as constituent proportions, purities and manufacturing processes mandate a critical understanding of service behavior differences of the new coronal restorative material variants. Of particular relevance to minimally invasive philosophies is the potential for ion supply, from initial hydration to mature set in dental cements. They may be capable of supporting repair and remineralization of dentin left after decay and cavity preparation, following the concepts of ion exchange from glass ionomers. Methods This paper reviews the underlying chemistry and interactions of glass ionomer and calcium silicate cements, with dental tissues, concentrating on dentin–restoration interface reactions. We additionally demonstrate a new optical technique, based around high resolution deep tissue, two-photon fluorescence and lifetime imaging, which allows monitoring of undisturbed cement–dentin interface samples behavior over time. Results The local bioactivity of the calcium-silicate based materials has been shown to produce mineralization within the subjacent dentin substrate, extending deep within the tissues. This suggests that the local ion-rich alkaline environment may be more favorable to mineral repair and re-construction, compared with the acidic environs of comparable glass ionomer based materials. Significance The advantages of this potential re-mineralization phenomenon for minimally invasive management of carious dentin are self-evident. There is a clear need to improve the bioactivity of restorative dental materials and these calcium silicate cement systems offer exciting possibilities in realizing this goal. PMID:24113131

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel fast-set proline-derivative-containing glass ionomer cement with enhanced mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a methacryloyl derivative of l-proline was synthesized, characterized and incorporated into a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) with a polyacid composition. Subsequently, the effects of incorporation of synthesized N-methacryloyl-proline and terpolymer on the GIC's mechanical and working properties were studied. 1-Methacryloylpyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized and used in a polymerization reaction with acrylic acid and itaconic acid in order to form terpolymer which was used in Fuji II commercial GIC formulations. Chemical structural characterization of the resulting products was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The viscosity and molecular weight of the terpolymer were also measured. The mechanical strength properties of the modified GICs were evaluated after 24h or 1 week of immersion in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Analysis of variance was used to study the statistical significance of the mechanical strengths and working properties, and to compare them with a control group. Results showed that N-methacryloyl-proline modified GICs exhibited significantly higher compressive strength (CS; 195-210MPa), higher diametral tensile strength (DTS; 19-26MPa) and higher biaxial flexural strength (38-46MPa) in comparison to Fuji II GIC (161-166MPa in CS, 12-14MPa in DTS and 13-18MPa in biaxial flexural strength). The working properties (setting and working time) of the modified samples showed that the modified cement was a fast-set cement. It was concluded that a novel amino acid-containing GIC has been developed in this study with 27%, 94% and 170% increases in values for compressive, diametral tensile and biaxial flexural strength, respectively, in comparison to commercial Fuji II GIC. PMID:18640084

  20. Characterization of the Mineral Trioxide Aggregate–Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement Interface in Different Setting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Ashraf A.; Komabayashi, Takashi; Watanabe, Etsuko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been used successfully for perforation repair, vital pulpotomies, and direct pulp capping. However, little is known about the interactions between MTA and glass ionomer cement (GIC) in final restorations. In this study, 2 null hypotheses were tested: (1) GIC placement time does not affect the MTA-GIC structural interface and hardness and (2) moisture does not affect the MTA-GIC structural interface and hardness. Methods Fifty cylinders were half filled with MTA and divided into 5 groups. The other half was filled with resin-modified GIC either immediately after MTA placement or after 1 or 7 days of temporization in the presence or absence of a wet cotton pellet. The specimens were then sectioned, carbon coated, and examined using a scanning electron microscope and an electron probe micro-analyzer (SEM-EPMA) for interfacial adaptation, gap formation, and elemental analysis. The Vickers hardness numbers of the interfacial MTA were recorded 24 hours after GIC placement and 8 days after MTA placement and analyzed using the analysis of variance test. Results Hardness testing 24 hours after GIC placement revealed a significant increase in hardness with an increase of temporization time but not with a change of moisture conditions (P < .05). Hardness testing 8 days after MTA placement indicated no significant differences among groups. SEM-EPMA showed interfacial adaptation to improve with temporization time and moisture. Observed changes were limited to the outermost layer of MTA. The 2 null hypotheses were not rejected. Conclusions GIC can be applied over freshly mixed MTA with minimal effects on the MTA, which seemed to decrease with time. PMID:22794220

  1. Nanoclays reinforced glass ionomer cements: dispersion and interaction of polymer grade (PG) montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Fareed, Muhammad A; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite nanoclays (PGV and PGN) were dispersed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) for utilization as reinforcing filler in glass ionomer cements (GICs). Chemical and physical interaction of PAA and nanoclay (PGV and PGN) was studied. PAA–PGV and PAA–PGN solutions were prepared in different weight percent loadings of PGV and PGN nanoclay (0.5-8.0 wt%) via exfoliation-adsorption method. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD results of PAA–PGN demonstrated that the interlayer space expanded from 12.83 to 16.03 Å indicating intercalation whereas the absence of the peak at d(001) in PAA–PGV indicated exfoliation. XPS scans of PGV and PGN nanoclays depicted the main peak of O 1s photoelectron due to Si–O–M (M = Mg, Al, Fe) whereas, Si–O–Al linkages were identified by Si 2p or Si 2s and Al 2p or Al 2s peaks. The disappearance of the Na peak confirmed that PAA molecules exchanged sodium ions present on surface of silicate layers and significantly reduced the electrostatic van-der-Waals forces between silicate plates resulting in intercalation or exfoliation. FTIR spectra of PAA–nanoclay suspensions demonstrated the presence of a new peak at 1,019 cm(-1) associated with Si–O– stretching vibrations which increased with increasing nanoclays concentration. Information concerning the dispersion of nanoclay in PAA aqueous solutions, chemical reaction and increase interlayer space in montmorillonite nanoclay is particularly useful regarding dispersion and reinforcement of nanoclay in PAA. PMID:24077996

  2. BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT TO PRIMARY DENTIN AFTER CUTTING WITH DIFFERENT BUR TYPES AND DENTIN CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Rebeca Di; Shintome, Luciana Keiko; Myaki, Silvio Isso; Nagayassu, Marcos Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12). In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer 3M/ESPE) prepared according to the manufacturers instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37C for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5%) and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence. PMID:19089179

  3. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC. PMID:24598500

  4. Comparison of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements in the retention of post-crowns by fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C A; Orr, J F

    1998-06-01

    Fatigue testing may be used for in vitro evaluation of luting cements, allowing comparison of materials under controlled conditions. It is recognized that glass-ionomer cements are materials which are susceptible to microcracking, even during curing prior to load application, and their failure can be related to crack propagation. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of post-crowns cemented with conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, the latter having significantly greater fracture toughness, under cyclic loads which are representative of physiological service. A custom-designed fatigue machine was used for three tests each comprising 18 specimens in a modified randomized complete block programme. Correlation of load amplitude to endurance was low, as expected from static test experience, but cement comparison was made through Kaplan-Meier survival and cumulative hazard functions. Differences in the performance of the cements were indicated, but were not statistically significant in this study, although analysis by Cox's proportional hazards model indicated that significance may be gained by a larger study. PMID:9687122

  5. An in vitro study on the maturation of conventional glass ionomer cements and their interface to dentin.

    PubMed

    Zoergiebel, Julius; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term storage (up to 1 year) and coating on the variation of micro-mechanical properties of four conventional restorative glass ionomer cements (GICs) within 3.5 mm deep class I cavities. Four commercially available GICs (Riva Self Cure (SDI), ChemFil Rock (Dentsply), Fuji IX Fast and Fuji IX GP Extra/Equia (GC)) were applied to 100 teeth. In each tooth, two similar 3.5 mm deep class I cavities were prepared and filled with the GICs, with and without resin coating. The samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37 C for 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. The variation in mechanical properties (indentation modulus (E) and Vickers hardness (HV)) were determined in 100 ?m steps starting from the filling surface, through the intermediate layer in between dentine and GIC, and ending 100 ?m in dentin. HV and E were strongly influenced by the material (P<0.05, partial eta-squared ?P(2) = 0.31 and 0.23) but less by aging duration (P<0.05, ?P(2) = 0.02 and 0.12) and resin coating (P<0.05, ?P(2) = 0.02 and 0.03). The depth of measurement (0-2 mm) has no influence on HV (P = 0.789). HV shows a gentle increase over the 1 year storage period (P = 0.002). A ?300 ?m GIC zone at the areas close to dentin with weaker properties as those measured in dentin or GIC was identified in all fillings, irrespective of the presence of coating, and at all storage periods. The thickness of this zone is more strongly influenced by storage (P<0.05, ?P(2) = 0.081) than by material type (P<0.05, ?P(2) = 0.056), while coating showed no influence (P = 0.869). Filler morphology and dimension were similar to upper parts of the GIC filling; however, the amount of low cations was higher. We concluded that the development of an intermediate layer in between dentine and GIC with lower mechanical properties might be responsible for the bond quality of GIC to dentine. Moreover, class I GIC restorations are unlikely to feature constant mechanical properties throughout the cavity, regardless of conditions such as aging and coating. PMID:23954325

  6. Marginal microleakage of a resin-modified glass-ionomer restoration: Interaction effect of delayed light activation and surface pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Yousefipour, Bahareh; Farhadpour, Hajar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread clinical uses of resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGIs), their sealing ability is still a concern. This study evaluated the effect of delayed light activation (DLA) of RMGI on marginal sealing in differently pretreated cavities. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two standardized Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 56 sound maxillary premolars at the cementoenamel junction. The cavities were randomly divided into eight equal groups. In groups 1-4 (immediate light activation [ILA]), no pretreatment (negative control [NC]) and three surface pretreatments were used, respectively as follows: Cavity conditioner, Vitremer primer, cavity conditioner plus and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). Fuji II LC (GC, Japan) was prepared and placed in the cavities and immediately light-cured according to manufacturer's instructions. In groups 5-8 (DLA), the same pretreatments were applied, respectively. After placing Fuji II LC in the cavities, the restorations were light-cured after a 3-min delay. After finishing the restorations, the specimens were placed in water for 1-week and thermocycled. Microleakage scores were determined using the dye penetration technique. Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to analyze the obtained data (α = 0.05). Results: At the dentin margins, DLA resulted in a lower microleakage for no treatment (NC), cavity conditioner and cavity conditioner plus ACP-CPP pretreatments groups (P ≤ 0.004); however, no difference was observed for Vitremer group (P > 0.05). At the enamel margins, no difference was observed between DLA and ILA for all groups (P > 0.05); only NC group exhibited a lower microleakage in case of DLA (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Delayed light activation of RMGI may lead to different effects on marginal sealing, depending on pretreatment procedures used in the cavity. It might improve dentin sealing when no treatment and conditioner alone or with CCP-ACP is used. PMID:26005461

  7. Comparative in vitro evaluation of internal adaptation of resin-modified glass ionomer, flowable composite and bonding agent applied as a liner under composite restoration: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Soubhagya, M; Goud, K Mallikarjun; Deepak, B S; Thakur, Sophia; Nandini, T N; Arun, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of resin-modified glass Ionomer cement in sandwich technique is widely practiced with the advent of various newer generation of composites the bond between resin-modified glass Ionomer and these resins should be validated. This study is done to evaluate the interfacial microgaps between different types of liners and dentin, liners and composite (Filtek p60 [FLp60]) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Standardized Class V preparations were performed in buccal/lingual surfaces of 30 caries, crack and defect-free extracted human third molars. The prepared teeth were divided into three groups. Group I: Single bond (SB), Group II: SB + synergy flow, Group III: SB + vitrebond. They were restored with composite resin FLp60, according to the manufacturer instructions. The SB + vitrebond, cross-sectioned through the canter of the restoration. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, polished, and processed for SEM. The internal adaptation of the materials to the axial wall was analyzed under SEM with ×1000 magnification. Results: The data obtained were analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal–Wallis, P < 0.05). flowable composite or resin-modified glass ionomer applied in conjunction with adhesive resulted in statistically wider microgaps than occurred when the dentin was only hybridized prior to the restoration. Conclusion: Hybridization of dentin only provides superior sealing of the dentin-restoration interface than does flowable resin or resin-modified glass ionomer. PMID:25954067

  8. Retentive [correction of Preventive] efficacy of glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate luting cements in preformed stainless steel crowns: a comparative clinical study.

    PubMed

    Khinda, V I S; Grewal, N

    2002-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of three luting cements, namely, glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate in retainng the preformed stainless steel crowns in-vivo. Twenty subjects, with an indication for restoration of three primary molars with stainless steel crowns, were selected. Sixty teeth were taken up for the study, and twenty crowns were cemented with each of the three luting cements. After an eight month follow up the crowns were assessed for their presence/ absence or "rocking". Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. The results have shown no significant difference in retentivity of stainless steel crowns with the use of either of the three luting agents. PMID:12435014

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a novel N-vinylcaprolactam-containing acrylic acid terpolymer for applications in glass-ionomer dental cements.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2009-07-01

    In this study a novel N-vinylcaprolactam (NVC)-containing copolymer of acrylic-itaconic acid was synthesized, characterized and incorporated into Fuji IX conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the effects of incorporation of synthesized terpolymer on the mechanical properties of GIC were studied. The synthesized terpolymer was characterized using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The viscosity and molecular weight of the terpolymer were also measured. The compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of the modified GICs were evaluated after 24h and 1week of immersion in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The handling properties (working and setting times) of the resulting modified cements were also evaluated. One-way analysis of variance was used to study the statistical significance of the mechanical strengths and handling properties in comparison to the control group. The results showed that NVC-containing GIC samples exhibited significantly higher (P<0.05) DTS (38.3+/-10.9MPa) and BFS (82.2+/-12.8MPa) in comparison to Fuji IX GIC (DTS=19.6+/-11.4MPa; BFS=41.3+/-10.5MPa). The experimental cement also showed higher but not statistically significant values for CS compared to the control material (CS for NVC-containing sample=303+/-32.8MPa; CS for Fuji XI=236+/-41.5MPa). Novel NVC-containing GIC has been developed in this study, with a 28% increase in CS. The presented GIC is capable of doubling the DTS and BFS in comparison to commercial Fuji IX GIC. The working properties of NVC-containing glass-ionomer formulations are comparable and are acceptable for water-based cements. PMID:19289308

  10. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm‑2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey–Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC–C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  11. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    D, Krishnakanth Reddy; V, Kishore M S; Safeena, Safeena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine shear bond strength and the effect on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. Materials & Methods: Group I: Brackets bonded with Ultimate cure-on-light Light-cure composite adhesive system. Group II: Brackets bonded with Ortho-one no-mix. Self-cure composite adhesive system. Group III: Brackets bonded with Light-cure glass ionomer adhesive system. Group IV: Brackets bonded with Transbond plus self etching primer. Results: The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength when using Transbond plus self etching primer showed the highest bond strength Group- IV(8.69 2.54 MPa) followed by Ultimate cure-on-light Group-I (8.62 1.84 MPa), Ortho-one no-mix (Bisco Inc. USA)Group-II (8.07 1.72 MPa), and least bond strength was seen in G.C. Fuji Ortho L.C. Group-III (6.01 1.6) MPa Conclusion: Use of self etching primer saves chairside time and satisfactory high bond strength was obtained. Care should be taken during debonding of ceramic brackets How to cite this article: Reddy K D, Kishore M S V, Safeena S. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):73-78. PMID:24155606

  12. The effect of sandblasting on the retention of first molar orthodontic bands cemented with glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Millett, D T; McCabe, J F; Bennett, T G; Carter, N E; Gordon, P H

    1995-05-01

    This study examined the effect of sandblasting, in vitro, on the bond strength and survival time of first molar orthodontic bands. Survival time was assessed following simulated mechanical fatigue in a ball mill. The amount of cement left attached to the band after debanding was also assessed. In addition, the effect of sandblasting on the failure rate of 320 first molar bands cemented in 107 patients was examined in a half-mouth trial. Ketac-cem, mixed according to manufacturers' instructions was used as the luting agent for both laboratory and clinical trials. In vitro, sandblasting increased bond strength by 27 per cent (P < 0.01) and produced a three-fold increase in the median survival time relative to the untreated sample (P < 0.001) in the ball mill experiment. Sandblasting resulted in more cement remaining on the band rather than on the tooth enamel after band removal. In vivo, sandblasting reduced the clinical failure rate of the first molar bands (P < 0.001). PMID:7640255

  13. Caries-Preventive Effect of High-Viscosity Glass Ionomer and Resin-Based Fissure Sealants on Permanent Teeth: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2016-01-01

    Background Glass-ionomers are traditionally regarded to be inferior to resin as fissure sealants in protecting teeth from dental caries, due to their comparatively lower retention rate. Unlike low-viscosity glass-ionomers, high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) are placed as sealants by pressing the material into pits and fissures with a petroleum-jelly-coated index finger. Hence, HVGIC sealants are assumed to penetrate pits and fissures deeper, resulting in a higher material retention rate, which may increase its caries-preventive effect. Methods The aim of this review was to answer the question as to whether, in patients with fully erupted permanent molar teeth, HVGIC based fissure sealants are less effective to protect against dental carious lesions in occlusal pits and fissures than resin-based fissure sealants? A systematic literature search in eight databases was conducted. Heterogeneity of accepted trials and imprecision of the established evidence were assessed. Extracted sufficiently homogenous datasets were pooled by use of a random-effects meta-analysis. Internal trial validity was evaluated. The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO / Nr.: CRD42015016007). Results Seven clinical trials were provisionally included for further review. Of these, one was excluded. Seven trial reports reporting on six trials were accepted. From these, 11 datasets were extracted and pooled in four meta-analyses. The results suggest no statistically significant differences after up to 48 months and borderline significant differences in favour of HVGIC sealants after 60 months (RR 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09–0.95; p = 0.04 / RD -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01). The point estimates and upper confidence levels after 24, 36, 48 and 60 months of RR 1.36; RR 0.90; RR 0.62; RR 0.29 and 2.78; 1.67; 1.21; 0.95, respectively, further suggest a chronological trend in favour of HVGIC above resin-based sealants. The internal trial validity was judged to be low and the bias risk high for all trials. Imprecision of results was considered too high for clinical guidance. Conclusion It can be concluded that: (i) Inferiority claims against HVGIC in comparison to resin-based sealants as current gold-standard are not supported by the clinical evidence; (ii) The clinical evidence suggests similar caries-preventive efficacy of HVGIC and resin-based sealants after a period of 48 months in permanent molar teeth but remains challenged by high bias risk; (iii) Evidence concerning a possible superiority of HVGIC above resin-based sealants after 60 months is poor (even if the high bias risk is disregarded) due to imprecision and requires corroboration through future research. PMID:26799812

  14. Methods and preliminary findings of a cost-effectiveness study of glass-ionomer-based and composite resin sealant materials after 2 yr.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ann S; Chen, Xi; Fan, Mingwen; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-06-01

    The cost-effectiveness of glass-carbomer, conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) [without or with heat (light-emitting diode (LED) thermocuring) application], and composite resin sealants were compared after 2 yr in function. Estimated net costs per sealant were obtained from data on personnel time (measured with activity sampling), transportation, materials, instruments and equipment, and restoration costs for replacing failed sealants from a community trial involving 7- to 9-yr-old Chinese children. Cost data were standardized to reflect the placement of 1,000 sealants per group. Outcomes were the differences in the number of dentine caries lesions that developed between groups. The average sealant application time ranged from 5.40 min (for composite resin) to 8.09 min (for LED thermocured HVGIC), and the average cost per sealant for 1,000 performed per group (simulation sample) ranged from $US3.73 (for composite resin) to $US7.50 (for glass-carbomer). The incremental cost-effectiveness of LED thermocured HVGIC to prevent one additional caries lesion per 1,000 sealants performed was $US1,106 compared with composite resin. Sensitivity analyses showed that differences in the cost of materials across groups had minimal impact on the overall cost. Cost and effectiveness data enhance policymakers' ability to address issues of availability, access, and compliance associated with poor oral-health outcomes, particularly when large numbers of children are excluded from care, in economies where oral health services are still developing. PMID:24799118

  15. An investigation into the structure and reactivity of calcium-zinc-silicate ionomer glasses using MAS-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D; Towler, M R; Law, R V; Hill, R G

    2006-05-01

    The suitability of Glass Polyalkenoate Cements (GPCs) for orthopaedic applications is retarded by the presence in the glass phase of aluminium, a neurotoxin. Unfortunately, the aluminium ion plays an integral role in the setting process of GPCs and its absence is likely to hinder cement formation. However, the authors have previously shown that aluminium-free GPCs may be formulated based on calcium zinc silicate glasses and these novel materials exhibit significant potential as hard tissue biomaterials. However there is no data available on the structure of these glasses. (29)Si MAS-NMR, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and network crosslink density (CLD) calculations were used to characterize the structure of five calcium zinc silicate glasses and relate glass structure to reactivity. The results indicate that glasses capable of forming Zn-GPCs are predominantly Q(2)/Q(3) in structure with corresponding network crosslink densities greater than 2. The correlation of CLD and MAS-NMR results indicate the primary role of zinc in these simple glass networks is as a network modifier and not an intermediate oxide; this fact will allow for more refined glass compositions, with less reactive structures, to be formulated in the future. PMID:16688578

  16. A novel glass ionomer cement containing MgCO(3 )apatite induced the increased proliferation and differentiation of human pulp cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laiteerapong, Arunee; Lochaiwatana, Yossakit; Hirata, Isao; Okazaki, Masayuki; Mori, Kenta; Murakami, Shinya; Poolthong, Suchit

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro biological response of human dental pulp cells to glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji IX GP(®)) containing 2.5% magnesium carbonate apatite (MgCO(3)Ap). MgCO(3)Ap was synthesized by wet method and characterized using FT-IR, XPS, and SEM. Fuji IX GP(®) served as a control. Test and control cements were prepared by encapsulated mixing the powder with Fuji IX-liquid (P/L=3.6:1). Eluates from cements extracted by 1 mL culture medium were collected at day 1, 7 and 14, and used for WST-1 proliferation assay. For ALPase activity, cells were maintained with cements in transwells, harvested and enzyme activity was measured at day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21. We found a higher cell proliferation and increased ALPase activity by pulp cells in the test group compared to the control. This suggests the potential of GIC containing this novel biological apatite as a restorative material for pulp-dentin regeneration. PMID:23037840

  17. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, L. C.; Araújo, F. C.; Zancopé, B. R.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; Youssef, M. N.; Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC) or composite resin (CR) restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control): cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control) cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm2; G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations. PMID:26347900

  18. Effect of light-cure initiation time on polymerization and orthodontic bond strength with a resin-modified glass-ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jess

    Introduction: The polymerization and acid-base reactions in resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGI) are thought to compete with and inhibit one another. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of visible light-cure (VLC) delay on the polymerization efficiency and orthodontic bond strength of a dual-cured RMGI. Methods: An RMGI light-cured immediately, 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes after mixing comprised the experimental groups. Isothermal and dynamic temperature scan differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the RMGI was performed to determine extents of VLC polymerization and acid-base reaction exotherms. Human premolars (n = 18/group) were bonded with the RMGI. Shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined. Results: DSC results showed the 10 minute delay RMGI group experienced significantly (P <0.05) lower VLC polymerization compared to the other groups. Acid-base reaction exotherms were undetected in all groups except the 10 minute delay group. No significant differences (P >0.05) were noted among the groups for mean shear bond strength. A chi-square test showed no significant difference (P = 0.428) in ARI scores between groups. Conclusions: Delay in light-curing may reduce polymerization efficiency and alter the structure of the RMGI, but orthodontic shear bond strength does not appear to be compromised.

  19. Long-term clinical evaluation of fracture and pulp injury following glass-ionomer cement or composite resin applied as a base filling in teeth restored with amalgam.

    PubMed

    De C Luz, M A; Ciaramicoli-Rodrigues, M T; Garone Netto, N; De Lima, A C

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the long-term clinical behaviour of two dental materials applied as filling under silver amalgam restorations: glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and composite resin with adhesive system (CR). In this study, 117 posterior teeth (29 premolars and 88 molars) were selected with carious lesions which resulted in great loss of dentin and cusps with unsupported enamel. After caries removal, cavities were prepared and totally filled with GIC or with CR. In a following visit, new cavities were prepared, leaving the employed filling material as a base and support for the enamel, which were then restored with silver amalgam. Restorations were evaluated periodically after 6 months and up to 5 years. Both fracture and pulpal involvement rates were low. Although differences could be observed in the behaviour of the materials, statistical survival estimation showed that the performances of GIC and CR as filling material were similar. There was a significant association both between kind of tooth (molar or premolar) and long-term survival of the restorations; and between degree of unsupported enamel and the same long-term survival. Our results confirmed that the technique in which GIC or CR are used as filling under silver amalgam restorations is clinically acceptable. PMID:11422695

  20. Evaluation of sealing ability two self-etching adhesive systems and a glass ionomer lining LC under composite restoration in primary tooth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pragasam, Ananda Xavier; Duraisamy, Vinola; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the sealing ability of two self-etching adhesive systems and glass ionomer cement (GIC) lining Light cure (LC) under composite restorations in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities are prepared on the cervical third of the facial and lingual surfaces of primary molars. The specimens are then assigned into four experimental groups. The restored primary molars are stored in distilled water and subjected to thermocycling. Each section was examined using a stereomicroscope to assess dye penetration at the margin of the restoration and evaluated via pictures. Statistical Analysis Used: The degree of microleakage was analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test and the intergroup significance by multiple comparison analysis. Results: The mean rank of the groups are Group I (Adper Prompt™ + Z−100) 19.44, Group II (UniFil BOND + Solare) 5.38, Group III (GIC lining LC + Z−100) 20.06, and Group IV (GIC lining LC + Solare) 21.13 with the P < 0.001. Conclusion: Composite resin restorations bonded with two-step self-etching adhesive system (UniFil Bond) exhibited lesser microleakage than one-step self-etching adhesive system (Adperprompt™) in primary teeth. PMID:26538910

  1. Comparison of Marginal Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restorations in Primary Molars Prepared by Chemo-mechanical Caries Removal (CMCR), Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum-Garnet (Er:YAG) Laser and Atraumatic Restorative Technique (ART)

    PubMed Central

    Juntavee, Niwut; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Nualkaew, Nartsajee; Sutthisawat, Sitikorn

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: It is important to emphasize that the aspects of pretreatment techniques, as well as the composition and mechanism of adhesion, may decisively influence the effectiveness of the restorative materials in sealing cavity margins and preventing marginal leakage. Aims: This study assessed the in vitro influence of surface preparation techniques on the microleakage of glass ionomer restorations in primary teeth. Materials and methods: The study groups were divided into three different techniques: (1) The chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) method using the Apacaries gel, (2) the erbium:yttrium aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser method and (3) the atraumatic restorative technique (ART). The teeth restored with a glass ionomer restorative material (Fuji IX GP capsule, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The dye penetration was measured in micrometers using a polarized light microscope and specific computer software. Results: The results showed that the mean microleakage level after was lowest with the CMCR method using Apacaries gel and highest with the Er:YAG laser. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the mean microleakage level between the group with the CMCR method using Apacaries gel and the Er:YAG laser. Conclusion: Marginal leakage was significantly higher with preparations made using the Er:YAG laser than with the CMCR method using Apacaries gel and spoon excavator (p < 0.05). How to cite this article: Juntavee A, Juntavee N, Peerapattana J, Nualkaew N, Sutthisawat S. Comparison of Marginal Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restorations in Primary Molars Prepared by Chemomechanical Caries Removal (CMCR), Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum-Garnet (Er:YAG) Laser and Atraumatic Restorative Technique (ART). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):75-79. PMID:25206196

  2. Remineralizing efficacy of silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer type VII for their proposed use as indirect pulp capping materials Part II (A clinical study)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, N; Gupta, A; Logani, A; Shah, N

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate in vivo the remineralizing efficacy of silver diamine fluoride (SDF), glass ionomer Type VII (GC VII) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal). Materials and Methods: 60 subjects in the age group of 18-35 years, matching the inclusion criteria and having deep carious lesions in the permanent first and second molars were selected. The teeth were aseptically opened under rubber dam and after gross caries removal, approximately 0.4mg of soft discolored dentin was removed with a sharp spoon excavator from the mesial or distal aspect of the cavity. The test material was randomly selected and applied in a thickness of 1.5-2mm and the cavity sealed with cavit. The patients were followed up at regular intervals with radiographic evaluation at 12 weeks. At 3 months the temporary restoration was removed and dentin samples were collected from the other half of the cavity which was left in the first appointment. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Colorimetric test using UV-vis spectrometer and potentiometric titration were used for determining calcium, phosphorous and fluoride respectively. Results: Almost equivalent rise in the percentage of calcium level was seen in GC VII and Ca(OH)2 groups, followed by SDF group. Highest percentage rise in phosphate ions was seen in GC VII group followed by SDF group and Ca(OH)2 group. Highest percentage of fluoride rise was seen in GC VII group followed by SDF group and Ca(OH)2 group. Conclusions: The results indicated that both GC VII and SDF can be potential indirect pulp capping materials. PMID:22025824

  3. Marginal adaptation to enamel of a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement in vivo.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J W; Hrstedt, P

    1997-12-01

    Recently, new restoratives, such as resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIC) and polyacid-modified resin composites (PMC) were introduced for class III and class V cavities. Both materials use simplified cavity conditioning methods. The well-established treatment of enamel with phosphoric acid has been replaced with treatment using weaker acids. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo the quality and durability of the marginal bond to enamel of these restorative system and compare it with a resin composite restorative, Seventeen patients received class III restorations of each of the three restoratives. At baseline and after 1 year replica impressions were made for investigation of the vestibular margins with the scanning electron microscope. Semi-quantitative analysis of the enamel-restorative interfaces was performed at x200 and x1000 magnifications. The three restorative systems showed good marginal adaptation and high percentages of the length of the margins investigated at baseline were gap-free (82%-92%). The resin composite showed significantly better adaptation than the other materials. The marginal quality decreased significantly after 1 year for the resin composite and the polyacid-modified resin composite. The RMGIC showed improved sealing after 1 year in vivo, probably due to continuing water uptake. The percentages of gap-free margins of the total marginal length observed at 1 year were 73%, 90%, and 84%, respectively, for the PMC, the RMGIC and the resin composite. The difference between the PMC and the RMGIC was significant. In conclusion, a good marginal quality was seen for all three restorative systems in class III cavities after a period of 1 year. PMID:9555215

  4. Effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement lining and composite layering technique on the adhesive interface of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO, Larissa Marinho; CASAS-APAYCO, Leslie Carol; VILLAVICENCIO ESPINOZA, Carlos Andres; WANG, Linda; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Interface integrity can be maintained by setting the composite in a layering technique and using liners. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) lining and composite layering technique on the bond strength of the dentin/resin adhesive interface of lateral walls of occlusal restorations. Material and Methods Occlusal cavities were prepared in 52 extracted sound human molars, randomly assigned into 4 groups: Group 2H (control) no lining + two horizontal layers; Group 4O: no lining + four oblique layers; Group V-2H: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + two horizontal layers; and Group V-4O: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + four oblique layers. Resin composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was placed after application of an adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE) dyed with a fluorescent reagent (Rhodamine B) to allow confocal microscopy analysis. The teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours before being sectioned into 0.8 mm slices. One slice of each tooth was randomly selected for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The other slices were sectioned into 0.8 mm x 0.8 mm sticks to microtensile bond strength test (MPa). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Fishers test. Results There was no statistical difference on bond strength among groups (p>0.05). CLSM analysis showed no significant statistical difference regarding the presence of gap at the interface dentin/resin among groups. Conclusions RMGIC lining and composite layering techniques showed no effect on the microtensile bond strength and gap formation at the adhesive interface of lateral walls of high C-factor occlusal restorations. PMID:26221927

  5. A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Padmaja; Valiathan, Ashima; Arora, Ankit; Agarwal, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs), due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel) and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min) of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1) Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2) Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3) Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4) Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC. PMID:24014999

  6. Evaluation of shear bond strength of two resin-based composites and glass ionomer cement to pure tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine)

    PubMed Central

    CANTEK?N, Kenan; AVC?, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength of methacrylate-based (MB) composites, silorane-based (SB) composites, and glass ionomer cement (GIC) to Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Acrylic blocks (n=90, 2 mm high, 5 mm diameter central hole) were prepared. In 45 of the samples, the holes were fully filled with Biodentine and in the other 45 samples, the holes were fully filled with MTA. The Biodentine and the MTA samples were randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 15 specimens each: Group-1: MB composite; Group-2: SB composite; and Group-3: GIC. For the shear bond strength (SBS) test, each block was secured in a universal testing machine. Results The highest (17.76.2 MPa) and the lowest (5.83.2 MPa) bond strength values were recorded for the MB composite-Biodentine and the GIC-MTA, respectively. Although the MB composite showed significantly higher bond strength to Biodentine (17.76.2) than it did to MTA (8.95.7) (p<0.001), the SB composite (SB and MTA=7.43.3; SB and Biodentine=8.03,6) and GIC (GIC and MTA=5.83.2; GIC and Biodentine=6.72.6) showed similar bond strength performance with MTA compared with Biodentine (p=0.73 and p=0.38, respectively). Conclusions The new pure tricalcium-based pulp capping, repair, and endodontic material showed higher shear bond scores compared to MTA when used with the MB composite. PMID:25141202

  7. Comparative evaluation of the calcium release from mineral trioxide aggregate and its mixture with glass ionomer cement in different proportions and time intervals – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Surbhi; Vivekananda Pai, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Addition of glass ionomer cement (GIC) has been suggested to improve the setting time and handling characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study evaluated the effect of adding GIC to MTA in terms of calcium release, an issue that has not been previously studied. Materials and methods The study comprised four groups with five samples each: a control group of MTA alone and experimental groups I (1MTA:1GIC), II (2MTA:1GIC), and III (1MTA:2GIC) based on the mixture of MTA and GIC powders in the respective proportions by volume. Calcium release from the samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 15 min, 6 h, 24 h, and 1 week after setting. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Groups I (1MTA:1GIC) and III (1MTA:2GIC) released significantly less calcium than the control group at all time periods, except at 15 min for group I. Group II (2MTA:1GIC) showed no significant difference in calcium release compared to the control at any time period. Group II exhibited greater calcium release than group I or III at all time periods, with significant differences between groups I and II at 1 week and between groups I and III at 24 h and 1 week. There were no statistical differences in calcium release between groups I and III. Conclusions Adding GIC to improve the setting time and handling properties of the MTA powder can be detrimental to the calcium-releasing ability of the resultant mixture, depending on the proportion of GIC added. Adding MTA and GIC at a proportion of 2:1 by volume did not impact calcium release from the mixture. These findings should be verified through further clinical studies. PMID:26644757

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Food Media on the Marginal Integrity of Class V Compomer, Conventional and Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, Shiji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical lesions of anterior and posterior teeth are a common finding in routine dental practice. They are of much concern to the patient, if present in esthetically sensitive regions. Adhesive tooth-colored restorative materials are generally recommended for treating such lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of various food media (lime juice, tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola) on the marginal integrity of Class V compomer (Dyract), conventional glass-ionomer (Fuji II) and resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC improved) restorations along their cemental and enamel margins with saline as control media. Materials and Methods: After restoration of prepared Class V cavities in human premolars with the three different materials (n = 8), they were immersed in the test media for 7 days and then stained with methylene blue dye. Buccolingual sections were prepared and examined under stereomicroscope and scores (0-2) were given. Results: Data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance in SPSS version 16.0. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusions: Among the three tested materials Compomer (Dyract) showed more marginal integrity than the other two. Micro leakage values of Fuji II and Fuji II LC improved were statistically significant in acidic media (lime juice and Coca-Cola) compared to saline. Enamel margins showed more marginal adaptation than cemental margins. PMID:25878480

  9. Can Seedling Ionomics Predict Rice Grain Ionomics?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study investigated the possibility of using the mineral (ionomic) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict cultivars that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their grains. This information will be used for genetically improving the nutritional value of rice gr...

  10. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2015-01-01

    Background A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i) similar effect direction and (ii) similar effect magnitude. Methods 7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR) and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph. Results Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected. Conclusion Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials. PMID:26168274

  11. Ionomer Design Principles for Single Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph; Liang, Siwei; Liu, Wenjuan; Hyeok Choi, U.; Runt, James; Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Single-ion conducting ionomers with low glass transition temperature, high dielectric constant and containing bulky ions with diffuse charge, are needed for polymer membranes that transport small counterions. Overarching design principles emerging from quantum chemistry calculations suggest that diffuse charge can be attained from simple considerations of atomic electronegativity. For lithium or sodium batteries, perfluorinated tetraphenyl borate ionomers with solvating polar comonomers are proposed. For fluoride or hydroxide batteries and for iodide transporting solar cells, tetra-alkyl phosphonium ionomers with anion receptors are proposed. First attempts to construct such ionomers to test these ideas will be discussed, with results from dielectric spectroscopy to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and number density of simultaneously conducting ions.

  12. The role of Sr2+ on the structure and reactivity of SrO-CaO-ZnO-SiO2 ionomer glasses.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R; Watts, Sally; Hill, Robert G; Wren, Anthony W; Clarkin, Owen M

    2008-02-01

    The suitability of Glass Polyalkenoate Cements (GPCs) for use in orthopaedics is retarded by the presence in the glass phase of aluminium, a neurotoxin. Unfortunately, the aluminium ion plays an integral role in the setting process of GPCs and its absence is likely to hinder cement formation. However, the authors have previously shown that aluminium free GPCs may be formulated based on calcium zinc silicate glasses and these novel materials exhibit significant potential as hard tissue biomaterials. To further improve their potential, and given that Strontium (Sr) based drugs have had success in the treatment of osteoporosis, the authors have substituted Calcium (Ca) with Sr in the glass phase of a series of aluminium free GPCs. However to date little data exists on the effect SrO has on the structure and reactivity of SrO-CaO-ZnO-SiO(2) glasses. The objective of this work was to characterise the effect of the Ca/Sr substitution on the structure of such glasses, and evaluate the subsequent reactivity of these glasses with an aqueous solution of Polyacrylic acid (PAA). To this end (29)Si MAS-NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and network connectivity calculations, were used to characterize the structure of four strontium calcium zinc silicate glasses. Following glass characterization, GPCs were produced from each glass using a 40 wt% solution of PAA (powder:liquid = 2:1.5). The working times and setting times of the GPCs were recorded as per International standard ISO9917. The results acquired as part of this research indicate that the substitution of Ca for Sr in the glasses examined did not appear to significantly affect the structure of the glasses investigated. However it was noted that increasing the amount of Ca substituted for Sr did result in a concomitant increase in setting times, a feature that may be attributable to the higher basicity of SrO over CaO. PMID:17665132

  13. Ionomics and the Study of the Plant Ionome

    SciTech Connect

    Salt,D.; Baxter, I.; Lahner, B.

    2008-01-01

    The ionome is defined as the mineral nutrient and trace element composition of an organism and represents the inorganic component of cellular and organismal systems. Ionomics, the study of the ionome, involves the quantitative and simultaneous measurement of the elemental composition of living organisms and changes in this composition in response to physiological stimuli, developmental state, and genetic modifications. Ionomics requires the application of high-throughput elemental analysis technologies and their integration with both bioinformatic and genetic tools. Ionomics has the ability to capture information about the functional state of an organism under different conditions, driven by genetic and developmental differences and by biotic and abiotic factors. The relatively high throughput and low cost of ionomic analysis means that it has the potential to provide a powerful approach to not only the functional analysis of the genes and gene networks that directly control the ionome, but also to the more extended gene networks that control developmental and physiological processes that affect the ionome indirectly. In this review we describe the analytical and bioinformatics aspects of ionomics, as well as its application as a functional genomics tool.

  14. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10-6 Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. Statistical Analysis: One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. Results: The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm). Conclusion: MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation. PMID:25506146

  15. [Ionomer as a substitute for lost dentin in conservative dentistry].

    PubMed

    Fabra-Campos, H

    1990-01-01

    The availability of glass Ionomer cement with physical properties, very similar to dentin given the clinician a substitute for dentine (it is artificial dentin) which has had to be eliminated because of caries. Its use in restaurative dentistry with silver amalgam allows us to reduce the size of cavity without having to eliminate all the enamel which is not supported by dentine (we can leave hollowed enamel which will be supported by the glass Ionomer cement as it acts as dentine). Using it in restaurative dentistry with composite resins offers us an adherent base stuck chemically to the dentine, which is of similar colour, with the rest of the dental structure. It also avoids recurrent caries as it contains fluoride ions, and provides a strong micromechanic union with the composite (more similar in colour and more resistant) which is placed onto the surface. PMID:2094267

  16. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  17. Highly hydroxide conductive ionomers with fullerene functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Liu, Yazhi; Guo, Rui; Hou, Jianqiu; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-02-01

    A novel ionomer was designed that will not poison the catalyst in alkaline fuel cells, by incorporating for the first time N-methyl pyrrolidine-C60 cation in polymeric anion exchange ionomers. The resultant fullerene-based anion exchange ionomer shows an extremely high hydroxide conductivity (182 mS cm(-1)) at a low cation concentration (0.62 mmol g(-1)). PMID:26765494

  18. Nearly constant dielectric loss behavior in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, A.; Cnovas, M. J.; Ezquerra, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of a series of ionomers has been characterized by measuring the electrical conductivity in a relatively broad range of frequencies and temperatures. At low frequencies, the conductivity of the ionomers exhibits a universal Jonscher power law (JPL), and at higher frequencies a nearly constant loss (NCL) behavior. The NCL for the ionomers is qualitatively similar to that observed for other inorganic ionic conductors. However, the magnitude of NCL for ionomers is lower than that observed for inorganic ionic conductors. The analysis of the conductivity master curves suggests that the conduction mechanism, which includes both the NCL and the JPL behaviors, is governed by ion hopping of the mobile ions.

  19. Polysiloxane-graft-PEG/Phosphonium Ionomer Morphology and Ion Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Michael; Liang, Siwei; Bartels, Joshua; Runt, James; Colby, Ralph; Winey, Karen

    2013-03-01

    A series of random polysiloxane-based copolymer single ion conductors with phosphonium and polyethylene glycol side chains have been synthesized at various compositions and counterions. Morphology is investigated via X-ray scattering, and reveals microphase separation on extremely small length scales. Despite the low molecular weight of the PEG side chain, polysiloxane and PEG assemble into microdomains with covalently bound phosphonium cations at the interface. Exceptionally low glass transition temperatures in these microphase separated ionomers allow for high ionic mobility for both bulky, charge delocalized counterions as well as small, electronegative counterions. Morphology interpretation is complemented by measurement of ion transport properties via dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

  20. Encapsulant Material For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.

    2000-09-05

    An encapsulant material includes a layer of metallocene polyethylene disposed between two layers of ionomer. More specifically, the layer of metallocene polyethylene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the first ionomer layer, and a second layer of ionomer is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the layer of metallocene polyethylene. The encapsulant material can be used in solar cell module and laminated glass applications.

  1. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in conventional glass ionomer cements and triclosan incorporated glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Rani; Jaidka, Shipra; Jawa, Deepti; Mishra, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The aim of the following study is to comparatively evaluate the microleakage of triclosan incorporated GIC with conventional restorative GIC. Materials and Methods: Triclosan in powder form was added to conventional GIC to formulate a concentration of 2.5%. Class five cavities were prepared in non-carious extracted molars and were respectively restored with conventional restorative GIC and triclosan incorporated GIC. Samples were kept in 10% methylene blue dye. Ground sections were obtained and were observed under a binocular microscope for dye penetration. Result: No significant difference was found in the microleakage of two groups. Conclusion: Triclosan incorporated GIC can be considered as an alternative to GIC with enhanced antibacterial property. PMID:24808702

  2. Oxygen reduction at platimun/ionomer interface: effects of phase separation of ionomer

    SciTech Connect

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the interface between platinum and recast ionomers (Nafion EW 1100 and 950 and 6F-40) was studied at different temperatures (20--80{sup o}C) and humidities (10--100%) employing smooth Pt and Pt-black-covered ultramicroelectrodes. ORR was strongly inhibited on smooth electrodes. The inhibition increased with the reduction time, temperature and humidity, but was absent for Nafion EW 1100 in contact with liquid water. It was attributed to the hydrophobic component of ionomer blocking both active sites and oxygen transport. It was postulated that the dynamic changes in interfacial phase separation of ionomer are facilitated by the attractive interactions between the hydrophobic component of ionomer and bare platinum and between oxide-covered Pt and the hydrophilic component of ionomer. These interactions were also proposed to be responsible for the differences in ORR voltammetry for films prepared and equilibrated under different conditions. The decrease in ORR inhibition, Nafion EW 950> Nafion EW 1100> 6F-40, was correlated with physical and molecular properties of the ionomers. The lack of inhibition for Pt-black-covered electrodes was attributed to the more random distribution of ionomer chains and the high activation barriers for the ionomer restructuring at rough interfaces.

  3. Thermal analytical study of polyamide copolymer/Surlyn Ionomers Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, C.; Ding, Y.P.

    1993-12-31

    Thermal analytical technique was used as a screening method to study polyamide(Nylon)/ethylene-co-methacrylic acid copolymer-based ionomer(Surlyn)blends. The retardation of crystallization process from molten state of Nylon-12 by the existence of the ionomer was observed, but the crystallization of Nylon-12 can not be thwarted even at high concentration of ionomers. Zinc ionomers shows stronger effect than sodium ionomers. A Nylon copolymer, polyamide-6,6-co-polyamide-6,10, was used to blend with different ionomers and the crystallization process from molten state of Nylon copolymer could be thwarted at high concentration of zinc ionomer even at very cooling rate. Interesting cold crystallization behavior of polyamide copolymer was observed during second DSC heating cycle in the temperature range of the melting process of ionomer.

  4. Molecular mobility, morphology, and ion conduction in ionomers for electroactive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudryn, Gregory J.

    A sequential study of ion-containing polymers capable of ion solvation with varied ion content, dielectric constant, and counterions is presented in this dissertation in order to compare ion transport properties in ionomers with various ionic interactions. Structure-property relationships in these ion containing polymers are defined using x-ray scattering, rheology and dielectric spectroscopy, enabling the quantification of ion transport dynamics. Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO) based ionomers are investigated in order to probe the relation between ion conduction and segmental relaxation, and copolymers of PEO and Poly(tetramethylene oxide), (PTMO) further develop an understanding of the trade-off between ion solvation and segmental dynamics. Ionomers with ionic liquid counterions probe diffuse charge interactions and steric effects on ion transport, and incorporation of ionic liquids into ionomer membranes such as Nafion provides desirable thermal and ion conducting properties which extend the use of such membranes for electroactive devices. PEO ionomers exhibit a strong relation between ionic conductivity and segmental dynamics, providing insight that the glass transition temperature, Tg, dominates the ion conduction mechanism. Increasing temperature induces aggregation of ionic groups as evidenced by the static dielectric constant and X-ray scattering as a function of temperature, revealing the contribution of ionic dipoles in the measured dielectric constant. The trade-off between ion solvation and fast polymer segmental dynamics are quantified in copolymer ionomers of PEO and lower Tg PTMO. While conducting ion content remains nearly unchanged, conductivity is lowered upon incorporation of PTMO, because the vast majority of the PTMO microphase separates from the PEO-rich microdomain that remains continuous and contributes most of the ion conduction. Dielectric constants and X-ray scattering show consistent changes with temperature that suggest a cascading aggregation process in Na ionomers as ionic dipoles thermally randomize and lower the measured dielectric constant of the medium, leading to further aggregation. We observe amplified microphase-separation through ionic groups preferentially solvated by PEO chains, as seen in block copolymers with added salt. Even at 25%PEO / 75%PTMO the ionomers have VFT temperature dependence of conducting ion mobility, meaning that the 25% PEO/ion microphase is still continuous A model is developed to describe the frequency dependent storage and loss modulus and the delay in Rouse motion due to ion association lifetime, as functions of ion content and molecular weight for our low molecular weight ionomers. The ion rearrangement relaxation in dielectric spectroscopy is clearly the ion association lifetime that controls terminal dynamics in linear viscoelasticity, allowing a simple sticky Rouse model, using the most-probable distribution based on NMR Mn, to fully describe master curves of the frequency dependent storage and loss modulus. Using insight from ionic interaction strength, ionic liquids are used as counterions, effectively plasticizing the ionomers without added solvent. Ionic interactions were weakened with increasing counterion size, and with modification of cations using ether-oxygen, promoting self-solvation, which increases conducting ion density by an order of magnitude. Room temperature ionic liquids were subsequently used in combination with NafionRTM membranes as electroactive substrates to correlate ion transport to morphology as a function of volume fraction of ionic liquid. This study illuminated the critical volume uptake of ionic liquid in Nafion, identifying percolation of ionic pathways and a significant increase in dielectric constant at low frequencies, indicating an increase in the number density of ions capable of polarizing at the electrode surface. Consequently, the fundamental information obtained about the structure-property relations of ionomers can be used to predict and design advanced ion-containing polymers to be used in battery membranes and a v

  5. Fabrication technology to increase surface area of ionomer membrane material and its application towards high surface area electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Alberto A.; Patel, Jasbir N.; Cordoba, Cristina; Kaminska, Bozena; Kavanagh, Karen

    2014-03-01

    An application friendly technique to increase the surface area of the ionomer membrane such as Aquivion™ has been developed. By utilizing existing micro-fabrication technologies, square pillars were fabricated onto glass and silicon substrates. In combination with a low cost heat press, the glass and silicon stamps were used to successfully hot emboss micro-features onto the ionomer membrane. Consequently, the surface area of the Aquivion™ membrane was drastically increased enabling potential improvement of sensing and energy storage technologies. Preliminary results show successful fabrication of devices with systematic higher surface area and an improved capacitance.

  6. Ion conduction in phosphonium-polysiloxane ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Siwei; Hyeok Choi, U.; Runt, James; Colby, Ralph

    2012-02-01

    Low Tg ionomers with phosphonium cations covalently attached as side chains have potential application in energy conversion and storage devices. For example, alkaline fuel cells rely on membranes that transport hydroxide anions and some advanced batteries rely on membranes transporting fluoride anions. To better understand ion conduction in phosphonium-polysiloxane ionomers, allyl tributyl phosphonium bromide monomer was synthesized and, along with a vinyl ethylene oxide monomer, attached to polymethylhydrosiloxane by hydrosilylation. These ionomers maintain low Tg -74 ^oC with up to 10 mol% phosphonium and are fully water soluble, allowing easy anion exchange and purification. We report dielectric spectroscopy results for these ionomers with a variety of counter-anions. Electrode polarization at low frequencies is analyzed to determine the number density of simultaneously conducting counter ions and their mobility. This analysis reveals higher mobility and lower activation energy for conducting anions that are larger and more diffuse, such as bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide, contributing to better performance as anion-conducting membranes.

  7. Comparative ionomes of rice leaves and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The project is investigating the possibility of using the mineral (ionomics) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict varieties that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their seeds. This information will be used for improving our understanding of the mineral physi...

  8. Ionomer Dynamics: Insights from Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runt, James

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers (polymers containing ionic functionality) have been traditionally used as packaging materials and in molding applications, and are now of increasing interest as candidate single ion conductors for energy storage devices, in energy conversion, and for other electroactive materials applications. The focus of this presentation is on the insight that broadband dielectric (impedance) spectroscopy brings to our understanding of ion and polymer dynamics of this family of materials. As an example of our recent work on relatively conductive ionomers, the first portion of the presentation will focus on anion conducting polyphosphazene ionomers, in which polymer bound cations are quaternized with either short alkyl or short ether oxygen chains. The low Tg, amorphous nature, and cation-solvating backbone distinguish polyphosphazenes as promising materials for ion conduction, the iodide variants being of particular interest in solar cells. In the second part of this overview, the first findings on the molecular dynamics of linear precise polyethylene-based ionomers containing 1-methylimidazolium bromide pendants on exactly every 9th, 15th, or 21st carbon atom will be summarized. In order to develop a robust interpretation of the dynamics of these materials, it is imperative to develop a thorough understanding of microphase separation (e.g. ion aggregation), and each of the above studies is complimented by multiangle X-ray scattering experiments. Supported by the NSF Polymers Program and DOE Basic Energy Sciences.

  9. Contact surface induced thermal transitions of ethylene methacrylate ionomer films

    SciTech Connect

    Pemawansa, K.P.W.; Mehta, M.J.; Smith, R.J.; Johnson, W.F.; Gjakovski, M.; McDermott, T.

    1993-12-31

    Surface chemistry of ethylene methacrylate ionomer was altered by contact surface induced thermal transitions. Ionomer film thermally treated on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) exhibited hydrophobic properties and poor bonding to two part epoxy glue. This effect was attributed to burial of carboxyl group enriched polymer segments and carboxyl groups in the ionomer matrix due to electrostatic repulsion between carboxyl groups and PTFE during the thermal treatment. However, the induced surface properties were not permanent. Ionomer film which had been previously treated on PTFE became hydrophilic and exhibited good bonding to epoxy glue by a secondary thermal treatment on polyimide.

  10. In vitro investigation of fluoride ion release from four resin-modified glass polyalkenoate cements.

    PubMed

    Musa, A; Pearson, G J; Gelbier, M

    1996-05-01

    Conventional glass ionomer cements are known to release fluoride ions to the surroundings. Recently, resin-modified glass ionomer cements have been produced. These have differing chemical formulations and this may affect their ability to release fluoride ions. The study evaluates both the fluoride release and compressive strength of one conventional and four resin-modified glass ionomer cements with respect to time. The results showed that the formulation of the resin-modified materials influenced the fluoride release. One resin-modified glass ionomer (PhotacFil) released more fluoride than all other materials, while Vitremer, Fuji II LC and Chemfil Superior release similar amounts. Variglass had a very much smaller elution of fluoride ions. This suggests that there is considerable variation in fluoride release between materials of similar generic origin. The compressive strength of these materials was not affected with time. PMID:8736738

  11. Simulation study of proton transport in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Allahyarov, Elshad

    2008-03-01

    Coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations were used to study the morphological changes induced in a Nafion-like ionomer by the imposition of a strong electric field. We observe that proton transport through this polymer electrolyte membrane is accompanied by morphological changes that include the formation of structures aligned along the direction of the applied field. The polar head groups of the ionomer side chains assemble into clusters, which then form rod-like formations, and these cylindrical structures then assemble into a hexagonally ordered array aligned with the direction of current flow. For dry ionomers, at current densities in excess of 1 A/cm^2 these rod-like clusters undergo an inner micro-phase separation, in which distinct wire-like lines of sulfonate head groups are accompanied by similar wire-like alignments of bound protons. The clusters appear to be of two types. If there are two, four, or five lines of sulfonates then there is an equal number of lines of protons, but if there are three lines of sulfonates then they are accompanied by four lines of protons. Occasionally these lines of sulfonates and protons form a helical structure. Upon removal of the electric field, the hexagonal array of rod-like structures remains, but the microphase separation disappears below the threshold current of 1 A/cm^2.

  12. Ionomer Degradation in Electrodes of PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L.

    2011-01-01

    Although PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) durability related studies have increased dramatically since 2004, studies on ionomer degradation of the composite electrodes has received far less attention than that of the proton exchange membranes, electrocatalysts, and catalyst supports. The catalyst layer ionomer unavoidably gets involved in other components degradation processes since it is subjected to exposure to different operating effects, including the presence of the catalyst, catalyst support, and the porous nature of the electrode layer which includes 2-phase flow. PEMFC durability issues cannot be fully resolved without understanding the contribution of ionomer degradation in electrode to the performance decay in life time. However, addressing the impact of changes to the catalyst layer ionomer during durability tests is experimentally difficult mainly because of the need to separate the ionomer in the electrode from other components during chemical, electrical and materials characterization. The catalyst layer ionomer is essentially chemically identical to the membrane ionomeric material, and is composed of low atomic number elements, making characterization difficult. In the present work, MEAs with different Nafion ionomer types: stabilized and non-stablized ionomer in the electrode layer (Type I) and mixed membrane/ionomer MEAs (Type II) were designed to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation, as shown in Figure (1a) and (b) respectively. Stabilized and non stabilized ionomers were 5% Nafion{reg_sign} solutions (Ion Power, New Castle, Delaware). The non-stabilized version is the typical Nafion chemical structure with carboxylic acid (-COOH) end groups; these end groups are thought to be a susceptible point of degradative peroxide attack. The stabilized version replaces the -COOH end groups with -CF{sub 3} end groups to prevent peroxide attack at the end groups. Type I MEAs were designed to compare ionomer degradation and its effect on performance decay. Since F{sup -} ions are released only from PFSA based membranes, and not from non-PFSA based membranes, Type II MEAs use a hydrocarbon membrane with no fluorine with a PFSA (Nafion{reg_sign}) ionomer in the catalyst layer for FER measurements. Any F{sup -} ions measured will then have come only for the catalyst layer ionomer during degradation experiments. Type II MEAs allow more detailed chemical characterization exclusively of the catalyst layer ionomer to better understand its degradation.

  13. Influence of different conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of novel light-curing nano-ionomer restorative to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Yonca; Ozel, Emre; Attar, Nuray; Ozge Bicer, Ceren

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate shear bond strength (SBS) between a light-curing nano-ionomer restorative and enamel or dentin after acid etching, after erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser etching, or after combined treatment. Forty third molars were selected, the crowns were sectioned, and 80 tooth slabs were obtained. The specimens were assigned to two groups, which were divided into four subgroups(n = 10). Group 1 [enamel (e)], treated with 37% phosphoric acid (A) + Ketac nano-primer (K); group 2 [dentin (d)], (A) + (K); group 3(e), Er:YAG laser etching (L) + (A) + (K); group 4(d), (L) + (A) + (K); group 5(e), (L) + (K); group 6(d), (L) + (K); group 7(e), (K); group 8(d), (K). The SBS of the specimens was measured with a universal test machine (1 mm/min). Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Duncan test (p < 0.05). No difference was determined between groups 3 and 5 (p > 0.05). Group 7 exhibited higher SBS values than those of groups 3 and 5 (p < 0.05). Group 1 showed higher SBSs than those of groups 3, 5 and 7 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups 4 and 6 (p > 0.05). No difference was observed between groups 2 and 4 (p > 0.05). However, group 2 presented higher SBSs than did group 6 (p < 0.05). Group 8 exhibited the highest SBS values when compared with groups 2, 4 and 6 (p < 0.05). Er:YAG laser adversely affected the adhesion of the light-curing nano-ionomer restorative to both enamel and dentin. PMID:19688586

  14. Ionomer Design, Synthesis and Characterization for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.

    2013-03-01

    For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conductors that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions; the commonly studied dual-ion conductors simply will not be used in the next generation of materials for these applications. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations at 0 K in vacuum characterize ion interactions and ion solvation by various functional groups, allowing identification of constituents with weak interactions to be incorporated in ionomers for facile ion transport. Simple ideas for estimating the ion interactions and solvation at practical temperatures and dielectric constants are presented that indicate the rank ordering observed at 0 K in vacuum should be preserved. Hence, such ab initio calculations are useful for screening the plethora of combinations of polymer-ion, counterion and polar functional groups, to decide which are worthy of synthesis for new ionomers. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on these calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for ionic actuators and battery separators. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. Examples are shown of how ab initio calculations can be used to understand experimental observations of dielectric constant, glass transition temperature and conductivity of polymerized ionic liquids with counterions being either lithium, sodium, fluoride, hydroxide (for batteries) or bulky ionic liquids (for ionic actuators). This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant BES-DE-FG02-07ER46409.

  15. Coassembly of Fatty Acid Salts and Semicrystalline Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki; Register, Richard A.

    2003-03-01

    Fatty acid salts, such as magnesium stearate and oleate, are oligomeric analogs of ethylene-based ionomers. Adding 30-40 weight percent fatty acid salt to an ethylene-alkyl acrylate-(meth)acrylic acid terpolymer ionomer nearly eliminates crystallinity after initial molding, but the material's tensile modulus increases progressively over a period of months. High temperature SAXS on the ionomer/fatty acid salt blends shows that the ionic units of the ionomer and the head groups of the fatty acid coassemble in the melt to form a single population of ionic aggregates. Parallel SAXS and DSC measurements reveal that extended room temperature annealing permits crystallization of the fatty acid tails, including co-crystallization with polyethylene segments of the ionomer. In stearate-modified ionomers, upon slow heating, these crystals serve to nucleate a pure phase of fatty acid salt, which coexists with an ionomer-rich phase over a 30^oC range. However, if the crystals are melted rapidly, no phase separation is observed over the same temperature range; the material has the structure of the supercooled single-phase melt. The slow kinetics of both phase separation and crystallization reflect the strong ionic associations present.

  16. Structure-property relationships in semicrystalline copolymers and ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki

    Many outstanding physical properties of ethylene/(meth)acrylic acid (E/(M)AA) copolymers and ionomers are associated with their nanometer-scale morphology, which consists of ethylene crystallites, amorphous segments, and acid/ionic functional groups. The goal of this dissertation is a fundamental understanding of the interplay between these structural motifs and the consequent effects on the material properties. We identify small-strain modulus as a key mechanical property and investigate its dependence upon material structure through X-ray scattering, calorimetry, and mechanical property measurements. We first treat E/(M)AA copolymers as composites of polyethylene crystallites and amorphous regions, and establish a quantitative combining rule to describe the copolymer modulus. At temperatures above the Tg of the copolymers, a monotonic increase in modulus with crystallinity is quantitatively described by the Davies equation for two-phase composites, which serves as the basis for separating the effects of amorphous and crystalline phases throughout this dissertation. The room-temperature modulus of E/(M)AA copolymers is concurrently affected by ethylene crystallinity and proximity to the amorphous phase Tg, which rises through room temperature with increasing comonomer content. In E/(M)AA ionomers, phase separation and aggregation of ionic groups provide additional stiffness and toughness. Ionomers are modeled as composites of crystallites and ionically crosslinked rubber, whose amorphous phase modulus far above the ionomer Tg is satisfactorily described by simple rubber elasticity theory. Thermomechanical analyses probe the multi-step relaxation behavior of E/(M)AA ionomers and lead to the development of a new semicrystalline ionomer morphological model, wherein secondary crystallites and ionic aggregates together form rigid percolated pathways throughout the amorphous phase. Metal soaps are oligomeric analogs of E/(M)AA ionomers, which can be blended into ionomers to achieve high ion content and in turn desirable physical properties. We assess the compatibility of various types of metal soaps with E/(M)AA ionomers, and investigate how the soap modifies the ionomers' structure and properties. The mechanical properties and phase behavior of these hybrids, which are found to differ significantly depending on the neutralizing cation type and crystallinizability of the metal soap, are traced back to various levels of molecular coassembly involving the hydrocarbon chains and/or the ionic groups of both entities.

  17. Preparation and properties of ionomers of bisphenol A polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Drumright, R.E.; Stevens, C.; Mullins, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The preparation and properties of bisphenol A polycarbonate with a small percentage (0.5-10 mol%) of sulfonate groups attached randomly along the backbone are described. This small modification has a dramatic influence on the polymer properties, particularly the rheology. The melt viscosity at low shear rates is comparable to a branched polycarbonate, and the ionomers have improved flame and solvent resistance. Water absorption is increased, but the increase is not large. These ionomers can be prepared inexpensively using a reactive blending process starting with commercial bisphenol A polycarbonate and a diphenyl ester of sulfoisophthalic acid, a monomer used for PET fiber.

  18. [Adhesive strengths of cast crowns with various types of cements].

    PubMed

    Utz, K H; Grüner, M; Büscher, M

    1990-12-01

    In an in vitro study the adhesive strength of sand-blasted castings (gold alloy) was tested on human teeth prepared and finished in different ways. For cementation we used two glass ionomer and one phosphate cement. On the surfaces treated with carbide finishing instruments the force required for separating the crown from the tooth was about 1.9 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, about 2 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and about 1.8 N/mm2 for Harvard (a zinc oxide phosphate cement). Compared with this, the values obtained for dentin surfaces pretreated with fine diamonds (red ring) were 1.5 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, 1.6 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and 1.9 N/mm2 for Harvard. The measured differences between the various types of cement were statistically not significant. PMID:2135267

  19. [Pulp toxicity of luting cements].

    PubMed

    Grund, P; Raab, W H

    1990-11-01

    With the aid of laser-Doppler-flowmetry we are able to determine changes in the microcirculation of the tooth pulp. This method can also be used for testing the histocompatibility of dental materials. The zinkoxiphosphate cement Tenet and the glass ionomer cement Ketac-Cem are examined for tissue tolerance. This is done by determining the incisal and apical changes in pulpal microcirculation. Tenet has almost no discernible effect on pulpal microcirculation. Ketac-Cem causes a longlasting hyperaemia in half of the cases which seems to depend on the depth of cavity preparation. PMID:2269096

  20. PEMFC contamination model: Foreign cation exchange with ionomer protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Pierre, Jean

    2011-08-01

    A generic, transient fuel cell ohmic loss mathematical model was developed for the case of contaminants that ion exchange with ionomer protons. The model was derived using step changes in contaminant concentration, constant operating conditions and foreign cation transport via liquid water droplets. In addition, the effect of ionomer cations redistribution within the ionomer on thermodynamic, kinetic and mass transport losses and migration were neglected. Thus, a simpler, ideal, ohmic loss case is defined and is applicable to uncharged contaminant species and gas phase contaminants. The closed form solutions were validated using contamination data from a membrane exposed to NH3. The model needs to be validated against contamination and recovery data sets including an NH4+ contaminated membrane exposed to a water stream. A method is proposed to determine model parameters and relies on the prior knowledge of the initial ionomer resistivity. The model expands the number of previously derived cases. Most models in this inventory, derived with the assumption that the reactant is absent, lead to different dimensionless current vs. time behaviors similar to a fingerprint. These model characteristics facilitate contaminant mechanism identification. Separation between membrane and catalyst (electroinactive contaminant) contamination is conceivably possible using additional indicative cell resistance measurements. Contamination is predicted to be significantly more severe under low relative humidity conditions.

  1. Some recent studies with the solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Forchione, J.; Griffith, A.; LaConti, A. B.; Baldwin, R.

    Giner, Inc. has developed a high-energy-density, all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, completely free of liquid electrolyte. The novel features of this device include (i) a three-dimensional metal oxide-particulate-ionomer composite electrode structure and (ii) a unitized repeating cell element. The composite electrode structures are bonded to opposite sides of a thin sheet of a solid proton-conducting ionomer membrane and form an integrally bonded membrane and electrode assembly (MEA). Individual MEAs can be stacked in series as bipolar elements to form a multiple cell device. The discharge characteristics and energy storage properties of these devices are described. Typical capacitance measured for a unit cell is 1 F/cm 2. Life testing of a multicell capacitor on an intermittent basis has shown, that over a 10 000 h period, the capacitance and resistance of the cell has remained invariant. There has been no maintenance required on the device since it was fabricated. Other multicell units of shorter life duration have exhibited similar reliable performance characteristics. Recent work has focused on increasing the capacitance of the unitized structure and improving the low-temperature characteristics. The approaches and experimental results will be presented. Some possible advanced NASA applications for these unique all-solid-ionomer devices will be discussed.

  2. Some Recent Studies With the Solid-Ionomer Electrochemical Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Forchione, J.; Griffith, A.; LaConti, A.; Baldwin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Giner, Inc., has developed a high-energy-density, all-solid-ionomer electro-chemical capacitor, completely free of liquid electrolyte. The novel features of this device include: (1) a three-dimensional metal oxide-particulate-ionomer composite electrode structure and (2) a unitized repeating cell element. The composite electrode structures are bonded to opposite sides of a thin sheet of a solid proton-conducting ionomer membrane and form an integrally bonded membrane and electrode assembly (MEA). Individual MEAs can be stacked in series as bipolar elements to form a multiple cell device. The discharge characteristics and energy storage properties of these devices are described. Typical capacitance measured for a unit cell is 1 F/cm. Life testing of a multicell capacitor on an intermittent basis has shown that, over a 10,000-hour period, the capacitance and resistance of the cell has remained invariant. There has been no maintenance required on the device since it was fabricated. Other multicell units of shorter life duration have exhibited similar reliable performance characteristics. Recent work has focused on increasing the capacitance of the unitized structure and improving the low-temperature characteristics. The approaches and experimental results will be presented. Some possible advanced NASA applications for these unique all-solid-ionomer devices will be discussed.

  3. Molecular mobility and cation conduction in sulfonated polyester copolymer ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudryn, Gregory; King, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Winey, Karen; Colby, Ralph

    2011-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) ionomers are candidate materials for electrolytes in energy storage devices due to the ability of ether oxygen to solvate cations. Copolyester ionomers are synthesized via condensation of sulfonated phthalates with mixtures of PEG and PTMG to make random copolymer ionomers with identical ion content. Variation of the PEG/PTMG composition changes Tg, dielectric constant and ionic aggregation; each with consequences for ion transport. Dielectric spectroscopy is used to determine number density of conducting ions, their mobility and extent of aggregation. Conductivity and mobility show Vogel temperature dependence and increase with PEG content; even though PTMG ionomers have lower Tg. Conducting ion densities show Arrhenius temperature dependence and are nearly identical for polymers containing PEG. SAXS confirms the extent of aggregation and temperature response from dielectric results, and exposes phase separation as PTMG content is increased. The tradeoff between ion-solvation and low Tg in this study provides fundamental understanding of ionic aggregation and ion transport in polymer electrolytes.

  4. The Plant Ionome Revisited by the Nutrient Balance Concept

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Serge-tienne; Parent, Lon Etienne; Egozcue, Juan Jos; Rozane, Danilo-Eduardo; Hernandes, Amanda; Lapointe, Line; Hbert-Gentile, Valrie; Naess, Kristine; Marchand, Sbastien; Lafond, Jean; Mattos, Dirceu; Barlow, Philip; Natale, William

    2013-01-01

    Tissue analysis is commonly used in ecology and agronomy to portray plant nutrient signatures. Nutrient concentration data, or ionomes, belong to the compositional data class, i.e., multivariate data that are proportions of some whole, hence carrying important numerical properties. Statistics computed across raw or ordinary log-transformed nutrient data are intrinsically biased, hence possibly leading to wrong inferences. Our objective was to present a sound and robust approach based on a novel nutrient balance concept to classify plant ionomes. We analyzed leaf N, P, K, Ca, and Mg of two wild and six domesticated fruit species from Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand sampled during reproductive stages. Nutrient concentrations were (1) analyzed without transformation, (2) ordinary log-transformed as commonly but incorrectly applied in practice, (3) additive log-ratio (alr) transformed as surrogate to stoichiometric rules, and (4) converted to isometric log-ratios (ilr) arranged as sound nutrient balance variables. Raw concentration and ordinary log transformation both led to biased multivariate analysis due to redundancy between interacting nutrients. The alr- and ilr-transformed data provided unbiased discriminant analyses of plant ionomes, where wild and domesticated species formed distinct groups and the ionomes of species and cultivars were differentiated without numerical bias. The ilr nutrient balance concept is preferable to alr, because the ilr technique projects the most important interactions between nutrients into a convenient Euclidean space. This novel numerical approach allows rectifying historical biases and supervising phenotypic plasticity in plant nutrition studies. PMID:23526060

  5. Self-Healing Behavior of Ethylene-Based Ionomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalista, Stephen J., Jr.; Ward, Thomas C.; Oyetunji, Zainab

    2004-01-01

    The self-healing behavior of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA)-based ionomers holds tremendous potential for use in a wide variety of unique applications. However, to effectively utilize this self-healing behavior and to design novel materials which possess this ability, the mechanism by which they heal must first be understood ionomers are a class of polymers that can be described as copolymers containing less than 15 mol% ionic content whereby the bulk properties are governed by ionic interactions within the polymer. These ionic groups aggregate into discrete regions known as multiplets which overlap forming clusters that act as physical cross-links profoundly influencing the bulk physical properties. These clusters possess an order-disorder transition (T(sub i)) where the clustered regions may rearrange themselves given time and stimuli. Recognizing the strong influence of these ionic regions on other well understood ionomer properties, their role in self-heating behavior will be assessed. The self-healing behavior is observed following projectile puncture. It has been suggested that during impact energy is passed to the ionomer material, heating it to the melt state. After penetration, it is proposed that the ionic regions maintain their attractions and flow together patching the hole. Thus, the importance of this ionic character and is unique interaction must be established. This will be accomplished through examination of materials with varying ionic content and through the analysis of the T(sub i). The specific ionomer systems examined include a number of ethylene-based materials. Materials of varying ionic content, including the non-ionic base copolymers, will be examined by peel tests, projectile impact and DSC analysis. The information will also be compared with some basic data on LDPE material.

  6. Simulation of Ionic Aggregation and Ion Dynamics in Model Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischknecht, Amalie L.

    2012-02-01

    Ionomers, polymers containing a small fraction of covalently bound ionic groups, are of interest as possible electrolytes in batteries. A single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte would be safer and have higher efficiency than the currently-used liquid electrolytes. However, to date ionomeric materials do not have sufficiently high conductivities for practical application. This is most likely because the ions tend to form aggregates, leading to slow ion transport. A key question is therefore how molecular structure affects the ionic aggregation and ion dynamics. To probe these structure-property relationships, we have performed molecular simulations of a set of recently synthesized poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers and ionomers, with a focus on the morphology of the ionic aggregates. The ionomers have a precise, constant spacing of charged groups, making them ideal for direct comparisons with simulations. Ab initio calculations give insight into the expected coordination of cations with fragments of the ionomers. All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the ionomer melt show aggregation of the ionic groups into extended string-like clusters. An extensive set of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations extend the results to longer times and larger length scales. The structure factors calculated from the MD simulations compare favorably with x-ray scattering data. Furthermore, the simulations give a detailed picture of the sizes, shapes, and composition of the ionic aggregates, and how they depend on polymer architecture. Implications for ion transport will be discussed. [Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90 since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109 on smooth surfaces and ~140 on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The surfaces after CVD of silane exhibited water contact angle of 152 and the water droplet stuck to the surfaces without falling even when tilted upside down. This kind of sticky superhydrophobic surface would have potential applications in no-loss transport of liquid, and cleaning robots.

  8. Blends of polyester ionomers with polar polymers: Interactions, reactions, and compatibilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boykin, Timothy Lamar

    The compatibility of amorphous and semicrystalline polyester ionomers with various polar polymers (i.e., polyesters and polyamides) has been investigated for their potential use as minor component compatibilizers. The degree of compatibility (i.e., ranging from incompatible to miscible) between the polyester ionomers and the polar polymers was determined by evaluating the effect of blend composition on the melting behavior and phase behavior of binary blends. In addition, the origin of compatibility and/or incompatibility for each of the binary blends (i.e., polyamide/ionomer and polyester/ionomer) was determined by evaluating blends prepared by both solution and melt mixed methods. Subsequent to investigation of the binary blends, the effect of polyester ionomer addition on the compatibility of polyamide/polyester blends was investigated by evaluating the mechanical properties and phase morphology of ionomer compatibilized polyamide/polyester blends. Polyester ionomers (amorphous and semicrystalline) were shown to exhibit a high degree of compatibility (even miscibility) with polyamides, such as nylon 6,6 (N66). Compatibility was attributed to specific interactions between the metal counterion of the polyester ionomer and the amide groups of N66. The degree of compatibility (or miscibility) was shown to be dependent on the counterion type of the ionomer, with the highest degree exhibited by blends containing the divalent form of the polyester ionomers. Although polyester ionomers were shown to exhibit incompatibility with both poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), increasing the time of melt processing significantly enhanced the compatibility of the polyester ionomers with both PET and PBT. The observed enhancement in compatibility was attributed to ester-ester interchange between the polyester blend components, which was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The addition of polyester ionomers as a minor component compatibilizer (i.e., 2 to 5 wt%) resulted in significant enhancement in the impact strength and a dramatic improvement in the tensile properties compared to uncompatibilized blends of nylon 6,6 (N66) with poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). This behavior was attributed to an increase in the interfacial adhesion between the phase-separated domains due to strong interactions between the polyester ionomer and N66. The placement of the ionomer compatibilizer at the N66/PBT interface was facilitated by pre-extrusion of the polyester ionomer with PBT, prior to extrusion with N66.

  9. Morphological and physical behavior of styrenic, phosphonium-containing ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Rick; Stokes, Kristoffer

    2010-03-01

    Despite many years of effort, a clear understanding of the factors controlling morphology in Nafion and other ionomers has not been achieved. The increasing need for fuel cell technology continues to drive efforts to develop materials having better performance characteristics even though fundamental structure-property relationships remain unclarified. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) present several benefits over proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including cost of manufacture (less expensive catalysts) and a significantly shorter path to commercialization. Here we present the most recent findings from our efforts to examine structure-morphology-property relationships for a series of model cationic ionomers. A series of statistical copolymers of styrene and p-vinylbenzyl-trimethyl-phosphonium chloride have been prepared via RAFT polymerization, allowing us to investigate the effect of ion content on physical behavior. Chemical, physical, and morphological characterization has been undertaken using NMR, TGA, DSC, SAXS, and TEM.

  10. Morphologies of precise polyethylene-based acid copolymers and ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago, C. Francisco

    Acid copolymers and ionomers are polymers that contain a small fraction of covalently bound acidic or ionic groups, respectively. For the specific case of polyethylene (PE), acid and ionic pendants enhance many of the physical properties such as toughness, adhesion and rheological properties. These improved properties result from microphase separated aggregates of the polar pendants in the non-polar PE matrix. Despite the widespread industrial use of these materials, rigorous chemical structure---morphology---property relationships remain elusive due to the inevitable structural heterogeneities in the historically-available acid copolymers and ionomers. Recently, precise acid copolymers and ionomers were successfully synthesized by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. These precise materials are linear, high molecular weight PEs with pendant acid or ionic functional groups separated by a precisely controlled number of carbon atoms. The morphologies of nine precise acid copolymers and eleven precise ionomers were investigated by X-ray scattering, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, the morphologies of linear PEs with pseudo-random placement of the pendant groups were also studied. Previous studies of precise copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) found that the microstructural precision produces a new morphology in which PE crystals drive the acid aggregates into layers perpendicular to the chain axes and presumably at the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases. In this dissertation, a second new morphology for acid copolymers is identified in which the aggregates arrange on cubic lattices. The fist report of a cubic morphology was observed at room and elevated temperatures for a copolymer functionalized with two phosphonic acid (PA) groups on every 21st carbon atom. The cubic lattice has been identified as face-centered cubic (FCC). Overall, three morphology types have been identified for precise acid copolymers and ionomers at room temperature: (1) liquid-like order of aggregates dispersed throughout an amorphous PE matrix, (2) one-dimensional long-range order of aggregates in layers coexisting with PE crystals, and (3) three-dimensional periodicity of aggregates in cubic lattices in a PE matrix featuring defective packing. The liquid-like morphology is a result of high content of acid or ionic substituents deterring PE crystallinity due to steric hindrance. The layered morphology occurs when the content of pendants is low and the PE segments are long enough to crystallize. The cubic morphologies occur in precise copolymers with geminal substitution of phosphonic acid (PA) groups and long, flexible PE segments. At temperatures above the thermal transitions of the PE matrix, all but one material present a liquid-like morphology. Those conditions are ideal to study the evolution of the interaggregate spacing (d*) in X-ray scattering as a function of PE segment length between pendants, pendant type and pendant architecture (specifically, mono or geminal substitution). Also at elevated temperatures, the morphologies of precise acrylic acid (AA) copolymers and ionomers were investigated further via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations complement X-ray scattering by providing real space visualization of the aggregates, demonstrating the occurrence of isolated, string-like and even percolated aggregate structures. This is the first dissertation completely devoted to the morphology of precise acid copolymers and precise ionomers. The complete analysis of the morphologies in these novel materials provides new insights into the shapes of aggregates in acid copolymers and ionomers in general. A key aspect of this thesis is the complementary use of experimental and simulation methods to unlock a wealth of new understanding.

  11. Some recent studies with the solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Forchione, J.; Griffith, A.; Laconti, A. B.; Baldwin, R.

    1991-01-01

    A high energy density, all solid ionomer electrochemical capacitor was developed, which is completely free of liquid electrolyte. The novel features of this device include a three dimensional metal oxide particulate ionomer composite electrode structure, and a unitized repeating cell element. The composite electrode structures are bonded to opposite sides of a thin sheet of a solid proton conducting ionomer membrane and form an integrally bonded membrane and electrode assembly (MEA). Individual MEAs can be stacked in series as bipolar elements to form a multiple cell device. The discharge characteristics and energy storage properties of these devices are described. Typical capacitance measured for a unit cell is 1 F/sq cm. Life testing of a multicell capacitor on an intermittent basis has shown, that over a 10,000 hour period, the capacitance and resistance of the cell has remained invariant. There has been no maintenance required on the device since it was fabricated. Other multicell units of shorter life duration have exhibited similar reliable performance characteristics.

  12. Some recent studies with the solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Forchione, J.; Griffith, A.; Laconti, A. B.; Baldwin, R.

    1991-09-01

    A high energy density, all solid ionomer electrochemical capacitor was developed, which is completely free of liquid electrolyte. The novel features of this device include a three dimensional metal oxide particulate ionomer composite electrode structure, and a unitized repeating cell element. The composite electrode structures are bonded to opposite sides of a thin sheet of a solid proton conducting ionomer membrane and form an integrally bonded membrane and electrode assembly (MEA). Individual MEAs can be stacked in series as bipolar elements to form a multiple cell device. The discharge characteristics and energy storage properties of these devices are described. Typical capacitance measured for a unit cell is 1 F/sq cm. Life testing of a multicell capacitor on an intermittent basis has shown, that over a 10,000 hour period, the capacitance and resistance of the cell has remained invariant. There has been no maintenance required on the device since it was fabricated. Other multicell units of shorter life duration have exhibited similar reliable performance characteristics.

  13. Ionomic screening of field-grown soybeans identifies mutants with altered seed elemental composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of mineral nutrients essential for human and animal nutrition. High throughput elemental profiling (ionomics) has identified mutants in model plant species grown in controlled environments. Here, we describe a method for identifying potential soybean ionomics mutant...

  14. A new route to prepare multiresponsive organogels from a block ionomer via charge-driven assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Qipeng

    2013-06-01

    We report a novel route to prepare multiresponsive organogels through charge-driven assembly between a block ionomer and a diblock copolymer. The ionic complex aggregates to form spherical cores, which are connected by the middle block of the block ionomer to form gels. The organogels are responsive to acids, amines and salts. PMID:23615753

  15. The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure variations to which divers are exposed on the pull out strength of glass fiber post luted with different cements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 120 extracted, single-rooted lower premolars were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into six groups and restored using the glass fiber post (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and the following luting agents: Zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, resin cement with etch-and-rinse adhesive, resin cement with self-etching adhesive, and self-adhesive resin cement. Each group was randomly divided into two equal subgroups, one as a control, and the other to be used experimentally. After 7 days of storage, experimental groups were pressure cycled. The force required to dislodge each post was recorded in Newton (N) on Universal testing machine (Star Testing System) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and Student's t-test (P < 0.001). Results: The pull out strength of posts cemented with zinc phosphate and conventional glass ionomer in pressure cycle group was significantly less than their control group. Although, no significant difference was found between pressure cycle and control group using resin reinforced glass ionomer cement and resin cements. Conclusion: Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling. PMID:24379861

  16. Imaging and microanalysis of thin ionomer layers by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, David A; Koestner, Roland; Kukreja, Ratan; Minko, Sergiy; Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Tokarev, Alexander V; Guetaz, Laure; Meyer III, Harry M; Parish, Chad M; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Improved conditions for imaging and spectroscopic mapping of thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layers in fuel cell electrodes by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) have been investigated. These conditions are first identified on model systems of Nafion ionomer-coated nanostructured thin films and nanoporous Si. The optimized conditions are then applied in a quantitative study of the ionomer through-layer loading for two typical electrode catalyst coatings using electron energy loss and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope. The e-beam induced damage to the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer is quantified by following the fluorine mass loss with electron exposure and is then mitigated by a few orders of magnitude using cryogenic specimen cooling and a higher incident electron voltage. Multivariate statistical analysis is also applied to the analysis of spectrum images for data denoising and unbiased separation of independent components related to the catalyst, ionomer, and support.

  17. Counterion Dynamics in Polyester-Sulfonate Ionomers with Ionic Liquid Counterions

    SciTech Connect

    Tudryn, Gregory J.; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Shih-Wa; Colby, Ralph H.

    2012-04-02

    Conventional sodium cations (Na{sup +}) in sulfonated polyester ionomers were replaced with ammonium-based ionic liquid counterions. Counterion dynamics were measured by dielectric spectroscopy and linear viscoelastic response via oscillatory shear. Ion exchange from sodium counterions to ionic liquid counterions such as tetramethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium showed an order of 10{sup 4} increase in conductivity compared with sodium counterions, primarily attributed to weaker ionic interactions that lower the glass transition temperature. Electrode polarization was used in conjunction with the 1953 Macdonald model to determine the number density of conducting counterions and their mobility. Conductivity and mobility exhibit Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) temperature dependences and both increased with counterion size. Conducting counterion concentrations showed Arrhenius temperature dependences, with activation energy reduced as counterion size increased. When ether-oxygen was incorporated into the mobile cation structure, self-solvating ability notably increased the conducting ion concentration. Weakened ion pairing interactions prove favorable for fundamental design of single-ion conductors for actuators, as ionic liquid counterions can provide both larger and faster strains, required by such electro-active devices.

  18. Compressive strength, fluoride release and recharge of fluoride-releasing materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Burgess, John O

    2003-06-01

    The compressive strength, fluoride releases and recharge profiles of 15 commercial fluoride-releasing restorative materials have been studied. The materials include glass ionomers (Fuji IX, Ketac Molar, Ketac Silver, and Miracle Mix), resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji II LC Improved, Photac-Fil, and Vitremer), compomers (Compoglass, Dyract AP, F2000, and Hytac) and composite resins (Ariston pHc, Solitaire, Surefil and Tetric Ceram). A negative linear correlation was found between the compressive strength and fluoride release (r(2)=0.7741), i.e., restorative materials with high fluoride release have lower mechanical properties. The fluoride-releasing ability can be partially regenerated or recharged by using a topical fluoride agent. In general, materials with higher initial fluoride release have higher recharge capability (r(2)=0.7088). Five equations have been used in curve fitting to describe the cumulative fluoride release from different materials. The equation [F](c)=[F](I)(1-e(-bt))+betat best describes the cumulative fluoride release for most glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, and some high fluoride-releasing compomers and composites, whereas [F](c)=[F](I)/(t(1/2)+t)+alphat best describes the cumulative fluoride release for most compomers and composite resins. The clinic applications of different fluoride-releasing materials have also been discussed. PMID:12695072

  19. Associations between Ionomic Profile and Metabolic Abnormalities in Human Population

    PubMed Central

    An, Peng; Yu, Danxia; Yu, Zhijie; Li, Huaixing; Sheng, Hongguang; Cai, Lu; Xue, Jun; Jing, Miao; Li, Yixue; Lin, Xu; Wang, Fudi

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies assessed effects of individual and multiple ions simultaneously on metabolic outcomes, due to methodological limitation. Methodology/Principal Findings By combining advanced ionomics and mutual information, a quantifying measurement for mutual dependence between two random variables, we investigated associations of ion modules/networks with overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 976 middle-aged Chinese men and women. Fasting plasma ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Significant ion modules were selected by mutual information to construct disease related ion networks. Plasma copper and phosphorus always ranked the first two among three specific ion networks associated with overweight/obesity, MetS and T2DM. Comparing the ranking of ion individually and in networks, three patterns were observed (1) Individual ion, such as potassium and chrome, which tends to work alone; (2) Module ion, such as iron in T2DM, which tends to act in modules/network; and (3) Module-individual ion, such as copper in overweight/obesity, which seems to work equivalently in either way. Conclusions In conclusion, by using the novel approach of the ionomics strategy and the information theory, we observed potential associations of ions individually or as modules/networks with metabolic disorders. Certainly, these findings need to be confirmed in future biological studies. PMID:22719963

  20. Enhanced ionic diffusion in ionomer-filled nanopores.

    PubMed

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-12-28

    Coarse-grained simulations in the united-atom-model approximation are used to investigate confinement-induced morphological changes in Nafion-like ionomers. The system we study models a cylindrical pore in a hydrophobic matrix of supporting material with pore diameters that vary from 0.7 to 3.96 nm. Simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the equilibrium ionomer structures both on the pore diameter and on the sulfonate concentration in the pore. In the case of larger pores, the ionic clustering has the shape of a branched wire-like network oriented parallel to the pore axis. In the case of narrow pores, the ionic clusters occupy the pore center and exhibit strong density modulations both along the pore axis and across the pore diameter. The calculated diffusion coefficients for the ions indicate a sharp increase within the narrow pores. This finding is explained by ballistic-type ionic motion at shorter times and by the collective motion of ions in hydrophilic clusters. The influence of the hydrophobic walls on the distribution of ions and solvent molecules is discussed. PMID:26723611

  1. Structure of Secondary Crystals in Ethylene-Based Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Loo, Y.-L.; Huang, Y. E.; Lee, L.-B. W.; Register, R. A.

    2003-03-01

    A typical DSC thermogram of an ethylene-(meth)acrylic acid ionomer displays two melting endotherms: one near 100^oC reflecting the melting of primary ethylene crystals, and one at 40-60^oC which we have shown via simultaneous SAXS/WAXS/DSC to arise from the melting of interlamellar secondary crystals. Dynamic DSC (DDSC) confirms that the two peaks reflect a bimodal crystal thickness distribution, rather than a superposition of melting and recrystallization events. The melting temperature of these secondary crystals, estimated to be 2.5-3.5 nm thick, is sensitive to annealing history. DDSC also indicates that these secondary crystals melt irreversibly, as expected if each must be individually nucleated. The 2-D SAXS patterns of highly-oriented blown films of such ionomers show intense peaks, arising from the polyethylene lamellar crystallites, along the direction of principal orientation. Comparing the azimuthal variation in SAXS peak intensity at temperatures below and above the low-temperature endotherm reveals that the secondary crystallites are significantly oriented, but less so than the primary lamellae. Thus, the secondary interlamellar crystals also have a lamellar (anisotropic) habit, rather than resembling fringed micelles (isotropic).

  2. Enhanced ionic diffusion in ionomer-filled nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Lwen, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Coarse-grained simulations in the united-atom-model approximation are used to investigate confinement-induced morphological changes in Nafion-like ionomers. The system we study models a cylindrical pore in a hydrophobic matrix of supporting material with pore diameters that vary from 0.7 to 3.96 nm. Simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the equilibrium ionomer structures both on the pore diameter and on the sulfonate concentration in the pore. In the case of larger pores, the ionic clustering has the shape of a branched wire-like network oriented parallel to the pore axis. In the case of narrow pores, the ionic clusters occupy the pore center and exhibit strong density modulations both along the pore axis and across the pore diameter. The calculated diffusion coefficients for the ions indicate a sharp increase within the narrow pores. This finding is explained by ballistic-type ionic motion at shorter times and by the collective motion of ions in hydrophilic clusters. The influence of the hydrophobic walls on the distribution of ions and solvent molecules is discussed.

  3. Synthesis, characterisation and counterion dependent mesoscopic modifications of ionomer nanocomposites having different dimensional silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sabyasachi; Sen, Debasis; Agarwal, Chhavi; Pandey, Ashok K.; Mazumder, S.; Goswami, A.

    2013-02-01

    Different dimensional silver nanostructures were synthesized in the cation exchange ionomer matrix Nafion-117 by varying temperature. The nanostructures formed were different sizes spherical nanoparticles depending upon the in situ reduction temperature. Mesoscopic architecture of the nanocomposite thin films containing different dimensional silver nanostructures has been studied by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in different counterionic environment. Investigation of the modifications in nanostructure pattern along with modification in self-assembling morphology of the ionomer in metal-ionomer nanocomposites in different post reduction counterionic environment was found to be unique. The post reduction neutralization by different counterions having different degree of hydration resulted to reorganization of the embedded nanostructures along with the crystalline polymer backbone of the ionomer. This influenced the polydispersity of the nanostructures significantly.

  4. Temperature- and humidity-controlled SAXS analysis of proton-conductive ionomer membranes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Uchida, Makoto; Deki, Shigehito; Watanabe, Masahiro; Miyatake, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    We report herein temperature- and humidity-controlled small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of proton-conductive ionomer membranes. The morphological changes of perfluorosulfonic acid polymers (Nafion and Aquivion) and sulfonated aromatic block copolymers (SPE-bl-1 and SPK-bl-1) were investigated and compared under conditions relevant to fuel cell operation. For the perfluorinated ionomer membranes, water molecules were preferentially incorporated into ionic clusters, resulting in phase separation and formation of ion channels. In contrast, for the aromatic ionomer membranes, wetting led to randomization of the ionic clusters. The results describe the differences in the proton-conducting behavior between the fluorinated and nonfluorinated ionomer membranes, and their dependence on the humidity. PMID:24578201

  5. [Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

  6. Morphological analysis of ionomers. Final report, January 1, 1992--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes three studies on ion containing polymers. (A) Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of ionomers investigate lightly sulfonated polystyrenes and polyurethane cationomers. In the first material, the nickel, zinc and cadmium-neutralized ionomers were investigated and the details of the cation local environment was elucidated through the use of the simulation package (FEFF5{reg_sign}). For the lightly sulfonated polystyrenes, the availability of a detailed ab initio simulation package, FEFF5{reg_sign} allowed the determination of the local structure at a level of detail not previously possible. (B) Nuclear magnetic resonance of lightly sulfonated polystyrene is studying the local environment of the cation in sodium-neutralized lightly sulfonated polystyrene. (C) Solution studies of carboxy-telechelic polystyrene ionomers are using small-angle neutron scattering to explore the role of temperature in solutions of sodium-neutralized carboxy-telechelic ionomers in toluene.

  7. Solvent processible, high-performance partially fluorinated copoly(arylene ether) alkaline ionomers for alkaline electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junfeng; Ünlü, Murat; Anestis-Richard, Irene; Kim, Hyea; Kohl, Paul A.

    2011-10-01

    A solvent processable, low water uptake, partially fluorinated copoly(arylene ether) functionalized with pendant quaternary ammonium groups (QAPAE) was synthesized and uses as the ionomer in alkaline electrodes on fuel cells. The quaternized polymers containing fluorinated biphenyl groups were synthesized via chloromethylation of copoly(arylene ether) followed by amination with trimethylamine. The resulting ionomers were very soluble in polar, aprotic solvents. Highly aminated ionomers had conductivities approaching 10 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Compared to previous ionomers based on quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone) (QAPSF) with similar ion exchange capacity (IEC), the water uptake of QAPAE was significantly less due to the hydrophobic octafluoro-biphenyl groups in the backbone. The performance of the fuel cell electrodes made with the QAPAE ionomers was evaluated as the cathode on a hybrid AEM/PEM fuel cell. The QAPAE alkaline ionomer electrode with IEC = 1.22 meq g-1 had superior performance to the electrodes prepared with QAPSF, IEC = 1.21 meq g-1 at 25 and 60 °C in a H2/O2 fuel cell. The peak power densities at 60 °C were 315 mW cm-2 for QAPAE electrodes and 215 mW cm-2 for QAPSF electrodes.

  8. Simulation study of sulfonate cluster swelling in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Lwen, Hartmut

    2009-12-01

    We have performed simulations to study how increasing humidity affects the structure of Nafion-like ionomers under conditions of low sulfonate concentration and low humidity. At the onset of membrane hydration, the clusters split into smaller parts. These subsequently swell, but then maintain constant the number of sulfonates per cluster. We find that the distribution of water in low-sulfonate membranes depends strongly on the sulfonate concentration. For a relatively low sulfonate concentration, nearly all the side-chain terminal groups are within cluster formations, and the average water loading per cluster matches the water content of membrane. However, for a relatively higher sulfonate concentration the water-to-sulfonate ratio becomes nonuniform. The clusters become wetter, while the intercluster bridges become drier. We note the formation of unusual shells of water-rich material that surround the sulfonate clusters.

  9. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530–600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar{sup +} laser as the excitation source.

  10. A polymethacrylate-based quaternary ammonium OH- ionomer binder for non-precious metal alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xu; Scott, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop the alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysers (AAEMWE), a quaternary OH- conductive ionomer binder based on polymethacrylate was synthesized by copolymerization of three kinds of methacrylate monomers, which was followed by quaternization. Tensile strength of this ionomer membrane was 7.629 MPa, with Young's modulus 0.229 GPa and elongation 45.8%. The conductivity of this ionomer could reach 0.059 S cm-1 at 50 C. With this ionomer in catalyst layers of an AAEMWE, the voltage of 1.9 V gave a current density of 100 mA cm-2. Satisfactory stability of the membrane electrode assembly was observed from chronocoulometry.

  11. Puncture-Healing Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Filled Ionomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Ionomers are polymers that contain ionic groups in relatively low concentrations along the polymer backbone. These ionic groups, in the presence of oppositely charged ions, form aggregates that lead to novel physical properties of the polymer. React-A-Seal(trademark) and Surlyn(trademark) are poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) ionomer-based materials and Nucrel(trademark) is the EMAA acid copolymer neutralized to produce Surlyn(trademark). React-A-Seal(trademark), Surlyn(trademark), and Nucrel(trademark) recover into their original shapes following a high impact puncture at velocities ranging from 300 to 1200 ft/s ('self-healing'). This self-healing process may be of great benefit in space applications where structures are exposed to matter impacts. A thermal IR camera indicated a temperature increase to 98 C for Nucrel(trademark) 925, Surlyn(trademark) 8940, React-A-Seal(trademark), and Surlyn(trademark) 8920 after initial penetration. To understand and generalize the observed phenomena, questions concerning the mechanism of the puncture resealing must be answered. One suggestion is that the elastic character of the melt created by the puncture drives the self-healing. This inference is based on the observed temperature rise of approx. 3 C above the melting temperature of the samples (approx. 95 C) during the impact. With the expectation of gaining additional insight into the self-healing phenomenon, a thermodynamic and viscoelastic investigation was conducted using primarily DSC and DMA. Surlyn(trademark) and React-A-Seal(trademark) showed the characteristic order-disorder transition at approx. 52 C that has been reported in literature. Master curves were constructed from the creep isotherms for the four EMAA samples. An aging study was performed to investigate the irreproducibility and "tailing effect" observed in the creep data. The aging study indicated that, with increased aging time and temperature, changes in the polyethylene matrix lead to complexities in morphology resulting in changes in the magnitude and shape of the creep curves.

  12. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  13. Polymer light-emitting devices using ionomers as an electron injecting and hole blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Woo; Park, O. Ok; Do, Lee-Mi; Zyung, Taehyoung; Ahn, Taek; Shim, Hong-Ku

    2001-09-01

    The effect of ion concentration, neutralization level and counterions in ionomers was systematically studied to obtain the optimal electroluminescent (EL) characteristics in polymer light-emitting diodes using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) for the emissive layer and sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers for the electron-injecting layer. The optimum ion concentration of NaSPS was determined to be at 6.7 mol %. Ionomers with a higher neutralization level make the EL device more efficient, with the highest efficiency being at 200% overneutralization. The ionomer with a smaller metal counter ion greatly enhances the efficiency of EL devices with the indium-tin-oxide/MEH-PPV/LiSPS/Al device having the highest EL quantum efficiency, 1.18% photons/electron. The dominant factor in enhancing the luminance is the number of ionic dipoles near the cathode irrespective of the type of metal counterions, while the hole blocking mostly depends on the restriction of chain segmental motion in ionomers.

  14. Should we treat the ionome as a combination of individual elements, or should we be deriving novel combined traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been more than 10 years since the concept of the ionome, all of the mineral nutrients in a cell tissue or organism, was introduced. In the intervening years, ionomics, high throughput elemental profiling, has been used to analyze over 400,000 samples from at least 7 different organisms. There...

  15. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection. PMID:24983508

  16. In Silico Ionomics Segregates Parasitic from Free-Living Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Greganova, Eva; Steinmann, Michael; Mser, Pascal; Fankhauser, Niklaus

    2013-01-01

    Ion transporters are fundamental to life. Due to their ancient origin and conservation in sequence, ion transporters are also particularly well suited for comparative genomics of distantly related species. Here, we perform genome-wide ion transporter profiling as a basis for comparative genomics of eukaryotes. From a given predicted proteome, we identify all bona fide ion channels, ion porters, and ion pumps. Concentrating on unicellular eukaryotes (n = 37), we demonstrate that clustering of species according to their repertoire of ion transporters segregates obligate endoparasites (n = 23) on the one hand, from free-living species and facultative parasites (n = 14) on the other hand. This surprising finding indicates strong convergent evolution of the parasites regarding the acquisition and homeostasis of inorganic ions. Random forest classification identifies transporters of ammonia, plus transporters of iron and other transition metals, as the most informative for distinguishing the obligate parasites. Thus, in silico ionomics further underscores the importance of iron in infection biology and suggests access to host sources of nitrogen and transition metals to be selective forces in the evolution of parasitism. This finding is in agreement with the phenomenon of iron withholding as a primordial antimicrobial strategy of infected mammals. PMID:24048281

  17. Linear Viscoelastic and dielectric behavior of Phosphonium Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liang, Siwei; Hyeok Choi, U.; Runt, James; Colby, Ralph H.

    2013-03-01

    Linear viscoelastic (LVE) and dielectric (DRS) responses were examined for polysiloxane-based phosphonium-ionomers with fractions of ionic monomers f = 0 to 0.3; the other monomers have short poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. LVE of these samples shows a glassy relaxation followed by a terminal polymer relaxation that is increasingly delayed with increase of f. The glassy relaxation broadens when f > 0.1. DRS of these samples shows a segmental ? process associated with motion of monomers, followed by an additional ~ 100X slower ?2 process before electrode polarization. A detailed comparison between LVE and DRS reveals that the ?2 relaxation in DRS corresponds to a characteristic modulus of kB T per ionic group in LVE. This result strongly suggests that the molecular origin of the ?2 relaxation is the dissociation/association of the ionic groups from/into the ionic clusters, consistent with the observed magnitude of the ?2 relaxation increasing with ion content. Based on this molecular view, we can predict the terminal polymer relaxation from the ?2 relaxation time obtained in DRS, assuming this is the lifetime of ionic associations in a sticky Rouse model. Meanwhile, the broadening of glassy mode distribution with increasing f > 0.1 is attributed to an enhanced cooperation for motion of glassy segments. This enhancement is possibly due to decrease of distance between the ionic groups with increasing f, leading to stronger overlap of polarizability volumes.

  18. In silico ionomics segregates parasitic from free-living eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Greganova, Eva; Steinmann, Michael; Mser, Pascal; Fankhauser, Niklaus

    2013-01-01

    Ion transporters are fundamental to life. Due to their ancient origin and conservation in sequence, ion transporters are also particularly well suited for comparative genomics of distantly related species. Here, we perform genome-wide ion transporter profiling as a basis for comparative genomics of eukaryotes. From a given predicted proteome, we identify all bona fide ion channels, ion porters, and ion pumps. Concentrating on unicellular eukaryotes (n = 37), we demonstrate that clustering of species according to their repertoire of ion transporters segregates obligate endoparasites (n = 23) on the one hand, from free-living species and facultative parasites (n = 14) on the other hand. This surprising finding indicates strong convergent evolution of the parasites regarding the acquisition and homeostasis of inorganic ions. Random forest classification identifies transporters of ammonia, plus transporters of iron and other transition metals, as the most informative for distinguishing the obligate parasites. Thus, in silico ionomics further underscores the importance of iron in infection biology and suggests access to host sources of nitrogen and transition metals to be selective forces in the evolution of parasitism. This finding is in agreement with the phenomenon of iron withholding as a primordial antimicrobial strategy of infected mammals. PMID:24048281

  19. Relationship between arterial thrombosis and neutralization of a polyethylene ionomer

    SciTech Connect

    Goggins, J.A.; Hiltner, A.; Jones, P.K. ); Jones, R.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The influence of three levels of sodium neutralization of an ethylene/methacrylic acid copolymer on in vivo blood compatibility was studied in a canine arterial model. Effects due to sample fabrication methods were also monitored. Sodium content, sodium release, hydrogen dissociation, and localization of anionic groups were noted. Polymer surface energy, surface morphology, water uptake, and thermal properties were characterized. Material characterization and in vivo implantation disclose the following: (1) thermal pressing generated oxidation degradation products that decreased in vivo blood compatibility. Solution-cast samples adhered and activated fewer blood elements; (2) platelets and leukocytes were sensitive to differences in shear rate in the carotid and femoral arteries, with the femoral site tending toward higher shear, more platelet deposition and fewer leukocytes; (3) the surface properties of the polyethylene control, 0% Na, and 50% Na samples tended to be similar. These properties were different from the 100% Na sample; (4) these differences were manifested in vivo by platelet activation and thrombus development on the polyethylene, 0% Na, and 50% Na implants, while the 100% Na implant surfaces were predominantly covered by singly adherent, unactivated platelets; (5) it is proposed that the improvement in biocompatibility for the 100% Na ionomer is due to the cluster development in the neutralized methacrylic component and that either directly, or through appropriate protein adsorption and/or conformational adjustment to the cluster regions, platelets are not activated and do not initiate the coagulation mechanism.

  20. Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Kim, Yu Seung; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Wilson, Mahlon S; Welch, Cynthia; Fenton, James

    2010-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

  1. Effects of short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers as binders on the performance of low Pt loading fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Chul; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effects of short-side-chain (SSC) perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers on the electrochemical properties, fuel cell performance and ionomer distribution of a highly dispersed Pt/GCB catalyst with a low Pt loading, 0.05 mg cm-2. The SSC ionomers in the cathode catalyst layers (CLs) resulted in an improvement of the Pt utilization (UPt) and Pt effectiveness (EfPt) values compared with those for the conventional long-side-chain (LSC) ionomer. Furthermore, the SSC ionomers with high ion exchange capacity (IEC), e.g., SSC-1.43 and SSC-1.80 ionomers, exhibited significantly enhanced cell performance under low to medium relative humidity (RH) conditions. This result is ascribed to the higher proton conductivity of the SSC ionomers and more effective trapping of water that is produced during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than those of the LSC ionomer. It was also found that the SSC ionomers showed better continuity and uniformity on the Pt and carbon particles than the LSC ionomer, which might have led to improvement of both the mass transport and the proton-conducting network in the CLs. The application of the SSC ionomers as binders demonstrated an increase of the performance at the low Pt loading fuel cell cathode over a wide range of humidity.

  2. Light-cured glass ionomer cement as a bracket adhesive with different types of enamel conditioners.

    PubMed

    Süssenberger, U; Cacciafesta, V; Jost-Brinkmann, P G

    1997-01-01

    Eighty bovine incisors were ground on 320-grit silicone carbide paper and cleaned with fluoride-free prophylaxis paste. The enamel surface conditions were: 1. no conditioning; 2. salicylic acid (10%, 10s); 3. benzoic acid (10%, 10s); 4. air polishing with sodium hydrogen carbonate/Prophy-Jet; 5. Prophy-Jet, followed by polyacrylic acid (PAA, 10%, 10 s); 6. PAA, followed by saliva contamination; 7. PAA; 8. phosphoric acid (37%, 10 s). Fuji Ortho II LC (GC) was used as a bracket adhesive in groups 1 t0 7, and in group 8 Concise orthodontic (3M). Stainless steel lingual buttons were placed by hand. Polymerisation with visible light was carried out 20 s from mesial, distal, incisal and gingival. After 24 h storage in tap water at room temperature the shear bond strengths were tested in accordance with ISO specification TC 106/SC/WG16. Mean values of the groups were compared using Student's t-test. Group 7 (PAA) attained the highest mean shear strength (in comparison with control group): 28 MPa. This was both significantly different from the control group (Concise, 33 MPa) and highly significant in comparison with the other groups (< 16 MPa). The shear bond strength of Fuji Ortho II LC on PAA conditioned enamel indicates the clinical applicability of this material. PMID:9200893

  3. Predicted electric-field-induced hexatic structure in an ionomer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.

    2009-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations were used to study the morphological changes induced in a Nafion-like ionomer by the imposition of a strong electric field. We observe the formation of structures aligned along the direction of the applied field. The polar head groups of the ionomer sidechains aggregate into clusters, which then form rodlike formations which assemble into a hexatic array aligned with the direction of the field. Occasionally these lines of sulfonates and protons form a helical structure. Upon removal of the electric field, the hexatic array of rodlike structures persists and has a lower calculated free energy than the original isotropic morphology.

  4. Water-induced nanochannel networks in self-assembled block ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Al-Mohsin, Heba A.; Lee, Byeongdu; Spontak, Richard J.

    2016-03-01

    Block ionomers cast from solution exhibit solvent-templated morphologies that can be altered by solvent-vapor annealing. When cast from a mixed solvent, a midblock-sulfonated pentablock ionomer self-assembles into spherical ionic microdomains that are loosely connected. Upon exposure to liquid water, nanoscale channels irreversibly develop between the microdomains due to swelling and form a continuous mesoscale network. We use electron tomography and real-time X-ray scattering to follow this transformation and show that the resultant morphology provides a highly effective diffusive pathway.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Dynamics in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Based Lithium Polyether-ester-sulfonate Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies of both the polymer and lithium ions in the lower ion content samples indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details about the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies formore » motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.« less

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies for motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

  8. Simulations reveal the role of composition into the atomic-level flexibility of bioactive glass cements.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun Viviana; Chass, Gregory A; Tommaso, Devis Di

    2015-12-23

    Bioactive glass ionomer cements (GICs), the reaction product of a fluoro-alumino-silicate glass and polyacrylic acid, have been in effective use in dentistry for over 40 years and more recently in orthopaedics and medical implantation. Their desirable properties have affirmed GIC's place in the medical materials community, yet are limited to non-load bearing applications due to the brittle nature of the hardened composite cement, thought to arise from the glass component and the interfaces it forms. Towards helping resolve the fundamental bases of the mechanical shortcomings of GICs, we report the 1st ever computational models of a GIC-relevant component. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate and characterise three fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses of differing compositions with focus on resolving the atomic scale structural and dynamic contributions of aluminium, phosphorous and fluorine. Analyses of the glasses revealed rising F-content leading to the expansion of the glass network, compression of Al-F bonding, angular constraint at Al-pivots, localisation of alumino-phosphates and increased fluorine diffusion. Together, these changes to the structure, speciation and dynamics with raised fluorine content impart an overall rigidifying effect on the glass network, and suggest a predisposition to atomic-level inflexibility, which could manifest in the ionomer cements they form. PMID:26646505

  9. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes Based On PMMA / PEG And Penetrant Diffusion In Kraton Penta-Block Ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan

    The study of diffusion in polymeric material is critical to many research fields and applications, such as polymer morphology, protective coatings (paints and varnishes), separation membranes, transport phenomena, polymer electrolytes, polymer melt, and controlled release of drugs from polymer carriers [1-9]. However, it is still a challenge to understand, predict and control the diffusion of molecules and ions of different sizes in polymers [2]. This work studied the medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) in solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEG/PMMA) for Li-based batteries, and polymeric permselective membranes via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance. Over the past decades polymer electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their promising technological application as an ion-conducting medium in solid-state batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and chemical sensors [10, 11]. However, despite numerous studies related to ionic transport in these electrolytes the understanding of the migration mechanism is still far from being complete, and progress in the field remains largely empirical [10, 12-15]. Among various candidates for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) material, the miscible polymer pair, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA), is an attractive one, because there is a huge difference in mobility between PEO and PMMA in their blends, and PEO chains remain exceptionally mobile in the blend even at temperature below the glass transition temperature of the blend [ 16]. Thus the mechanical strength and dimensional stability is maintained by PMMA component, while the chain motions or rearrangements of the PEO component virtually contribute to the ion transport [17]. The current work prepared two types of SPE based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) /PMMA (40/60 by weight) for Li-based batteries: lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (LiN(SO2CF3)2, LiTFSI) doped SPE and single-ion SPE. PEG, which is the very low molecular weight version of PEO, was used instead of PLO due to PEG's advantages of being noncrystalline, higher mobility, and having relatively high ionic conductivity when doped with alkali metal salts [18]. The medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) were studied via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance, along with other properties. For the LiTFSI doped system, the samples are named with their F0 to Li ratios. The order of diffusivity of ions is 16:1> 24:1> 8:1, while the order of a.c. conductivity is 24:1 > 16:1> 8:1. The largest diffusion 7Li coefficient is 1.4 x 108 cm 2/s in 16:1 at 77C , and the largest a.c. conductivity is 1.43x 10-5S/cm for 24:1 at 68C. The discrepancy between the diffusivity order and conductivity order is attributed to the formation of neutral contact ion pairs by a substantial fraction of ions in 16:1 . As the salt concentration is increased as 24:1?16:1?8:1, there is the transition of mostly free ions (i.e., 24:1)?free ions+contact ion pairs (i.e.. 16:1)?free ions+contact ion pairs+higher aggregates (i.e., 8:1). For the single-ion system, ion pairing of lithium PMMA ionomer is a serious problem due to the relatively low acidity of its corresponding acid and the low dielectric constant of the solvent (i.e. PEG). The Li+ diffusivity is fair (on the order of 10-8 cm2/s at 65C, 77C, and 89C), but the fraction of free Li+ is only 1-2%. This severely limits the resulting a.c. conductivity, which is 2.72x 10-7 S/cm for 40P600 at 81C. The second project involves studying the transport properties of a sulfonated pentablock copolymer, poly(para-methylstyrene)--b-hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polystyrene-bhydrogenated polybutadiene - b-poly(para-methylstyrene) with polystyrene sulfonated in the midblock(PMS-HPB-sS-HPB-PMS), as pemrselective membranes for protective clothing, with high permeability to water and low permeability to hazardous organic chemicals. In addition, this work also contributes to study of polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell systems, because water transport in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) has a profound effect on the performance of a fuel cell, yet is surprisingly the least studied property of PEMs[19]. The self-diffusion coefficients of different penetrant molecules, i.e., water, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and ethanol in the said ionomer were accurately measured with PFG NMR as functions of temperature and concentration of solvents. Water exhibited self-diffusion coefficients two orders of magnitude higher than DMMP, while ethanol lies in between. Their effective volume to surface ratios of domains where diffusion took place were determined. The volume to surface ratios of water and DMMP are quite different, suggesting they may have different local geometry of the pores they reside in, while the V p/Seff ratios for water and ethanol are similar, thereby suggesting similar local environments of these solvents in the ionomer.

  10. Morphology of sealant/enamel interface after surface treatment with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda; Silveira, Renata Espndola; Abuna, Gabriel; Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Alandia-Romn, Carla Cecilia; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze, by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the morphology of sealant/enamel interface after surface treatment with Biosilicate. Before pits and fissures sealing, the occlusal surfaces of 10 sound human molars were sectioned perpendicularly at the fissures in order to obtain three slices for each tooth. Slices were randomly assigned into three groups (n?=?10) according to sealing protocol: Group 1- Acid etching?+?Biosilicate?+?glass ionomer-based sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE); Group 2- Acid etching?+?glass ionomer-based sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE); Group 3- No sealing. All slices were subjected to thermal cycling (5,000 cycles; 5-55C; dwell time: 30s). Half of the slices from each group (n?=?5) were analyzed by CLSM and the other half by SEM. Groups 1 and 2 were also submitted to EDS analysis and their data were evaluated by Two-Way ANOVA e Tukey's test (?=5%). EDS data analysis showed higher amounts of silicon (Si) ions than calcium (Ca) ions in Group 1 (P?glass ionomer-based sealant/enamel interfaces. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1062-1068, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26499474

  11. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  12. Modulated ionomer distribution in the catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for high temperature operation.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min-Ju; Oh, Keun-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Tak; Park, Jung-Ki

    2014-08-01

    Ionomer distribution is an important design parameter for high performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); however, the nano-scale modulation of the ionomer morphology has not been intensively explored. Here, we propose a new route to modulate the ionomer distribution that features the introduction of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the cathode catalyst layer and the leaching the PEG phase from the catalyst layer using a water effluent during operation. The key concept in the approach is the expansion of the ionomer thin film through the PEG addition. We demonstrate that the modulated ionomer distribution increases the electrochemical active area and proton transport property, without loss in oxygen transport, at a fixed ionomer content. At a high temperature of 120?C, the power performance at 0.6 V is increased by 1.73-fold with the modulated ionomer distribution as a result of 1.25-fold increase in the electrochemical active area and two-fold increase in the proton transport rate in the catalyst layer. PMID:24777945

  13. Should we treat the ionome as a combination of individual elements, or should we be deriving novel combined traits?

    PubMed

    Baxter, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    It has been more than 10 years since the concept of the ionome, all of the mineral nutrients in a cell tissue or organism, was introduced. In the intervening years, ionomics, high throughput elemental profiling, has been used to analyse over 400,000 samples from at least 10 different organisms. There are now multiple published examples where an ionomics approach has been used to find genes of novel function, find lines or environments that produce foods with altered nutritional profiles, or define gene by environmental effects on elemental accumulation. In almost all of these studies, the ionome has been treated as a collection of independent elements, with the analysis repeated on each measured element. However, many elements share chemical properties, are known to interact with each other, or have been shown to have similar interactions with biological molecules. Accordingly, there is strong evidence from ionomic studies that the elements of the ionome do not behave independently and that combinations of elements should be treated as the phenotypes of interest. In this review, I will consider the evidence that we have for the interdependence of the ionome, some of its causes, methods for incorporating this interdependence into analyses and the benefits, drawbacks, and challenges of taking these approaches. PMID:25711709

  14. Molecular Dynamics of Coarse-grained Ionomers Showing Aggregate Morphology During Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Janani; Hall, Lisa M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers are polymers with a small fraction of charged monomers that have a wide range of applications from dental fixtures and packaging to actuators. We consider dense melts of ionomers and counterions with no solvent. An important aspect of their performance is the aggregation of ions, since ionic aggregates act to hold polymer chains together like temporary cross-links. Because of the size scales involved, it is difficult to obtain a complete 3D microscopic picture of polymer aggregation experimentally; typically the thickness of a sample used in transmission electron microscopy is such that multiple overlapping aggregates appear together. How aggregate structure changes under strain and affects mechanical properties is even less clear. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of ionomers of various architectures, and show aggregate morphology and scattering profiles. We apply uniaxial tensile strain and observe the aggregates align, in qualitative agreement with experimental findings. We also obtain stress-strain curves and will discuss effects of degree of neutralization of the ionomers.

  15. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Wang, LZ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2015-01-10

    Improving cell performance and durability through both new materials and membrane electrode processing optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologies. In this work, we adopted an in-situ cross-linking strategy of an anion-conducting block copolymer to prepare durable ionomers for use in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Our goal was to use new ionomers and binders with an aim at improving long-term stability of AMFCs, especially at high operation temperatures. At 80 degrees C, AMFCs with in-situ cross-linked ionomers showed promising stability with an operating life time of more than 350 hours at 100 mA/cm(2). We found that the optimized electrode fabrication process and operating conditions can significantly improve the durability performance of AMFCs. For example, a suitable electrode binder in addition to the ion-conducting ionomer can greatly enhance the durability performance of AMFCs. Operating fuel cells under a cathode over-humification condition can also enhance the long-term stability of AMFCs. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane ionomers, blends and urethane-urea aerogel hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingzhe

    The chemical and physical properties of alkali, alkaline metal and selected transition metal polyurethane ionomers were investigated. A new synthesis was developed for carboxylated polyurethane anionomers, and it was employed to synthesize a range of ionomers. Thus, a series of polyurethane ionomers was prepared in which the molecular weight of a constituent diol, the concentration of carboxylic acid sites, and the nature of the cations was varied. The analogous materials with equivalent nominal stoichiometries were synthesized by the standard method of preparing the acid-form polymer and of replacing the protons for metal ions. The novel synthesis employs a multiphase reaction between isocyanate-terminated prepolymers and solid, anhydrous microcrystalline metal salts of a carboxylic acid diol. This required the development of new synthesis of these starting materials. The materials studied are based on polyether diols, acid-containing diols and a saturated diisocyanate. The novel synthesis is more than twenty times as fast as the standard method under the same conditions. The spectroscopic and mechanical properties of the polyurethane ionomers synthesized in both ways were studied and contrasted. Those prepared by the new method have greater spatial homogeneity, resulting in lower scattering loss in the ultraviolet-visible range. They also exhibited values of E ' (the real elastic modulus) that are as much as an order of magnitude greater than those made by the standard method. In addition, the temperature dependence of Fin the -25 +75C range is remarkably low. Studies of the structural properties by infrared spectroscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography and scanning electron microscopy were used to elucidate their molecular structures and intermolecular interactions. The rates of key synthetic reactions and the thermal stability of the metal containing polyurethane ionomers were studied by thermal analysis. The polyurethane ionomers synthesized in this work were combined with, sulfonated polystyrene, and poly(ethylene-co-acrylic or methacrylic acid) polymers, their partially neutralized ionomers, and thermoplastic polyurethanes. It was found that polyurethane anionomers synthesized by the new method were miscible with these polymers through the composition range. Several series of these blends were studied using mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy to investigate molecular interactions that lead to the miscibility. Isocyanate-containing molecules were reacted with chitosan silica aerogels. It was discovered that -NCO groups of the diisocyanate HMDI reacted selectively with amine groups in the presence of large excesses of -OH groups from alcohol, silica, and water. This study leads to the possibility of attaching nanoscale aerogel particles to substrates, to one another, and to additional molecules of interest.

  17. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Polymer Backbone Dynamics in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Based Lithium and Sodium Polyether-ester-sulfonate Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer backbone dynamics of single ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer samples with low glass transition temperatures (Tg) have been investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Experiments detecting 13C with 1H decoupling under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions identified the different components of the polymer backbone (PEO spacer and isophthalate groups) and their relative mobilities for a suite of lithium- and sodium-containing ionomer samples with varying cation contents. Variable temperature (203-373 K) 1H-13C cross-polarization MAS (CP-MAS) experiments also provided qualitative assessment of the differences in the motions of the polymer backbone components as a function of cation content and identity. Each of the main backbone components exhibit distinct motions, following the trends expected for motional characteristics based on earlier Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering and 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements. Previous 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation measurements focused on both the polymer backbone and cation motion on the nanosecond timescale. The studies presented here assess the slower timescale motion of the polymer backbone allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of the polymer dynamics. The temperature dependences of 13C linewidths were used to both qualitatively and quantitatively examine the effects of cation content and identity on PEO spacer mobility. Variable contact time 1H-13C CP-MAS experiments were used to further assess the motions of the polymer backbone on the microsecond timescale. The motion of the PEO spacer, reported via the rate of magnetization transfer from 1H to 13C nuclei, becomes similar for T ? 1.1 Tg in all ionic samples, indicating that at similar elevated reduced temperatures the motions of the polymer backbones on the microsecond timescale become insensitive to ion interactions. These results present an improved picture, beyond those of previous findings, for the dependence of backbone dynamics on cation density (and here, cation identity as well) in these amorphous PEO-based ionomer systems.

  18. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of polymer backbone dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide) based lithium and sodium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-05-01

    Polymer backbone dynamics of single ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer samples with low glass transition temperatures (Tg) have been investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Experiments detecting 13C with 1H decoupling under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions identified the different components of the polymer backbone (PEO spacer and isophthalate groups) and their relative mobilities for a suite of lithium- and sodium-containing ionomer samples with varying cation contents. Variable temperature (203-373 K) 1H-13C cross-polarization MAS (CP-MAS) experiments also provided qualitative assessment of the differences in the motions of the polymer backbone components as a function of cation content and identity. Each of the main backbone components exhibit distinct motions, following the trends expected for motional characteristics based on earlier Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering and 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements. Previous 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation measurements focused on both the polymer backbone and cation motion on the nanosecond timescale. The studies presented here assess the slower timescale motion of the polymer backbone allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of the polymer dynamics. The temperature dependences of 13C linewidths were used to both qualitatively and quantitatively examine the effects of cation content and identity on PEO spacer mobility. Variable contact time 1H-13C CP-MAS experiments were used to further assess the motions of the polymer backbone on the microsecond timescale. The motion of the PEO spacer, reported via the rate of magnetization transfer from 1H to 13C nuclei, becomes similar for T x 1{.1} Tg in all ionic samples, indicating that at similar elevated reduced temperatures the motions of the polymer backbones on the microsecond timescale become insensitive to ion interactions. These results present an improved picture, beyond those of previous findings, for the dependence of backbone dynamics on cation density (and here, cation identity as well) in these amorphous PEO-based ionomer systems.

  19. [Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers]. [Annual report, April 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

  20. Glass consistency and glass performance

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-07-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability.

  1. Glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    Glass recycling in the Netherlands has grown from 10,000 to 300,000 tonnes per annum. The various advantages and problems of the glass cycle with reference to the state of the art in the Netherlands is given. Special attention is given to new technologies for the automated sorting of cullet with detection systems. In Western Europe the recycling of glass has become a success story. Because of this, the percentage of glass cullet used in glass furnaces has increased. To meet the quality demands of the glass industry, automated sorting for the removal of stones, non-ferrous metals and other impurities had to be developed and incorporated in glass recycling plants. In Holland, Germany and other countries, the amount of glass collected has reached a level that color-sorting becomes necessary to avoid market saturation with mixed cullet. Recently, two systems for color-sorting have been developed and tested for the separation of bottles and cullet in the size range of 20--50 mm. With the increased capacity of the new glass recycling plants, 120,000--200,000 tpy, the quality systems have also to be improved and automated. These quality control systems are based on the automated sorting technology developed earlier for the glass recycling plants. The data obtained are automatically processed and printed. The sampling system and its relation to the theory of Gy will be described. Results of both developments in glass recycling plants will be described.

  2. Glass Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA technologies have played part in growth and cost containment of studio glass art, among them a foam type insulation developed to meet a need for lightweight material that would reduce flame spread in aircraft fire. Foam comes in several forms and is widely used by glass artists, chiefly as an insulator for the various types of ovens used in glass working. Another Spinoff is alumina crucibles to contain molten glass. Before alumina crucibles were used, glass tanks were made of firebrick which tended to erode under high temperatures and cause impurities; this not only improved quality but made the process more cost effective. One more NASA technology that found its way into glass art working is a material known as graphite board, a special form of graphite originally developed for rocket motor applications. This graphite is used to exact compound angles and creates molds for poured glass artworks of dramatic design.

  3. Marginal fit of restorations before and after cementation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Schaller, H G; Strub, J R

    1993-01-01

    Triturated luting cements provide convenient clinical handling. This study clinically evaluated the influence of two trituration capsule cement systems on the marginal fit of inner copings for telescoping crowns. Using a randomized parallel design, one coping was cemented using zinc phosphate cement (Phosphacap) and one using a glass-ionomer cement (Ketac-Cem Maxicap) for each of 12 patients. A blind examination of the marginal fit of the restorations was made before and after cementation using the replica technique and a scanning electron microscope. The mean marginal discrepancies for all cast copings were approximately 30 microns (median 23 microns) before cementation. They increased significantly after cementation to 86 microns (median 63 microns) in the zinc phosphate cement copings but to only to 47 microns (median 44 microns) in the glass-ionomer cement copings. PMID:8148031

  4. Plant ionome diagnosis using sound balances: case study with mango (Mangifera Indica)

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Serge-Étienne; Parent, Léon E.; Rozane, Danilo Eduardo; Natale, William

    2013-01-01

    Plant ionomes and soil nutrients are commonly diagnosed in agronomy using concentration and nutrient ratio ranges. However, both diagnoses are biased by redundancy of information, subcompositional incoherence and non-normal distribution inherent to compositional data, potentially leading to conflicting results and wrong inferences. Our objective was to present an unbiased statistical approach of plant nutrient diagnosis using a balance concept and mango (Mangifera indica) as test crop. We collected foliar samples at flowering stage in 175 mango orchards. The ionomes comprised 11 nutrients (S, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe). Traditional multivariate methods were found to be biased. Ionomes were thus represented by unbiased balances computed as isometric log ratios (ilr). Soil fertility attributes (pH and bioavailable nutrients) were transformed into balances to conduct discriminant analysis. The orchards differed more from genotype than soil nutrient signatures. A customized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) iterative procedure was developed to classify tissue ionomes between balanced/misbalanced and high/low-yielders. The ROC partitioning procedure showed that the critical Mahalanobis distance of 4.08 separating balanced from imbalanced specimens about yield cut-off of 128.5 kg fruit tree−1 proved to be a fairly informative test (area under curve = 0.84–0.92). The [P | N,S] and [Mn | Cu,Zn] balances were found to be potential sources of misbalance in the less productive orchards, and should thus be further investigated in field experiments. We propose using a coherent pan balance diagnostic method with median ilr values of top yielders centered at fulcrums of a mobile and the critical Mahalanobis distance as a guide for global nutrient balance. Nutrient concentrations in weighing pans assisted appreciating nutrients as relative shortage, adequacy or excess in balances. PMID:24273548

  5. Plant ionome diagnosis using sound balances: case study with mango (Mangifera Indica).

    PubMed

    Parent, Serge-Étienne; Parent, Léon E; Rozane, Danilo Eduardo; Natale, William

    2013-01-01

    Plant ionomes and soil nutrients are commonly diagnosed in agronomy using concentration and nutrient ratio ranges. However, both diagnoses are biased by redundancy of information, subcompositional incoherence and non-normal distribution inherent to compositional data, potentially leading to conflicting results and wrong inferences. Our objective was to present an unbiased statistical approach of plant nutrient diagnosis using a balance concept and mango (Mangifera indica) as test crop. We collected foliar samples at flowering stage in 175 mango orchards. The ionomes comprised 11 nutrients (S, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe). Traditional multivariate methods were found to be biased. Ionomes were thus represented by unbiased balances computed as isometric log ratios (ilr). Soil fertility attributes (pH and bioavailable nutrients) were transformed into balances to conduct discriminant analysis. The orchards differed more from genotype than soil nutrient signatures. A customized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) iterative procedure was developed to classify tissue ionomes between balanced/misbalanced and high/low-yielders. The ROC partitioning procedure showed that the critical Mahalanobis distance of 4.08 separating balanced from imbalanced specimens about yield cut-off of 128.5 kg fruit tree(-1) proved to be a fairly informative test (area under curve = 0.84-0.92). The [P | N,S] and [Mn | Cu,Zn] balances were found to be potential sources of misbalance in the less productive orchards, and should thus be further investigated in field experiments. We propose using a coherent pan balance diagnostic method with median ilr values of top yielders centered at fulcrums of a mobile and the critical Mahalanobis distance as a guide for global nutrient balance. Nutrient concentrations in weighing pans assisted appreciating nutrients as relative shortage, adequacy or excess in balances. PMID:24273548

  6. Determination of O2 Mass Transport at the Pt | PFSA Ionomer Interface under Reduced Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Novitski, David; Holdcroft, Steven

    2015-12-16

    Oxygen mass transport resistance through the ionomer component in the cathode catalyst layer is considered to contribute overpotential losses in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Whereas it is known that water uptake, water transport, and proton conductivity are reduced upon reducing relative humidity, the effect on oxygen mass transport remains unknown. We report a two-electrode approach to determine mass transport coefficients for the oxygen reduction reaction in air at the Pt/perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer membrane interface between 90 and 30% RH at 70 C using a Pt microdisk in a solid state electrochemical cell. Potential-step chronoamperometry was performed at specific mass-transport limiting potentials to allow for the elucidation of the oxygen diffusion coefficient (DbO2) and oxygen concentration (cbO2). In our efforts, novel approaches in data acquisition, as well as analysis, were examined because of the dynamic nature of the membrane under lowered hydration conditions. Linear regression analysis reveals a decrease in oxygen permeability (DbO2cbO2) by a factor of 1.7 and 3.4 from 90 to 30% RH for Nafion 211 membrane and membranes cast from Nafion DE2020 ionomer solutions, respectively. Additionally, nonlinear curve fitting by way of the Shoup-Szabo equation is employed to analyze the entire current transient during potential step controlled ORR. We also report on the presence of an RH dependence of our previously reported time-dependency measurements for O2 mass transport coefficients. PMID:26583742

  7. The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa affects the leaf ionome of plant hosts during infection.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, Leonardo; Parker, Jennifer K; Oliver, Jonathan E; Granger, Shea; Brannen, Phillip M; van Santen, Edzard; Cobine, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition) were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen. PMID:23667547

  8. Shape-Memory Polymers Based on Fatty Acid-Filled Elastomeric Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Elise; Weiss, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have applications as medical devices, actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, switches, smart textiles, and self-deployable structures. All previous design of SMPs has involved synthesizing new polymers or modifying existing polymers. This paper describes a new type of SMP based on blends of an elastomeric ionomer and low molar mass fatty acids or their salts (FAS). Shape memory elastomers were prepared from mixtures of a sulfonated EPDM ionomer and various amounts of a FAS (e.g., zinc stearate, zinc oleate, and various aliphalic acids). Nanophase separation of the metal sulfonate groups provided the ``permanent'' crosslinks, while sub-microscopic crystals of the low molecular weight FAS provided a physical crosslink needed for the temporary shape. The material was deformed above the melting point of the FAS and the new shape was fixed by cooling the material while under stress to below the melting point of the FAS. Polar interactions between the ionomer and the FAS stabilized the dispersion of the FAS in the polymer and provided the continuity between the phases that allowed the crystals of the FAS to provide a second network of physical crosslinks. The temporary shape was erased and the material returned to the primary shape by heating above the melting point of the FAS.

  9. Ionomer-Liquid Electrolyte Hybrid Ionic Conductor for High Cycling Stability of Lithium Metal Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Li electrodeposition of lithium metal electrode has been a major impediment to the realization of rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Although single ion conducting ionomers can induce more homogeneous Li electrodeposition by preventing Li+ depletion at Li surface, currently available materials do not allow room-temperature operation due to their low room temperature conductivities. In the paper, we report that a highly conductive ionomer/liquid electrolyte hybrid layer tightly laminated on Li metal electrode can realize stable Li electrodeposition at high current densities up to 10 mA cm−2 and permit room-temperature operation of corresponding Li metal batteries with low polarizations. The hybrid layer is fabricated by laminating few micron-thick Nafion layer on Li metal electrode followed by soaking 1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC (1/1) electrolyte. The Li/Li symmetric cell with the hybrid layer stably operates at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2 for more than 2000 h, which corresponds to more than five-fold enhancement compared with bare Li metal electrode. Also, the prototype Li/LiCoO2 battery with the hybrid layer offers cycling stability more than 350 cycles. These results demonstrate that the hybrid strategy successfully combines the advantages of bi-ionic liquid electrolyte (fast Li+ transport) and single ionic ionomer (prevention of Li+ depletion). PMID:26411701

  10. Ionomer-Liquid Electrolyte Hybrid Ionic Conductor for High Cycling Stability of Lithium Metal Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Li electrodeposition of lithium metal electrode has been a major impediment to the realization of rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Although single ion conducting ionomers can induce more homogeneous Li electrodeposition by preventing Li(+) depletion at Li surface, currently available materials do not allow room-temperature operation due to their low room temperature conductivities. In the paper, we report that a highly conductive ionomer/liquid electrolyte hybrid layer tightly laminated on Li metal electrode can realize stable Li electrodeposition at high current densities up to 10 mA cm(-2) and permit room-temperature operation of corresponding Li metal batteries with low polarizations. The hybrid layer is fabricated by laminating few micron-thick Nafion layer on Li metal electrode followed by soaking 1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC (1/1) electrolyte. The Li/Li symmetric cell with the hybrid layer stably operates at a high current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for more than 2000 h, which corresponds to more than five-fold enhancement compared with bare Li metal electrode. Also, the prototype Li/LiCoO2 battery with the hybrid layer offers cycling stability more than 350 cycles. These results demonstrate that the hybrid strategy successfully combines the advantages of bi-ionic liquid electrolyte (fast Li(+) transport) and single ionic ionomer (prevention of Li(+) depletion). PMID:26411701

  11. Dynamics and partitioning of the ionome in seeds and germinating seedlings of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Kai; von Wirn, Nicolaus

    2013-09-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are among the most critical phases in the development of plants, and seed vigour has become an important trait for the selection of robust crop cultivars. Little is known about the potentially limiting role of mineral nutrients in early metabolic and developmental processes during germination. Therefore, we assessed the ionome and relative distribution of mineral elements in different seed and seedling tissues of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and monitored the internal allocation of nutrients during germination. In seeds, cotyledons harboured the main pool of K, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas the seed coat contained most of the Ca, Na, B, Cu and Mo. Although the early root and hypocotyl tissue expanded first, concentrations of most elements were initially low. Re-allocation of elements to the root/hypocotyl tissue from other pools set in two days after seed imbibition and was most rapid for K. Relative to the critical deficiency levels of vegetative tissues, seed tissues were particularly low in B, K and Fe. Further analyses of the ionome of seeds and seedlings, grouped according to their germination efficiency, indicated that in particular low S, Mg and Ca coincided with germination failure. This study documents highly dynamic changes in the ionome of seed and seedling tissues and provides evidence for potentially limiting elements during early germination and seedling establishment in rapeseed. PMID:23939714

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Thin Ionomer Films: a Key to A Stable Fuel Cell Membrane.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perahia, Dvora

    2000-03-01

    The technology for solid polymeric electrolytic membranes for a fuel cells, calls for the thinnest film which is electrochemically stable. At present, none supported polymeric solid state fuel cell membranes, thinner than 50 microns, fail mechanically during fuel cell operation. When approaching the thin film limits, interfacial effects become significant to structure dynamics and consequently, the stability of the membranes. Our work focuses on understanding the interfacial effects on thin per-fluorinated ionomer films, including interfacial effects on the thin films themselves and nanotubes-thin film complexes, mimicking the catalyst-ionomer complexes. In particular we investigated the dynamics and structure in 500 angstrom and less, films made by several perfluorinated ionomers, cast on a solid support. Both the films and their parent solutions were investigated with the goal of resolving the factors that affect the stability in the ultra thin regime. AFM/STM and X-ray and neutron reflectivity were used to investigate the thin films and small angle neutron scattering was utilized to the study of the solutions. Films were both spin-coated and self assembles from solutions on a model oxidized single crystal silicon wafer, treated with HF. When coated from molecular solutions, the films tend to dewet on a time scale of minutes to hours. With increasing concentrations, above the critical micellar concentration of the ionomers in water/alcohol, stable films on the order of 200-500 angstroms were formed. While self-assembled films were found to be stable at temperatures close to Tg of the ionomer, spin-coated ones partially dewet. The surface structure obtained, exhibit periodicity on different length scales, depending on the concentration of the polymer in the solution from which the film was assembled. In the ultra dilute regime, micelles were detected at the solid interface. Films formed from dilute solutions exhibit fractal nature with a fractal dimension varying between 2 and 3. Further increase of the solution concentration resulted in oriented domains. The unique surface structures are attributed to natural micellization processes, which arise from the nature of the polymer. A close look into the structure of the self assembled films, revealed stacked of cylinders, a structure which differs from the well established bulk structure. These thin micellar films were found to be extremely stable. With the dramatic increase of film stability we observed as micelles are formed, further studies to quantify the interfacial interactions are currently underway together with subsequent studies of the factors, which govern the solution structure.

  13. Synthesis and properties of anion conductive ionomers containing tetraphenyl methane moieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhua; Yu, Yingfeng; Liu, Qunfang; Meng, Yuezhong

    2012-07-25

    A series of anion conductive aromatic ionomers, poly(arylene ether)s containing various polymer backbones and quaternary ammonium basic group functioned tetraphenyl methane moieties, were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution polycondensation, chloromethylation, quaternization, and the subsequent alkalization reactions. The structures of poly(arylene ether)s (PAEs), chloromethylated poly(arylene ether)s (CMPAEs), and quaternizated poly(arylene ether)s (QPAEs) ionomers were confirmed by (1)H NMR technique. Their thermal stabilities were evaluated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The water uptakes, ion exchange capacities (IEC), hydroxide ion conductivities, mechanical properties, and chemical stabilities of the membranes derived from the synthesized ionomers were assessed as anion exchange membranes. The QPAEs membranes were tough and thermally stable up to 170 °C. The IEC of the ionomers varied from 0.21 to 2.38 meq g(-1) which can be controlled by chloromethylation reaction conditions. The ion conductivities of QPAEs membranes increase dramatically with increasing temperature. The hydroxide ion transport activation energy, Ea, of the QPAEs membranes varied from 13.18 to 42.30 kJ mol(-1). The QPAE-d membrane with lower IEC value of 1.04 meq g(-1), derived from copolymer CMPAE-d bearing sulfone/ketone structure, displayed the highest hydroxide ion conductivity of 75 mS cm(-1) at 80 °C and showed strong tensile strength (29.2 MPa) at 25 °C. The QPAE-e membrane with IEC value of 1.09 meq g(-1), derived from copolymer CMPAE-e bearing sulfone/ketone-ketone structure, demonstrated 68 mS cm(-1) at 80 °C. The QPAE-d membrane kept 90% of mechanical properties and 82% of hydroxide ion conductivity after being conditioned with 1 M NaOH at 60 °C for 170 h. These properties of the ionomers membranes show their potential as an anion exchange membrane of alkaline fuel cells. PMID:22708839

  14. glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaan, M. Y.; Salem, S. M.; Moustafa, M. G.; Kubuki, S.; Matsuda, K.; Nishida, T.

    2014-04-01

    Glass sample with a composition of Li1.3Nb0.3Fe1.7(PO4)3, prepared by a conventional melt-quenching method, was heat treated to obtain glass ceramics of NASICON type. Glass transition ( T g) and crystallization ( T c) temperatures of as-quenched glass sample were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns also confirmed the formation of glass sample. After heat treatment above T c, precipitation of crystalline particles with NASICON-type structure was confirmed by XRD. Valency and local structure of Fe atoms were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. DC-conductivity and impedance measurements of the glass ceramics proved the increased electrical conduction caused by heat treatment.

  15. Cusp Fracture Resistance of Maxillary Premolars Restored with the Bonded Amalgam Technique Using Various Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Marchan, Shivaughn M.; Coldero, Larry; White, Daniel; Smith, William A. J.; Rafeek, Reisha N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This in vitro study uses measurements of fracture resistance to compare maxillary premolars restored with the bonded amalgam technique using a new resin luting cement, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass ionomer as the bonding agents. Materials. Eighty-five sound maxillary premolars were selected and randomly assigned to one of five test groups of 17 teeth each. One group of intact teeth served as the control. The remaining groups were prepared to a standard cavity form relative to the dimensions of the overall tooth and restored with amalgam alone or a bonded amalgam using one of three luting agents: RelyX Arc (a new resin luting cement), RelyX luting (a resin-modified glass ionomer), or Ketac-Cem ? (a glass ionomer) as the bonding agents. Each tooth was then subjected to compressive testing until catastrophic failure occurred. The mean loads at failure of each group were statistically compared using ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. It was found that regardless of the luting cement used for the amalgam bonding technique, there was little effect on the fracture resistance of teeth. Conclusion. Cusp fracture resistance of premolars prepared with conservative MOD cavity preparations is not improved by using an amalgam-bonding technique compared to similar cavities restored with amalgam alone. PMID:20339450

  16. Structure and Mechanical Property Modifications by Blending Alkyl Carboxylate Salts into Ethylene-co-(Meth)Acrylic Acid Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki; Register, Richard A.

    2004-03-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the addition of magnesium stearate, a saturated linear alkyl carboxylate salt, has a significant effect on the behavior of ethylene-based ionomers, such as the initial suppression of polymer crystallinity and a gradual but substantial increase in the elastic modulus following room temperature annealing. This behavior is believed to originate in the coassembly of the two components, both co-aggregation of the ionic groups and co-crystallization of the alkyl segments. We test this hypothesis by blending either crystallizable or noncrystallizable alkyl carboxylates into ethylene-co-(meth)acrylic acid ionomers. DSC, WAXS and SAXS on a stearate-modified ionomer show that the alkyl chain segments are packed in a more organized fashion compared to the unmodified ionomer, while the resulting crystals are much thinner than those typically found in polyethylene. The non-crystalline magnesium oleate still coassembles with the ionomer in the melt, but does not crystallize at room temperature, acting instead as a plasticizer for the amorphous phase.

  17. Single kernel ionomic profiles are highly heritable indicators of genetic and environmental influences on elemental accumulation in maize grain (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel represents at least two distinct ideas. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food, feed and feedstocks for people, animals and industrial processes. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can s...

  18. Morphological and physical characterization of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers and ionomers thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, Daniel Webster, III

    Poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers made by living cationic polymerization using a difunctional initiator and the sequential monomer addition technique were analyzed using curve-resolution software in conjunction with high-resolution GPC. Fractional precipitation and selective solvent extraction were applied to a representative sample in order to confirm the identity of contaminating species. The latter were found to be low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymer, diblock copolymer, and higher molecular weight segmented block copolymers formed by intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution linking reactions occurring late in the polymerization of the styrene outer blocks. Solvent-cast films of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (PS-PIB-PS) block copolymers and block ionomers were analyzed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four block copolymer samples with center block molecular weights of 52,000 g/mol and PS volume fractions (o sbPS) ranging from 0.17 to 0.31 were studied. All samples exhibited hexagonally packed cylinders of PS within the PIB matrix. Cylinder spacing was in the range 32 to 36 nm for most samples, while cylinder diameters varied from 14 to 21 nm. Porod analysis of the scattering data indicated the presence of isolated phase mixing and sharp phase boundaries. PS-PIB-PS block copolymers and ionomers therefrom were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile testing. The study encompassed five block copolymer samples with similar PIB center blocks with molecular weights of approx52,000 g/mol and PS weight fractions ranging from 0.127 to 0.337. Ionomers were prepared from two of these materials by lightly sulfonating the PS outer blocks. Sulfonation levels varied from 1.7 to 4.7 mol % and the sodium and potassium neutralized forms were compared to the parent block copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the block copolymer films indicated the existence of a third phase attributed to PIB chains near the PS domain interface which experience reduced mobility due to their firm attachment to the hard PS domain. The relative amount of this phase decreased in samples with larger PS blocks, while the temperature of the associated transition increased. Tensile testing showed increased tensile strength but decreased elongation at break with larger PS blocks. DMA of the ionomers indicated improved dynamic modulus at temperatures above 100spcirc$C. Tensile testing of the ionomers indicated slight improvements in tensile strength with little loss in elongation at break. PS-PIB-PS block copolymer ionomer (BCP01, center block molecular weight = 53,000 g/mole; 25.5 wt % polystyrene, 4.7% sulfonation of phenyl units, 100% neutralized with KOH) was compounded with various organic and inorganic acid salts of 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethyl aminobenzoate (ODAB) to explore the efficacy of these compounds as ionic plasticizers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Phase inversion of ionomer-stabilized emulsions to form high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xu, Zhiguang; Cai, Zengxiao; Guo, Qipeng

    2015-06-28

    Herein, we report the phase inversion of ionomer-stabilized emulsions to form high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) induced by salt concentration and pH changes. The ionomers are sulfonated polystyrenes (SPSs) with different sulfonation degrees. The emulsion types were determined by conductivity measurements, confocal microscopy and optical microscopy, and the formation of HIPE organogels was verified by the tube-inversion method and rheological measurements. SPSs with high sulfonation degrees (water-soluble) and low sulfonation degrees (water-insoluble) can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions; these emulsions were transformed into water-in-oil HIPEs by varying salt concentrations and/or changing the pH. SPS, with a sulfonation degree of 11.6%, is the most efficient, and as low as 0.2 (w/v)% of the organic phase is enough to stabilize the HIPEs. Phase inversion of the oil-in-water emulsions occurred to form water-in-oil HIPEs by increasing the salt concentration in the aqueous phase. Two phase inversion points from oil-in-water emulsions to water-in-oil HIPEs were observed at pH 1 and 13. Moreover, synergetic effects between the salt concentration and pH changes occurred upon the inversion of the emulsion type. The organic phase can be a variety of organic solvents, including toluene, xylene, chloroform, dichloroethane, dichloromethane and anisole, as well as monomers such as styrene, butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Poly(HIPEs) were successfully prepared by the polymerization of monomers as the continuous phase in the ionomer-stabilized HIPEs. PMID:26028420

  20. The characterization of new fluorinated ionomers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savett, Scott Craig

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were fabricated using a novel class of bis[(perfluoalkyl)sulfonyl] imide ionomer materials synthesized by Professor Darryl D. DesMarteau and coworkers at Clemson University. These imide materials were incorporated in catalyst layers and used as membranes in fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). Corresponding fuel cells that used the structurally related industry standard DuPont Naflon were also assembled and tested as benchmarks. Assembled MEAs were characterized on a device level using multiple techniques including voltage-current discharge curves, current output at a static load potential, and measurement of cell resistance. Characterization was performed at a number of different cell temperatures (80, 100, and 110°C) and under a range of cell humidification conditions. The performance of MEAs with imide-based catalyst layers was found to be highly dependent upon the equivalent weight of the ionomer and the operating temperature. For MEAs where membrane material was the variable, performance was observed to be highly dependent upon membrane thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane ionomer. A representative number of these fuel cells were also characterized ex situ with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX). SEM micrographs were obtained that clearly displayed the distinct layers of MEAs. The transitions between the MEA layers were also visible in EDX elemental line scans. An investigation into the effect of catalyst poisoning from low levels of carbon monoxide in the hydrogen fuel stream was undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Anodic stripping voltammetry was used to electrochemically oxidize CO from Pt, Pt-Ru, and Pt-Mo catalyst surfaces. Results from this study corroborated earlier work at LANL for CO stripping voltammetry from Pt. Pt-Mo results were similar to those seen in literature. Pt-Ru showed CO desorption at the lowest overpotential of the three materials, indicating the highest feasibility as a fuel cell catalyst in the presence of CO.

  1. Purdue Ionomics Information Management System. An Integrated Functional Genomics Platform1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan; Ouzzani, Mourad; Orcun, Seza; Kennedy, Brad; Jandhyala, Shrinivas S.; Salt, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput phenotyping technologies has created a deluge of information that is difficult to deal with without the appropriate data management tools. These data management tools should integrate defined workflow controls for genomic-scale data acquisition and validation, data storage and retrieval, and data analysis, indexed around the genomic information of the organism of interest. To maximize the impact of these large datasets, it is critical that they are rapidly disseminated to the broader research community, allowing open access for data mining and discovery. We describe here a system that incorporates such functionalities developed around the Purdue University high-throughput ionomics phenotyping platform. The Purdue Ionomics Information Management System (PiiMS) provides integrated workflow control, data storage, and analysis to facilitate high-throughput data acquisition, along with integrated tools for data search, retrieval, and visualization for hypothesis development. PiiMS is deployed as a World Wide Web-enabled system, allowing for integration of distributed workflow processes and open access to raw data for analysis by numerous laboratories. PiiMS currently contains data on shoot concentrations of P, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, B, Se, Mo, Na, As, and Cd in over 60,000 shoot tissue samples of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), including ethyl methanesulfonate, fast-neutron and defined T-DNA mutants, and natural accession and populations of recombinant inbred lines from over 800 separate experiments, representing over 1,000,000 fully quantitative elemental concentrations. PiiMS is accessible at www.purdue.edu/dp/ionomics. PMID:17189337

  2. Simulation study of poled low-water ionomers with different architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Lwen, Hartmut

    2011-11-01

    The role of the ionomer architecture in the formation of ordered structures in poled membranes is investigated by molecular dynamics computer simulations. It is shown that the length of the sidechain Ls controls both the areal density of cylindrical aggregates Nc and the diameter of these cylinders in the poled membrane. The backbone segment length Lb tunes the average diameter Ds of cylindrical clusters and the average number of sulfonates Ns in each cluster. A simple empirical formula is noted for the dependence of the number density of induced rod-like aggregates on the sidechain length Ls within the parameter range considered in this study.

  3. Glass electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-25

    The objective of this research is a glass electrolyte for use in sodium/sulfur batteries that has a low resistivity (100 ohm-cm at 300/sup 0/C) and is stable in the cell environment. Experiments in this program are focussed on glasses in the quaternary system: soda, alumina, zirconia and silica. The FY 1983 research on glass analogs of NASICON, parallel thermodynamic calculations, and a review of the literature in the areas of glass conductivity and corrosion resistance led to selection of this system for more detailed investigation. The main program elements are: (1) conductivity measurements at 300 to 500/sup 0/C; (2) differential thermal analysis for determination of glass-transition and crystallization temperatures; (3) static corrosion tests at 400/sup 0/C using Na, Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and S; (4) mechanical strength and fracture toughness measurements; and (5) sodium/sulfur cell tests at 350/sup 0/C. Elements (1) and (2) are nearly completed; element (3) is being initiated using the glasses prepared for (1) and (2), and elements (4) and (5) will begin in the first and second quarters of FY 1985, respectively. Fourteen quaternary glasses having a broad range of compositions have been made. The resistivities of these glasses at 300/sup 0/C extended from 130 to 3704 ohm-cm; the activation energies for conduction extended from 0.488 to 0.684 eV, and the glass transition temperatures extended from 397 to 685/sup 0/C. Through a multiple linear regression analysis of these data response surfaces were generated for resistivity, activation energy for conduction, and glass transition temperature over the composition region within the quaternary system that is bounded by SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/AlO/sub 4/ and Na/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/. These response surfaces indicated a new region of high conductivity and high glass transition temperature in the neighborhood of 42% soda, 31% silica and 27% alumina plus zirconia.

  4. Photochromic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.J.

    1990-12-31

    This article deals with the general properties of photochromic inorganic glasses and the darkening and regeneration dynamics as well as the main photochemical and photophysical reactions occurring in the glasses. It concludes with applications of photochromic systems to self-adjusting window panes. This controlled flow of radiant energy could lead to important energy savings by decreasing the cooling and heating loads in buildings and automobiles.

  5. Graphene-supported platinum catalyst prepared with ionomer as surfactant for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zhao, G.; Yan, X. H.; Jung, C. Y.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we have synthesized an ionomer-coated graphene-supported platinum catalyst for anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Unlike the common surfactant stabilized colloidal method, we employ a home-made anion exchange ionomer (AEI), namely quaternary ammonia poly (2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (QAPPO), as the surfactant. The AEI coated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces serves as a stabilizer to anchor the platinum precursor on rGO surfaces due to electrostatic interactions. As a result, platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) can be easily deposited onto rGO surfaces with a uniform distribution. The remarkable feature of the present synthesis method is that the surfactant, the coated AEI, does not need to be removed from the catalyst, but serves as hydroxide-conductive paths in the catalyst layer, leading to enhanced triple phase boundaries. It is demonstrated that the use of the catalyst obtained with the present method enables a H2/O2 AEMFC to yield a peak power density of 264.8 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is 30% higher than that produced from the same fuel cell but with the use of the catalyst synthesized by the conventional synthesis method.

  6. Comparative metabolomic and ionomic approach for abundant fishes in estuarine environments of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Seiji; Date, Yasuhiro; Akama, Makiko; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics or ionomics is widely used to characterize the effects of environmental stressors on the health of aquatic organisms. However, most studies have focused on liver and muscle tissues of fish, and little is known about how the other organs are affected by environmental perturbations and effects such as metal pollutants or eutrophication. We examined the metabolic and mineral profiles of three kinds of abundant fishes in estuarine ecosystem, yellowfin goby, urohaze-goby, and juvenile Japanese seabass sampled from Tsurumi River estuary, Japan. Multivariate analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry-based ionomics approaches, revealed that the profiles were clustered according to differences among body tissues rather than differences in body size, sex, and species. The metabolic and mineral profiles of the muscle and fin tissues, respectively, suggest that these tissues are most appropriate for evaluating environmental perturbations. Such analyses will be highly useful in evaluating the environmental variation and diversity in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25387575

  7. Comparative metabolomic and ionomic approach for abundant fishes in estuarine environments of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Seiji; Date, Yasuhiro; Akama, Makiko; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics or ionomics is widely used to characterize the effects of environmental stressors on the health of aquatic organisms. However, most studies have focused on liver and muscle tissues of fish, and little is known about how the other organs are affected by environmental perturbations and effects such as metal pollutants or eutrophication. We examined the metabolic and mineral profiles of three kinds of abundant fishes in estuarine ecosystem, yellowfin goby, urohaze-goby, and juvenile Japanese seabass sampled from Tsurumi River estuary, Japan. Multivariate analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry-based ionomics approaches, revealed that the profiles were clustered according to differences among body tissues rather than differences in body size, sex, and species. The metabolic and mineral profiles of the muscle and fin tissues, respectively, suggest that these tissues are most appropriate for evaluating environmental perturbations. Such analyses will be highly useful in evaluating the environmental variation and diversity in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25387575

  8. Exploring Li+ Potential Energy Surface in Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Sulfonate Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael J.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2012-02-01

    Ion-containing polymers are of interest as single-ion conductors for use as electrolytes in electrochemical devices, including lithium ion batteries. Current ion conductivities of the best ionomers are roughly 100X too small for practical applications and have a small fraction of their Li+ counterions participating in conduction. We are using ab initio methods to investigate the Li+ conduction mechanism, and specifically the role of transient positive triple ions (Li+A-Li+) in the conduction process. The positive triple ion has a lower energy separated state that allows for facile transport, if there is a pair within 1.4 nm. We will discuss the competition between cation solvation with ether oxygen atoms and cation-anion interaction. The importance of anion-anion separation in altering Li+ hopping barriers will be examined, as well as the variation in hopping rates with solvent identity. Ab initio calculations are used to evaluate the relative energy of ion states (contact and separated states), and this analysis is used to explain experimental phenomena of Li+ mobility in ionomers.

  9. Morphological analysis of ionomers. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports work on the study of ion containing polymers. X-ray absorption fine structure studies have been carried out on lightly sulfonated polystyrenes and polyurethane cationomers. In the polystyrenes, nickel, zinc, and cadmium-neutralized ionomers were studied. A simulation package, FEFF5, was available to model the polystyrenes, and the experimental data was input into the simulation to arrive at an atomic arrangement which fit the experimental data. The cationomers structure is still unresolved, and the question of water absorption is a problem for this system. NMR of {sup 23}Na is also being used to study the local environment of the cation in sodium-neutralized lightly sulfonated polystyrene. Small angle neutron scattering experiments were also performed to explore the role of temperature in solution of sodium-neutralized carboxy-telechelic polystyrene ionomers in toluene. By adjusting the labelling levels and the angular range, the neutron scattering experiments probe either the aggregate structure or the single chain structure.

  10. Natural Genetic Variation in Selected Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana Is Associated with Ionomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Buescher, Elizabeth; Achberger, Tilman; Amusan, Idris; Giannini, Anthony; Ochsenfeld, Cherie; Rus, Ana; Lahner, Brett; Hoekenga, Owen; Yakubova, Elena; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Zhang, Min; Salt, David E.; Baxter, Ivan R.

    2010-01-01

    Controlling elemental composition is critical for plant growth and development as well as the nutrition of humans who utilize plants for food. Uncovering the genetic architecture underlying mineral ion homeostasis in plants is a critical first step towards understanding the biochemical networks that regulate a plant's elemental composition (ionome). Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana provide a rich source of genetic diversity that leads to phenotypic differences. We analyzed the concentrations of 17 different elements in 12 A. thaliana accessions and three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations grown in several different environments using high-throughput inductively coupled plasma- mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Significant differences were detected between the accessions for most elements and we identified over a hundred QTLs for elemental accumulation in the RIL populations. Altering the environment the plants were grown in had a strong effect on the correlations between different elements and the QTLs controlling elemental accumulation. All ionomic data presented is publicly available at www.ionomicshub.org. PMID:20559418

  11. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s ionomers containing quaternized triptycene groups for alkaline fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Gong, Feixiang; Zhang, Suobo; Li, Shenghai

    2012-11-01

    A series of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing quaternized triptycene groups are synthesized through a chloromethylation reaction following a quaternization process. The resulting ionomers are soluble in polar aprotic solvents; thus, flexible, tough membranes could be prepared by solution casting. Novel anion exchange membranes based on these ionomers are obtained by anion exchange with hydroxide ions. All anion exchange membranes show conductivities above 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature. The highest hydroxide conductivity is 7.2 × 10-2 S cm-1, which is achieved by the anion exchange membrane with ion exchange capacity (IEC) = 2.61 mmol g-1. Meanwhile, these anion exchange membranes have low water uptake and good dimensional stability even at high IEC values. For example, the membrane water uptake (IEC = 1.97 mmol g-1) is only 21% at room temperature, and the swelling ratio is 11%. The anion exchange membranes are stable in alkaline conditions. All the membranes have no significant change in 4 M NaOH solution at 25 °C after 30 days. All results suggest that these anion exchange membranes have potential application in alkaline fuel cells.

  12. Toward Reconciliation of STEM and SAXS Data from Ionomers by Investigating Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetatos, Nicholas; Smith, Brian; Heiney, Paul; Winey, Karen

    2005-03-01

    We have recently pioneered the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for direct, model independent imaging of the nano-scale morphology of ionomers. To date, the sizes of ionic aggregates determined in STEM experiments are inconsistent with SAXS data interpreted by the Yarusso-Cooper model. To address this discrepancy we have investigated a pair of model nanoparticles (11 and 55 atom Au clusters) with both STEM and SAXS. Using this model system we have improved our method of measuring nanometer scale objects and evaluated the importance of STEM probe size and specimen thickness. While the size of the STEM probe was inconsequential, specimen thicker than 50 nm showed significant depreciation of image quality, which limits our ability to accurately measure particle size. SAXS was performed on dilute suspensions of nanoparticles and fit using a monodisperse, hard-sphere form factor model. For Au11, STEM finds a diameter of 1.3 nm + .14 and SAXS finds a diameter of 1.4 nm. Similarly, both STEM and SAXS determine a diameter of 1.7 nm for Au55. Analysis of these model systems have allowed us to evaluate several factors of potential importance in reconciling STEM and SAXS data from ionomers.

  13. Antibacterial Properties of Dental Luting Agents: Potential to Hinder the Development of Secondary Caries

    PubMed Central

    Unosson, Erik; Cai, Yanling; Jiang, Xiyuan; Lööf, Jesper; Welch, Ken; Engqvist, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    A modified direct contact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of four commercially available dental luting agents (RelyX Unicem, Ketac Cem, Ceramir Crown & Bridge and Harvard Cement) and two reference materials (glass-ionomer cement and calcium aluminate cement) compared to a negative-control material (PMMA). Streptococcus mutans bacteria were placed in direct contact with specimens that had been aged for 10 min, 1 day, and 7 days, in order to test the antibacterial properties of the materials. A metabolic assay containing resazurin was used to quantify the amount of viable bacteria remaining after the direct contact tests. The effects of pH and fluoride on bacteria proliferation were also evaluated. Strongest antibacterial properties were found for calcium aluminate cement, followed by Ceramir Crown & Bridge and RelyX Unicem. Ketac Cem, Harvard Cement, and the reference glass-ionomer cement showed bacteria content either higher than or not significantly different from the PMMA control in all instances. pH levels below 6.3 and above 9.0 were found to have negative effects on bacterial proliferation. No correlation between either acidic materials or fluoride release and antibacterial properties could be seen; rather, basic materials showed stronger antibacterial properties. PMID:22505901

  14. Radiodensity of base, liner and luting dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Branco, Carolina Assaf; Soares, Paulo Vincius; Correr-Sobrinho, Loureno; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Jlio; Soares, Carlos Jos

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radiodensity of base, liner and luting dental materials and to compare them with human enamel and dentin. Four classes of materials were examined: conventional glass ionomers (CG)-Vitro Cem, Ketac Bond, Vidrion F, Vidrion C; resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGI)-Fuji II LC, Vitrebond; resinous cement (RC)-Rely-X ARC; and zinc phosphate cement (ZP)-Cimento LS. Five 2-mm-thick standard samples of each material and five 2-mm-thick enamel and dentin samples were produced. An aluminum step wedge served as control. Samples were positioned over a phosphor plate of Digora digital system, exposed to X-ray, and the radiodensity obtained in the software Digora for Windows 2.0. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunnett multiple comparisons test (alpha=0.05). According to statistical analysis, the following sequence in degree of radiodensity could be seen among the groups: Cimento LS (ZP) > Vitro Cem (CG) = Fuji II LC (RMGI) = Rely-X ARC (RC) = Vitrebond (RMGI) > Ketac Bond (CG) > enamel = Vidrion F (CG) > Vidrion C (CG) = dentin. The presence of radiopaque fillers such as zinc, strontium, zirconium, barium, and lanthanium rather than material type seems to be the most important factor when analyzing material radiodensity. Almost all investigated materials presented an accepted radiodensity. PMID:16498526

  15. Characterization of the yeast ionome: a genome-wide analysis of nutrient mineral and trace element homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Eide, David J; Clark, Suzanne; Nair, T Murlidharan; Gehl, Mathias; Gribskov, Michael; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2005-01-01

    Background Nutrient minerals are essential yet potentially toxic, and homeostatic mechanisms are required to regulate their intracellular levels. We describe here a genome-wide screen for genes involved in the homeostasis of minerals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), we assayed 4,385 mutant strains for the accumulation of 13 elements (calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, sodium, sulfur, and zinc). We refer to the resulting accumulation profile as the yeast 'ionome'. Results We identified 212 strains that showed altered ionome profiles when grown on a rich growth medium. Surprisingly few of these mutants (four strains) were affected for only one element. Rather, levels of multiple elements were altered in most mutants. It was also remarkable that only six genes previously shown to be involved in the uptake and utilization of minerals were identified here, indicating that homeostasis is robust under these replete conditions. Many mutants identified affected either mitochondrial or vacuolar function and these groups showed similar effects on the accumulation of many different elements. In addition, intriguing positive and negative correlations among different elements were observed. Finally, ionome profile data allowed us to correctly predict a function for a previously uncharacterized gene, YDR065W. We show that this gene is required for vacuolar acidification. Conclusion Our results indicate the power of ionomics to identify new aspects of mineral homeostasis and how these data can be used to develop hypotheses regarding the functions of previously uncharacterized genes. PMID:16168084

  16. Cluster-continuum quantum mechanical models to guide the choice of anions for Li{sup +}-conducting ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael J.; Liu, Wenjuan; Colby, Ralph H.

    2013-11-28

    A quantum-mechanical investigation on Li poly(ethylene oxide)-based ionomers was performed in the cluster-continuum solvation model (CCM) that includes specific solvation in the first shell surrounding the cation, all surrounded by a polarizable continuum. A four-state model, including a free Li cation, Li{sup +}-anion pair, triple ion, and quadrupole was used to represent the states of Li{sup +} within the ionomer in the CCM. The relative energy of each state was calculated for Li{sup +} with various anions, with dimethyl ether representing the ether oxygen solvation. The population distribution of Li{sup +} ions among states was estimated by applying Boltzmann statistics to the CCM energies. Entropy difference estimates are needed for populations to better match the true ionomer system. The total entropy change is considered to consist of four contributions: translational, rotational, electrostatic, and solvent immobilization entropies. The population of ion states is reported as a function of Bjerrum length divided by ion-pair separation with/without entropy considered to investigate the transition between states. Predicted concentrations of Li{sup +}-conducting states (free Li{sup +} and positive triple ions) are compared among a series of anions to indicate favorable features for design of an optimal Li{sup +}-conducting ionomer; the perfluorotetraphenylborate anion maximizes the conducting positive triple ion population among the series of anions considered.

  17. Shoot ionome to predict the synergism and antagonism between nutrients as affected by substrate and physiological status.

    PubMed

    Pii, Youry; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    The elemental composition of a tissue or organism is defined as ionome. However, the combined effects on the shoot ionome determined by the taxonomic character, the nutrient status and different substrates have not been investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that phylogenetic variation of monocots and dicots grown in iron deficiency can be distinguished by the shoot ionome. We analyzed 18 elements in barley, cucumber and tomato and in two substrates (hydroponic vs soil)with different nutritional regimes. Multivariate analysis evidenced a clear separation between the species. In hydroponic conditions the main drivers separating the species are non essential-nutrients as Ti, Al, Na and Li, which were positively correlated with macro- (P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mo, B). The separation between species is confirmed when plants are grown on soil,but the distribution is determined especially by macronutrients (S, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (B). A number of macro (Mg, Ca, S, P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) contribute to plant growth and several other important physiological and metabolic plant activities. The results reported here confirmed that the synergism and antagonism between them and other non-essential elements (Ti, Al, Si, Na) define the plant taxonomic character. The ionome profile might thus be exploited as a tool for the diagnosis of plants physiological/nutritional status but also in defining biofortification strategies to optimize both mineral enrichment of staple food crops and the nutrient input as fertilizers. PMID:26004913

  18. Inhibition of carious lesions in vitro around gallium alloy restorations by fluoride releasing resin-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, M; Alim, N N; Itota, T; Torii, Y; Staninec, M; Inoue, K

    1999-03-01

    A new fluoride releasing resin-ionomer cement was used for bonding of gallium alloy restorations in vitro. Etching, priming, and fluoride releasing resin-ionomer cement were used in the experimental group (ARG), prior to placement of the gallium alloy restorations. Three different controls were used: gallium alloy only (G), no etching, fluoride releasing resin-ionomer cement, gallium alloy (RG), etching, priming, non-fluoride cement and gallium alloy (ACG). The mean shear bond strengths of ARG group to enamel and dentin were higher than those of the three control groups. Artificial secondary caries lesions around the restorations in the experimental group and the control groups were produced, using a strep. mutans culture. The microradiographs were examined for presence of a caries inhibition zone near the restoration. Caries inhibition zones were clearly detected around RG and ARG, but not around G and ACG. The results indicate that the fluoride releasing resin-ionomer cement provided good adhesion and caries inhibition in enamel and dentin. PMID:10786147

  19. High-resolution genome-wide scan of genes, gene-networks and cellular systems impacting the yeast ionome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To balance the demand for uptake of essential elements with their potential toxicity living cells have complex regulatory mechanisms. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen to identify genes that impact the elemental composition (ionome) of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using inductively coupled...

  20. Elemental-composition and plant-trait patterns in an ionomically and genetically diverse set of rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With about half of the worlds people dependent on rice as their main food source, improving the nutritional value of rice could have major impact on human health. The first step toward breeding rice cultivars with enhanced element composition (ionomics) is to understand the genetic diversity availab...

  1. Pinhole Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  2. Pinhole Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole

  3. Glass ionomer ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in fissure caries prevention results from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative performance of ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in preventing fissure caries in permanent molars was compared in a randomized clinical trial conducted in southern China (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01829334). Methods After obtaining ethical approval, healthy schoolchildren who had permanent first molars with occlusal fissures which were sound but deep or presented with only incipient caries were recruited for the study. Included molars were randomly allocated into one of four parallel study groups in units of left/right teeth per mouth. Two of the four groups adopted the methods of ART or fluoride-releasing resin sealant placement while the other two groups adopted the topical fluoride application methods. Fissure status of the molars in each group was evaluated every 6months. Development of dentine caries and sealant retention over 24months in the molars in the two sealant-using groups was compared in this report. Outcome on cost-effectiveness of all four groups over 36months will be reported elsewhere. Results At baseline, a total of 280 children (383 molars) with mean age 7.8years were involved for the two sealant groups. After 24months, 261 children (357 molars) were followed. Proportions of molars with dentine caries were 7.3% and 3.9% in the ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant groups, respectively (chi-square test, p?=?0.171). Life-table survival analysis showed that sealant retention (full and partial) rate over 24months for the resin sealant (73%) was significantly higher than that (50%) for the ART sealant (p?

  4. Micro direct methanol fuel cell with perforated silicon-plate integrated ionomer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, J. V.; Dalslet, B. T.; Johansson, A.-C.; Kallese, C.; Thomsen, E. V.

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the fabrication and characterization of a silicon based micro direct methanol fuel cell using a Nafion ionomer membrane integrated into a perforated silicon plate. The focus of this work is to provide a platform for micro- and nanostructuring of a combined current collector and catalytic electrode. AC impedance spectroscopy is utilized alongside IV characterization to determine the influence of the plate perforation geometries on the cell performance. It is found that higher ratios of perforation increases peak power density, with the highest achieved being 2.5 mW cm-2 at a perforation ratio of 40.3%. The presented fuel cells also show a high volumetric peak power density of 2 mW cm-3 in light of the small system volume of 480 ?L, while being fully self contained and passively feed.

  5. Simulation of a small molecule analogue of a lithium ionomer in an external electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Sara M.; McCoy, John D. Brown, Jonathan R.; Frischknecht, Amalie L.

    2014-01-07

    We have investigated the ion dynamics in lithium-neutralized 2-pentylheptanoic acid, a small molecule analogue of a precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) lithium ionomer. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed in an external electric field. The electric field causes alignment of the ionic aggregates along the field direction. The energetic response of the system to an imposed oscillating electric field for a wide range of frequencies was tracked by monitoring the coulombic contribution to the energy. The susceptibility found in this manner is a component of the dielectric susceptibility typically measured experimentally. A dynamic transition is found and the frequency associated with this transition varies with temperature in an Arrhenius manner. The transition is observed to be associated with rearrangements of the ionic aggregates.

  6. Organization of the Mammalian Ionome According to Organ Origin, Lineage Specialization, and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siming; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Park, Thomas J; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Seravalli, Javier; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-11-17

    Trace elements are essential to all mammals, but their distribution and utilization across species and organs remains unclear. Here, we examined 18 elements in the brain, heart, kidney, and liver of 26 mammalian species and report the elemental composition of these organs, the patterns of utilization across the species, and their correlation with body mass and longevity. Across the organs, we observed distinct distribution patterns for abundant elements, transition metals, and toxic elements. Some elements showed lineage-specific patterns, including reduced selenium utilization in African mole rats, and positive correlation between the number of selenocysteine residues in selenoprotein P and the selenium levels in liver and kidney across mammals. Body mass was linked positively to zinc levels, whereas species lifespan correlated positively with cadmium and negatively with selenium. This study provides insights into the variation of mammalian ionome by organ physiology, lineage specialization, body mass, and longevity. PMID:26549444

  7. Simulation of a small molecule analogue of a lithium ionomer in an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sara M; McCoy, John D; Frischknecht, Amalie L; Brown, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the ion dynamics in lithium-neutralized 2-pentylheptanoic acid, a small molecule analogue of a precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) lithium ionomer. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed in an external electric field. The electric field causes alignment of the ionic aggregates along the field direction. The energetic response of the system to an imposed oscillating electric field for a wide range of frequencies was tracked by monitoring the coulombic contribution to the energy. The susceptibility found in this manner is a component of the dielectric susceptibility typically measured experimentally. A dynamic transition is found and the frequency associated with this transition varies with temperature in an Arrhenius manner. The transition is observed to be associated with rearrangements of the ionic aggregates. PMID:24410237

  8. Anion conductive aromatic ionomers containing a 1,2-dibenzoylbenzene moiety for alkaline fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Awlad; Lim, Young-Don; Jang, Ho-Hyoun; Jeon, Young-Tae; Lim, Jin-Sung; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Whan-Gi; Jeon, Heung-Seok

    2013-11-01

    Novel anion-exchange membranes with high conductivities have been prepared for application to alkaline fuel cells. A quaternary ammonium poly(dibenzoylbenzene ether sulfone) membrane was synthesized by chloromethylation, followed by substitution with trimethylamine with an ion-exchange reaction. The quaternary ammonium groups were selectively substituted in the para-position of the pendant phenyl groups of the dibenzoylbenzene unit. The di-quaternary ammonium hydroxide polymers showed an elevated molecular weight and exhibited excellent solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Quaternization and the subsequent ion-exchange reactions were quantitative such that the obtained ionomer membranes had a high ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of up to 1.69 mmolg-1. The resultant polymer membranes were studied by 1H NMR, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), IEC, water uptake analysis, and ion conductivity analysis.

  9. Thermally Cross-Linked Anion Exchange Membranes from Solvent Processable Isoprene Containing Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ertem, S. Piril; Maes, Ashley M.; Seifert, Soenke; Herring, Andrew M; Coughlin, E. Bryan

    2015-01-28

    Random copolymers of isoprene and 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBCl) with varying compositions were synthesized via nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Subsequent quaternization afforded solvent processable and cross-linkable ionomers with a wide range of ion exchange capacities (IECs). Solution cast membranes were thermally cross-linked to form anion exchange membranes. Cross-linking was achieved by taking advantage of the unsaturations on the polyisoprene backbone, without added cross-linkers. A strong correlation was found between water uptake and ion conductivity of the membranes: conductivities of the membranes with IECs beyond a critical value were found to be constant related to their high water absorption. Environmentally controlled small-angle X-ray scattering experiments revealed a correlation between the average distance between ionic clusters and the ion conductivity, indicating that a well-connected network of ion clusters is necessary for efficient ion conduction and high ion conductivity.

  10. [Three years experience with ionomer cement in reconstructive middle ear surgery].

    PubMed

    Ehsani, B; Collo, D

    1994-07-01

    For nearly three years we have been using implants of polymaleinate ionomer in the reconstruction of the ossicle chain (Figure 1). Implants of this material can be easily formed by a diamond drill. An implant in site 18 months later is to be seen in Figure 2. From August 1990 through April 1993 this material has been implanted into 156 middle ears. Only one implant had to be explanted again for a second-look operation in cholesteatoma. Extrusion or any tissue reaction on the foreign substance could not be seen. The implant was examined histologically. It was covered by mucosa and not destructed anyway (Figure 3). According to the extension of a cholesteatoma we take away the dorsal wall of the ear canal for reasons of sanitation and leave a radical mastoid cavity in children. In adult patients we tend to reconstruct the ear-canal to avoid the disadvantages of a radical mastoid cavity: Frequent treatments and hearing-loss by resonance-shifting (2). For reconstructing the dorsal wall of the ear-canal cartilage of the concha and tragus is well qualified. In support of experimental and clinical experience of the Wrzburg group (1) we take ionomer micro-implants for reducing large radical mastoid cavities (Figure 4). The radical mastoid cavity is finished by the diamond-drill before being filled up with micro-implant in the dorsal parts. The micro-implant is covered by a flap of periost and connecting tissue. Figure 5 shows a situation operated by this technique 20 months ago, Figure 6 shows the result after operation of a former secerning radical mastoid cavity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7916784

  11. Dental glass-reinforced composite for caries inhibition: Calcium phosphate ion release and mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hockin H. K.; Moreau, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The two main challenges facing dental composite restorations are secondary caries and bulk fracture. Previous studies developed whisker-reinforced Ca-PO4 composites that were relatively opaque. The objective of this study was to develop an esthetic glass particle-reinforced, photo-cured calcium phosphate composite. Tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles were incorporated into a resin for Ca and PO4 release, while glass particles provided reinforcement. Ion release and mechanical properties were measured after immersion in solutions with pH of 7, 5.5, and 4. For the composite containing 40% mass fraction of TTCP, incorporating glass fillers increased the strength (p < 0.05). Flexural strength (mean sd; n = 6) at 30% glass was (99 18) MPa, higher than (54 20) MPa at 0% glass (p < 0.05). Elastic modulus was 11 GPa at 30% glass, compared to 2 GPa without glass. At 28 d, the released Ca ion concentration was (4.61 0.18) mmol/L at pH of 4, much higher than (1.14 0.07) at pH of 5.5, and (0.27 0.01) at pH of 7 (p < 0.05). PO4 release was also dramatically increased at cariogenic, acidic pH. The TTCP-glass composite had strength 2-3 fold that of a resin-modified glass ionomer control. In conclusion, the photo-cured TTCP-glass composite was smart and substantially increased the Ca and PO4 release when the pH was reduced from neutral to a cariogenic pH of 4, when these ions are most needed to inhibit tooth caries. Its mechanical properties were significantly higher than previous Ca, PO4 and fluoride releasing restoratives. Hence, the photo-cured TTCP-glass composite may have potential to provide the necessary combination of load-bearing and caries-inhibiting capabilities. PMID:19810118

  12. Use of ionomer as an electron injecting and hole blocking material for polymer light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyang-Mok; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hwang, Do-Hoon; Do, Lee-Mi; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jong-Woo; Park, Jung-Ki

    1998-05-01

    Light-emitting diodes of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEHPPV) are fabricated using sodium sulfonated polystyrene (SSPS) ionomer containing 10 mol % ionic groups as an electron injecting and hole blocking material. When an electric field stronger than 2.7107 V/m is applied, SSPS in the indium-tin oxide ITO/MEH-PPV/SSPS/Al system causes a bridging effect between sodium ions and the Al cathode at the SSPS/Al interface, leading to excellent electron injection. Furthermore, the ionomer has a high band gap energy of 5 eV, resulting in hole blocking. The operating voltage for the ITO/MEH-PPV/SSPS/Al is reduced by 60% and the relative quantum efficiency is enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared with those of the corresponding single-layer MEH-PPV device.

  13. Homogeneous coating of ionomer on electrocatalyst assisted by polybenzimidazole as an adhesive layer and its effect on fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zehui; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-12-01

    The fabrication of homogeneous ionomer distribution in fuel cell catalyst layers is necessary and important to improve the platinum utilization as well as the power density. Here, we focus on the effect of poly[2,2?-(2,6-pyridine)-5,5?-bibenzimidazole] (PyPBI) wrapped on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for anchoring Nafion ionomer to the electrocatalyst, in which PyPBI functions as the binding sites for platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) used as a catalyst. Based on the result using a control composite without having PyPBI, a strong interaction of the Nafion onto the PyPBI layer is recognized. Importantly, we find that the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) shows a much higher maximum power density than that of the MEA without PyPBI. A homogeneous coating of Nafion on the electrocatalyst using the PyPBI forms a long-range network of the ionomer, leading to an improved Pt-NP utilization efficiency as well as an enhanced power density of the MEA.

  14. Comparison of self-healing ionomer to aluminium-alloy bumpers for protecting spacecraft equipment from space debris impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Grande, A. M.; Mudric, T.; Zaccariotto, M.; Etemadi, E.; Di Landro, L.; Galvanetto, U.

    2013-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact behavior of a self-healing ionomeric polymer and compares its protection capability against space debris impacts to that of simple aluminium-alloy bumpers. To this end, 14 impact experiments on both ionomer and Al-7075-T6 thin plates with similar surface density were made with 1.5 mm aluminium spheres at velocity between 1 and 4 km/s.First, the perforation extent in both materials was evaluated vis--vis the prediction of well known hole-size equations; then, attention was given to the damage potential of the cloud of fragments ejected from the rear side of the target by analysing the craters pattern and the momentum transferred to witness plates mounted on a ballistic pendulum behind the bumpers.Self-healing was completely successful in all but one ionomer samples and the primary damage on ionomeric polymers was found to be significantly lower than that on aluminium. On the other hand, aluminium plates exhibited slightly better debris fragmentation abilities, even though the protecting performance of ionomers seemed to improve at increasing impact speed.

  15. Mapping of Ionomic Traits in Mimulus guttatus Reveals Mo and Cd QTLs That Colocalize with MOT1 Homologues

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, David B.; Sheng, Calvin C.; Zhu, Zhirui; Juenger, Thomas E.; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E.; Willis, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Natural variation in the regulation of the accumulation of mineral nutrients and trace elements in plant tissues is crucial to plant metabolism, development, and survival across different habitats. Studies of the genetic basis of natural variation in nutrient metabolism have been facilitated by the development of ionomics. Ionomics is a functional genomic approach for the identification of the genes and gene networks that regulate the elemental composition, or ionome, of an organism. In this study, we evaluated the genetic basis of divergence in elemental composition between an inland annual and a coastal perennial accession of Mimulus guttatus using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population. Out of 20 elements evaluated, Mo and Cd were the most divergent in accumulation between the two accessions and were highly genetically correlated in the RILs across two replicated experiments. We discovered two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Mo accumulation, the largest of which consistently colocalized with a QTL for Cd accumulation. Interestingly, both Mo QTLs also colocalized with the two M. guttatus homologues of MOT1, the only known plant transporter to be involved in natural variation in molybdate uptake. PMID:22292026

  16. Using decomposed Nafion ionomers to anchor Pt nanoparticles and improve their durability during methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Yong-Min; Wu, Pu-Wei; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Nafion ionomers were partially decomposed to produce oxygenated functional groups on Vulcan XC72R (XC72R) that enabled increased Pt ion adsorption when the functionalized XC72R was immersed in a 5 mM aqueous H2PtCl6 solution. X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra indicated that the oxidation state for the Pt ions remained unchanged upon adsorption on the functionalized XC72R whereas a notable reduction in the oxidation state was recorded when the Pt ions were adsorbed onto untreated XC72R. After a hydrogen reduction treatment, the Pt nanoparticles on the functionalized XC72R demonstrated impressive mass activities and durability retention during the methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR), compared to those of commercial E-TEK Pt/C samples. After the durability test, transmission electron microscope images showed that the Pt nanoparticles on the functionalized XC72R exhibited significantly reduced agglomeration, and X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed that the functional groups from the decomposed Nafion ionomers were still present. We attributed the notable durability improvement to the anchoring effect of decomposed Nafion ionomers that prevented the Pt nanoparticles from contacting XC72R directly, thus minimizing the undesirable migration and detachment of Pt nanoparticles during repeated MOR cycles.

  17. Species- and genome-wide dissection of the shoot ionome in Brassica napus and its relationship to seedling development

    PubMed Central

    Bus, Anja; Krber, Niklas; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Samans, Birgit; Snowdon, Rod J.; Li, Jinquan; Stich, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the genetic basis of the plant ionome is essential for understanding the control of nutrient transport and accumulation. The aim of this research was to (i) study mineral nutrient concentrations in a large and diverse set of Brassica napus, (ii) describe the relationships between the shoot ionome and seedling development, and (iii) identify genetic regions associated with variation of the shoot ionome. The plant material under study was a germplasm set consisting of 509 inbred lines that was genotyped by a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped by analyzing the concentrations of eleven mineral nutrients in the shoots of 30 days old seedlings. Among mineral concentrations, positive correlations were found, whereas mineral concentrations were mainly negatively correlated with seedling development traits from earlier studies. In a genome-wide association mapping approach, altogether 29 significantly associated loci were identified across seven traits after correcting for multiple testing. The associations included a locus with effects on the concentrations of Cu, Mn, and Zn on chromosome C3, and a genetic region with multiple associations for Na concentration on chromosome A9. This region was situated within an association hotspot close to SOS1, a key gene for Na tolerance in plants. PMID:25324847

  18. Metal glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Aleksei Iakovlevich

    1987-02-01

    Methods of producing amorphous alloys of various systems (e.g., Pd-Si, Fe-B, Ni-P, Ni-Nb, Ni-Ta, Co-Gd, Fe-Gd, Mg-Zn,and Ca-Al) are briefly discussed, and the atomic structure and properties of such alloys are examined. In particular, attention is given to anomalies in the low-temperature behavior of amorphous alloys, their electrical and magnetic properties, strength, ductility, and corosion stability. Some aplications of metal glasses are mentioned.

  19. Direct Comparisons of X-ray Scattering and Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Precise Acid Copolymers and Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, C. Francisco; Bolintineanu, Dan; Seitz, Michelle E.; Opper, Kathleen L.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Stevens, Mark J.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Winey, Karen I.

    2015-02-09

    Designing acid- and ion-containing polymers for optimal proton, ion, or water transport would benefit profoundly from predictive models or theories that relate polymer structures with ionomer morphologies. Recently, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study the morphologies of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymer and ionomer melts. Here, we present the first direct comparisons between scattering profiles, I(q), calculated from these atomistic MD simulations and experimental X-ray data for 11 materials. This set of precise polymers has spacers of exactly 9, 15, or 21 carbons between acid groups and has been partially neutralized with Li, Na, Cs, or Zn. In these polymers, the simulations at 120 C reveal ionic aggregates with a range of morphologies, from compact, isolated aggregates (type 1) to branched, stringy aggregates (type 2) to branched, stringy aggregates that percolate through the simulation box (type 3). Excellent agreement is found between the simulated and experimental scattering peak positions across all polymer types and aggregate morphologies. The shape of the amorphous halo in the simulated I(q) profile is in excellent agreement with experimental I(q). We found that the modified hard-sphere scattering model fits both the simulation and experimental I(q) data for type 1 aggregate morphologies, and the aggregate sizes and separations are in agreement. Given the stringy structure in types 2 and 3, we develop a scattering model based on cylindrical aggregates. Both the spherical and cylindrical scattering models fit I(q) data from the polymers with type 2 and 3 aggregates equally well, and the extracted aggregate radii and inter- and intra-aggregate spacings are in agreement between simulation and experiment. Furthermore, these dimensions are consistent with real-space analyses of the atomistic MD simulations. By combining simulations and experiments, the ionomer scattering peak can be associated with the average distance between branches of type 2 or 3 aggregates. Furthermore, this direct comparison of X-ray scattering data to the atomistic MD simulations is a substantive step toward providing a comprehensive, predictive model for ionomer morphology, gives substantial support for this atomistic MD model, and provides new credibility to the presence of stringy, branched, and percolated ionic aggregates in precise ionomer melts.

  20. Effect of soft segment crystallization and hard segment physical crosslink on shape memory function in antibacterial segmented polyurethane ionomers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Hu, J; Yeung, K

    2009-11-01

    Shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) ionomers containing constant 75 wt.% soft segment content were synthesized using poly(epsilon-caprolactone)diol, 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 1,4-butanediol and/or N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-isonicotinamide. To introduce substrate bonding antibacterial activity, pyridinium was prepared through a neutralization reaction using 1-iodooctane as neutralization agent. For the SMPU ionomer film obtained, tensile testing at 70 degrees C and dynamic mechanical analysis suggests that, at temperatures>T(ms) (the melting point of soft segments), 6.72 and 29.55 mol.% pyridinium within hard segments significantly decreased the mechanical properties such as the stress at 100% elongation (70 degrees C), the initial modulus (70 degrees C) and the elastic modulus (75-110 degrees C). Cyclic tensile investigation demonstrated that the two factors, soft segment crystallization and hard segment physical crosslink, play a very important role in shape memory function in SMPU ionomers. For the each individual specimen, the fixity ratio increased, and the recovery ratio decreased with the extension of cooling time. After sufficient cooling time, the fixity ratio of all specimens can reach a high value (approximately 95%). Owing to the disrupted physical crosslink in the sample containing 29.55 mol.% pyridinium, the crystallization rate of soft segments has less effect on shape fixity. Therefore, a high fixity ratio (93.8%) can be achieved in a short cooling time (30 s). In the control sample, the fixity ratio is only 73.7% after 30 s cooling. In addition, the admirable substrate bonding antibacterial activity of prepared SMPU ionomers was verified using standards AACTT 147 and ASTM E2149 in comparison with the control sample. The antibacterial activity of SMPU ionomers on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) is significant, and the rate of reduction of bacteria is 100%; the antibacterial activity on Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae) increases from 83.6% to 90.7% with increase in pyridinium content from 6.72 to 29.55 mol.%. PMID:19460466

  1. Direct comparisons of X-ray scattering and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations for precise acid copolymers and ionomers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buitrago, C. Francisco; Bolintineanu, Dan; Seitz, Michelle E.; Opper, Kathleen L.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Stevens, Mark J.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Winey, Karen I.

    2015-02-09

    Designing acid- and ion-containing polymers for optimal proton, ion, or water transport would benefit profoundly from predictive models or theories that relate polymer structures with ionomer morphologies. Recently, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study the morphologies of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymer and ionomer melts. Here, we present the first direct comparisons between scattering profiles, I(q), calculated from these atomistic MD simulations and experimental X-ray data for 11 materials. This set of precise polymers has spacers of exactly 9, 15, or 21 carbons between acid groups and has been partially neutralized with Li, Na, Cs, or Zn. Inmore » these polymers, the simulations at 120 °C reveal ionic aggregates with a range of morphologies, from compact, isolated aggregates (type 1) to branched, stringy aggregates (type 2) to branched, stringy aggregates that percolate through the simulation box (type 3). Excellent agreement is found between the simulated and experimental scattering peak positions across all polymer types and aggregate morphologies. The shape of the amorphous halo in the simulated I(q) profile is in excellent agreement with experimental I(q). We found that the modified hard-sphere scattering model fits both the simulation and experimental I(q) data for type 1 aggregate morphologies, and the aggregate sizes and separations are in agreement. Given the stringy structure in types 2 and 3, we develop a scattering model based on cylindrical aggregates. Both the spherical and cylindrical scattering models fit I(q) data from the polymers with type 2 and 3 aggregates equally well, and the extracted aggregate radii and inter- and intra-aggregate spacings are in agreement between simulation and experiment. Furthermore, these dimensions are consistent with real-space analyses of the atomistic MD simulations. By combining simulations and experiments, the ionomer scattering peak can be associated with the average distance between branches of type 2 or 3 aggregates. Furthermore, this direct comparison of X-ray scattering data to the atomistic MD simulations is a substantive step toward providing a comprehensive, predictive model for ionomer morphology, gives substantial support for this atomistic MD model, and provides new credibility to the presence of stringy, branched, and percolated ionic aggregates in precise ionomer melts.« less

  2. Direct comparisons of X-ray scattering and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations for precise acid copolymers and ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, C. Francisco; Bolintineanu, Dan; Seitz, Michelle E.; Opper, Kathleen L.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Stevens, Mark J.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Winey, Karen I.

    2015-02-09

    Designing acid- and ion-containing polymers for optimal proton, ion, or water transport would benefit profoundly from predictive models or theories that relate polymer structures with ionomer morphologies. Recently, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study the morphologies of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymer and ionomer melts. Here, we present the first direct comparisons between scattering profiles, I(q), calculated from these atomistic MD simulations and experimental X-ray data for 11 materials. This set of precise polymers has spacers of exactly 9, 15, or 21 carbons between acid groups and has been partially neutralized with Li, Na, Cs, or Zn. In these polymers, the simulations at 120 °C reveal ionic aggregates with a range of morphologies, from compact, isolated aggregates (type 1) to branched, stringy aggregates (type 2) to branched, stringy aggregates that percolate through the simulation box (type 3). Excellent agreement is found between the simulated and experimental scattering peak positions across all polymer types and aggregate morphologies. The shape of the amorphous halo in the simulated I(q) profile is in excellent agreement with experimental I(q). We found that the modified hard-sphere scattering model fits both the simulation and experimental I(q) data for type 1 aggregate morphologies, and the aggregate sizes and separations are in agreement. Given the stringy structure in types 2 and 3, we develop a scattering model based on cylindrical aggregates. Both the spherical and cylindrical scattering models fit I(q) data from the polymers with type 2 and 3 aggregates equally well, and the extracted aggregate radii and inter- and intra-aggregate spacings are in agreement between simulation and experiment. Furthermore, these dimensions are consistent with real-space analyses of the atomistic MD simulations. By combining simulations and experiments, the ionomer scattering peak can be associated with the average distance between branches of type 2 or 3 aggregates. Furthermore, this direct comparison of X-ray scattering data to the atomistic MD simulations is a substantive step toward providing a comprehensive, predictive model for ionomer morphology, gives substantial support for this atomistic MD model, and provides new credibility to the presence of stringy, branched, and percolated ionic aggregates in precise ionomer melts.

  3. Temperature dependence of ion and water transport in perfluorinated ionomer membranes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Morihiro; Hayamizu, Kikuko; Okada, Tatsuhiro

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of transport of ions and water molecules in perfluorosulfonated ionomer membranes for fuel cells, the temperature dependence of their transport behaviors was investigated in detail. Two types of Flemion membranes having different equivalent weight values (EW) were utilized along with Nafion 117 as the perfluorinated ionomer membranes, and H-, Li-, and Na-form samples were prepared for each membrane by immersion in 0.03 M HCl, LiCl, and NaCl aqueous solutions, respectively. The ionic conductivity, water self-diffusion coefficient (D(H)(2)(O)), and DSC were measured in the fully hydrated state as a function of temperature. The ionic conductivity of the membranes was reflected by the cation transport through the intermediary of water. Clearly, H(+) transports by the Grotthuss (hopping) mechanism, and Li(+) and Na(+) transport by the vehicle mechanism. The differences of the ion transport mechanisms were observed in the activation energies through the Arrhenius plots. The D(H)(2)(O) in the membranes exhibited a tendency similar to the ionic conductivity for the cation species and the EW value. However, no remarkable difference of D(H)(2)(O) between H- and the other cation-form membranes was observed as compared with the ionic conductivity. It indicates that water in each membrane diffuses almost in a similar way; however, H(+) transports by the Grotthuss mechanism so that conductivity of H(+) is much higher than that of the other cations. Moreover, the D(H)(2)(O) and DSC curves showed that a part of water in the membranes freezes around -20 degrees C, but the nonfreezing water remains and diffuses below that temperature. This fact suggests that completely free water (bulk water) does not exist in the membranes, and water weakly interacting with the cation species and the sulfonic acid groups in secondary and higher hydration shells freezes around -20 degrees C, while strongly binding water in primary hydration shells does not freeze. The ratio of freezing and nonfreezing water was estimated from the DSC curves. The D(H)(2)(O) in the membranes was found to be influenced by the ratio of freezing and nonfreezing water. DFT calculation of the interaction (solvation) energy between the cation species and water molecules suggested that the water content and the ratio of freezing and nonfreezing water depend strongly on the cation species penetrated into the membrane. PMID:16851330

  4. Ionizing radiation-induced copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid and ionomer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Alia

    The ionizing radiation-induced polymerization of acrylate esters is a technique employed for the curing of such materials for a variety of adhesive, coating, ink, and lithographic applications. The work presented in this dissertation involves the synthesis of a copolymer composed of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and acrylic acid (AA) using pulsed electron beam and gamma irradiation. The structure and synthesis kinetics of this copolymer were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron pulse radiolysis with kinetic spectroscopic detection (PR-KSD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of total dose, dose rate, and acrylic acid content on the polymerization reaction were studied. The conversion of 2-EHA monomer into polymer at a given total dose was found to be enhanced at lower dose rates and higher concentrations of acrylic acid. The pulse radiolysis investigation of the polymerization of 2-EHA and AA was performed through studies of four different types of systems: (i) neat 2-EHA, (ii) 2-EHA/methanol (MeOH) solutions, (iii) mixtures of 2-EHA and AA, and (iv) 2-EHA/AA/MeOH solutions. The build-up of carbon-centered neutral 2-EHA free radicals in neat 2-EHA was found to obey a second order rate law with a rate coefficient of ((7 +/- 3) x 108)epsilon EHA·, whereas in 2-EHA/AA mixtures it was found to obey a pseudo-first order rate law with a rate coefficient of (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10 10 mol-1 dm3 s-1. This phenomenon is suggested to originate in the increased H+ ion concentration in the presence of acrylic acid, which leads to a faster neutralization step of 2-EHA radical anions as they are transformed into neutral free radicals during the initiation step of the reaction. An investigation of the formation of ion-containing copolymers (known as ionomers) was performed using the radiation-synthesized poly(2-EHA-co-AA) and iron cations. Verification of successful incorporation of iron into the copolymer was identified by an asymmetric carboxylate stretch at 1600 cm -1 of the FTIR spectrum. TEM analysis of poly(2-EHA-co-AA)/Fe 2+ ionomers formed from formulated compositions involving a 2:1 mole ratio of ferrous acetate to acrylic acid exhibited ionic clusters of approximately 100 nm in diameter, which may include up to 350 ferrous cations.

  5. Facets of glass physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Ludovic; Ediger, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Glasses constitute a widespread form of solid matter, and glass production has been an important human technology for more than 3000 years. Despite that long history, new ways to understand the fundamental physics of glasses continue to emerge.

  6. Single-Kernel Ionomic Profiles Are Highly Heritable Indicators of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Elemental Accumulation in Maize Grain (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan R.; Ziegler, Gregory; Lahner, Brett; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Foley, Rachel; Danku, John; Armstrong, Paul; Salt, David E.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

    2014-01-01

    The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel can be viewed in at least two distinct ways. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food and feed for people and animals. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can summarize the life history of a plant, combining genetic programs and environmental interactions. We assert that single-kernel-based phenotyping of the ionome is an effective method of analysis, as it represents a reasonable compromise between precision, efficiency, and power. Here, we evaluate potential pitfalls of this sampling strategy using several field-grown maize sample sets. We demonstrate that there is enough genetically determined diversity in accumulation of many of the elements assayed to overcome potential artifacts. Further, we demonstrate that environmental signals are detectable through their influence on the kernel ionome. We conclude that using single kernels as the sampling unit is a valid approach for understanding genetic and environmental effects on the maize kernel ionome. PMID:24489944

  7. GlassForm

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT).

  8. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  9. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Single Chain Pentablock Ionomer in Dilute Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Dipak; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2013-03-01

    Co-polymers are in the core of many applications such as fuel cells, batteries and purification membranes that require transport across membranes. The challenge remains however that under the condition that transport is optimized, the stability of the membranes is compromised. To surmount this challenge, co-polymers with blocks targeting specific roles have been designed. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studies the structure and dynamics of ionic single chain pentablock copolymer (A-B-C-B-A) containing randomly sulfonated polystyrene in the center, tethered to poly-ethylene-r-propylene end-capped by poly - t - butyl styrene. The ionic block facilitates transport while the A and B componenet are incorporated for mechanical stability. The conformation and dynamics of single pentablock ionomer of molecular weight Mw = 50,000g/mol in an implicit poor solvent with dielectric constant of 1 and 77 .7, water, and mixture (1:1) of cyclohexane and n-heptane at 300K and 500K will be presented. The effect of solvents on conformation of a single molecule of pentablock was determined and compared with experiment, providing a stepping stone to the understanding phase behavior of this polymer. This work is partially supported by DOE DE-FG02-12ER46843.

  11. Oriented Morphology and Anisotropic Transport in Uniaxially Stretched Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    J Park; J Li; G Divoux; L Madsen; R Moore

    2011-12-31

    Relations between morphology and transport sensitively govern proton conductivity in perfluorsulfonate ionomers (PFSIs) and thus determine useful properties of these technologically important materials. In order to understand such relations, we have conducted a broad systematic study of H{sup +}-form PFSI membranes over a range of uniaxial extensions and water uptakes. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy, uniaxial deformation induces a strong alignment of ionic domains along the stretching direction. We correlate ionic domain orientation to transport using pulsed-field-gradient {sup 1}H NMR measurements of water diffusion coefficients along the three orthogonal membrane directions. Intriguingly, we observe that uniaxial deformation enhances water transport in one direction (parallel-to-draw direction) while reducing it in the other two directions (two orthogonal directions relative to the stretching direction). We evaluate another important transport parameter, proton conductivity, along two orthogonal in-plane directions. In agreement with water diffusion experiments, orientation of ionic channels increases proton conduction along the stretching direction while decreasing it in the perpendicular direction. These findings provide valuable fodder for optimal application of PFSI membranes as well as for the design of next generation polymer electrolyte membranes.

  12. Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants: Role of Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics, and Ionomics

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Samiksha; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Rachana; Singh, Vijay P.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soil and water causing toxicity/stress has become one important constraint to crop productivity and quality. This situation has further worsened by the increasing population growth and inherent food demand. It has been reported in several studies that counterbalancing toxicity due to heavy metal requires complex mechanisms at molecular, biochemical, physiological, cellular, tissue, and whole plant level, which might manifest in terms of improved crop productivity. Recent advances in various disciplines of biological sciences such as metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, etc., have assisted in the characterization of metabolites, transcription factors, and stress-inducible proteins involved in heavy metal tolerance, which in turn can be utilized for generating heavy metal-tolerant crops. This review summarizes various tolerance strategies of plants under heavy metal toxicity covering the role of metabolites (metabolomics), trace elements (ionomics), transcription factors (transcriptomics), various stress-inducible proteins (proteomics) as well as the role of plant hormones. We also provide a glance of some strategies adopted by metal-accumulating plants, also known as “metallophytes.” PMID:26904030

  13. Development of a robust pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte ionomer complex for anticancer nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chaemin; Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Hoang, Ngoc Ha; Sim, Taehoon; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2016-01-01

    A polyelectrolyte ionomer complex (PIC) composed of cationic and anionic polymers was developed for nanomedical applications. Here, a poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic acid)–poly(ethylene imine) triblock copolymer (PEG–PLA–PEI) and a poly(aspartic acid) (P[Asp]) homopolymer were synthesized. These polyelectrolytes formed stable aggregates through electrostatic interactions between the cationic PEI and the anionic P(Asp) blocks. In particular, the addition of a hydrophobic PLA and a hydrophilic PEG to triblock copolyelectrolytes provided colloidal aggregation stability by forming a tight hydrophobic core and steric hindrance on the surface of PIC, respectively. The PIC showed different particle sizes and zeta potentials depending on the ratio of cationic PEI and anionic P(Asp) blocks (C/A ratio). The doxorubicin (dox)-loaded PIC, prepared with a C/A ratio of 8, demonstrated pH-dependent behavior by the deprotonation/protonation of polyelectrolyte blocks. The drug release and the cytotoxicity of the dox-loaded PIC (C/A ratio: 8) increased under acidic conditions compared with physiological pH, due to the destabilization of the formation of the electrostatic core. In vivo animal imaging revealed that the prepared PIC accumulated at the targeted tumor site for 24 hours. Therefore, the prepared pH-sensitive PIC could have considerable potential as a nanomedicinal platform for anticancer therapy. PMID:26955270

  14. Quantum mechanical calculation of ion chains in Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Sulfonate Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael; Colby, Ralph; DOE Li+ battery energy project Team

    2013-03-01

    Ion-containing polymers are of interest as single-ion conductors for use as electrolytes in electrochemical devices, including lithium ion batteries. Current ion conductivities of the best ionomers are roughly 100X too small for practical applications and have a small fraction of their Li+ counterions participating in conduction. Ab initio methods are used to investigate the dissociation/association of ionic chain aggregates. The binding energy as a function of distance between ions is explored, in which the energy at each separation is optimized with respect to the number and location of solvating ether oxygen moieties. We study the barrier between the solvated and bound states as a function of distance between the ions, including the barrier to break ion chain aggregates in different positions along the chain. This is prerequisite to mesoscale simulations capable of reproducing the equilibrium between various ion chain aggregates, with realistic dynamics, from which conductivity pathways can be investigated. National Science Foundation: CBET Energy for Sustainability (CBET-0933391).

  15. Simulation of ionomer membrane fatigue under mechanical and hygrothermal loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasany, Ramin M. H.; Kjeang, Erik; Wang, G. G.; Rajapakse, R. K. N. D.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the fatigue lifetime of common perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer membranes under fluctuating hygrothermal conditions is essential for the development of durable fuel cell technologies. For this purpose, a finite element based fatigue lifetime prediction model is developed based on an elastic-plastic constitutive model combined with a Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue formulation. The model is validated against previously reported experimental results for a membrane under cyclic mechanical loadings. The validated model is then utilized to investigate the membrane fatigue lifetime in ex-situ applications under cyclic humidity and temperature conditions. The simulations suggest that the membrane fatigue lifetime is shorter under fluctuating humidity loadings than for temperature loadings. Additionally, the membrane fatigue lifetime is found to be more sensitive to the amplitude of the strain oscillations than to the mean strain under hygrothermal cycling. Most notably, the model predicts that simultaneous humidity and temperature cycling can exacerbate the fatigue process and reduce the fatigue lifetime by several orders of magnitude compared to isolated humidity or temperature cycling. The combination of measured mechanical fatigue data and the present numerical model provides a useful toolkit for analysis of membrane fatigue due to hygrothermal variations, which can be costly and time-consuming when addressed experimentally.

  16. Dynamics of Precise Ethylene-Acrylic Acid Copolymers and Ionomers Using Dielectric Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runt, James; Choi, U. Hyeok; Masser, Hanqing; Buitrago, C. Francisco; Middleton, L. Robert; Winey, Karen; Cordaro, Joseph; Frischknecht, Amalie

    2014-03-01

    This investigation focuses on a molecular-level understanding of the dynamics of novel copolymers, consisting of monodisperse ethylene sequences between very precisely spaced acrylic acid or ionic functionality. Incorporating ions in precise acid copolymers(via neutralization of a portion of the acid functionality) results in significant changes in the association state of the acid and ionic groups, as well as polymer and ion dynamics. The dynamics of these materials were explored over a wide temperature and frequency range using dielectric spectroscopy. Acid copolymers exhibit two local relaxations in the glassy state and a segmental relaxation above Tg. In addition, two slower relaxations above Tg were observed in ionomers, and their origin will be discussed in the presentation. For example, the highest temperature process is assigned to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization, associated with the microphase separated structure. A transition in the MWS relaxation frequency and strength is observed around the melting point of copolymers with sufficiently long ethylene sequences, suggesting that the MWS process in these materials is strongly correlated with crystallinity of the ethylene backbone. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Polymers Program.

  17. Electrical Properties of Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Ionomers as Single Ion Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.; Dou, Shichen; Zhang, Shihai; Klein, Robert J.; Runt, James P.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2006-03-01

    Polyethers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) are of interest for development of advanced lithium batteries because Li^+ ions have facile transport in this media. We make ionomers based on PEO by reacting poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers with the sodium salt of dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate. Since the sulfonate group is covalently bonded to the chain, it is essentially immobile and hence these materials are single-ion conductors. The charge spacing on the chain can be directly controlled by the molar mass of the PEG oligomers (we use M = 400, 600 and 900) used in the synthesis. Conductivity depends strongly on temperature, with nearly identical conductivities in all of our samples at the same T - Tg, suggesting that Li^+ ion transport is controlled by segmental motion of the PEO. Using the onset of electrode polarization (usually considered a nuisance in dielectric spectroscopy) we quantitatively estimate the free ion concentration and mobility, based on work of MacDonald (1952 & 1974) and Coelho (1983 & 1991). The temperature dependence of the free ion concentration is described by a simple pairing energy, which decreases in going from Li^+ to Na^+ to Cs^+, consistent with larger ions being less strongly bound to the sulfonate groups. The ion mobility shows a Vogel-Fulcher temperature dependence, as anticipated by the polymer's segmental motion controlling ion mobility.

  18. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomers size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFCs performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  19. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  20. Inverted glass harp.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Rosenberg, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions. PMID:26382336

  1. Inverted glass harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Brian J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions.

  2. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  3. Microleakage of Class V Methacrylate and Silorane-based Composites and Nano-ionomer Restorations in Fluorosed Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Abouheydari, Mohadese

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Enamel and dentin marginal sealing ability of the new adhesive materials could play an important role in successful restoration on fluorosed teeth. Purpose The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of low-shrinkage silorane-based composite, nano-ionomer, and methacrylate-based composite through self-etching approach or with enamel acid etching. Materials and Method Seventy-two extracted human molars with moderate fluorosed (according to Thylstrup and Fejerskov index, TFI= 4-6) were randomly divided into six groups (n=12). Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface at the cementoenamel junction and restored with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (methacrylate composite), Silorane Adhesive System/Filtek P90 , and nano primer/nano-ionomer according to the manufacturer’s instructions (self-etching approach) or with additional selective enamel acid etching before primer application for each adhesive. After water storage and thermocycling, microleakages of the samples were assessed using dye-penetration technique at the enamel and dentin margins. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests (α = 0.05).   Results There was a significant difference among the six groups at the enamel margin (p= 0.001), but not at the dentin margin (p= 0.7). For all the three adhesive materials, additional enamel etching resulted in significantly reduced microleakage at the enamel margin (p< 0.05). Conclusion Methacrylate- and silorane-based composites and nano-ionomer revealed a similar and good performance in terms of dentin marginal sealing, but not at the enamel margin. The additional selective enamel etching might improve enamel sealing for the three materials. PMID:26046105

  4. Levitation yields purer glass.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Edward D

    2004-02-01

    Recent developments regarding the development of REA1 Glass, a new glass which can be used in laser and optical communicatoins applications, are reviewed. The glass contains rare earth oxides, aluminum oxides, and silicon dioxide and is formulated in the Electrostatic Levitator at NASA Marshall Space Center. Because a variety of rare-earth elements can be incorporated into the glass, glasses with specific properties for specific tasks can be crafted. PMID:14968787

  5. Grafted ionomer complexes and their effect on protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Agata M; de Keizer, Arie; Detrembleur, Christophe; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Norde, Willem

    2010-11-01

    We have studied the formation and the stability of ionomer complexes from grafted copolymers (GICs) in solution and the influence of GIC coatings on the adsorption of the proteins ?-lactoglobulin (?-lac), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme (Lsz) on silica and polysulfone. The GICs consist of the grafted copolymer PAA(28)-co-PAPEO(22) {poly(acrylic acid)-co-poly[acrylate methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)]} with negatively charged AA and neutral APEO groups, and the positively charged homopolymers: P2MVPI(43) [poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)] and PAH?HCl(160) [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)]. In solution, these aggregates are characterized by means of dynamic and static light scattering. They appear to be assemblies with hydrodynamic radii of 8nm (GIC-PAPEO(22)/P2MVPI(43)) and 22nm (GIC-PAPEO(22)/PAH?HCl(160)), respectively. The GICs partly disintegrate in solution at salt concentrations above 10mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs and proteins has been studied with fixed angle optical reflectometry at salt concentrations ranging from 1 to 50mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs results in high density PEO side chains on the surface. Higher densities were obtained for GICs consisting of PAH?HCl(160) (1.6??1.9chains/nm(2)) than of P2MVPI(43) (0.6??1.5chains/nm(2)). Both GIC coatings strongly suppress adsorption of all proteins on silica (>90%); however, reduction of protein adsorption on polysulfone depends on the composition of the coating and the type of protein. We observed a moderate reduction of ?-lac and Lsz adsorption (>60%). Adsorption of BSA on the GIC-PAPEO(22)/P2MVPI(43) coating is moderately reduced, but on the GIC-PAPEO(22)/PAH?HCl(160) coating it is enhanced. PMID:21125002

  6. Grafted ionomer complexes and their effect on protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone surfaces

    PubMed Central

    de Keizer, Arie; Detrembleur, Christophe; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Norde, Willem

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the formation and the stability of ionomer complexes from grafted copolymers (GICs) in solution and the influence of GIC coatings on the adsorption of the proteins ?-lactoglobulin (?-lac), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme (Lsz) on silica and polysulfone. The GICs consist of the grafted copolymer PAA28-co-PAPEO22 {poly(acrylic acid)-co-poly[acrylate methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)]} with negatively charged AA and neutral APEO groups, and the positively charged homopolymers: P2MVPI43 [poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)] and PAH?HCl160 [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)]. In solution, these aggregates are characterized by means of dynamic and static light scattering. They appear to be assemblies with hydrodynamic radii of 8nm (GIC-PAPEO22/P2MVPI43) and 22nm (GIC-PAPEO22/PAH?HCl160), respectively. The GICs partly disintegrate in solution at salt concentrations above 10mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs and proteins has been studied with fixed angle optical reflectometry at salt concentrations ranging from 1 to 50mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs results in high density PEO side chains on the surface. Higher densities were obtained for GICs consisting of PAH?HCl160 (1.6??1.9chains/nm2) than of P2MVPI43 (0.6??1.5chains/nm2). Both GIC coatings strongly suppress adsorption of all proteins on silica (>90%); however, reduction of protein adsorption on polysulfone depends on the composition of the coating and the type of protein. We observed a moderate reduction of ?-lac and Lsz adsorption (>60%). Adsorption of BSA on the GIC-PAPEO22/P2MVPI43 coating is moderately reduced, but on the GIC-PAPEO22/PAH?HCl160 coating it is enhanced. PMID:21125002

  7. Ionomic responses and correlations between elements and metabolites under salt stress in wild and cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Shen, Qiufang; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    A thorough understanding of ionic detoxification and homeostasis is imperative for improvement of salt tolerance in crops. However, the homeostasis of elements and their relationship to metabolites under salt stress have not been fully elucidated in plants. In this study, Tibetan wild barley accessions, XZ16 and XZ169, differing in salt tolerance, and a salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 were used to investigate ionomic profile changes in tissues in response to 150 and 300 mM NaCl at the germination and seedling stages. At the germination stage, the contents of Ca and Fe significantly decreased in roots, while K and S contents increased, and Ca and Mg contents decreased in shoots, after 10 d of treatment. At the seedling stage, the contents of K, Mg, P and Mn in roots and of K, Ca, Mg and S in shoots decreased significantly after 21 d of treatment. Moreover, Na had a significant negative correlation with metabolites involved in glycolysis, ?-ketoglutaric acid, maleic acid and alanine in roots, and metabolites associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, sucrose, polyols and aspartate in leaves. The salt-tolerant genotypes XZ16 and CM72 showed a lower Na content in tissues, and less reduction in Zn and Cu in roots, of Ca, Mg and S in leaves, and shoot DW than the sensitive genotype XZ169, when exposed to a higher salt level. The results indicated that restriction of Na accumulation and rearrangement of nutrient elements and metabolites in barley tissues are possibly attributable to development of salt tolerance. PMID:24058150

  8. Picture Wall (Glass Structures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Photo shows a subway station in Toronto, Ontario, which is entirely glass-enclosed. The all-glass structure was made possible by a unique glazing concept developed by PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of flat glass. In the TVS glazing system, transparent glass "fins" replace conventional vertical support members used to provide support for wind load resistance. For stiffening, silicone sealant bonds the fins to adjacent glass panels. At its glass research center near Pittsburgh, PPG Industries uses the NASTRAN computer program to analyze the stability of enclosures made entirely of glass. The company also uses NASTRAN to simulate stresses on large containers of molten glass and to analyze stress effects of solar heating on flat glass.

  9. Photoluminescence in glasses and glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrt, Doris

    2009-07-01

    Photoluminescence in the UV-VIS region is a very sensitive analytical method and also an important optical property of glasses and glass ceramics for different applications which depends strongly on active centers, surrounding host glass composition and their interactions. Fluoride, phosphate, and silicate glasses of high intrinsic UV transmission and high purity doped with active luminescent ions of different electronic configurations (s2: As3+, Sb3+, Sn2+, Pb2+; d0: Ti4+, Nb+, Mo6+, Ta5+, W6; d10: Zn2+, Ag+ and Cu+, d5: Mn2+, fn like Sm3+, Eu3+, Eu2+, Tb3+) were investigated. Some glasses were transformed in glass ceramics. Distribution of coordination and change in the case of Zn2+ and Mn2+ were detected. Mn2+ can substitute Zn2+ in glass and also in crystal phases, Zn2SiO4 (willemite) and ZnAl2O4 (gahnite). But the larger RE ions cannot do it. So, the luminescence can be increased or decreased by the transformation of glasses in glass ceramics. Blue, green and red photoluminescence emission with various lifetimes, ?e ~ 1 ?s to 25 ms, were registered.

  10. Reaction cured glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Leiser, D. B.; Katvala, V. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to reaction cured glass and glass coatings prepared by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, other boron silicides, boron and mixtures with a reactive glass frit composed of a porous high silica borosilicate glass and boron oxide. The glassy composites of the present invention are useful as coatings on low density fibrous porous silica insulations used as heat shields and for articles such as reaction vessels that are subjected to high temperatures with rapid heating and cooling and that require resistance to temperature and repeated thermal shock at temperatures up to about 1482C (2700PF).

  11. GlassForm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-daymore » product consistency test (PCT).« less

  12. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence. PMID:25561271

  13. Methodological approaches for using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) imaging as a tool in ionomics: Examples from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hindt, Maria; Socha, Amanda L.; Zuber, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Here we present approaches for using multi-elemental imaging (specifically synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, SXRF) in ionomics, with examples using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The complexity of each approach depends on the amount of a priori information available for the gene and/or phenotype being studied. Three approaches are outlined, which apply to experimental situations where a gene of interest has been identified but has an unknown phenotype (Phenotyping), an unidentified gene is associated with a known phenotype (Gene Cloning) and finally, a Screening approach, where both gene and phenotype are unknown. These approaches make use of open-access, online databases with which plant molecular genetics researchers working in the model plant Arabidopsis will be familiar, in particular the Ionomics Hub and online transcriptomic databases such as the Arabidopsis eFP browser. The approaches and examples we describe are based on the assumption that altering the expression of ion transporters can result in changes in elemental distribution. We provide methodological details on using elemental imaging to aid or accelerate gene functional characterization by narrowing down the search for candidate genes to the tissues in which elemental distributions are altered. We use synchrotron X-ray microprobes as a technique of choice, which can now be used to image all parts of an Arabidopsis plant in a hydrated state. We present elemental images of leaves, stem, root, siliques and germinating hypocotyls. PMID:23912758

  14. Formation of Nanoparticles during Melt mixing a Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polyester and Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers: Morphology and Origin of Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,H.; Zhu, L.; Weiss, R.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticles and the mechanism of their formation in a blend of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester (LCP) and the zinc salt of a lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (Zn-SPS) were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to study the morphology of the blends and structure of nanoparticles. The origin of nanoparticle formation appeared to be related to the development of phenyl acetate chain ends on the LCP that arose due to a chemical reaction between the LCP and residual catalytic amounts of zinc acetate and/or acetic acid that were present from the neutralization step in the preparation of the ionomer. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns for the blends revealed that chain-packing within nanoparticles was different than that of the LCP or the homopolymers prepared from the LCP co-monomers. The crystals formed in the nanoparticles were also stable to much higher temperature (>350 C) than the parent LCP crystallites that melted at {approx}280 C.

  15. Influence of the ionomer/carbon ratio for low-Pt loading catalyst layer prepared by reactive spray deposition technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haoran; Roller, Justin M.; Mustain, William E.; Maric, Radenka

    2015-06-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalyst layers (CLs) were fabricated by direct deposition of the catalyst onto Nafion membranes using reactive spray deposition technique (RSDT) to reduce platinum (Pt) loading and reduce the number of catalyst synthesis and processing steps. Nitrogen adsorption, mercury porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the effects of ionomer/carbon ratio (I/C) on the surface area, pore structure and morphology of the CLs; cyclic voltammetry and polarization curves were used to determine the electrochemically active area (ECSA) and PEMFC performance. The BET surface area and pore volume of the CLs decreased continuously with increasing I/C ratio regardless of the catalyst loading. Bimodal distribution of pores with diameters ranging from 1.7 to 10 nm and from 30 to 100 nm were observed from the pore-size distribution of the CLs. The catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) with an I/C ratio of 0.3 showed the highest ECSA of 62 m2 gPt-1 and the best performance at 0.6 V for oxygen (1400 mA cm-2) and air (650 mA cm-2) among all RSDT samples. The optimum I/C ratio is lower compared to ink-based methods, and Pt nanoparticles showed improved distribution on the carbon surface. The RSDT process shows promise in achieving better ionomer coverage and penetration in the CL microstructure, enhancing the performance of low Pt-loading PEMFCs.

  16. Sphingolipids in the Root Play an Important Role in Regulating the Leaf Ionome in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dai-Yin; Gable, Kenneth; Chen, Ming; Baxter, Ivan; Dietrich, Charles R.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lahner, Brett; L, Shiyou; Markham, Jonathan E.; Morrissey, Joe; Han, Gongshe; Gupta, Sita D.; Harmon, Jeffrey M.; Jaworski, Jan G.; Dunn, Teresa M.; Salt, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipid synthesis is initiated by condensation of Ser with palmitoyl-CoA producing 3-ketodihydrosphinganine (3-KDS), which is reduced by a 3-KDS reductase to dihydrosphinganine. Ser palmitoyltransferase is essential for plant viability. Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes (At3g06060/TSC10A and At5g19200/TSC10B) encoding proteins with significant similarity to the yeast 3-KDS reductase, Tsc10p. Heterologous expression in yeast of either Arabidopsis gene restored 3-KDS reductase activity to the yeast tsc10? mutant, confirming both as bona fide 3-KDS reductase genes. Consistent with sphingolipids having essential functions in plants, double mutant progeny lacking both genes were not recovered from crosses of single tsc10A and tsc10B mutants. Although the 3-KDS reductase genes are functionally redundant and ubiquitously expressed in Arabidopsis, 3-KDS reductase activity was reduced to 10% of wild-type levels in the loss-of-function tsc10a mutant, leading to an altered sphingolipid profile. This perturbation of sphingolipid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tsc10a mutant leads an altered leaf ionome, including increases in Na, K, and Rb and decreases in Mg, Ca, Fe, and Mo. Reciprocal grafting revealed that these changes in the leaf ionome are driven by the root and are associated with increases in root suberin and alterations in Fe homeostasis. PMID:21421810

  17. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

    2003-01-03

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  18. Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana atfer4-1, atfh and atfer4-1/atfh mutants uncovers frataxin and ferritin contributions to leaf ionome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Irene; Vigani, Gianpiero

    2015-09-01

    Ferritins are iron-storage proteins involved in the environmental and developmental control of the free iron pool within cells. Plant ferritins are targeted to mitochondria as well as to chloroplasts. AtFer4 is the Arabidopsis thaliana ferritin isoform that can be also targeted to mitochondria. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein whose role is essential for plants; lack of AtFH frataxin causes early embryo-lethality in Arabidopsis. Because of that, the Arabidopsis atfh KO mutant is propagated in heterozygosis. For exploring the functional interaction between frataxin and ferritin, Arabidopsis double mutant atfer4-1/atfh was isolated and its physiological parameters were measured, as well as its ionome profile, together with those of both atfer4 and atfh single mutants, in different conditions of Fe supply. Impairment of both ferritin and frataxin did not lead to any effect on mitochondrial respiration. However, ionomics revealed that the content of macro- and microelements, occurring when the nutritional Fe supply changes, were altered in the mutants analysed. These results suggest that both ferritin and frataxin can contribute to the composition of the leaf ionome and also confirm ionomics as an excellent tool for detecting alterations in the plant's physiology. PMID:26042547

  19. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Oxynitride glass fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

  1. Cytotoxicity of a calcium aluminate cement in comparison with other dental cements and resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander; Konradsson, Katarina; König, Franz; Van Dijken, Jan W V; Schedle, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of a calcium aluminate cement with several currently used direct restorative materials. Specimens of three composites (QuiXfil, Tetric Ceram, Filtek Supreme), one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard Cement), one glass ionomer cement (Ketac Molar), and one calcium aluminate cement (DoxaDent), were used fresh or after 7-days' preincubation in cell culture medium at 37 degrees C, pH 7.2. PVC strips for ISO 10993-5 cytotoxicity test were used as positive control and glass specimens as negative control. L-929 fibroblasts (5-ml aliquots, containing 3 x 10(4) cells/ml), cultivated in DMEM with 10% FCS, 1% glutamine, and 1% penicillin/streptomycin at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 and trypsinized, were exposed to the specimens for 72 h. The cells were harvested, centrifuged, and resuspended in 500 microl DMEM and then counted in 500 microl DMEM for 30 s with a flow cytometer at 488 nm. The analysis of variance comparing the six materials showed different influences on L-929 fibroblast cytotoxicity (p <0.0001). The cytotoxicity of all specimens diminished with increasing preincubation time (p <0.0001). Fresh DoxaDent exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity, followed by QuiXfil. Ketac Molar showed the highest cytotoxicity. After 7 days of preincubation, Harvard Cement and Filtek Supreme demonstrated more cytotoxicity than the other materials (p <0.005). PMID:16428175

  2. In vitro bond strength and fatigue stress test evaluation of different adhesive cements used for fixed space maintainer cementation

    PubMed Central

    Cantekin, Kenan; Delikan, Ebru; Cetin, Secil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this research were to (1) compare the shear-peel bond strength (SPBS) of a band of a fixed space maintainer (SM) cemented with five different adhesive cements; and (2) compare the survival time of bands of SM with each cement type after simulating mechanical fatigue stress. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five teeth were used to assess retentive strength and another 50 teeth were used to assess the fatigue survival time. SPBS was determined with a universal testing machine. Fatigue testing was conducted in a ball mill device. Results: The mean survival time of bands cemented with R & D series Nova Glass-LC (6.2 h), Transbond Plus (6.7 h), and R & D series Nova Resin (6.8 h) was significantly longer than for bands cemented with Ketac-Cem (5.4 h) and GC Equia (5.2 h) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although traditional glass ionomer cement (GIC) cement presented higher retentive strength than resin-based cements (resin, resin modified GIC, and compomer cement), resin based cements, especially dual cure resin cement (nova resin cement) and compomer (Transbond Plus), can be expected to have lower failure rates for band cementation than GIC (Ketac-Cem) in the light of the results of the ball mill test. PMID:25202209

  3. FOAM GLASS INSULATION FROM WASTE GLASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste glass has proven to be effective for the production of foam glass insulation both in the bulk or rigid board form and pellet form. Problems inherent with the use of water, carbon black and calcium carbonate as the foaming agents, have been identified and many have been solv...

  4. Glass in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Neville

    2005-01-01

    Glass is reviewed from fabrication to application, laying emphasis on the wide-ranging physics involved. This begins with liquids and solids and the way in which glasses are defined and can be demonstrated in the classroom. At the atomic level the regular structure of crystals and their irregular counterparts in glasses are explained through…

  5. Glass in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Neville

    2005-01-01

    Glass is reviewed from fabrication to application, laying emphasis on the wide-ranging physics involved. This begins with liquids and solids and the way in which glasses are defined and can be demonstrated in the classroom. At the atomic level the regular structure of crystals and their irregular counterparts in glasses are explained through

  6. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  7. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  8. Oxynitride glass production procedure

    DOEpatents

    Weidner, Jerry R.; Schuetz, Stanley T.; O'Brien, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the preparation of high quality oxynitride glasses without resorting to high pressures. Nitrogen-containing compounds such as Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 are first encapsulated in a low melting temperature glass. Particles of the encapsulated nitrogen-containing compound are mixed with other oxide glass-formers and melted in an atmosphere of flowing nitrogen and in the presence of buffering gas to form the oxynitride glass. Glasses containing up to 15 at % nitrogen have been prepared by this method.

  9. Effects of bleaching agents on surface roughness of filling materials.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Ljubisa; Jordan, Rainer Andreas; Glasser, Marie-Claire; Arnold, Wolfgang Hermann; Nebel, Jan; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Thomas; Zimmer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a non-tactile optical measurement system to assess the effects of three bleaching agents' concentrations on the surface roughness of dental restoration materials. Two composites (Grandio, Venus) and one glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus) were used in this in vitro study. Specimens were treated with three different bleaching agents (16% and 22% carbamide peroxide (Polanight) and 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost)). Surface roughness was measured with an optical profilometer (Infinite Focus G3) before and after the bleaching treatment. Surface roughness increased in all tested specimens after bleaching treatment (p<0.05). Our in vitro study showed that dental bleaching agents influenced the surface roughness of different restoration materials, and the restoration material itself was shown to have an impact on alteration susceptibility. There seemed to be no clinical relevance in case of an optimal finish. PMID:24492113

  10. Acoustics of glass harmonicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    Glass musical instruments are probably as old as glassmaking. At least as early as the 17th century it was discovered that wine glasses, when rubbed with a wet finger, produced a musical tone. A collection of glasses played in this manner is called a glass harp. Another type of glass harmonica, called the armonica by its inventor Benjamin Franklin, employs glass bowls or cups turned by a horizontal axle, so the performer need only touch the rim of the bowls as they rotate to set them into vibration. We discuss the modes of vibration of both types of glass harmonica, and describe the different sounds that are emitted by rubbing, tapping, or bowing them. Rubbing with a wet finger tends to excite only the (2,0) mode and its harmonics through a ``stick-slip'' process, while tapping excites the other modes as well.

  11. High-temperature glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Katvala, V. E.; Leiser, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    Reaction-cured glasses resist thermal shock and maintain properties over range of -100 degrees Centrigrade to +1,480 degrees Centigrade. Stability makes these excellent materials for high-temperature glassware and tubing or as coatings for porous materials.

  12. Ionome and expression level of Si transporter genes (Lsi1, Lsi2, and Lsi6) affected by Zn and Si interaction in maize.

    PubMed

    Bokor, Boris; Bokorová, Silvia; Ondoš, Slavomír; Švubová, Renáta; Lukačová, Zuzana; Hýblová, Michaela; Szemes, Tomáš; Lux, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in various plant physiological processes. However, in excess, Zn becomes toxic and represents serious problem for plants resulting in Zn toxicity symptoms and decreasing biomass production. The effect of high Zn and its combination with silicon (Si) on ionome and expression level of ZmLsi genes was investigated in maize (Zea mays, L; hybrid Novania). Plants were cultivated hydroponically in different treatments: control (C), Zn (800 μM ZnSO4 · 7H2O), Si5 (5 mM of sodium silicate solution), and Si5 + Zn (combination of Zn and Si treatments). Growth of plants cultivated for 10 days was significantly inhibited in the presence of high Zn concentration and also by Zn and Si interaction in plants. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and mineral element concentration in tissues, root ionome was significantly altered in both Zn and Si5 + Zn treatments in comparison to control. Mineral elements Mn, Fe, Ca, P, Mg, Ni, Co, and K significantly decreased, and Se increased in Zn and Si5 + Zn treatments. Shoot ionome was less affected than root ionome. Concentration of shoot Cu, Mn, and P decreased, and Mo increased in Zn and Si5 + Zn treatments. The PCA also revealed that the responsibility for ionome changes is mainly due to Zn exposure and also, but less, by Si application to Zn stressed plants. Expression level of Lsi1 and Lsi2 genes for the Si influx and efflux transporters was downregulated in roots after Si supply and even more downregulated by Zinc alone and also by Zn and Si interaction. Expression level of shoot Lsi6 gene was differently regulated in the first and second leaf. These results indicate negative effect of high Zn alone and also in interaction with Si on Lsi gene expression level and together with ionomic data, it was shown that homeostatic network of mineral elements was disrupted and caused negative alterations in mineral nutrition of young maize plants. PMID:25430013

  13. Random pinning glass model

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Parisi, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Glass transition, in which viscosity of liquids increases dramatically upon decrease of temperature without any major change in structural properties, remains one of the most challenging problems in condensed matter physics despite tremendous research efforts in past decades. On the other hand, disordered freezing of spins in magnetic materials with decreasing temperature, the so-called spin glass transition, is understood relatively better. A previously found similarity between some spin glass models and the structural glasses inspired development of theories of structural glasses based on the scenario of spin glass transition. This scenario, although it looks very appealing, is still far from being well established. One of the main differences between standard spin systems and molecular systems is the absence of quenched disorder and the presence of translational invariance: it often is assumed that this difference is not relevant, but this conjecture still needs to be established. The quantities, which are well-defined and characterized for spin models, are not easily calculable for molecular glasses because of the lack of quenched disorder that breaks the translational invariance in the system. Thus the characterization of the similarity between spin and the structural glass transition remains an elusive subject. In this study, we introduced a model structural glass with built-in quenched disorder that alleviates this main difference between the spin and molecular glasses, thereby helping us compare these two systems: the possibility of producing a good thermalization at rather low temperatures is one of the advantages of this model. PMID:23382186

  14. Photonucleation in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goller, Martin Herbert

    The possibility of implementing gold-based photosensitivity in magnesium-aluminosilicate glasses was investigated. The compositional range was centered around the precipitation field of cordierite. The glass composition was varied by introducing alkali oxides to reduce the melting and processing temperatures since these conditions are also important for the photosensitivity process. A compromise was found among melting, processing and crystalline phases developed during heat treatment. Further studies addressed the introduction of the dopants necessary to obtain photosensitivity including the compounds of cerium and ZnO. Thermal analysis methods were used to determine the glass transformation temperature and the crystallization temperatures for the glasses. The phase development in crystallized glasses was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. High-temperature X-ray diffraction was used to follow the kinetics of the phase development. The glasses were also characterized using UV-VIS-spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. Theoretical investigations were made concerning basicity of the glass and non-bridging oxygen content of the glass in relation to the presence of photosensitivity. Using this analysis, the glasses in this work were compared with those previously reported. Light scattering of small particles in glass was studied both theoretically and experimentally using a commercial photosensitive lithium-aluminosilicate glass containing silver. This glass was also investigated concerning its crystallization behavior arising from different irradiation/heat treatment parameters. From this study it was shown that the optical parameters, i.e., the refractive index and absorption coefficient must be determined accurately for each system, if a quantitative estimate of particle size is desired. It was not possible to generate photosensitivity in the intended system, even with additives of cerium compounds and ZnO as previously reported for other systems. The basicity analysis and the non-bridging oxygen analysis indicate that the nature of the composition is not favorable to photosensitivity. The results suggest the merit of this approach when attempting to predict photosensitivity in other glass forming systems.

  15. Melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate in PC/zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang

    The effects of zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (ZnSPS) on the melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. Melt crystallization of pure PC is extremely slow due to its rigid chain. In the blend of PC and ZnSPS (PC-ZnSPS), the melt crystallization rate of PC can be enhanced. DSC was used to study the crystallization kinetics of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. The crystallization of PC at 190C increased in both partially miscible and miscible blends with ZnSPS. For PC-ZnSPS blend with same PC composition as 80%, the crystallization rate was affected by the sulfonation level of ZnSPS. The induction time of crystallization for a partially miscible blend PC-ZnSPS9.98 (80/20) was 40 minutes, and the crystallization reaches 27% crystallinity within 14 hrs. The induction time for pure PC with the same thermal history was more than 24 hrs. The crystal structure of PC crystal formed in PC-ZnSPS blend was studied by WAXD, which showed no difference from the reported WAXD pattern for pure PC. Molecular weight change of PC was found during the thermal annealing of PC-ZnSPS blend at 190C, but molecular weight alone cannot explain the change of crystallization rate of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. Discussion was made to address the mechanisms that are responsible for the crystallization rate enhancement of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. In order to understand and elucidate the reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend and its effect on the crystallization of PC, TG, GPC and GC-MS were used to investigate the stability of PC-ZnSPS blend and mixtures of PC with sodium tosylate (NaTS), zinc tosylate (ZnTS) and sodium benzoate (NaBZ). ZnSPS, NaTS and ZnTS undergo desulfonation of the sulfonate group at temperatures above 350C. The desulfonation process can destabilize PC and lower the maximum mass loss rate temperature of PC for more than 70C. NaTS, ZnTS and NaBZ have quite different effect on the thermal stability of PC at temperatures below 250C. NaBZ can significantly degrade PC both at 190C and 250C. PC does not show any molecular weight (M w) change in the presence of NaTS at 250C and 190C for up to 1hr and 16 hrs respectively. ZnTS can also cause Mw change of PC at 250C and 190C, but the changing of Mw of PC in the presence of ZnTS is less than that in the presence of NaBZ. The reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend can be explained based on Davis's ionic ester exchange reaction mechanism.

  16. Reversing Glass Wettability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, J. E., Jr.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment reverses wettability of glassware: Liquids that normally wet glass no longer do, and those that do not wet glass are made to do so. Useful in research on container effects in nucleation and growth of secondary phase from solution. Treatment consists of spreading 3 percent (by weight) solution of silicone oil in hexane isomers over glass, drying in air, and curing at 300 degrees C in vacuum for one hour.

  17. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  18. Glass--Sand + Imagination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris K.

    2000-07-01

    Glass is older than recorded history, and yet it is as new as tomorrow! How, when, or where man first learned to make glass is not known, but we do know that the ancient Egyptians were making glass articles as early as 2,600 B.C.E. (The making of glass beads may have begun as much as 3000 years earlier.) They used it to make jewelry and luxury items, such as decorative bowls and perfume bottles, available only to the wealthy.

  19. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  20. Drugstore Reading Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2006-03-01

    The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.

  1. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer's size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC's performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  2. An assessment of coronal leakage of permanent filling materials in endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Kishore; Habib, V. Ashiq; Shetty, S. Vidhyadhara; Khed, Jaishri N.; Prabhu, Vishnudas Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of hybrid composite, glass ionomer cement type II, silver amalgam and Ketac molar as permanent filling material in root canal treated teeth. Methodology: Hundred maxillary central incisors were selected for the study. After cleaning all the teeth, root canal treatment was carried out on all of them. The crown portion was cut-off at the cervical level. Three millimeter of coronal Gutta-percha was replaced by four different restorative materials. Then after thermocycling, samples were immersed in dye for 2 weeks. The amount of dye penetration was measured using stereomicroscope. Data were collected and analyzed statistically with ANOVA test and Student–Newman–Keuls test. Results: Coronal leakage was seen in all groups. Composite hybrid showed least amount of microleakage as compared to the other three experimental groups, and Ketac molar showed more leakage compared to other experimental groups. Conclusion: This study showed that hybrid composites offer better sealing ability compared to other materials tested in this study. PMID:26538928

  3. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post. PMID:26543733

  4. A Simple and Efficient Synthesis of an Acid-labile Polyphosphoramidate by Organobase-catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization and Transformation to Polyphosphoester Ionomers by Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiyi; Wang, Hai; Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Fuwu; Seetho, Kellie; Zou, Jiong; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Dove, Andrew P.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The direct synthesis of an acid-labile polyphosphoramidate by organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and an overall two-step preparation of polyphosphodiester ionomers (PPEI) by acid-assisted cleavage of the phosphoramidate bonds along the backbone of the polyphosphoramidate were developed in this study. The ultrafast organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of a cyclic phospholane methoxyethyl amidate monomer initiated by benzyl alcohol allowed for the preparation of well-defined polyphosphoramidates (PPA) with predictable molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions (PDI<1.10), and well-defined chain ends. Cleavage of the acid-labile phosphoramidate bonds on the polyphosphoramidate repeat units was evaluated under acidic conditions over a pH range of 1–5, and the complete hydrolysis produced polyphosphodiesters. The thermal properties of the resulting polyphosphoester ionomer acid and polyphosphoester ionomer sodium salt exhibited significant thermal stability. The parent PPA and both forms of the PPEIs showed low cytotoxicities toward HeLa cells and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The synthetic methodology developed here has enriched the family of water-soluble polymers prepared by rapid and convenient organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerizations and straightforward chemical medication reactions, which are designed to be hydrolytically degradable and have promise for numerous biomedical and other applications. PMID:23997276

  5. A Simple and Efficient Synthesis of an Acid-labile Polyphosphoramidate by Organobase-catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization and Transformation to Polyphosphoester Ionomers by Acid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyi; Wang, Hai; Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Fuwu; Seetho, Kellie; Zou, Jiong; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Dove, Andrew P; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-07-01

    The direct synthesis of an acid-labile polyphosphoramidate by organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and an overall two-step preparation of polyphosphodiester ionomers (PPEI) by acid-assisted cleavage of the phosphoramidate bonds along the backbone of the polyphosphoramidate were developed in this study. The ultrafast organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of a cyclic phospholane methoxyethyl amidate monomer initiated by benzyl alcohol allowed for the preparation of well-defined polyphosphoramidates (PPA) with predictable molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions (PDI<1.10), and well-defined chain ends. Cleavage of the acid-labile phosphoramidate bonds on the polyphosphoramidate repeat units was evaluated under acidic conditions over a pH range of 1-5, and the complete hydrolysis produced polyphosphodiesters. The thermal properties of the resulting polyphosphoester ionomer acid and polyphosphoester ionomer sodium salt exhibited significant thermal stability. The parent PPA and both forms of the PPEIs showed low cytotoxicities toward HeLa cells and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The synthetic methodology developed here has enriched the family of water-soluble polymers prepared by rapid and convenient organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerizations and straightforward chemical medication reactions, which are designed to be hydrolytically degradable and have promise for numerous biomedical and other applications. PMID:23997276

  6. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  7. Getting Started with Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The metamorphosis of glass when heated is a magical process to students, yet teachers are often reluctant to try it in class. The biggest challenge in working with glass in the classroom is to simplify procedures just enough to ensure student success while maintaining strict safety practices so no students are injured. Project concepts and safety…

  8. Getting Started with Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The metamorphosis of glass when heated is a magical process to students, yet teachers are often reluctant to try it in class. The biggest challenge in working with glass in the classroom is to simplify procedures just enough to ensure student success while maintaining strict safety practices so no students are injured. Project concepts and safety

  9. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  10. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  11. Laser machinable glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyo, Hirotaka; Shojiya, Masanori; Tsunetomo, Keiji

    2004-10-01

    Recently we found that titanium ions in glass are effective to reduce the ablation threshold in the UV laser irradiation. In case of Nd:YAG fourth harmonic generation (FHG, wavelength: 266 nm) irradiation, glass containing titanium ions showed 1/10 times smaller threshold compared with conventional one used for optics or windows. We named this Ti-containing glass Laser Machinable Glass (LMG). In this paper we present some applications made of LMG, a 4x4 planar micro hole array (PMH) for optical fibers alignment, a micro well array for reaction of a small amount of chemicals, and a micro channel used in the bio-chemical field. Using LMG for laser machining, all samples were fabricated precisely without cracking and chipping. We also successfully synthesized new Ti-containing laser machinable glass with thermal expansion coefficient below 40x10-7 K-1. The ablation threshold of this low-thermal-expansion glass was about 1.4 times lower than that of Pyrex. Moreover, this glass showed 25 times higher durability to NaOH (pH=10) than Pyrex.

  12. Fiber-reinforced glass

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, W.; Markman, S.

    1997-12-01

    Fiber-reinforced glass composites are glass or glass ceramic matrices reinforced with long fibers of carbon or silicon carbide. These composites are lighter than steel but just as strong as many steel grades, and can resist higher temperatures. They also have outstanding resistance to impact, thermal shock, and wear, and can be formulated to control thermal and electrical conductivity. With proper tooling, operations such as drilling, grinding, and turning can be completed in half the time required for non-reinforced glass. Currently, fiber-reinforced glass components are primarily used for handling hot glass or molten aluminum during manufacturing operations. But FRG is also under test as an engineering material in a variety of markets, including the aerospace, automotive, and semiconductor industries. Toward this end, research is being carried out to increase the size of components that can be delivered on a production basis, to develop economical methods of achieving complex near-net shapes, and to reduce the cycle time for production of specific shapes. This article focuses on the properties and applications of fiber-reinforced glass composites.

  13. Crown retention with use of different sealing systems on prepared dentine.

    PubMed

    Wolfart, S; Linnemann, J; Kern, M

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate crown retention after using different sealing systems on prepared dentine. Ca(OH)2 suspension was used in comparison with three adhesive bonding systems (Gluma Desensitizer, Optibond FL, Prompt L-Pop). Extracted human premolars were uniformly prepared with the use of a special parallelometer (11 degrees taper, 4 mm axial length). Groups of 20 teeth each were treated with each sealing system. Then crowns were fabricated and temporarily cemented twice. Finally the abutments were cleaned and the crowns were cemented with a glass-ionomer cement Ketac-Cem. Subgroups of 10 crowns were removed with a universal testing machine following storage in distilled water either for 3 days or for 150 days. Prior to dislodging, the crowns of both groups were subjected to chewing simulation. The mean dislodgement stresses in MPa were between 4.9 and 6.9. A range test of Student-Newmann-Keuls revealed significant differences between Ca(OH)2 and Optibond FL (P < 0.05), while the storage time had no significant effect. The level of microleakage increased significantly with storage time (P < 0.05). It is concluded, that the use of Gluma Desensitizer and Prompt L-Pop did not affect crown retention as compared with Ca(OH)2, thus may be used in combination with glass-ionomer cement to desensitize prepared teeth. PMID:14641668

  14. A method for producing controlled fluoride release from an orthodontic bracket.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Hobson, Ross S; Bai, Yuxing; Yan, Zhuoqun; Carrick, Thomas E; McCabe, John F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture and test, in vitro, a novel modification to provide fluoride-releasing orthodontic brackets. Thirty-two orthodontic brackets were drilled to produce a recess (approximately 1.3 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in depth) at the centre of the bracket base. Four materials, with and without the addition of sodium fluoride, a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem micro), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Fuji Ortho LC), a zinc phosphate (Zinc Cement Improved), and a resin (Transbond XT) were used to fill the recess in the bracket base. Fluoride release was measured daily during the first week and then weekly for 10 weeks. An ion chromatograph with suppressed conductivity was used for free fluoride ion determination. Statistical analysis to determine the amount of flouride release was undertaken using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. During the first 2 weeks, the resin group, with the addition of 38 per cent sodium fluoride added, released significantly more free fluoride (P < 0.05), but after 2 weeks the fluoride release markedly decreased. After 5 weeks, the RMGIC group, with 15 per cent added sodium fluoride, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily fluoride release than the other groups. The findings demonstrated that an appropriate fluoridated material can be used as a fluoride-releasing reservoir in a modified orthodontic bracket to enable it to release fluoride over the period of fixed appliance treatment. PMID:17804428

  15. The effect of post space preparation on the apical seal of root fillings using chemically adhesive materials.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E M; Saunders, W P; Rashid, M Y

    1991-03-01

    The effect on the apical seal of root filling teeth with two sealer cements that reacted chemically with tooth structure was studied in vitro. In addition, apical leakage of teeth obturated with these materials and subsequently prepared to accept a post was tested. Ninety single-rooted teeth with mature apices were prepared chemomechanically by the stepback technique using files and copious irrigation with 2.5 per cent sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were then randomly allocated to six groups of 15 teeth each. Two groups were root filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and one of three sealer cements: Tubliseal, a radiopaque glass ionomer luting cement, Ketac Cem, and a chemically active composite resin, Panavia Ex. Thirty minutes later, in one group for each material, a post space was prepared leaving 4-5 mm of root filling at the apex. The extent of apical leakage in each group was determined after immersion in Indian ink for 14 days. The teeth were demineralized, dehydrated and immersed in methyl salicylate, which rendered them transparent, and a linear measurement of dye penetration was recorded. No statistically significant difference in the extent of leakage was found between the sealers in those groups which were filled by lateral condensation and left intact. However, the degree of leakage increased after post space preparation with the glass ionomer and Tubliseal groups, but was reduced in the Panavia Ex group. PMID:1917089

  16. Topical fluoride application is able to reduce acid susceptibility of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Cheng, Hui; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of topical fluoride application on the acid susceptibility of restorative materials. Four restorative materials were investigated in this study: 2 composite resins (Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Silorane), a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Extra), and a conventional glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus). The samples were treated once with 1 of 8 different fluoride solutions (TiF4, NaF, AmF, and SnF2, each at native pH or pH 4) for 3 min or remained untreated (control). The samples were then eroded by citric acid (pH 2.6) for 5 days (61 min daily). Erosive substance loss, surface topographic and compositional changes were investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, after fluoride pretreatment and after erosion. The results indicate high-concentrated AmF solution at native pH was effective in inhibiting erosion in the conventional glass-ionomer cement and polyacid-modified resin composite. PMID:22673456

  17. Effect of different glasses in glass bonded zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.; Verma, S.

    1995-05-01

    A mineral waste form has been developed for chloride waste salt generated during the pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of salt-occluded zeolite powders bound within a glass matrix. The zeolite contains the salt and immobilizes the fission products. The zeolite powders are hot pressed to form a mechanically stable, durable glass bonded zeolite. Further development of glass bonded zeolite as a waste form requires an understanding of the interaction between the glass and the zeolite. Properties of the glass that enhance binding and durability of the glass bonded zeolite need to be identified. Three types of glass, boroaluminosilicate, soda-lime silicate, and high silica glasses, have a range of properties and are now being investigated. Each glass was hot pressed by itself and with an equal amount of zeolite. MCC-1 leach tests were run on both. Soda-lime silicate and high silica glasses did not give a durable glass bonded zeolite. Boroaluminosilicate glasses rich in alkaline earths did bind the zeolite and gave a durable glass bonded zeolite. Scanning electron micrographs suggest that the boroaluminosilicate glasses wetted the zeolite powders better than the other glasses. Development of the glass bonded zeolite as a waste form for chloride waste salt is continuing.

  18. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  19. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H. (Downers Grove, IL); Roche, Michael F. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  20. The modified Ottawa method to establish the update need of a systematic review: glass-ionomer versus resin sealants for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    MICKENAUTSCH, Steffen; YENGOPAL, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the application of the modified Ottawa method by establishing the update need of a systematic review with focus on the caries preventive effect of GIC versus resin pit and fissure sealants; to answer the question as to whether the existing conclusions of this systematic review are still current; to establish whether a new update of this systematic review was needed. Methods: Application of the Modified Ottawa method. Application date: April/May 2012. Results Four signals aligned with the criteria of the modified Ottawa method were identified. The content of these signals suggest that higher precision of the current systematic review results might be achieved if an update of the current review were conducted at this point in time. However, these signals further indicate that such systematic review update, despite its higher precision, would only confirm the existing review conclusion that no statistically significant difference exists in the caries-preventive effect of GIC and resin-based fissure sealants. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrated the modified Ottawa method as an effective tool in establishing the update need of the systematic review. In addition, it was established that the conclusions of the systematic review in relation to the caries preventive effect of GIC versus resin based fissure sealants are still current, and that no update of this systematic review was warranted at date of application. PMID:24212996

  1. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-Garca, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500mg/kg reached 72 and 142mg/kgdwt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences. PMID:25439500

  2. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO?depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Loladze, Irakli

    2014-01-01

    Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome-the mineral and trace-element composition-of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans. This study shows that eCO2 reduces the overall mineral concentrations (-8%, 95% confidence interval: -9.1 to -6.9, p<0.00001) and increases TNC:minerals > carbon:minerals in C3 plants. The meta-analysis of 7761 observations, including 2264 observations at state of the art FACE centers, covers 130 species/cultivars. The attained statistical power reveals that the shift is systemic and global. Its potential to exacerbate the prevalence of 'hidden hunger' and obesity is discussed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02245.001. PMID:24867639

  3. Morphology and electrochemical properties of perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers for vanadium flow battery applications: effect of side-chain length.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cong; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongzhang; Yao, Chuan; Shi, Dingqin

    2013-07-01

    Perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers (PFSI) with different side-chain lengths have been investigated with respect to their morphology and electrochemical properties in vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The results indicated that the membrane with the shortest side chains (SSC-M2) displayed small ion clusters and a low degree of hydrophobic-hydrophilic separation, which is favourable to reduce the cross-over of vanadium ions in the VFB. SSC-M2 shows a similar proton conductivity to Nafion, which carries longer ionic side chains but with much lower ion permeability. As a result, the VFB assembled with SSC-M2 exhibited a superior coulombic efficiency and a voltage efficiency close to that of Nafion115. In situ mass transfer revealed that SSC-M2 had a remarkably low degree of vanadium and water transfer across the membrane, which resulted in lower capacity fading than in the case of Nafion115. These results indicate that a membrane with short side chains is an ideal option in the fabrication of high-performance VFBs with low capacity loss. PMID:23775947

  4. Noteworthy impacts of polyurethane-urea ionomers as the efficient polar coatings on adhesion strength of plasma treated polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashmejahanbin, Mohammad. R.; Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi; Salimi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In present research, polypropylene (PP) was selected as a model nonpolar substrate for chemical modification using plasma. In the first step, the PP samples were treated using oxygen and argon atmospheres, individually. The prepared samples were analyzed using both FTIR and AFM techniques. The output of these techniques revealed that the carbonyl, carboxylic acid and its derivatives have been formed on the surface of PP. Afterward, a series of aqueous polyurethane-urea dispersions were synthesized as the novel polar coating for modified nonpolar polymers and characterized by different techniques including FTIR, DSC, TGA, mechanical properties and contact angle. Finally, the plasma treated samples were coated by prepared polyurethane ionomer. The results of pull-off analysis confirmed the significant role of the polyurethane as an extremely polar coating to create hydrogen bonding with functional groups on the surface of treated PP. The adhesion strength of polypropylenes increased from 0.04 MPa to 0.61 MPa for neat and oxygen-based plasma treated samples, respectively.

  5. Dissolving Bubbles in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.; Oronato, P. I.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical expression used to calculate time it takes for stationary bubbles of oxygen and carbon dioxide to dissolve from glass melt. Technique based on analytical expression for bubble radius as function time, with consequences of surface tension included.

  6. Whisker reinforced glass ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, D.A.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1996-06-03

    The process for making an in-situ whisker reinforced glass-ceramic that is up to 1.5 times as strong as conventional glass-ceramics was developed at Virginia Tech and patented in 1993. This technology has been identified as having commercial potential for use in high temperature heat exchanger applications for the electric power generation field by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). This technology was licensed by MATVA, Inc., a small Virginia business, for further development. In particular, the goal of this project was to develop a property database and conduct initial testing of heat exchanger prototypes to demonstrate its potential application. This final report describes how the glass precursor was formed, physical properties of the glass-ceramic, techniques for making heat exchanger prototypes.

  7. Seeing Glass Contractors Clearly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliberato, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Offers seven tips for finding and working with an effective glass contractor. For example, schools should consider the company's reputation and longevity of service, and whether it has in-house engineering capabilities. (EV)

  8. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  9. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  10. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  11. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  12. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  13. Frangible glass canisters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, R.

    1972-01-01

    The need for a canister that can release its contents without disturbing the contents dynamically is discussed. The solution of this problem by the use of a frangible glass canister is considered. The basic theory applicable to frangible glass and the method of initiating a command flaw are discussed. A brief description of the test program and the results of a flight test are presented.

  14. Microstructuring of Photosensitive Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji

    Femtosecond laser direct writing followed by thermal treatment and successive wet etching can form three-dimensional (3D) hollow microstructures inside photosensitive glass. The principles and procedures of this process are explained. Next, the fabrication of 3D microfluidic structures and optical microcomponents is reviewed. Finally, the manufacture of functional microchip devices such as a microfluidic dye laser, optofluidics, and a nano-aquarium by integrating the microcomponents in a single glass chip is demonstrated.

  15. Glass fiber insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, E.J.; Ngo, T.M.

    1993-06-29

    A composition for a glass fiber insulation is described comprising a loose mat of glass fibers having at least a portion of the surface coated with a water insoluble, non-hygroscopic, amorphous aluminum phosphate polymer having a molar ratio of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] to P[sub 2]O[sub 5] of less than 1 and providing a substantial thermal resistance.

  16. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  17. Metallic glass composition

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; Koch, Carl C.

    1986-01-01

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  18. Volcanic Glasses: Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Samuel E.

    1998-01-01

    Natural glass is the product of rapidly cooled molten rock. Two natural sources of the melt are volcanic eruption and meteoritic impact. Pure glass is an amorphous aggregate. Volcanic glass is a material that could be utilized in the construction of extraterrestrial outposts. Pumice and perlite are volcanic glasses currently used in the building industry. Samples of natural volcanic glass found in the lunar regolith were returned to Earth as part of the Apollo and Luna programs. An alpha proton X-ray spectrometer onboard the Pathfinder recently examined martian rocks located in the vicinity of the lander craft. Preliminary results of chemical composition by weight of SiO2 50-55%, Al203 11-13%, K20 1-2%, Na20 2-5%, CaO 4-6%, MgO 3-7%, FeO 12-14%, S03 2-5%, and MnO <1% were given for two rocks. Parenthetically, the values for K and Mn were perhaps too high, and the analysis was based on X-ray data only. The appreciable amount of silica already found on Mars and empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that the planet once had water sufficient to rapidly cool magma imply the possibility of discovering natural glass of volcanic origin in subsequent missions.

  19. Perspective: The glass transition.

    PubMed

    Biroli, Giulio; Garrahan, Juan P

    2013-03-28

    We provide here a brief perspective on the glass transition field. It is an assessment, written from the point of view of theory, of where the field is and where it seems to be heading. We first give an overview of the main phenomenological characteristics, or "stylised facts," of the glass transition problem, i.e., the central observations that a theory of the physics of glass formation should aim to explain in a unified manner. We describe recent developments, with a particular focus on real space properties, including dynamical heterogeneity and facilitation, the search for underlying spatial or structural correlations, and the relation between the thermal glass transition and athermal jamming. We then discuss briefly how competing theories of the glass transition have adapted and evolved to account for such real space issues. We consider in detail two conceptual and methodological approaches put forward recently, that aim to access the fundamental critical phenomenon underlying the glass transition, be it thermodynamic or dynamic in origin, by means of biasing of ensembles, of configurations in the thermodynamic case, or of trajectories in the dynamic case. We end with a short outlook. PMID:23556751

  20. Containerless synthesis of interesting glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    One aspect of containerless glass experimentation was thoroughly examined: glass forming ability. It is argued that although containerless processing will abet glass formation, other ground-based methods can do the job better. However, these methods have limitations, such as sample dimensions and concomitant ability to make property measurements. Most importantly, perhaps, is the observation that glass properties are a function of preparation procedure. Thus, it seems as though there still is an argument for use of containerless processing for glass forming.

  1. Glass microsphere lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

  2. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  3. Competitive formation of glasses and glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhao Ping; Ma, D.; Liu, Chain T; Chang, Y. Austin

    2007-01-01

    By systematically investigating the effect of chemical composition on the competitive formation of glasses in various systems, we attempt to address two long-standing scientific puzzles upon metallic glasses, i.e., (i) which composition is the best for forming glasses and glass-matrix composites and (ii) what determines the easy glass-forming composition range in a given alloy system. Our findings have led to the construction of a qualitative microstructure selection map, which is useful for guiding the design of bulkier metallic glasses and glass-matrix composites. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that the classical kinetic treatment of glass formation is insufficient; to analyze glass formation properly, it is necessary to go beyond simple assumptions of single polymorphic solidification during crystallization.

  4. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored by silorane-based composite with or without fiber or nano-ionomer

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Fattah, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This in vitro study investigated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored using silorane- or methacrylate-based composite along with or without fiber or nano-ionomer base. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety-six intact maxillary premolars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 12). G1 (negative control) was the intact teeth. In Groups 2-8, root canal treatment with mesio-occlusodistal preparation was performed. G2 (positive control) was kept unrestored. The other groups were restored using composite resin as follows: G3, methacrylate-based composite (Z250); G4, methacrylate composite (Z250) with polyethylene fiber; G5 and G6, silorane-based composite (Filtek P90) without and with the fiber, respectively; G7 and G8, methacrylate- and silorane-based composite with nano-ionomer base, respectively. After aging period and thermocycling for 1000 cycles, fracture strength was tested and fracture patterns were inspected. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (?=0.05). RESULTS Mean fracture resistance for the eight groups (in Newton) were G1: 1200 169a, G2: 360 93b, G3: 632 196c, G4: 692 195c, G5: 917 159d, G6: 1013 125ad, G7: 959 148d, G8: 947 105d (different superscript letters revealed significant difference among groups). Most of the fractures in all the groups were restorable, except Group 3. CONCLUSION Silorane-based composite revealed significantly higher strength of the restored premolars compared to that of methacrylate one. Fiber insertion demonstrated no additional effect on the strength of both composite restorations; however, it increased the prevalence of restorable fracture of methacrylate-based composite restored teeth. Using nano-ionomer base under methacrylate-based composite had a positive effect on fracture resistance and pattern. Only fiber-reinforced silorane composite restoration resulted in a strength similar to that of the intact teeth. PMID:25006384

  5. A new method to prepare high performance perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer/porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene composite membranes based on perfluorinated sulfonyl fluoride polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Libin; Li, Hong; Ai, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyong; Tang, Junkun; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Chaonan; Yuan, Wang Zhang; Zhang, Yongming

    2013-12-01

    Perfluorinated sulfonyl fluoride (PFSF) resin, the precursor of perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer is successfully dissolved in perfluorinated solvents, and its hydrophobic nature is utilized to resolve the difficulty of impregnating hydrophilic PFSA solution into hydrophobic porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). The composite membrane fabricated through such simple but effective method is well impregnated, leading to better ionic conductivity and lower gas permeability. The fuel cell constructed with PFSF solution based membranes shows superior performance as compared to that of its aqueous PFSA solution based counterpart, which is comparable to that of commercial Nafion 211.

  6. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  7. Jet penetration in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.; Kusubov, A.

    1991-05-01

    We describe a phenomenological model which accounts for the mechanical response of glass to intense impulsive loading. An important aspect of this response is the dilatancy accompanying fracture. We have also conducted a number of experiments with 38.1-mm diameter precision shaped charges to establish the performance against various targets and to allow evaluation of our model. At 3 charge diameters standoff, the data indicate that both virgin and damaged glass offer better (Bernoulli-scaled) resistance to penetration than either of 4340 steel, or 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Time-resolved measurements indicate two distinct phases of jet penetration in glass: An initial hydrodynamic phase, and a second phase characterized by a slower penetration velocity. Our calculations show that at early time, a crater is formed around the jet and only the tip of the undisturbed jet interacts with the glass. At late time the glass has collapsed on the jet and degraded penetration continues via a disturbed and fragmented jet.

  8. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  9. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    DOEpatents

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  10. Profiling the ionome of rice and its use in discriminating geographical origins at the regional scale, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Nunes, Luis; Wang, Yijie; Williams, Paul N; Zheng, Maozhong; Zhang, Qiufang; Zhu, Yongguan

    2013-01-01

    Element profile was investigated for their use to trace the geographical origin of rice (Oryza sativa L.) samples. The concentrations of 13 elements (calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd)) were determined in the rice samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectrometry. Most of the essential elements for human health in rice were within normal ranges except for Mo and Se. Mo concentrations were twice as high as those in rice from Vietnam and Spain. Meanwhile, Se concentrations were three times lower in the whole province compared to the Chinese average level of 0.088 mg/kg. About 12% of the rice samples failed the Chinese national food safety standard of 0.2 mg/kg for Cd. Combined with the multi-elemental profile in rice, the principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA) and Fibonacci index analysis (FIA) were applied to discriminate geographical origins of the samples. Results indicated that the FIA method could achieve a more effective geographical origin classification compared with PCA and DFA, due to its efficiency in making the grouping even when the elemental variability was so high that PCA and DFA showed little discriminatory power. Furthermore, some elements were identified as the most powerful indicators of geographical origin: Ca, Ni, Fe and Cd. This suggests that the newly established methodology of FIA based on the ionome profile can be applied to determine the geographical origin of rice. PMID:23586309

  11. Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24804793

  12. Sequential optimization of methotrexate encapsulation in micellar nano-networks of polyethyleneimine ionomer containing redox-sensitive cross-links

    PubMed Central

    Abolmaali, Samira Sadat; Tamaddon, Ali; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Javidnia, Katayoun; Dinarvand, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    A functional polycation nanonetwork was developed for delivery of water soluble chemotherapeutic agents. The complexes of polyethyleneimine grafted methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEI-g-mPEG) and Zn2+ were utilized as the micellar template for cross-linking with dithiodipropionic acid, followed by an acidic pH dialysis to remove the metal ion from the micellar template. The synthesis method was optimized according to pH, the molar ratio of Zn2+, and the cross-link ratio. The atomic force microscopy showed soft, discrete, and uniform nano-networks. They were sensitive to the simulated reductive environment as determined by Ellmans assay. They showed few positive ? potential and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 16210 nm, which decreased to 4911 nm upon dehydration. The ionic character of the nano-networks allowed the achievement of a higher-loading capacity of methotrexate (MTX), approximately 57% weight per weight, depending on the cross-link and the drug feed ratios. The nano-networks actively loaded with MTX presented some suitable properties, such as the hydrodynamic size of 11716 nm, polydispersity index of 0.22, and a prolonged swelling-controlled release profile over 24 hours that boosted following reductive activation of the nanonetwork biodegradation. Unlike the PEI ionomer, the nano-networks provided an acceptable cytotoxicity profile. The drug-loaded nano-networks exhibited more specific cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells if compared to free MTX at concentrations above 1 ?M. The enhanced antitumor activity in vitro might be attributed to endocytic entry of MTX-loaded nano-networks that was found in the epifluorescence microscopy experiment for the fluorophore-labeled nano-networks. PMID:24944513

  13. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of glass structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.

    1994-08-01

    Today`s understanding of the molecular-level structure of inorganic glasses has been transformed by the availability of a wide range of sensitive spectroscopic probes. Today we can relate glass composition to quantitative distributions of glass-forming cations and to changes in oxygen bonding and modifying cation geometries. Future spectroscopic studies will result in improved descriptions of anion and cation geometries and should provide glass scientists with the capability to optimize atomic arrangements for specific optical, electrical, and thermal properties.

  15. Caractérisation de la structure des membranes ionomères (NAFION^{tinytextregistered}) par diffusion de rayons X aux petits angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatat, L.; Rollet, A. L.; Diat, O.; Gébel, G.

    2002-07-01

    Ionomer membranes, like Nafion^{tinytextregistered} used in fuel cell, present a nano- phase separation between domains with different ionic concentrations. Up to now models describe the ionic domains as spheres of about 40 Å diameter. Small angles X-ray scattering studies over a large range of wave vectors, lead to a new assumption for the Nafion structure, describing the polymer aggregation as elongated objects surrounding by the ionic charges. Les membranes ionomères de type Nafion^{tinytextregistered} utilisées en pile à combustible, sont caractérisées par une nano-séparation de phases entre des domaines plus ou moins riches en sites ioniques. Les modèles proposés pour décrire ces domaines ioniques, les représentent généralement sous forme de sphères de 40 Å de diamètre. L'étude en diffusion de rayons X que nous avons menée récemment, sur une large gamme de vecteurs d'ondes, nous permet de proposer une vision différente de la structure du Nafion en considérant une agrégation de polymères sous formes d'objets très allongés, avec en surface les charges ioniques.

  16. Stained-Glass Pastels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

  17. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  18. Stained-Glass Pastels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students

  19. What Glass Ceiling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

  20. Shimmering Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Gail Murray

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for fifth- and sixth-graders where they create a translucent design of colored cellophane on black paper inspired by the stained-glass windows of the Middle Ages and the artwork of Lewis Comfort Tiffany. Enables the students to become crafts people rather than just observers of the past. (CMK)

  1. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  2. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own

  3. Keratopathy associated with intracorneal glass

    SciTech Connect

    Mannis, M.J.; Fiori, C.E.; Krachmer, J.H.; Rodrigues, M.M.; Pardos, G.

    1981-05-01

    A progressive nonedematous keratopathy developed in a 36-year-old patient after she was struck in the eye by glass fragments. Biopsy material that was examined by electron microscopy and electron beam microanalysis demonstrated the presence of intracorneal glass fragments, which could not be detected clinically. Retained intracorneal glass, generally thought to be completely inert, can be associated with a chronic keratopathy.

  4. Yesterday's Trash Makes Tomorrow's "Glass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Dale

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a glass art project inspired by Dale Chihuly. This project uses two-liter plastic soda bottles which are cut apart and trimmed. Applying heat using a hair dryer, the plastic curls and takes an uneven blown-glass quality. The "glass" is then painted using acrylic paint. (Contains 2 resources and 1 online

  5. Yesterday's Trash Makes Tomorrow's "Glass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Dale

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a glass art project inspired by Dale Chihuly. This project uses two-liter plastic soda bottles which are cut apart and trimmed. Applying heat using a hair dryer, the plastic curls and takes an uneven blown-glass quality. The "glass" is then painted using acrylic paint. (Contains 2 resources and 1 online…

  6. Barstow heliostat mirror glass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.

    1980-09-01

    The technical analysis performed on the special run of low iron float glass procured from the Ford Glass Division for the ten megawatt solar thermal/electric pilot power plant to be constructed at Barstow, California is discussed. The topics that are addressed include the optical properties and the relative durability of the glass. Two optical parameters, solar transmittance and optical flatness, were measured as referenced in the specification and found to be better than the stated tolerances. The average solar transmittance exceeded 0.890 transmittance units. The glass also exhibited optical angular flatness deviations less than +-1.0 mrad as required. Both qualitative and quantitative accelerated weathering tests were performed on the glass in order to compare its durability to other soda lime float glass and alternate composition glasses of interest to the solar community. In both the quantitative leaching experiments and the more qualitative room temperature and elevated temperature water vapor exposure experiments the heliostat glass exhibited the same characteristics as the other soda-lime silicate float glasses. As a final test for mirroring compatability, selected samples of the production run of the glass were sent to four different commercial manufacturers for mirror coating. None of the manufacturers reported any difficulty silvering the glass. Based on the tests performed, the glass meets or exceeds all optical specifications for the Barstow heliostat field.

  7. Volcanic glass as a natural analog for borosilicate waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstein, M.E.; Shettel, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Obsidian and basaltic glass are opposite end-members of natural volcanic glass compositions. Syngenetic and diagenetic tensile failure in basaltic glass (low silica glass) is pervasive and provides abundant alteration fronts deep into the glass structure. Perlitic fracturing in obsidian (high silica glass) limits the alteration zones to an {open_quotes}onion skin{close_quotes} geometry. Borosilicate waste glass behaves similarly to the natural analog of basaltic glass (sideromelane). During geologic time, established and tensile fracture networks form glass cells (a three-dimensional reticulated pattern) where the production of new fracture surfaces increases through time by geometric progression. This suggests that borosilicate glass monoliths will eventually become rubble. Rates of reaction appear to double for every 12C{degrees} of temperature increase. Published leach rates suggest that the entire inventory of certain radionuclides may be released during the 10,000 year regulatory time period. Steam alteration prior to liquid attack combined with pervasive deep tensile failure behavior may suggest that the glass waste form is not license defensible without a metallic- and/or ceramic-type composite barrier as an overpack.

  8. Oxynitride glass fibers. Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Messier, D.R.; Deguire, E.J.

    1985-09-12

    This invention relates to the production of high-elastic-modulus, high-strength, corrosion-resistant oxynitride glass-fibers for improved fiber-reinforced composites. The incorporation of nitrogen into silicon-yttrium-aluminum oxide glasses enhances the properties of bulk glass. This invention is the first demonstation that such glasses can be made into fibers. The addition of nitrogen to pratically any oxide glass fiber composition will produce improvements in properties similar to those shown for the silicon-yttrium-aluminum system.

  9. Profiles in garbage glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-09-01

    Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to color brown, green, or blue bottles. Sixty percent of the glass used in the US is clear (flint) and one-fourth is brown (amber). Almost half of the green bottles are imported wind and beer bottles. Other glass products include flat glass such as windows; fiberglass insulation; and glassware. These products use different manufacturing processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only container glass. Glass bottles are commonly collected in curb-side programs. Losses due to breakage and the abrasiveness of glass during collection and processing offset their low collection and processing costs. Breakage solutions include installation of interior baffles or nets in the collection trucks, special glass-only truck compartments, and limiting the number of times glass is transferred after collection before final processing. Ten states require deposits on glass bottles for beer and soft drinks and related items.

  10. The performance of Glass GEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Mitsuya, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Fushie, T.; Kishimito, S.; Guèrard, B.; Uesaka, M.

    2014-11-01

    Here we report the performance of Glass gas electron multipliers (Glass GEMs), which were fabricated with photo-etchable glass. The photo-etchable glass used for substrate is called PEG3 (Hoya Corporation). With this material, we succeeded in fabricating a Glass GEM that was 680 μ m-thick with a hole diameter of 170 μ m and Cr and Cu layer electrodes. A Glass GEM has advantages such as good uniformity, high gain, a flat surface without stretching, cylindrical holes, and the absence of outgassing from the material. We successfully operated a Glass GEM having 100 × 100 m 2 effective area with various gas mixtures. The energy resolution for 5.9 keV X-rays was 18%, obtained by uniform irradiation of the entire effective area. The gas gain of the Glass GEM reached up to 90,000 with a gas mixture of Ne/C 4 (90:10). The Glass GEM was also operated with Ar/C 4 and Ar/C 4 gas. The gain stability measured for Glass GEM showed no significant increase or decrease as a function of elapsed time from applying high voltage. The gain stability over 15 hours of operation was about 10% in high-count-rate irradiation. Gain mapping across the Glass GEM showed good uniformity with a standard deviation of about 10%.

  11. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  12. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D. (West Alexandria, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  13. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  14. Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroers, Jan; Johnson, William L.

    2004-12-01

    We report on experimental evidence of pronounced global plasticity measured in monolithic Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 bulk metallic glass under both bending and unconfined compression loading conditions. A plastic strain of 20% is measured, never before seen in metallic glasses. Also, permanent deformation and a strain exceeding 3% before failure is observed during bending of 4mm thick samples. To date, no monolithic metallic material has exhibited such a combination of high strength, extensive ductility, and high elastic limit. The large plasticity is reflected in a high Poisson ratio of 0.42, which causes the tip of a shear band to extend rather than initiate a crack. This results in the formation of multiple shear bands and is the origin of the observed large global ductility and very high fracture toughness, approximately 80 MPa m-1/2.

  15. Glass matrix armor

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, N.C.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes an armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the insides surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material.

  16. Breaking the glass ceiling.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, A

    1997-03-01

    The glass ceiling is a form of organizational bias and discrimination that prevents qualified professionals from achieving positions of top governance and leadership. This article examines glass ceiling barriers that keep physicians from the upper reaches of management. While these factors apply mainly to women and minority physicians in academia, and are attributable to sexual harassment and discrimination, physicians as a class are frequently denied executive management positions. Such denial results from inadequate preparation for a career in health care administration. Important issues in the professional development of physician executives include mentoring, training and education, administrative experience, and cultural and personality factors. All of those must be considered when making the transition from medicine to management. PMID:10165815

  17. Digitization of stained glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-04-01

    Digital photography was applied to the capture of images of the stained glass windows in the historic parish church in Fairford, Gloucestershire, England. Because of their size, the windows had to be photographed in 45 separate sections in order to capture all the detail present in the painting on the glass. The digital images of each section, approximately 3000 by 2300 pixels, were then mosaiced together in order to construct the very high resolution image needed for the complete window. A special backlight panel was constructed for the purpose, and techniques developed for minimizing the effects of reflected light and for calibrating the color of the images. Improvements in the technology for mounting and positioning the camera were identified as the most significant factors currently preventing the widespread adoption of this technology for virtual heritage applications.

  18. Athermal photofluidization of glasses.

    PubMed

    Fang, G J; Maclennan, J E; Yi, Y; Glaser, M A; Farrow, M; Korblova, E; Walba, D M; Furtak, T E; Clark, N A

    2013-01-01

    Azobenzene and its derivatives are among the most important organic photonic materials, with their photo-induced trans-cis isomerization leading to applications ranging from holographic data storage and photoalignment to photoactuation and nanorobotics. A key element and enduring mystery in the photophysics of azobenzenes, central to all such applications, is athermal photofluidization: illumination that produces only a sub-Kelvin increase in average temperature can reduce, by many orders of magnitude, the viscosity of an organic glassy host at temperatures more than 100?K below its thermal glass transition. Here we analyse the relaxation dynamics of a dense monolayer glass of azobenzene-based molecules to obtain a measurement of the transient local effective temperature at which a photo-isomerizing molecule attacks its orientationally confining barriers. This high temperature (T(loc)~800?K) leads directly to photofluidization, as each absorbed photon generates an event in which a local glass transition temperature is exceeded, enabling collective confining barriers to be attacked with near 100% quantum efficiency. PMID:23443549

  19. Athermal photofluidization of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. J.; Maclennan, J. E.; Yi, Y.; Glaser, M. A.; Farrow, M.; Korblova, E.; Walba, D. M.; Furtak, T. E.; Clark, N. A.

    2013-02-01

    Azobenzene and its derivatives are among the most important organic photonic materials, with their photo-induced trans-cis isomerization leading to applications ranging from holographic data storage and photoalignment to photoactuation and nanorobotics. A key element and enduring mystery in the photophysics of azobenzenes, central to all such applications, is athermal photofluidization: illumination that produces only a sub-Kelvin increase in average temperature can reduce, by many orders of magnitude, the viscosity of an organic glassy host at temperatures more than 100?K below its thermal glass transition. Here we analyse the relaxation dynamics of a dense monolayer glass of azobenzene-based molecules to obtain a measurement of the transient local effective temperature at which a photo-isomerizing molecule attacks its orientationally confining barriers. This high temperature (Tloc~800?K) leads directly to photofluidization, as each absorbed photon generates an event in which a local glass transition temperature is exceeded, enabling collective confining barriers to be attacked with near 100% quantum efficiency.

  20. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  1. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Bal, B Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B; Bonewald, Lynda F; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  2. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  3. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Carroll, Kyler J; Kiggans Jr, James O; Veith, Gabriel M; Meisner, Roberta; Boatner, Lynn A; Dudney, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  4. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwissler, J. G.; Adams, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solr concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  5. Enhancing the Brightness of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal Based Green Light-Emitting Devices through the Interface Engineering with Perfluorinated Ionomer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lin, Hong; Huang, He; Reckmeier, Claas; Zhang, Yu; Choy, Wallace C H; Rogach, Andrey L

    2016-02-10

    High photoluminescence quantum yield, easily tuned emission colors, and high color purity of perovskite nanocrystals make this class of material attractive for light source or display applications. Here, green light-emitting devices (LEDs) were fabricated using inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals as emitters. By introducing a thin film of perfluorinated ionomer (PFI) sandwiched between the hole transporting layer and perovskite emissive layer, the device hole injection efficiency has been significantly enhanced. At the same time, PFI layer suppressed charging of the perovskite nanocrystal emitters thus preserving their superior emissive properties, which led to the three-fold increase in peak brightness reaching 1377 cd m(-2). The full width at half-maximum of the symmetric emission peak with color coordinates of (0.09, 0.76) was 18 nm, the narrowest value among perovskite based green LEDs. PMID:26745020

  6. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Ali, M. I.

    1977-01-01

    The manner in which the weightless, containerless nature of in-space processing can be successfully utilized to improve the quality of infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses is determined. The technique of space processing chalcogenide glass was developed, and the process and equipment necessary to do so was defined. Earthbound processing experiments with As2S3 and G28Sb12Se60 glasses were experimented with. Incorporated into these experiments is the use of an acoustic levitation device.

  7. Structural color from colloidal glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and tunable pigment.

  8. Glass corrosion in natural environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.; Barkatt, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Experiments carried out during the progress period are summarized. Experiments carried out involving glass samples exposed to solutions of Tris have shown the appearance of 'spikes' upon monitoring glass dissolution as a function of time. The periodic 'spikes' observed in Tris-based media were interpreted in terms of cracking due to excessive stress in the surface region of the glass. Studies of the interactions of silicate glasses with metal ions in buffered media were extended to systems containing Al. Caps buffer was used to establish the pH. The procedures used are described and the results are given. Preliminary studies were initiated as to the feasibility of adding a slowly dissolving solid compound of the additive to the glass-water system to maintain a supply of dissolved additive. It appears that several magnesium compounds have a suitable combination of solubility and affinity towards silicate glass surfaces to have a pronounced retarding effect on the extraction of uranium from the glass. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that introducing a magnesium source into geologic repositories for nuclear waste glass in the form of a sparingly soluble Mg-based backfill material may cause a substantial reduction in the extent of long-term glass corrosion. The studies described also provide mechanistic understanding of the roles of various metal solutes in the leachant. Such understanding forms the basis for developing long-term predictions of nuclear waste glass durability under repository conditions. From what is known about natural highly reduced glasses such as tektites, it is clear that iron is dissolved as ferrous iron with little or no ferric iron. The reducing conditions were high enough to cause metallic iron to exsolve out of the glass in the form of submicroscopic spherules. As the nuclear waste glass is much less reduced, a study was initiated on other natural glasses in addition to the nuclear waste glass. Extensive measurements were carried out on these glasses in order to characterize their magnetic properties. Results of these studies are described.

  9. Glass corrosion in natural environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.

    1989-01-01

    A series of studies of the effects of solutes which appear in natural aqueous environments, specifically Mg and Al, under controlled conditions, permit characterization of the retardation of silicate glass leaching in water containing such solutes. In the case of Mg the interaction with the glass appears to consist of exchange with alkali ions present in the glass to a depth of several microns. The effect of Al can be observed at much lower levels, indicating that the mechanism in the case of Al involves irreversible formation of aluminosilicate species at the glass surface.

  10. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  11. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  12. Lightguiding in photochromic glasses.

    PubMed

    Crow, J D; Borrelli, N F; Seward Iii, T P; Chodak, J

    1975-03-01

    Lightguiding in ion-exchanged photochromic glass layers is reported. The guides were formed by ion exchange of Ag(+) for Na(+) or by outdiffusion of F. Guide attenuation was less than 0.2 dB/cm in many cases. The attenuation in the guide was varied over a range of Deltaalpha = 30 dB/cm by illuminating the guide with (1) uv radiation to darken the guide or order of seconds. (2) visible radiation to bleach the guide. Switching times were in the order of seconds. PMID:20134933

  13. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  14. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  15. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  16. Examination of glass-silicon and glass-glass bonding techniques for microfluidic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raley, N.F.; Davidson, J.C.; Balch, J.W.

    1995-10-23

    We report here on the results of experiments concerning particular bonding processes potentially useful for ultimate miniaturization of microfluidic systems. Direct anodic bonding of continuous thin pyrex glass of 250 {mu}m thickness to silicon substrates gives multiple, large voids in the glass. Etchback of thick glass of 1200 {mu}m thickness bonded to silicon substrates gives thin continuous glass layers of 189 {mu}m thickness without voids over areas of 5 cm {times} 12 cm. Glass was also successfully bonded to glass by thermal bonding at 800{degrees}C over a 5 cm {times} 7 cm area. Anticipated applications include microfabricated DNA sequencing, flow injection analysis, and liquid and gas chromatography microinstruments.

  17. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  18. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  19. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  20. Metallic glass velocity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.L.; Butler, S.C.; Massa, D.P.; Cavanagh, G.H.

    1996-04-01

    A metallic glass accelerometer has been developed for use as an underwater sound velocity sensor. The device uses the metallic glass material Metglas 2605SC which has been processed to achieve a virgin coupling coefficient of 0.96. The mechanical to electrical conversion is based on the detection of the change in the inductance of the device as a result of bending motion. The detection method uses a carrier frequency signal which is amplitude modulated by the received signal. This scheme was originally described by Wun-Fogle, Savage and Clark [{open_quote}{open_quote}Sensitive wide frequency range magnetostrictive strain gauge,{close_quote}{close_quote} Sensors and Actuators, 1{underscore}2{underscore}, 323{endash}331 (1987)]. The bender is in the form of a three layered laminate with a closed magnetic path window frame structure. The theory of operation along with measured and calculated results are presented for a prototype element with approximate dimensions 1.5{times}1.0{times}0.1 inches. Calculated and measured results agree for a reduced effective coupling coefficient of 0.72 and operation with a carrier field intensity of 0.87 Oe and carrier frequency of 20 kHz. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Metallic glass velocity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, John L.; Butler, Stephen C.; Massa, Donald P.; Cavanagh, George H.

    1996-04-01

    A metallic glass accelerometer has been developed for use as an underwater sound velocity sensor. The device uses the metallic glass material Metglas 2605SC which has been processed to achieve a virgin coupling coefficient of 0.96. The mechanical to electrical conversion is based on the detection of the change in the inductance of the device as a result of bending motion. The detection method uses a carrier frequency signal which is amplitude modulated by the received signal. This scheme was originally described by Wun-Fogle, Savage and Clark [``Sensitive wide frequency range magnetostrictive strain gauge,'' Sensors and Actuators, 1_2_, 323-331 (1987)]. The bender is in the form of a three layered laminate with a closed magnetic path window frame structure. The theory of operation along with measured and calculated results are presented for a prototype element with approximate dimensions 1.51.00.1 inches. Calculated and measured results agree for a reduced effective coupling coefficient of 0.72 and operation with a carrier field intensity of 0.87 Oe and carrier frequency of 20 kHz.

  2. Mechanical failure and glass transition in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The current majority view on the phenomenon of mechanical failure in metallic glasses appears to be that it is caused by the activity of some structural defects, such as free-volumes or shear transformation zones, and the concentration of such defects is small, only of the order of 1%. However, the recent results compel us to revise this view. Through molecular dynamics simulation it has been shown that mechanical failure is the stress-induced glass transition. According to our theory the concentration of the liquid-like sites (defects) is well over 20% at the glass transition. We suggest that the defect concentration in metallic glasses is actually very high, and percolation of such defects causes atomic avalanche and mechanical failure. In this article we discuss the glass transition, mechanical failure and viscosity from such a point of view.

  3. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank

  4. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  5. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Schramm, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technique of space processing for chalcogenide glass, and to define the process and equipment necessary. In the course of this program, successful long term levitation of objects in a 1-g environment was achieved. Glass beads 4 mm diameter were containerless melted and fused together.

  6. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time. PMID:24435528

  7. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne; Pickett, John Butler; Brown, Kevin George; Edwards, Thomas Barry

    1998-01-01

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  8. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  9. Silicate Glass Corrosion Mechanism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Lenting, Christoph; Dohmen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) of aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste borosilicate glasses is essential to predict their long-term aqueous durability in a geologic repository. Several observations have been made with compositionally different silicate glasses that cannot be explained by any of the established glass corrosion models. These models are based on diffusion-controlled ion exchange and subsequent structural reorganisation of a leached, hydrated residual glass, leaving behind a so-called gel layer. In fact, the common observation of lamellar to more complex pattern formation observed in experiment and nature, the porous structure of the corrosion layer, an atomically sharp boundary between the corrosion zone and the underlying pristine glass, as well as results of novel isotope tracer and in situ, real time experiments rather support an interface-coupled glass dissolution-silica reprecipitation model. In this model, the congruent dissolution of the glass is coupled in space and time to the precipitation and growth of amorphous silica at an inwardly moving reaction front. We suggest that these coupled processes have to be considered to realistically model the long-term performance of silicate glasses in aqueous environments.

  10. Oxide glass processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happe, R. A.; Topol, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    The experimental work performed thus far has resulted in the preparation of new glass compositions not reported heretofore in the open literature. Recent experiments which have resulted in the formation of 1/4-inch-diameter glass samples from two compositions, suggest that containerless melting and cooling as envisioned for space operations is of real technological significance. To date studies of space glasses have by choice been confined to oxide glasses only. It is felt that the applications for such glasses are more readily predictable than for the other materials, and that many of the principles that will evolve from a study of oxide glasses, which can be melted in air, permit a more direct approach to non-oxide materials in the future. The compositions being studied are all very simple in terms of traditional glass practices, none of them containing more than three major constituents. Future efforts should be concerned with more complex compositions, both to cover a broader range of optical properties and to enhance glass-forming tendencies.

  11. Metal Globules in Agglutinatic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A.; Dorais, M.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-03-01

    Our preliminary analyses show that Ni/Co ratios in micrometer sized metal globules in agglutinatic glass of soil 61181 are mostly above 20, which suggests meteoritic derivation. The excess metal in lunar soils relative to lunar rocks, therefore, is likely to be meteoritic in part and possibly resides in agglutinatic glass.

  12. Glass-An Environmental Protector

    SciTech Connect

    MARRA, JAMES

    2004-11-01

    From asbestos abatement to lead paint removal to nuclear waste stabilization and even to heavy metal removal using microorganisms, glass has great potential as a solution to many environmental problems. The ability to accommodate an array of chemical elements within the glass structure has facilitated the use of glass as a medium for the stabilization of numerous hazardous substances. The resulting glasses have proven to be durable enough for direct land disposal. In many cases, the stabilized forms have been deemed suitable for re-use in other applications. As recycling and hazardous material treatment become even more important in the global materials cycle, it is a certainty that glass will assume a prominent role.

  13. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

  14. Energetics of glass fragmentation: Experiments on synthetic and natural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Natural silicate glasses are an essential component of many volcanic rock types including coherent and pyroclastic rocks; they span a wide range of compositions, occur in diverse environments, and form under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. In subsurface volcanic environments (e.g., conduits and feeders), melts intersect the thermodynamically defined glass transition temperature to form glasses at elevated confining pressures and under differential stresses. We present a series of room temperature experiments designed to explore the fundamental mechanical and fragmentation behavior of natural (obsidian) and synthetic glasses (Pyrex™) under confining pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. In each experiment, glass cores are driven to brittle failure under compressive triaxial stress. Analysis of the load-displacement response curves is used to quantify the storage of energy in samples prior to failure, the (brittle) release of elastic energy at failure, and the residual energy stored in the post-failure material. We then establish a relationship between the energy density within the sample at failure and the grain-size distributions (D-values) of the experimental products. The relationship between D-values and energy density for compressive fragmentation is significantly different from relationships established by previous workers for decompressive fragmentation. Compressive fragmentation is found to have lower fragmentation efficiency than fragmentation through decompression (i.e., a smaller change in D-value with increasing energy density). We further show that the stress storage capacity of natural glasses can be enhanced (approaching synthetic glasses) through heat treatment.

  15. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  16. Containerless glass fiber processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An acoustic levitation furnace system is described that was developed for testing the feasibility of containerless fiber pulling experiments. It is possible to levitate very dense materials such as platinum at room temperature. Levitation at elevated temperatures is much more difficult. Samples of dense heavy metal fluoride glass were levitated at 300 C. It is therefore possible that containerless fiber pulling experiments could be performed. Fiber pulling from the melt at 650 C is not possible at unit gravity but could be possible at reduced gravities. The Acoustic Levitation Furnace is described, including engineering parameters and processing information. It is illustrated that a shaped reflector greatly increases the levitation force aiding the levitation of more dense materials.

  17. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  18. Clipped Random Wave Morphologies and the Analysis of the SAXS of an Ionomer Formed by Copolymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene and CF[subscript 2]=CFO(CF[subscript 2])[subscript 4]SO[subscript 3]H

    SciTech Connect

    Aieta, Niccolo V.; Stanis, Ronald J.; Horan, James L.; Yandrasits, Michael A.; Cookson, David J.; Ingham, Bridget; Toney, Michael F.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Herring, Andrew M.

    2009-09-15

    Using SAXS data, the microstructure of the ionomer formed by copolymerization of tetrafluoroethylene and CF{sub 2}=CFO(CF{sub 2}){sub 4}SO{sub 3}H films has been approached by two methods: a numerical method (the unified fit approach) utilizing a simple model of spherical scattering objects to determine the radius of gyration of different scattering features of the ionomer films and by a graphical method, the clipped random wave approach (CRW), using the scattering data and a porosity parameter to generate a random wave which is clipped to produce a real-space image of the microstructure. We studied films with EW of 733, 825, 900, and 1082 in both the as-cast and annealed 'dry' and boiled 'wet' states. The results of the two data analysis techniques are in good size agreement with each other. In addition, the CRW model show striking similarities to the structure proposed in a recent dissipative particle dynamic models. This has been the first time to our knowledge that the CRW technique has been applied to a PFSA type ionomer.

  19. Glass ceramic seals to inconel

    DOEpatents

    McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-11-08

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16%, Li.sub.2 O, 2-8% , Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 1-8% K.sub.2 O, 1-5% P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and 1.5-7% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to cause growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  20. Cultivation of Mycoplasmas on glass.

    PubMed

    Purcell, R H; Valdesuso, J R; Cline, W L; James, W D; Chanock, R M

    1971-02-01

    Eight Mycoplasma species of human origin were successfully cultivated on glass. Complement-fixing (CF) antigens prepared from glass-adherent mycoplasmas were potent, specific, and free from anticomplementary activity. PPLO broth medium supplemented with 1 to 5% PPLO serum fraction (bovine), 2.5% fresh yeast extract, and 1% glucose (glycolytic species) or 1% arginine (arginine-utilizing species) supported moderate to luxuriant growth of mycoplasmas on glass. The potency of CF antigens prepared from glass-adherent mycoplasmas varied with the species of Mycoplasma tested and the duration of incubation. When the potency of CF antigens prepared from glass-adherent mycoplasmas was compared with that material sedimented from the broth phase of the same culture, three patterns of growth were observed: M. hominis and M. orale type 2 grew preferentially in the broth phase; M. salivarium, M. orale types 1 and 3, M. pneumoniae, and M. lipophilum preferentially adhered to the glass; and M. fermentans was biphasic. The growth of mycoplasmas on glass provides a simple means of concentrating and purifying such organisms for immunological and biochemical studies. PMID:5547544