Science.gov

Sample records for glass surface treated

  1. Surface characterization of silica glass substrates treated by atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ishibashi, Keiji; Tawarayama, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi; Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira; Kawazoe, Hiroshi

    2013-12-15

    Silica glass substrates with very flat surfaces were exposed to atomic hydrogen at different temperatures and durations. An atomic force microscope was used to measure root-mean-square (RMS) roughness and two-dimensional power spectral density (PSD). In the treatment with atomic hydrogen up to 900 °C, there was no significant change in the surface. By the treatment at 1000 °C, the changes in the RMS roughness and the PSD curves were observed. It was suggested that these changes were caused by etching due to reactions of atomic hydrogen with surface silica. By analysis based on the k-correlation model, it was found that the spatial frequency of the asperities became higher with an increase of the treatment time. Furthermore, the data showed that atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces by controlling heat-treatment conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass surface was treated by atomic hydrogen at various temperatures. • Surface roughness was measured by an atomic force microscope. • Roughness data were analyzed by two-dimensional power spectral density. • Atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces.

  2. Laser restoring the glass surface treated with acid-based paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strusevich, Anastasia V.; Poltaev, Yuriy A.; Sinev, Dmitrii A.

    2013-11-01

    The modern city facilities are often being attacked by graffiti artists, and increasingly vandals leave "tags" using paints, which compound based on acids, hydrofluoric or acetic commonly. These paints not only ink the surface, but also increase the surface roughness, and such impact can not be corrected by conventional cleaning. Thus, it was requested to develop technology that would not only clean the surface, but also to restore its structure by smoothing out irregularities and roughness formed after exposure in acid. In this work we investigated the effect of restoring the surface of the glass, spoiled by acid-based paint and then treated with CO2-laser. During the experiments, it was found that it is real to create the single-step laser surface restoring technology.

  3. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  4. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  5. Crystallization in heat-treated fluorochlorozirconate glasses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JA; Weber, JKR; Kolesnikov, AI; Schweizer, S

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization phenomena of fluorochlorozirconate glasses were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and inelastic neutron scattering. The precipitation of barium chloride nanoparticles from the glass matrix upon heat treatment was found to be suppressed when re-melting the glass with a reducing agent but not if the agent was present in the initial synthesis. Addition of small amounts of oxide to the predominantly fluoride melt was found to maintain the presence of nanoparticles but not to induce the predicted phase transition of the barium chloride nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure. Inelastic neutron scattering performed on an ‘as-made’ glass and a heat-treated glass showed an increase in ‘hardness’, consistent with a more ordered structure. PMID:19789720

  6. Surface reactions of natural glasses

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.F.

    1986-12-31

    Reactions at natural glass surfaces are important in studies involving nuclear waste transport due to chemical control on ground water in host rocks such as basalt and tuff, to potential diffusion into natural hydrated glass surfaces and as natural analogs for waste glass stability. Dissolution kinetics can be described by linear surface reaction coupled with cation interdiffusion with resulting rates similar to those of synthetic silicate glasses. Rates of Cs diffusion into hydrated obsidian surfaces between 25{sup 0} and 75{sup 0}C were determined by XPS depth profiles and loss rates from aqueous solutions. Calculated diffusion coefficients were ten others of magnitude more rapid than predicted from an Arrhenius extrapolation of high temperature tracer diffusion data due to surface hydration reactions.

  7. Pyrosequencing on a glass surface.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana V; Manz, Andreas; Neužil, Pavel

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrate the use of open-surface microfluidics to sequence DNA by pyrosequencing at the plain hydrophobically coated surface of a microscope glass cover slip. This method offers significant advantages in terms of instrument size, simplicity, disposability, and functional integration, particularly when combined with the broad and flexible capabilities of open-surface microfluidics. The DNA was incubated on superparamagnetic particles and placed on a hydrophobically coated glass substrate. The particles with bound DNA were moved using magnetic force through microliter-sized droplets covered with mineral oil to prevent water evaporation from the droplets. These droplets served as reaction "stations" performing pyrosequencing as well as washing stations. The resequencing protocol with 34-mer single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was used to determine the reaction performance. The de novo sequencing was performed with 51-mer and 81-mer ssDNA. The method can be integrated with previously shown sample preparation and PCR into a single sample-to-answer system on a plain glass surface. PMID:26907694

  8. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  9. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  10. Maskless fabrication of broadband antireflection nanostructures on glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo R, E. E.; Hoshii, T.; Tamaki, R.; Watanabe, K.; Sugiyama, M.; Okada, Y.; Miyano, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to reduce reflection losses at the surface of glass optical components, we have developed a plasma-etching fabrication method in which a CaF2 mask is self-assembled on the glass surface, generating nanostructures of around 100 nm in size, fabricated with an approximate etching rate of 10 nm per minute, and with controllable height, depending on the process time. By treating glasses with different compositions, it was found that the nanostructures can be successfully fabricated in a glass composed mainly of SiO2, but with 10% CaO content. In addition to the high aspect ratio and tapered geometry of the nanostructures, through cross-section composition analysis, graded Si and O compositions were also found within the nanostructures. The combined contribution of the geometrical and graded composition effects resulted in broadband 96% and over 99% transmittance on one-side and both-side treated glass substrates, respectively.

  11. DNA adsorption onto glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Krista Lynn

    Streaming potential measurements were performed on microspheres of silica, lime silicate (SLS) and calcium aluminate (CA) glasses containing silica and iron oxide (CASi and CAFe). The silicate based glasses exhibited acidic surfaces with isoelectric points (IEP) around a pH of 3 while the calcium aluminates displayed more basic surfaces with IEP ranging from 8--9.5. The surface of the calcium aluminate microspheres containing silica reacted with the background electrolyte, altering the measured zeta potential values and inhibiting electrolyte flow past the sample at ˜ pH 4 due to formation of a solid plug. DNA adsorption experiments were performed using the microspheres and a commercially available silicate based DNA isolation filter using a known quantity of DNA suspended in a chaotropic agent free 0.35 wt% Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) buffer solution. The microspheres and commercial filter were also used to isolate DNA from macrophage cells in the presence of chaotropic agents. UV absorbance at ˜260 nm and gel electrophoresis were used to quantify the amount and size of the DNA strands that adsorbed to the microsphere surfaces. In both experiments, the 43--106 microm CAFe microspheres adsorbed the largest quantity of DNA. However, the 43--106 microm SLS microspheres isolated more DNA from the cells than the <43 microm CAFe microspheres, indicating that microsphere size contributes to isolation ability. The UV absorbance of DNA at ˜260 nm was slightly altered due to the dissolution of the calcium aluminate glasses during the adsorption process. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) determined that calcium and aluminum ions leached from the CA and CAFe microsphere surfaces during these experiments. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that the leached ions had no effect on the conformation of the DNA, and therefore would not be expected to interfere in downstream applications such as DNA replication. The 0.35 wt

  12. Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Laminated Glass Treated by Acid Etching Combined with Cold Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibao; Lu, Jinshan; Luo, Junming; Zhang, Jianjun; Ou, Junfei; Xu, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    To overcome the problem of interlaminar delamination of thermoplastic polyurethane laminated glass, silicate glass was etched with hydrofluoric acid and thermoplastic polyurethane was then treated with cold plasma. Compared with the untreated samples, the interlaminar shear strength of acid etching samples, cold plasma-treated samples and acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples increased by 97%, 84% and 341%, respectively. Acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples exhibited a higher flexural strength and strain as compared with the untreated samples. The impact energy of acid etching samples, cold plasma-treated samples and acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples increased by 8.7%, 8.1% and 11.6%, respectively, in comparison with the untreated samples. FT-IR analysis showed that a large number of -C=O, -CO-N and -CO-O-C- groups appeared on the surface of cold plasma-treated thermoplastic polyurethane, which resulted in the formation of hydrogen bonds. SEM results showed that some pittings formed on the surface of the silicate glass treated by acid etching, which resulted in the formation of a three-dimensional interface structure between the silicate glass and polyurethane. Hydrogen bonds combined with the three-dimensional interface between silicate glass and polyurethanes co-improved the mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes laminated glass.

  13. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  14. Surface Coatings on Lunar Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas,-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    We are undertaking a detailed study of surface deposits on lunar volcanic glass beads. These tiny deposits formed by vapor condensation during cooling of the gases that drove the fire fountain eruptions responsible for the formation of the beads. Volcanic glass beads are present in most lunar soil samples in the returned lunar collection. The mare-composition beads formed as a result of fire-fountaining approx.3.4-3.7 Ga ago, within the age range of large-scale mare volcanism. Some samples from the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 landing sites are enriched in volcanic spherules. Three major types of volcanic glass bead have been identified: Apollo 15 green glass, Apollo 17 orange glass, and Apollo 17 "black" glass. The Apollo 15 green glass has a primitive composition with low Ti. The high-Ti compositions of the orange and black glasses are essentially identical to each other but the black glasses are opaque because of quench crystallization. A poorly understood feature common to the Apollo 15 and 17 volcanic glasses is the presence of small deposits of unusual materials on their exterior surfaces. For example, early studies indicated that the Apollo 17 orange glasses had surface enrichments of In, Cd, Zn, Ga, Ge, Au, and Na, and possible Pb- and Zn-sulfides, but it was not possible to characterize the surface features in detail. Technological advances now permit us to examine such features in detail. Preliminary FE-TEM/X-ray studies of ultramicrotome sections of Apollo 15 green glass indicate that the surface deposits are heterogeneous and layered, with an inner layer consisting of Fe with minor S and an outer layer of Fe and no S, and scattered Zn enrichments. Layering in surface deposits has not been identified previously; it will be key to defining the history of lunar fire fountaining.

  15. Optical glass surfaces polishing by cerium oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, D.; Belkhie, N.; Aliouane, T.

    2012-02-01

    The use of powders in metallic oxides as means of grinding and polishing of the optical glass components have seen recently a large application in optical industry. In fact, cerium oxide abrasive is more used in the optical glass polishing. It is used as grains abrasive in suspension or fixed abrasive (pellets); these pellets are manufactured from a mixture made of cerium oxide abrasive and a organic binder. The cerium oxide used in the experiments is made by (Logitech USA) of 99 % purity, the average grain size of the particle is 300 nm, the density being 6,74 g /cm3 and the specific surface is 3,3042 m2/g. In this study, we are interested in the surfaces quality of the optical glass borosilicate crown (BK7) polished by particles in cerium oxide bounded by epoxy. The surfaces of the optical glass treated are characterized by the roughness, the flatness by using the microscope Zygo and the SEM.

  16. Surface characteristics of thermally treated titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Cui, De-Zhe; Jeon, Ha-Ra; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kim, Ok-Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The characteristics of oxidized titanium (Ti) surfaces varied according to treatment conditions such as duration time and temperature. Thermal oxidation can change Ti surface characteristics, which affect many cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the surface characteristics and cell response of thermally treated Ti surfaces. Methods The samples were divided into 4 groups. Control: machined smooth titanium (Ti-S) was untreated. Group I: Ti-S was treated in a furnace at 300℃ for 30 minutes. Group II: Ti-S was treated at 500℃ for 30 minutes. Group III: Ti-S was treated at 750℃ for 30 minutes. A scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction were used to assess surface characteristics and chemical composition. The water contact angle and surface energy were measured to assess physical properties. Results The titanium dioxide (TiO2) thickness increased as the treatment temperature increased. Additional peaks belonging to rutile TiO2 were only found in group III. The contact angle in group III was significantly lower than any of the other groups. The surface energy significantly increased as the treatment temperature increased, especially in group III. In the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, after 24 hours of incubation, the assessment of cell viability showed that the optical density of the control had a higher tendency than any other group, but there was no significant difference. However, the alkaline phosphatase activity increased as the temperature increased, especially in group III. Conclusions Consequently, the surface characteristics and biocompatibility increased as the temperature increased. This indicates that surface modification by thermal treatment could be another useful method for medical and dental implants. PMID:22803009

  17. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.

    1993-12-31

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties.

  18. Glass-Bead Blasting Alters Antenna Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, James W.; Jilka, Richard L.; Kimmel, Boyce; Garcia, Ramon D.; Cofield, Richard E.; Klose, Gerhardt J.; O'Toole, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Thermal-emissivity properties improved, and focal length adjusted. Experiments show gentle blasting with glass beads produces beneficial changes in macroscopic surface shapes and in microscopic surface features of lightweight microwave reflectors made of thin metal reflective surfaces on deformable substrates of aluminum honeycomb.

  19. Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally Oil-Wet Surfaces in Glass-Covered Silicon Micromodel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-08-05

    The wettability of silicon and glass surfaces can be modified by silanization. However, similar treatments of glass and silica surfaces using the same silane do not necessarily yield the same wettability as determined by the oil-water contact angle. In this technical note, surface cleaning pretreatments were investigated to determine conditions that would yield oil-wet surfaces on glass with similar wettability to silica surfaces treated with the same silane, and both air-water and oil-water contact angles were determined. Air-water contact angles were less sensitive to differences between silanized silica and glass surfaces, often yielding similar values while the oil-water contact angles were quite different. Borosilicate glass surfaces cleaned with standard cleaning solution 1 (SC1) yield intermediate-wet surfaces when silanized with hexamethyldisilazane, while the same cleaning and silanization yields oil-wet surfaces on silica. However, cleaning glass in boiling concentrated nitric acid creates a surface that can be silanized to obtain oil-wet surfaces using HDMS. Moreover, this method is effective on glass with prior thermal treatment at an elevated temperature of 400oC. In this way, silica and glass can be silanized to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces using HMDS. It is demonstrated that pretreatment and silanization is feasible in silicon-silica/glass micromodels previously assembled by anodic bonding, and that the change in wettability has a significant observable effect on immiscisble fluid displacements in the pore network.

  20. Incorporation and distribution of rhenium in a borosilicate glass melt heat treated in a sealed ampoule

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2013-07-25

    We investigated a mass balance of rhenium (used as a surrogate for technetium-99) in a borosilicate glass that was mixed with excess Re source (KReO4) beyond its solubility and heat treated in a vacuum-sealed fused silica ampoule. Distribution of Re in the bulk of the glass, in a salt phase formed on the melt surface, and in condensate material deposited on the ampoule wall was evaluated to understand the Re migration into different phases during the reaction between the molten glass and KReO4. The information gained from this study will contribute to an effort to understand the mechanism of technetium retention in or escape from glass melt during early stages of glass batch melting, which is a goal of the present series of studies.

  1. Silane modification of glass and silica surfaces to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces in glass-covered silicon micromodel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Mart

    2013-08-01

    Wettability is a key parameter influencing capillary pressures, permeabilities, fingering mechanisms, and saturations in multiphase flow processes within porous media. Glass-covered silicon micromodels provide precise structures in which pore-scale displacement processes can be visualized. The wettability of silicon and glass surfaces can be modified by silanization. However, similar treatments of glass and silica surfaces using the same silane do not necessarily yield the same wettability as determined by the oil-water contact angle. In this study, surface cleaning pretreatments were investigated to determine conditions that yield oil-wet surfaces on glass with similar wettability to silica surfaces treated with the same silane, and both air-water and oil-water contact angles were determined. Borosilicate glass surfaces cleaned with standard cleaning solution 1 (SC1) yield intermediate-wet surfaces when silanized with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), while the same cleaning and silanization yields oil-wet surfaces on silica. However, cleaning glass in boiling concentrated nitric acid creates a surface that can be silanized to obtain oil-wet surfaces using HMDS. Moreover, this method is effective on glass with prior thermal treatment at an elevated temperature of 400°C. In this way, silica and glass can be silanized to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces using HMDS. It is demonstrated that pretreatment and silanization is feasible in silicon-silica/glass micromodels previously assembled by anodic bonding, and that the change in wettability has a significant observable effect on immiscible fluid displacements in the pore network.

  2. Surface crystallization of a fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Doremus, Robert H.

    1983-01-01

    Growth of crystals on the surface of a Zr-Ba-La fluoride glass was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Small, dark crystal nucleated rapidly and grew to a size of about 10 microns; then they stopped growing, and wrinkled regions emerged, covering the entire crystal surface.

  3. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process

  4. Chemical modification of glass surface with a monolayer of nonchromophoric and chromophoric methacrylate terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ryszard; Kucharski, Stanisław; Sobolewska, Anna; Barille, Regis

    2010-11-01

    The methacrylate terpolymers, a nonchromophoric and chromophoric one, containing 2-hydroxyethyl groups were reacted with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain reactive polymers able to form covalent bonding with -SiOH groups of the glass surface via triethoxysilane group condensation. Chemical modification of the Corning 2949 glass plates treated in this way resulted in increase of wetting angle from 11° to ca. 70-73°. Determination of ellipsometric parameters revealed low value of the substrate refractive index as compared with that of bulk Corning 2949 glass suggesting roughness of the surface. The AFM image of the bare glass surface and that modified with terpolymer monolayer confirmed this phenomenon. Modification of the glass with the terpolymer monolayer made it possible to create the substrate surface well suited for deposition of familiar chromophore film by spin-coating. The chromophore polymer film deposited onto the modified glass surface was found to be resistant to come unstuck in aqueous solution.

  5. Surface stress relaxation of oxide glasses: The effects on mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzi, Peter Joseph

    A new glass strengthening mechanism based upon surface compressive stress formation by surface stress relaxation of glasses that were held under a tensile stress, at a temperature lower than the glass transition temperature, in low water vapor pressure, has been demonstrated. Although glass fibers are traditionally known to become mechanically weaker when heat-treated at a temperature lower than the glass transition temperature in the presence of water vapor, the strength was found to become greater than the as-received fiber strength when fibers were subjected to a sub-critical tensile stress during heat-treatment. The observed strengthening was attributed to surface compressive residual stress formation through surface stress relaxation during the sub-critical tensile stress application in the atmosphere containing water vapor. Surface stress relaxation of the same glass fibers was shown to take place under conditions identical to those experienced by the strengthened mechanical test specimens by observing permanent bending of the fiber. Furthermore, the magnitude and presence of the residual stresses formed during bending or tensile heat-treatments were confirmed by FTIR, fiber etching, and fiber slicing methods. The method can in principle be used to strengthen any oxide glass and is not subjected to the constraints of traditional strengthening methods such as a minimum thickness for tempering, or a glass containing alkali ions for ion-exchange. Thus far, the method has been successful in strengthening silica glass, E-glass, and soda-lime silicate glass by approximately 20-30%.

  6. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  7. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more » For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  8. Determination of Reactive Surface Area of Melt Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier,W.L.; Roberts, S.; Smith, D.K.; Hulsey, S.; Newton,L.; Sawvel, A.; Bruton, C.; Papelis, C.; Um, W.; Russell, C. E.; Chapman,J.

    2000-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of natural and manmade silicate glasses, and nuclear melt glass was undertaken in order to derive an estimate of glass reactive surface area. Reactive surface area is needed to model release rates of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass in the subsurface. Because of the limited availability of nuclear melt glasses, natural volcanic glass samples were collected which had similar textures and compositions as those of melt glass. A flow-through reactor was used to measure the reactive surface area of the analog glasses in the presence of simplified NTS site ground waters. A measure of the physical surface area of these glasses was obtained using the BET gas-adsorption method. The studies on analog glasses were supplemented by measurement of the surface areas of pieces of actual melt glass using the BET method. The variability of the results reflect the sample preparation and measurement techniques used, as well as textural heterogeneity inherent to these samples. Based on measurements of analog and actual samples, it is recommended that the hydraulic source term calculations employ a range of 0.001 to 0.01 m{sup 2}/g for the reactive surface area of nuclear melt glass.

  9. Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections. PMID:24907755

  10. Electroless plating of copper on surface-modified glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei; Yao, Libei; Yang, Fang; Li, Peiyuan; Chen, Juan; Liang, Lifang

    2011-07-01

    This work focuses on developing a novel convenient method for electroless copper deposition on glass material. This method is relied on the formation of amino (NH2)-terminated film on the surface of glass substrate, by coating polyethylenimine (PEI) on glass matrix and using epichlorohydrin (ECH) as cross-linking agent. The introduced amino groups can effectively adsorb the palladium, the catalysts which could initiate the subsequent Cu electroless plating, onto the glass substrate surface. Finally, a copper film is formed on the palladium-activated glass substrate through copper electroless plating and the surface-coppered glass material is therefore acquired. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images combined with energy diffraction X-ray (EDX) analysis demonstrate the successful copper deposition on the surface of glass substrate.

  11. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed. PMID:27283239

  12. Glass breaking strength: The role of surface flaws and treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D.

    1985-01-01

    Although the intrinsic strength of silicon dioxide glass is of the order of 10 to the 6th power lb/sq in, the practical strength is roughly two orders of magnitude below this theoretical limit, and depends almost entirely on the surface condition of the glass, that is, the number and size of flaws and the residual surface compression (temper) in the glass. Glass parts always fail in tension when these flaws grow under sustained loading to some critical size. Research associated with glass encapsulated crystalline-Si photovoltaic (PV) modules has greatly expanded our knowledge of glass breaking strength and developed sizeable data base for commercially available glass types. A detailed design algorithm is developed for thickness sizing of rectangular glass plates subject to pressure loads. Additional studies examine the strength of glass under impact loading conditions such as that caused by hail. Although the fundamentals of glass breakage are directly applicable to thin film modules, the fracture strength of typical numerical glass must be replaced with data that reflect the high temperature tin oxide processing, laser scribing, and edge processing peculiar to thin film modules. The fundamentals of glass breakage applicable to thin film modules and preliminary fracture strength data for a variety of 1 ft square glass specimens representing preprocessed and post processed sheets from current amorphous-Si module manufacturers are presented.

  13. Glasses crystallize rapidly at free surfaces by growing crystals upward

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Zhu, Lei; Kearns, Kenneth L.; Ediger, Mark D.; Yu, Lian

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of glasses and amorphous solids is studied in many fields to understand the stability of amorphous materials, the fabrication of glass ceramics, and the mechanism of biomineralization. Recent studies have found that crystal growth in organic glasses can be orders of magnitude faster at the free surface than in the interior, a phenomenon potentially important for understanding glass crystallization in general. Current explanations differ for surface-enhanced crystal growth, including released tension and enhanced mobility at glass surfaces. We report here a feature of the phenomenon relevant for elucidating its mechanism: Despite their higher densities, surface crystals rise substantially above the glass surface as they grow laterally, without penetrating deep into the bulk. For indomethacin (IMC), an organic glass able to grow surface crystals in two polymorphs (α and γ), the growth front can be hundreds of nanometers above the glass surface. The process of surface crystal growth, meanwhile, is unperturbed by eliminating bulk material deeper than some threshold depth (ca. 300 nm for α IMC and less than 180 nm for γ IMC). As a growth strategy, the upward-lateral growth of surface crystals increases the system’s surface energy, but can effectively take advantage of surface mobility and circumvent slow growth in the bulk. PMID:21444775

  14. Effect of bulk aging on surface diffusion of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian, Caleb W.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Lian

    2014-02-01

    The effect of physical aging on surface diffusion has been determined for two organic glasses, Indomethacin and Nifedipine. The two systems exhibit similar aging kinetics typical of organic glasses. Surface diffusivity remains unchanged despite significant bulk aging that nearly equilibrates the systems and increases the bulk relaxation time by orders of magnitude. The finding is relevant for understanding the stability of amorphous materials and the formation of low-energy glasses by vapor deposition.

  15. Influence of optical stimulation and irradiation on glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szarska, St.

    1994-10-01

    Gradient indices are enjoying great interest these days. The glass rods with a continuous variation of refractive index are currently used for lens systems for compact copiers, compact audio/video disc, and are expected to be applied in the near future to the more complicated systems such as cameras, binoculars, microscopes an so on. The biggest change of the glass surface can be obtained exposing the glass for the ion exchange process. When a glass slab is put into contact with a molten salt, cations of the molten salt can exchange with ions existing at the glass surface, and then the exchanged ions will migrate into the glass with in turn may change in the structure, or new ions may be different in size in polarizability and induce strains in the glass in turn may change the index. The refractive index profile depends upon the composition of the initial glass as well as the condition of ion exchange technological process. In this work 8 types silicate glass has been investigated by optical stimulation exoemission electrons. This method is sensitive for the way of preparation of the samples. Basing on this performing investigations of the physical properties of the glass before the ion exchange we propose the recommendations concerning correlation of the composition of the initial glass and optimal technological conditions of the gradient lenses production.

  16. Effects of high-temperature gas dealkalization on surface mechanical properties of float glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk, Ufuk

    The surface topography, and the near-surface structure and mechanical property changes on float glass, that was treated in atmospheres containing SOsb2, HCl, and 1,1 difluoroethane (DFE) gases, at temperatures in the glass transition region, were studied. Structure was investigated using surface sensitive infrared spectroscopy techniques (attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT)) and the topography was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results obtained from the two FTIR methods were in agreement with each other. Mechanical property characteristics of the surface were determined by measuring microhardness using a recording microindentation set-up. A simple analysis performed on the three hardness calculation methods-LVH, LVHsb2, and Lsb2VH-indicated that LVH and LVHsb2 are less effected by measurement errors and are better suited for the calculation of hardness. Contact damage characteristics of the treated glass was also studied by monitoring the crack initiation behavior during indentation, using acoustic emission. The results of the studies, aiming for the understanding of the structure, topography, and hardness property changes indicate that the treatment parameters-temperature, time, and treatment atmosphere conditions-are significant factors influencing these properties. The analysis of these results suggest a relation to exist between the three properties. This relation is used in understanding the surface mechanical properties of the treated float glasses. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the dealkalized surface and bulk, the nature of surface structure changes, structural relaxation, surface water content, and glass transformation temperature are identified as the major factors having an influence on the properties. A model connecting these features is suggested. A difference in the structure, hardness, and topography on the air and tin sides of float glass is also shown to exist. The

  17. The effect of investment materials on the surface of cast fluorcanasite glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay-Ghosh, Sanchita; Reaney, Ian M; Johnson, Antony; Hurrell-Gillingham, Kathryn; Brook, Ian M; Hatton, P V

    2008-02-01

    Modified fluorcanasite glass-ceramics were produced by controlled two stage heat-treatment of as-cast glasses. Castability was determined using a spiral castability test and the lost-wax method. Specimens were cast into moulds formed from gypsum and phosphate bonded investments to observe their effect on the casting process, surface roughness, surface composition and biocompatibility. Both gypsum and phosphate bonded investments could be successfully used for the lost-wax casting of fluorcanasite glasses. Although the stoichiometric glass composition had the highest castability, all modified compositions showed good relative castability. X-ray diffraction showed similar bulk crystallisation for each glass, irrespective of the investment material. However, differences in surface crystallisation were detected when different investment materials were used. Gypsum bonded investment discs showed slightly improved in vitro biocompatibility than equivalent phosphate bonded investment discs under the conditions used. PMID:17665105

  18. NANOFILTRATION FOULANTS FROM A TREATED SURFACE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The foulant from pilot nanofiltration membrane elements fed conventionally-treated surface water for 15 months was analyzed for organic, inorganic, and biological parameters. The foulant responsible for flux loss was shown to be a film layer 20 to 80 um thick with the greatest de...

  19. Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.

  20. Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites. PMID:18801895

  1. Polishing slurry induced surface haze on phosphate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Ehrmann, P R; Steele, R A

    2004-03-12

    The effects of residual polishing slurry on the surface topology of highly-polished, Nd-doped metaphosphate laser glasses are reported. Glass samples were pitched polished using cerium oxide or zirconium oxide slurry at different pHs and then washed by different methods that allowed varying amounts of residual slurry to ''dry'' on the surface. Upon re-washing with water, some of the samples showed surface haze (scatter), which scaled with the amount of residual slurry. Profilometry measurements showed that the haze is the result of shallow surface pits (100 nm - 20 {micro}m wide x {approx}15 nm deep). Chemical analyses of material removed during rewashing, confirmed the removal of glass components as well as the preferential removal of modifier ions (e.g. K{sup 1+} and Mg{sup 2+}). The surface pits appear to result from reaction of the glass with condensed liquid at the slurry particle-glass interface that produces water-soluble phosphate products that dissolves away with subsequent water contact. Aggressive washing, to remove residual slurry immediately following polishing, can minimize surface haze on phosphate glasses. It is desirable to eliminate haze from glass used in high-peak-power lasers, since it can cause scatter-induced optical modulation that can cause damage to downstream optics.

  2. Real-time atomic resolution dynamics of glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Sumit Ravindra

    Although glasses are commonplace materials found in every walk of life, they have managed to remain mysterious for centuries. The origins of the defining characteristic of glasses, the glass transition, remain unknown. The glass transition is accompanied by a catastrophic increase in viscosity with a superexponential pace whose underlying reason has been difficult to pin down. Cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR) are playing an increasingly important role in explaining these phenomena. As CRR are only a few nanometers in size, much information can be gained by imaging studies of glasses at the atomic scale. This thesis employs the atomic resolution capabilities of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study glass surfaces in real-time. Initial experiments on metallic glass surfaces discovered localized two-state dynamics of atomic clusters (2-8 atomic diameters) active even below the glass transition temperature (Tg). Atomic scale evidence of spatial and temporal heterogeneity was acquired. After multiple metallic glass surfaces were shown to exhibit these dynamics, it was proposed to be a universal phenomenon on glass surfaces with similar size distribution in terms of their average weighted diameter. The clusters were also shown to be thermally-activated by studying their temperature behavior. Similar dynamics were discovered on amorphous-silicon, which is an important electronic material, amidst the debate whether or not it is a glass. Further, the two-state dynamics were demonstrated to be quenched after the incorporation of hydrogen during the growth process. Individual CRRs are studied while simultaneously ramping their temperature. The single cluster traces showed marked shifts in the local equilibria illustrating a temperature-sensitive energy landscape. It was deduced that spatial heterogeneity (differences in rates at different sites) is the major contributor to the non-exponential glassy relaxations rather than temporal heterogeneity (differences in

  3. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Day, Delbert E.

    1991-01-01

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  4. Strength Improvement of Glass Substrates by Using Surface Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Defects and heterogeneities degrade the strength of glass with different surface and subsurface properties. This study uses surface nanostructures to improve the bending strength of glass and investigates the effect of defects on three glass types. Borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with a higher defect density than fused silica exhibited 118 and 48 % improvement, respectively, in bending strength after surface nanostructure fabrication. Fused silica, exhibited limited strength improvement. Therefore, a 4-μm-deep square notch was fabricated to study the effect of a dominant defect in low defect density glass. The reduced bending strength of fused silica caused by artificial defect increased 65 % in the presence of 2-μm-deep nanostructures, and the fused silica regained its original strength when the nanostructures were 4 μm deep. In fragmentation tests, the fused silica specimen broke into two major portions because of the creation of artificial defects. The number of fragments increased when nanostructures were fabricated on the fused silica surface. Bending strength improvement and fragmentation test confirm the usability of this method for glasses with low defect densities when a dominant defect is present on the surface. Our findings indicate that nanostructure-based strengthening is suitable for all types of glasses irrespective of defect density, and the observed Weibull modulus enhancement confirms the reliability of this method.

  5. Strength Improvement of Glass Substrates by Using Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Defects and heterogeneities degrade the strength of glass with different surface and subsurface properties. This study uses surface nanostructures to improve the bending strength of glass and investigates the effect of defects on three glass types. Borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with a higher defect density than fused silica exhibited 118 and 48 % improvement, respectively, in bending strength after surface nanostructure fabrication. Fused silica, exhibited limited strength improvement. Therefore, a 4-μm-deep square notch was fabricated to study the effect of a dominant defect in low defect density glass. The reduced bending strength of fused silica caused by artificial defect increased 65 % in the presence of 2-μm-deep nanostructures, and the fused silica regained its original strength when the nanostructures were 4 μm deep. In fragmentation tests, the fused silica specimen broke into two major portions because of the creation of artificial defects. The number of fragments increased when nanostructures were fabricated on the fused silica surface. Bending strength improvement and fragmentation test confirm the usability of this method for glasses with low defect densities when a dominant defect is present on the surface. Our findings indicate that nanostructure-based strengthening is suitable for all types of glasses irrespective of defect density, and the observed Weibull modulus enhancement confirms the reliability of this method. PMID:27194443

  6. Degradation of glass artifacts: application of modern surface analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Michael; Wiesinger, Rita; Schreiner, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A detailed understanding of the stability of glasses toward liquid or atmospheric attack is of considerable importance for preserving numerous objects of our cultural heritage. Glasses produced in the ancient periods (Egyptian, Greek, or Roman glasses), as well as modern glass, can be classified as soda-lime-silica glasses. In contrast, potash was used as a flux in medieval Northern Europe for the production of window panes for churches and cathedrals. The particular chemical composition of these potash-lime-silica glasses (low in silica and rich in alkali and alkaline earth components), in combination with increased levels of acidifying gases (such as SO(2), CO(2), NO(x), or O(3)) and airborne particulate matter in today's urban or industrial atmospheres, has resulted in severe degradation of important cultural relics, particularly over the last century. Rapid developments in the fields of microelectronics and computer sciences, however, have contributed to the development of a variety of nondestructive, surface analytical techniques for the scientific investigation and material characterization of these unique and valuable objects. These methods include scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy- or wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX or SEM/WDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this Account, we address glass analysis and weathering mechanisms, exploring the possibilities (and limitations) of modern analytical techniques. Corrosion by liquid substances is well investigated in the glass literature. In a tremendous number of case studies, the basic reaction between aqueous solutions and the glass surfaces was identified as an ion-exchange reaction between hydrogen-bearing species of the attacking liquid and the alkali and alkaline earth ions in the glass, causing a depletion of the latter in the outermost surface layers. Although mechanistic analogies to liquid corrosion are obvious, atmospheric

  7. Electrical and optical characteristics of surface treated ZnO nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjusha, R.; Sreeja, R.; Mini, P.A.; Subramanian, K.R.V.; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Balakrishnan, Avinash

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanotubes were formed onto an ITO glass and were surface treated. ► Photoluminescence and fluorescence imaging for ZnO nanotubes showed blue emission. ► Surface treated samples that showed green emissions. ► Lifetime measurements showed higher excitonic times in surface treated samples. ► Conductance measurements showed significant improvement for the treated samples. -- Abstract: Vertical ZnO nanotubes were electrochemically deposited onto an indium doped tin oxide glass substrate. These nanotubes were surface treated with zinc acetate and annealed at 450 °C, resulting in a nanotubes/nanoparticles composite layer. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface treated samples showed nanoparticles been dispersed uniformly along the ZnO tubular matrix, which was confirmed by X-ray diffractrometry. Photoluminescence and fluorescence microscopy showed untreated ZnO nanotubes exhibiting blue emission, while the treated samples exhibited green emissions. Ultra-violet spectroscopy of treated samples revealed lower band gap values compare to their untreated counterparts. Lifetime measurements showed higher excitonic lifetimes in treated samples. Conductance studies using atomic force microscopy showed significant improvement in the conductance values for the treated samples. A significant increase in photocurrent was observed in treated samples when used as photo-anodes in dye sensitized solar cells.

  8. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  9. Comparison of glass surfaces as a countertop material to existing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Turo, Laura A.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-09-01

    Gleen Glass, a small production glass company that creates countertops, was selected for the Technology Assistance Program through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gleen Glass was seeking material property analysis comparing glass as a countertop material to current surfaces (i.e. marble, granite and engineered stone). With samples provided from Gleen Glass, testing was done on granite, marble, and 3 different glass surfaces ('Journey,' 'Pebble,' and 'Gleen'). Results showed the glass surfaces have a lower density, lower water absorption, and are stronger in compressive and flexural tests as compared to granite and marble. Thermal shock tests showed the glass failed when objects with a high thermal mass are placed directly on them, whereas marble and granite did not fracture under these conditions.

  10. Surface characterizations of variously treated titanium materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y J; Oshida, Y; Andres, C J; Barco, M T

    2001-01-01

    The attachment of cells to titanium surfaces is an important phenomenon in the area of clinical implant dentistry. A major consideration in designing implants has been to produce surfaces that promote desirable responses in the cells and tissues. To achieve these requirements, the titanium implant surface can be modified in various ways. This research was designed to elucidate the relationship between surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (theta) of various engineered titanium surfaces of commercially pure titanium, titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and titanium-nickel (TiNi) alloy. The contact angle was measured using distilled water, 1% sodium chloride solution, human neutrophils, and osteoblast-like cells. Surface oxide crystallography was identified by transmission electron diffraction. It was found that: (1) there were no significant differences in contact angles among the 4 media; (2) for commercially pure titanium, a combined treatment (hydrofluoric acid/nitric acid/water --> sodium hydroxide --> oxidation) showed the lowest theta (10.51 degrees in water), while the surface treated with sulfuric acid showed the highest value (72.99 degrees in water); (3) for all commercially pure titanium samples, when theta is greater than 45 degrees, the contact angle increases linearly with Ra (hydrophobic nature) and the surface is covered with rutile-type oxide only, while the contact angle decreases linearly with Ra when theta is less than 45 degrees (hydrophilic nature) and the surface is covered with a mixture of rutile and anatase oxides; and (4) a similar trend was found on Ti-6Al-4V and TiNi surfaces. PMID:11432653

  11. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris; Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy; Mueller, Karl T.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a 13C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC-MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H2O and CO2 without any contribution to chemical bonding at the interface.

  12. Surface characterization of silver-doped bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Vernè, E; Di Nunzio, S; Bosetti, M; Appendino, P; Brovarone, C Vitale; Maina, G; Cannas, M

    2005-09-01

    A bioactive glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O was doped with silver ions by ion exchange in molten salts as well as in aqueous solution. The ion exchange in the solution was done to check if it is possible to prepare an antimicrobial material using a low silver content. The doped glass was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, bioactivity test (soaking in a simulated body fluid), leaching test (GFAAS analyses) and cytotoxicity test. It is demonstrated that these surface silver-doped glasses maintain, or even improve, the bioactivity of the starting glass. The measured quantity of released silver into simulated body fluid compares those reported in literature for the antibacterial activity and the non-cytotoxic effect of silver. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out to understand the effect of the doped surfaces on osteogenic cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:15792537

  13. Tensile behavior of laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Sameehan S.; Samimi, Peyman; Ghamarian, Iman; Katakam, Shravana; Collins, Peter C.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2015-10-28

    Fe-Si-B metallic glass foils were treated with a linear laser track using a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser and its effect on the overall tensile behavior was investigated. Microstructure and phase evolutions were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. Crystallization fraction was estimated via the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Metallic glass foils treated with the lower laser fluences (<0.49 J/mm{sup 2}) experienced structural relaxation, whereas higher laser fluences led to crystallization within the laser treated region. The overall tensile behavior was least impacted by structural relaxation, whereas crystallization severely reduced the ultimate tensile strength of the laser treated metallic glass foils.

  14. Hydrogen Bonding Slows Down Surface Diffusion of Molecular Glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinshan; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Lian

    2016-08-18

    Surface-grating decay has been measured for three organic glasses with extensive hydrogen bonding: sorbitol, maltitol, and maltose. For 1000 nm wavelength gratings, the decay occurs by viscous flow in the entire range of temperature studied, covering the viscosity range 10(5)-10(11) Pa s, whereas under the same conditions, the decay mechanism transitions from viscous flow to surface diffusion for organic glasses of similar molecular sizes but with no or limited hydrogen bonding. These results indicate that extensive hydrogen bonding slows down surface diffusion in organic glasses. This effect arises because molecules can preserve hydrogen bonding even near the surface so that the loss of nearest neighbors does not translate into a proportional decrease of the kinetic barrier for diffusion. This explanation is consistent with a strong correlation between liquid fragility and the surface enhancement of diffusion, both reporting resistance of a liquid to dynamic excitation. Slow surface diffusion is expected to hinder any processes that rely on surface transport, for example, surface crystal growth and formation of stable glasses by vapor deposition. PMID:27404465

  15. Surface diffusion and surface crystal growth of tris-naphthyl benzene glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Shigang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Ye; Ediger, M. D.; Yu, Lian

    2016-08-01

    Surface self-diffusion coefficients of α,α,β-tris-naphthyl benzene (TNB) glasses have been measured using the method of surface grating decay. For 1000 nm wavelength gratings, the decay occurs by viscous flow at temperatures above Tg + 15 K, where Tg is the glass transition temperature (347 K), and by surface diffusion at lower temperatures. Surface diffusion of TNB is vastly faster than bulk diffusion, by a factor of 107 at Tg. Comparing TNB with other molecular glasses, each evaluated at its own Tg, we find that surface diffusion has a greater system-to-system variation than bulk diffusion, slowing down with increasing molecular size and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Experimentally determined surface diffusion coefficients are in reasonable agreement with those from simulations and theoretical predictions. TNB and other molecular glasses show fast crystal growth on the free surface and the growth velocity is nearly proportional to the surface diffusion coefficient, indicating that the process is supported by surface mobility.

  16. Glasses and Melts under Compression and Surface Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Upon compression and confinement (near surfaces), glasses are expected to be subject to successive structural transitions with multiple densification and confinement mechanisms. Experimental verification of these phenomena remain a major target of glass-melt studies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress by solid-state NMR and inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) into structures of multi-component silicate and oxide glasses with varying pressure, composition (with fluid contents), and confinement [e.g., Lee et al. Rev. Min. Geochem. 2014, 78, 139; Lee and Ahn, Sci. Report, 2014, 4, 4200; Lee and Kim, J. Phys. Chem. C. 2015, 119 748]. O-17 NMR studies reveal the presence of metal-bridging oxygen in orthosilicate glasses (an analogue to peridotite melts) and allow direct quantification of the degree of Metal/Si disorder with composition and pressure. Despite the pronounced paramagnetic effect, detailed structural changes in iron-bearing silicate glasses can now be probed using solid-state NMR techniques. NMR results for the multi-component silicate glasses melts at high pressure highlight the moderate deviation from the degree of Al avoidance among framework cations (Si and Al) and preferential proximity between non-network cations and non-bridging oxygen. In contrast to an expected complexity in densification, experimental NMR and IXS results for glasses demonstrate that the pressure-induced changes in melt structures show a simple trend where the effect composition and pressure can be predicted with network flexibility. Solid-state NMR techniques revealed the unknown structural details of oxide glasses and melts near surfaces and interfaces: the coordination environments in the surface confined oxide glasses are distinct from those of bulk, highlighted by a decrease in the fractions of high-energy clusters (and thus the degree of disorder) near interface. The structure of glass surfaces is also affected by the types of interfaces (e.g. crystalline vs

  17. Imaging polarimetry of glass buildings: why do vertical glass surfaces attract polarotactic insects?

    PubMed

    Malik, Péter; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-08-20

    Recently it was observed that the Hydropsyche pellucidula caddis flies swarm near sunset at the vertical glass surfaces of buildings standing on the bank of the Danube river in Budapest, Hungary. These aquatic insects emerge from the Danube and are lured to dark vertical panes of glass, where they swarm, land, copulate, and remain for hours. It was also shown that ovipositing H. pellucidula caddis flies are attracted to highly and horizontally polarized light stimulating their ventral eye region and thus have positive polarotaxis. The attraction of these aquatic insects to vertical reflectors is surprising, because after their aerial swarming, they must return to the horizontal surface of water bodies from which they emerge and at which they lay their eggs. Our aim is to answer the questions: Why are flying polarotactic caddis flies attracted to vertical glass surfaces? And why do these aquatic insects remain on vertical panes of glass after landing? We propose that both questions can be partly explained by the reflection-polarization characteristics of vertical glass surfaces and the positive polarotaxis of caddis flies. We measured the reflection-polarization patterns of shady and sunlit, black and white vertical glass surfaces from different directions of view under clear and overcast skies by imaging polarimetry in the red, green, and blue parts of the spectrum. Using these polarization patterns we determined which areas of the investigated glass surfaces are sensed as water by a hypothetical polarotactic insect facing and flying toward or landed on a vertical pane of glass. Our results strongly support the mentioned proposition. The main optical characteristics of "green," that is, environmentally friendly, buildings, considering the protection of polarotactic aquatic insects, are also discussed. Such "green" buildings possess features that attract only a small number of polarotactic aquatic insects when standing in the vicinity of fresh waters. Since vertical

  18. Nondestructive detection of glass vial inner surface morphology with differential interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zai-Qing; Torraca, Gianni; Masatani, Peter; Sloey, Christopher; Phillips, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Glass particles generated by glass dissolution and delamination of the glass container for pharmaceutical products have become a major issue in the pharmaceutical industry. The observation of glass particles in certain injectable drugs, including several protein therapeutics, has recently resulted in a number of product recalls. Glass vial surface properties have been suggested to play a critical role in glass dissolution and delamination. Surface characterization of glass container, therefore, is important to evaluate the quality of the glass container. In this work, we demonstrate that differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a powerful, effective, and convenient technique to examine the inner surface morphology of glass vials nondestructively. DIC microscopy does not require the cutting of the glass vial for scanning the inner surface and has sufficient spatial resolution to reveal glass pitting, phase separation, delamination scars, and other defects. Typical surface morphology of pharmaceutical glass vials with different alkalinity are compared and discussed. PMID:22234873

  19. Surface energy tailoring of glass by contact printed PDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, A.; Quaglio, M.; Sacco, A.; Cocuzza, M.; Pirri, C. F.

    2012-09-01

    A simple contact printing method to modulate the surface wettability of glass employing poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS) mold was investigated. PDMS is a well known material in microfluidics and soft lithography for biomedical applications, being easy to process, low cost, biocompatible and transparent. Moreover its wettability can be tuned, by the exposure to oxygen plasma, UV-ozone or chemical oxidant solutions, or by surface functionalization. Unfortunately the effects of these treatments are not so stable in time. In this work a method to modify the surface energy (SE) of PDMS by changing its composition is proposed. Different mixing ratios (polymer base/curing agent) are analyzed evidencing that SE decreases while increasing the content of the polymer base, permanently modifying the surface behavior. As a thin layer of PDMS can be transferred to glass surfaces by contact printing, it is possible to locally change the wettability of glass simply patterning PDMS. In this work a SE patterning technique for glass surfaces by PDMS transfer is proposed. The technological process is based on the fabrication of PDMS molds by lift-off technique using Laser Direct Writing (LDW) lithography to process commercial photoresist. The transferring process for structures having a width of 10 μm was studied for a chosen PDMS composition, analyzing the surface energy of the patterned thin film by contact angle (CA) measurements.

  20. Surface or internal nucleation and crystallization of glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höland, W.; Rheinberger, V. M.; Ritzberger, C.; Apel, E.

    2013-07-01

    Fluoroapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) was precipitated in glass-ceramics via internal crystallization of base glasses. The crystals grew with a needle-like morphology in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis. Two different reaction mechanisms were analyzed: precipitation via a disordered primary apatite crystals and a solid state parallel reaction to rhenanite (NaCaPO4) precipitation. In contrast to the internal nucleation used in the formation of fluoroapatite, surface crystallization was induced to precipitate a phosphate-free oxyapatite of NaY9(SiO4)6O2-type. Internal nucleation and crystallization have been shown to be a very useful tool for developing high-strength lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5) glass-ceramics. A very controlled process was conducted to transform the lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic precursor material into the final product of the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic without the major phase of the precursor material. The combination of all these methods allowed the driving forces of the internal nucleation and crystallization mechanisms to be explained. An amorphous phosphate primary phase was discovered in the process. Nucleation started at the interface between the amorphous phosphate phase and the glass matrix. The final products of all these glass-ceramics are biomaterials for dental restoration showing special optical properties, e.g. translucence and color close to dental teeth.

  1. Structure, dynamics, and surface reactions of bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, Todd R.

    Three bioactive glasses (45S5, 55S4.3, and 60S3.8) have been investigated using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations in attempt to explain differences in observed macroscopic bioactivity. Bulk and surface structures and bulk dynamics have been characterized. Ion exchange and hydrolysis reactions, the first two stages in Hench's model describing the reactions of bioactive glass surfaces in vivo, have been investigated in detail. The 45S5 composition shows a much greater network fragmentation: it is suggested that this fragmentation can play a role in at least the first two stages of Hench's model for HCA formation on the surfaces of bioactive glasses. In terms of dynamic behavior, long-range diffusion was only observed for sodium. Calcium showed only jumps between adjacent sites, while phosphorus showed only local vibrations. Surface simulations show the distinct accumulation of sodium at the immediate surface for each composition. Surface channels are also shown to exist and are most evident for 45S5 glass. Results for a single ion exchange showed that the ion-exchange reaction is preferred (more exothermic) for Na+ ions near Si, rather than P. A range of reaction energies were found, due to a range of local environments, as expected for a glass surface. The average reaction energies are not significantly different among the three glass compositions. The results for bond hydrolysis on as-created surfaces show no significant differences among the three compositions for simulations involving Si-O-Si or Si-O-P. All average values are greater than zero, indicating endothermic reactions that are not favorable by themselves. However, it is shown that the hydrolysis reactions became more favorable (in fact, exothermic for 45S5 and 55S4.3) when simulated on surfaces that had already been ion-exchanged. This is significant because it gives evidence supporting Hench's proposed reaction sequence. Perhaps even more significantly, the reaction energies for hydrolysis

  2. Glass on the surfaces of Io and Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Ostro, S. J.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of laboratory tests of the spectral reflectances of sulfur and sulfur-silicate glasses are compared with Voyager UV and IR spectral data of Io and Amalthea. Sulfur glasses, without the S8 allotrope, are formed when molten sulfur is quickly quenched to temperatures below 150 K. The trials involved heating sulfur to temperatures from 430-700 K, then quenching and recording the color that resulted. It was observed that the insulating properties of sulfur are so high that the glasses would probably only form in volcanic plumes, yielding particles in the 10-100 micron diameter range. Fumarole droplets could impact cold ground and leave 1 mm glass particles. Basalt-sulfur specimens heated to 1400 K to melt the basalt, then cooled, produced glasses of a color which matches the color of darker areas detected on Io. The surface colors of Amalthea, although definitely contaminated with particles from Io mass loss, exhibited only a few color matches with the basalt-sulfur glasses. More refined spectra of Amalthea are required if the surface constituents are to be identified.

  3. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-06-21

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10{sup 4} s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses.

  4. DNA adsorption onto calcium aluminate and silicate glass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Krista; Flick, Lisa; Hall, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    A common technique for small-scale isolation of genomic DNA is via adsorption of the DNA molecules onto a silica scaffold. In this work, the isolation capacities of calcium aluminate based glasses were compared against a commercially available silica scaffold. Silica scaffolds exhibit a negative surface at the physiological pH values used during DNA isolation (pH 5-9), while the calcium aluminate glass microspheres exhibit a positive surface charge. Isolation data demonstrates that the positively charged surface enhanced DNA adsorption over the negatively charged surface. DNA was eluted from the calcium aluminate surface by shifting the pH of the solution to above its IEP at pH 8. Iron additions to the calcium aluminate glass improved the chemical durability without compromising the surface charge. Morphology of the glass substrate was also found to affect DNA isolation; 43-106 μm diameter soda lime silicate microspheres adsorbed a greater quantity of genomic DNA than silica fibers with an average diameter of ∼2 μm. PMID:24309135

  5. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-06-21

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10(4) s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses. PMID:26093566

  6. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 104 s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ˜1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses.

  7. Attachment and conformational changes of collagen on bioactive glass surface.

    PubMed

    Magyari, K; Vanea, E; Baia, L; Simon, V

    2016-05-12

    The proteins adsorption on biomaterials surface leads to changes in their structural conformation that may further influence the adhesion, migration and growth of cells. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment of collagen (calf skin type I) on bioactive glass powders and the conformational changes of the protein. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the collagen cover the glass surface in a nanometric thin layer. The infrared amide I absorption signal shows pronounced changes in the secondary structure of the adsorbed collagen. PMID:27175468

  8. Bacterial adhesion to glass and metal-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Baikun; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-07-15

    Metal oxides can increase the adhesion of negatively-charged bacteria to surfaces primarily due to their positive charge. However, the hydrophobicity of a metal-oxide surface can also increase adhesion of bacteria. In order to understand the relative contribution of charge and hydrophobicity to bacterial adhesion, we measured the adhesion of 8 strains of bacteria, under conditions of low and high-ionic strength (1 and 100 mM, respectively) to 11 different surfaces and examined adhesion as a function of charge, hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and surface energy. Inorganic surfaces included three uncoated glass surfaces and eight metal-oxide thin films prepared on the upper (non-tin-exposed) side of float glass by chemical vapor deposition. The Gram-negative bacteria differed in lengths of lipopolysaccharides on their outer surface (three Escherichia coli strains), the amounts of exopolysaccharides (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains), and their known relative adhesion to sand grains (two Burkholderia cepacia strains). One Gram positive bacterium was also used that had a lower adhesion to glass than these other bacteria (Bacillus subtilis). For all eight bacteria, there was a consistent increase in adhesion between with the type of inorganic surface in the order: float glass exposed to tin (coded here as Si-Sn), glass microscope slide (Si-m), uncoated air-side float glass surface (Si-a), followed by thin films of (Co(1-y-z)Fe(y)Cr(z))3O4, Ti/Fe/O, TiO2, SnO2, SnO2:F, SnO2:Sb, A1(2)O3, and Fe2O3 (the colon indicates metal doping, a slash indicates that the metal is a major component, while the dash is used to distinguish surfaces). Increasing the ionic strength from 1 to 100 mM increased adhesion by a factor of 2.0 +/- 0.6 (73% of the sample results were within the 95% CI) showing electrostatic charge was important in adhesion. However, adhesion was not significantly correlated with bacterial charge and contact angle. Adhesion (A) of the eight strains was

  9. Mean field spin glasses treated with PDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Adriano; Del Ferraro, Gino; Tantari, Daniele

    2013-07-01

    Following an original idea of Guerra, in these notes we analyze the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model from different perspectives, all sharing the underlying approach which consists in linking the resolution of the statistical mechanics of the model (e.g. solving for the free energy) to well-known partial differential equation (PDE) problems (in suitable spaces). The plan is then to solve the related PDE using techniques involved in their native field and lastly bringing back the solution in the proper statistical mechanics framework. Within this strand, after a streamlined test-case on the Curie-Weiss model to highlight the methods more than the physics behind, we solve the SK both at the replica symmetric and at the 1-RSB level, obtaining the correct expression for the free energy via an analogy to a Fourier equation and for the self-consistencies with an analogy to a Burger equation, whose shock wave develops exactly at critical noise level (triggering the phase transition). Our approach, beyond acting as a new alternative method (with respect to the standard routes) for tackling the complexity of spin glasses, links symmetries in PDE theory with constraints in statistical mechanics and, as a novel result from the theoretical physics perspective, we obtain a new class of polynomial identities (namely of Aizenman-Contucci type, but merged within the Guerra's broken replica measures), whose interest lies in understanding, via the recent Panchenko breakthroughs, how to force the overlap organization to the ultrametric tree predicted by Parisi.

  10. Treating amblyopia with liquid crystal glasses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Abraham; Raz, Judith; Benezra, Omry; Herzog, Rafi; Cohen, Evelyne; Karshai, Ilana; Benezra, David

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the use of liquid crystal glasses (LCG) for the treatment of amblyopia caused by refractive errors, strabismus, or both. METHODS. In this noncomparative, prospective, interventional case series, 28 children (age range, 4-7.8 years) with monocular amblyopia participated, of which 24 completed the study. In the LCG, the occluding and nonoccluding phases of the flicker were electronically set in all patients at a fixed rate. The rate was set so that accumulated occlusion was 5 hours during 8 hours' weartime. Occlusion was applied only to the good eye. All 24 children were followed up regularly for 9 months. Best corrected VA for distance and near, fixation patterns, and binocular function were measured. VA for distance was measured with the Snellen chart and for near with the Rossano/Weiss chart. RESULTS. Mean VA for distance at the end of the study (after 9 months) was 0.59 (SD, 0.16) compared with 0.27 (SD, 0.09) at the beginning (P < 0.001). Most of the children (92%) complied well with the treatment. (Good compliance was defined as wearing the LCG for at least 8 hours per day.) Stereopsis at the end of treatment was good (better than 60 sec arc) in 21% of the children compared with 8% at the beginning. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS. The use of LCG in patients with amblyopia yielded an improvement in near and distance VA and in stereopsis. Treatment was well accepted by children and parents. PMID:20164454

  11. A micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA) in a glass microchip.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xing Yue Larry; Wu, Lan-Qin; Zhang, Na; Hu, Li-Dan; Li, You; Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Dong-Hui; Huang, Ping; Zhou, Yong-Liang

    2009-11-21

    We have designed a non-membrane micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA) in a glass microchip for direct gas exchange and micro gradient control. Hemoglobin (Hb) in the liquid phase indicates the rapid gas gradient changes of O2 and CO2 shifted by the difference in pressure between the liquid and the gas. PMID:19865732

  12. Observations of Nuclear Explosive Melt Glass Textures and Surface Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B; Smith, D K

    2006-01-17

    This memo report summarizes our current knowledge of the appearance of melt glass formed and subsequently deposited in the subsurface after an underground nuclear test. We have collected archived pictures and melt glass samples from a variety of underground nuclear tests that were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the U.S. nuclear testing program. The purpose of our work is to better determine the actual variation in texture and surface area of the melt glass material. This study is motivated by our need to better determine the rate at which the radionuclides incorporated in the melt glass are released into the subsurface under saturated and partially saturated conditions. The rate at which radionuclides are released from the glass is controlled by the dissolution rate of the glass. Glass dissolution, in turn, is a strong function of surface area, glass composition, water temperature and water chemistry (Bourcier, 1994). This work feeds into an ongoing experimental effort to measure the change in surface area of analog glasses as a function of dissolution rate. The conclusions drawn from this study help bound the variation in the textures of analog glass samples needed for the experimental studies. The experimental work is a collaboration between Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Earth and Environmental Sciences-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (EES-LLNL). On March 4, 1999 we hosted a meeting at LLNL to present and discuss our findings. The names of the attendees appear at the end of this memo. This memo report further serves to outline and summarize the conclusions drawn from our meeting. The United States detonated over 800 underground nuclear tests at the NTS between 1951 and 1992. In an effort to evaluate the performance of the nuclear tests, drill-back operations were carried out to retrieve samples of rock in the vicinity of the nuclear test. Drill-back samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore

  13. Evaluation of the surface strength of glass plates shaped by hot slumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, L.; Crimi, G.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; D'Este, A.; Dall'Igna, R.; Silvestri, M.; Parodi, G.; Martelli, F.

    2013-09-01

    The Hot Slumping Technology is under development by several research groups in the world for the realization of X-ray segmented mirrors, based on thin glass plates: during the process of slumping, a glass foil is shaped over a mould at temperatures above its transformation point. The performed thermal cycle and related operations might have effects on the strength characteristics of the glass, with consequences on the structural design of the elemental optical module and consecutively on the whole X-ray telescope. No reference technical literature exists for this particular aspect since the strength of glass depends on several parameters connected to any of the manufacturing and glass history stages, such as the distribution of surface flaws or the residual internal stresses. It is therefore extremely important to test the mechanical strength of the glass plates after they underwent the slumping process. The Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAFOAB, Merate - Italy) started a deep analysis of this aspect, with the collaboration of Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro (SSV, Murano - Italy) and BCV Progetti (Milano - Italy). The entire study has been realized on borosilicate glass D263 by Schott, largely considered for the realization of next-generation IXO-like X-ray telescope. More than 200 slumped plates of dimension 100 mm x 100 mm and thickness 0.4 mm, both flat and curved, have been produced and tested; the collected experimental data have been compared to non-linear FEM analyses and treated with Weibull statistics, giving the strength data necessary to assess the current IXO glass X-ray telescope design, in terms of survival probability, when subject to static and acoustic load characteristic of the launch phase. The paper describes the activities performed and presents the obtained results.

  14. Effect of surface coatings on flexural properties of glass ionomers.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Moore, B K; Onose, H

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in flexural strength and fracture toughness of light-cured glass ionomer cements after long-term immersion in water, and to investigate the effect of surface coatings on their properties. 2 resin-modified and 1 conventional glass ionomer cements were employed. For the flexural strength, a 25 x 2 x 2 mm stainless steel mold was used. For the fracture toughness (KtC), single edge notch specimens with dimensions 25 x 2.5 x 5 mm and a 0.5 mm notch (a/W = 0.5) were prepared in a stainless steel mold. Specimens were subjected to the 3 point bending at 0.5 mm/min after storage in 37 degrees C water for the periods of 1 h, 24 h, 1 wk, 1 month, and 6 months. The glass ionomer cements tended to exhibit an increase in mechanical properties over the 24-h period and then to maintain a constant strength. The surface protection of the resin-modified glass ionomer cement has some effect on the mechanical properties during early setting reactions, and it is desirable that the cement should be protected from direct water contact for at least 1 h after cement mixing. PMID:9021332

  15. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chunling; Zhao, Weimin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni) and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb) bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance. PMID:21731441

  16. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  17. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, Alexis; Michalske, Terry Arthur; Smith, William Larry

    1999-01-01

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditons. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  18. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, Alexis; Michalske, Terry Arthur; Smith, William Larry

    1999-01-01

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  19. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, Alexis; Michalske, Terry Arthur; Smith, William Larry

    1998-01-01

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  20. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1999-12-07

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  1. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1999-10-12

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  2. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1999-11-16

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  3. Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

    2012-01-01

    Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Durability of Second Surface Silver Microsheet Glass Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Smith, Daniela C.; Mroz, Thaddeus S.

    1996-01-01

    Second surface silver microsheet glass concentrators are being developed for potential use in future solar dynamic space power systems. Traditional concentrators are aluminum honeycomb sandwich composites with either aluminum or graphite epoxy face sheets, where a reflective aluminum layer is deposited onto an organic leveling layer on the face sheet. To protect the underlying layers, a SiO2 layer is applied on top of the aluminum reflective layer. These concentrators may be vulnerable to atomic oxygen degradation due to possible atomic oxygen attack of the organic layers at defect sites in the protective and reflective coatings. A second surface microsheet glass concentrator would be inherently more atomic oxygen durable than these first surface concentrators. In addition, a second surface microsheet glass concentrator design provides a smooth optical surface and allows for silver to be used as a reflective layer, which would improve the reflectivity of the concentrator and the performance of the system. A potential threat to the performance of second surface microsheet glass concentrators is atomic oxygen attack of the underlying silver at seams and edges or at micrometeoroid and debris (MMD) impacts sites. Second surface silver microsheet glass concentrator samples were fabricated and tested for atomic oxygen durability. The samples were iteratively exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Samples were evaluated for potential degradation at fabrication seams, simulated MMD impact sites, and edges. Optical microscopy was used to evaluate atomic oxygen degradation. Reflectance was obtained for an impacted sample prior to and after atomic oxygen exposure. After an initial atomic oxygen exposure to an effective fluence of approx. 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(exp 2), oxidation of the silver at defect sites and edges was observed. Exposure to an additional approx. 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(exp 2) caused no observed increase in oxidation. Oxidation at an

  5. Non-extensive treatment of surface nucleation on glass particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Marcio Luis Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Experimental data of phase transformation kinetics was used to fit a new model based on a non-extensive formalism derived from Tsallis thermostatistics and another based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Yerofeyev-Kolmogorov (JMAYK) theory. For this we considered the same experimental parameters such as crystal geometric factor g, the density of nucleation sites, NS and crystal growth rates U on glass powders. The kinetics of nucleation and growth of diopside crystals (MgOṡCaOṡ2SiO2) on the glass surface at 825 °C (Tg˜727 °C) were studied. Treatments for sinter-crystallization were performed in compacts of diopside glass particles by varying the treatment time. The crystallized fraction of the samples subjected to such treatments, which develop from the particles’ surface toward their volume, was characterized by means of optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The two models were then fitted to the measured crystallized fraction data and compared to each other. It was found that surface nucleation occurs very rapidly from a random number of active sites. The JMAYK theory describes the case of fast heterogeneous nucleation from a constant number of sites on the glass surface. The Tsallis approach is better than the JMAYK model considering that the q factor equals 1.268±0.062 and does not require taking into account the change in crystallization mode from three dimensional to one dimensional as JMAYK predicts, and this is advantageous. Furthermore, Tsallis thermostatistics contains the Austin-Rickett model as a special and limiting case study for this system. A generalized Avrami plot is also presented.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance assisted rapid laser joining of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Tang, Guang; Abdolvand, Amin; Wang, Zengbo

    2014-08-25

    Rapid and strong joining of clear glass to glass containing randomly distributed embedded spherical silver nanoparticles upon nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation (∼40 ns and repetition rate of 100 kHz) at 532 nm is demonstrated. The embedded silver nanoparticles were ∼30–40 nm in diameter, contained in a thin surface layer of ∼10 μm. A joint strength of 12.5 MPa was achieved for a laser fluence of only ∼0.13 J/cm{sup 2} and scanning speed of 10 mm/s. The bonding mechanism is discussed in terms of absorption of the laser energy by nanoparticles and the transfer of the accumulated localised heat to the surrounding glass leading to the local melting and formation of a strong bond. The presented technique is scalable and overcomes a number of serious challenges for a widespread adoption of laser-assisted rapid joining of glass substrates, enabling applications in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, sensors, micro-fluidic, and medical devices.

  7. Laser bioengineering of glass-titanium implants surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusquiños, F.; Arias-González, F.; Penide, J.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Durán, A.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Osseointegration is the mean challenge when surgical treatments fight against load-bearing bone diseases. Absolute bone replacement by a synthetic implant has to be completed not only from the mechanics point of view, but also from a biological approach. Suitable strength, resilience and stress distribution of titanium alloy implants are spoiled by the lack of optimal biological characteristics. The inert quality of extra low interstitial titanium alloy, which make it the most attractive metallic alloy for biomedical applications, oppose to an ideal surface with bone cell affinity, and capable to stimulate bone attachment bone growth. Diverse laser treatments have been proven as effective tools to modify surface properties, such as wettability in contact to physiological fluids, or osteoblast guided and slightly enhanced attachment. The laser surface cladding can go beyond by providing titanium alloy surfaces with osteoconduction and osteoinduction properties. In this research work, the laser radiation is used to produce bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates. Specific silicate bioactive glass compositions has been investigated to achieve suitable surface tension and viscosity temperature behavior during processing, and to provide with the required release of bone growth gene up regulation agents in the course of resorption mediated by physiological fluids. The produced coatings and interfaces, the surface osteoconduction properties, and the chemical species release in simulated physiological fluid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  8. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Peptide Therapeutics for Treating Ocular Surface Infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Microbial pathogens—bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites—are significant causes of blindness, particularly in developing countries. For bacterial and some viral infections a number of antimicrobial drugs are available for therapy but there are fewer available for use in treating fungal and parasitic keratitis. There are also problems with current antimicrobials, such as limited efficacy and the presence of drug-resistant microbes. Thus, there is a need to develop additional drugs. Nature has given us an example of 1 potential source of new antimicrobials: antimicrobial peptides and proteins that are either present in bodily fluids and tissues constitutively or are induced upon infection. Given the nature of peptides, topical applications are the most likely use to be successful and this is ideal for treating keratitis. Such peptides would also be active against drug-resistant pathogens and might act synergistically if used in combination therapy. Hundreds of peptides with antimicrobial properties have been isolated or synthesized but only a handful have been tested against ocular pathogens and even fewer have been tested in animal models. This review summarizes the currently available information on the use of peptides to treat keratitis, outlines some of the problems that have been identified, and discusses future studies that will be needed. Most of the peptides that have been tested have shown activity at concentrations that do not warrant further development, but 1 or 2 have promising activity raising the possibility that peptides can be developed to treat keratitis. PMID:25250986

  10. Surface temperature measurement of insulating glass units using infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Elmahdy, H.

    1996-12-31

    Infrared (IR) thermography is a process to produce, by means of an infrared scanner, thermal images of surfaces by detecting the radiation emitted from the surfaces. The application of IR thermography as a diagnostic tool in building science assists in determining existing anomalies in the building envelope and other building components. In this paper, IR thermography is used to compare the glass surface temperatures of insulating glass (IG) units made with two types of spacer bar (metal and silicone foam) and different gap widths. The results from this research are compared with data obtained from another research laboratory using a different IR scanner and also with data from finite-element computer modeling. All the tests and simulations were performed on identical IG units. Tests performed on seven IG units indicated that IR thermography could be used to assess the edge-of-glass temperature of IG units for the prediction of condensation resistance of the units. The image processing and analysis depend on the knowledge of accurate emissivity of the surfaces under investigation as well as other variables that affect the final thermal image (e.g., ambient temperature, relative humidity of air in the optical path, and the optical path length). The IR scanner records all the radiation (both direct and reflected) it sees either from the intended target or from any other radiative surfaces in its field of view (FOV). The vertical temperature profiles of all the tested units showed considerable reduction of temperature at the bottom section of the IG unit. The degree of temperature reduction is affected by the type of spacer bar material and the gap thickness.

  11. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  12. Treating Surfaces To Obtain Narrowband Thermal Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Ong, Tiong P.

    1993-01-01

    Surfaces emitting electromagnetic radiation predominantly in desired narrow spectral bands when heated made more durable, and fabricated less expensively, according to proposal. Narrowband thermal emitters made by polishing metal substrates to specularity, then coating specular surfaces with films of rare-earth oxides approximately less than 1 micrometer thick. Metal substrates inherently resistant to mechanical shock. Resistance to thermal shock achieved by choosing metals and rare-earth oxides having equal or nearly equal coefficients of thermal expansion.

  13. Sodium enrichment on glass surface during heating of heavy-metal-containing glasses under a reductive atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    Sodium enrichment occurs on the surface of the glass that is in contact with the gas phase during the heat treatment of lead-containing glass under a reductive atmosphere. This technique was previously found to promote lead recovery in waste-glass treatment, and may be potentially applied to glasses containing other heavy metal oxides. Thus, the efficiencies of sodium enrichment were compared among glasses with different heavy metal species (PbO, CuO, and ZnO) in the heat-treatment under a CO-containing atmosphere. The sodium enrichment efficiencies in the treatment of the PbO- and CuO-containing glasses were higher than that in the treatment of the ZnO containing glass. This was because the efficiencies were related to the reduction of the heavy metal oxides. The mass ratio of Na to Si on the glass surface increased as the PbO concentration decreased via reduction of PbO. The sodium-rich phase was separated together with a copper-concentrated phase that was generated via the reduction of CuO. However, ZnO in the glass is thermodynamically more difficult to reduce in the CO-containing atmosphere used in the study, resulting in the lower efficiency of the sodium enrichment.

  14. Surface coatings of bioactive glasses on high strength ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorana, S.; Fedele, A.; Mazzocchi, M.; Bellosi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dense and ultrafine alumina-zirconia composites (Al 2O 3-16 wt%ZrO 2 and ZrO 2-20 wt%Al 2O 3) are developed and characterized for load bearing prosthetic applications. The improvement of the ceramic/bone interface, namely of the ceramic bioactivity, is performed by a glass coating on the surface of the composites. A new composition is used to produce the glass powder, by melting at 1550 °C the mixture of oxide raw materials. The processing to obtain a homogeneous and adherent coating on the ceramic substrates is investigated: the optimal temperature for the glazing treatment is 1200 °C. The microstructure of the coating and of the ceramic/coating interface, the adhesion and some mechanical properties of the prepared glass and of the coating are analyzed. Besides, the in vitro bioactive responses, by incubation of osteoblast-like cells on the coated samples, are evaluated: positive results are confirmed after 24 h and 72 h.

  15. Surface Modification of Metallic Glass Composites Through Severe Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sundeep; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita

    2015-03-01

    Refinement of crystalline dendrites in a metallic glass composite, Zr56.2Ti13.8Nb5.0Cu6.9Ni5.6Be12.5, was demonstrated by friction stir processing. The surface hardness of the amorphous matrix as well as the crystalline dendritic phase was found to increase by nearly a factor of two for the processed specimens. Higher hardness for the amorphous matrix was explained by the interaction of shear bands, while that for the crystalline dendrite was explained by grain refinement.

  16. Laser Surface Pre-treatment of Aluminium for Hybrid Joints with Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckert, André; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Lightweight construction is a major trend in the automotive industry. Theconnection of fibre reinforced plastics with aluminium is consequently seen as promising prospect. In this regard, thermal joining can be applied for bonding of such hybrid joints. But in order to create a load bearing metal plastic joint, the surface of the metal has to be pre-treated. Recent research has shown that with laser surface pre-treatment high joint strengths are obtained. Yet there are a variety of laser sources and manufacturable surface topographies with structure sizes ranging from macroscopic to nanoscopic profiles. Within this work,macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscopic laser processed structures are created on aluminium and consequently joined to glass fibre reinforced thermoplastics of different fibre length and fibre content. High shear tensile strengths of up to 42 N/mm2 were obtained depending on the allocated material and the surface pre-treatment.

  17. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-06-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable.

  18. Effects of manufacturing method on surface mineralization of bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirayesh, Hamidreza

    Amorphous bioactive glass powders are used as bone-filling materials in many medical applications. Bioactivity is achieved through ion exchange with bodily fluids, leading to surface apatite mineral formation---a necessity for tissue development. Traditional fabrication is by melt-casting and grinding, however sol-gel synthesis is another method which directly produces powders with higher specific surface area and potential for increased ion exchange rates. In this study sol-gel derived powders were manufactured and compared with melt-cast powders to determine the effects of crystallinity, composition, and specific surface area on apatite formation. Powders were immersed in simulated body fluid as a function of time and the evolution of apatite minerals was characterized. Apatite formation was most significantly affected by powder composition, followed by specific surface area; merely having sodium in the powder was more influential than altering the surface area and/or atomic structure, yet high specific surface area was found to enhance reactions on crystalline powders.

  19. Light-induced crawling of crystals on a glass surface.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Emi; Azumi, Reiko; Norikane, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Motion is an essential process for many living organisms and for artificial robots and machines. To date, creating self-propelled motion in nano-to-macroscopic-sized objects has been a challenging issue for scientists. Herein, we report the directional and continuous motion of crystals on a glass surface when irradiated simultaneously with two different wavelengths, using simple azobenzenes as a photoresponsive organic compound. The direction of the motion can be controlled by the position of the light sources, and the crystals can even climb vertical surfaces. The motion is driven by crystallization and melting at the front and rear edges of the crystal, respectively, via photochemical conversion between the crystal and liquid phases induced by the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzenes. This finding could lead to remote-controlled micrometre-sized vehicles and valves on solid substrates. PMID:26084483

  20. Light-induced crawling of crystals on a glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Emi; Azumi, Reiko; Norikane, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Motion is an essential process for many living organisms and for artificial robots and machines. To date, creating self-propelled motion in nano-to-macroscopic-sized objects has been a challenging issue for scientists. Herein, we report the directional and continuous motion of crystals on a glass surface when irradiated simultaneously with two different wavelengths, using simple azobenzenes as a photoresponsive organic compound. The direction of the motion can be controlled by the position of the light sources, and the crystals can even climb vertical surfaces. The motion is driven by crystallization and melting at the front and rear edges of the crystal, respectively, via photochemical conversion between the crystal and liquid phases induced by the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzenes. This finding could lead to remote-controlled micrometre-sized vehicles and valves on solid substrates.

  1. Light-induced crawling of crystals on a glass surface

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Emi; Azumi, Reiko; Norikane, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Motion is an essential process for many living organisms and for artificial robots and machines. To date, creating self-propelled motion in nano-to-macroscopic-sized objects has been a challenging issue for scientists. Herein, we report the directional and continuous motion of crystals on a glass surface when irradiated simultaneously with two different wavelengths, using simple azobenzenes as a photoresponsive organic compound. The direction of the motion can be controlled by the position of the light sources, and the crystals can even climb vertical surfaces. The motion is driven by crystallization and melting at the front and rear edges of the crystal, respectively, via photochemical conversion between the crystal and liquid phases induced by the trans–cis isomerization of azobenzenes. This finding could lead to remote-controlled micrometre-sized vehicles and valves on solid substrates. PMID:26084483

  2. Geopolymers prepared from DC plasma treated air pollution control (APC) residues glass: properties and characterisation of the binder phase.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Devaraj, Amutha Rani; Bustos, Ana Guerrero; Deegan, David; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2011-11-30

    Air pollution control (APC) residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium aluminosilicate glass (APC glass). This has been used to form geopolymer-glass composites that exhibit high strength and density, low porosity, low water absorption, low leaching and high acid resistance. The composites have a microstructure consisting of un-reacted residual APC glass particles imbedded in a complex geopolymer and C-S-H gel binder phase, and behave as particle reinforced composites. The work demonstrates that materials prepared from DC plasma treated APC residues have potential to be used to form high quality pre-cast products. PMID:21963174

  3. Electrical Properties of BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors Sintered with Plasma-Treated Glass Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Dae-Yong; Lee, Soon-il; Lee, Heun-Young; Kim, Min-Kee; Yoon, Jung-Rag

    2013-10-01

    The influence of glass power morphology on the electrical and microstructural properties of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) was investigated to enhance the reliability of MLCCs. For a sintering additive, glass particles of different sizes and shapes were prepared by jet-milling and RF plasma treatment. Plasma treatment decreased the glass particle size and transformed the irregular shape of glass particles into homogeneous spherical shapes. It was found that MLCCs sintered with plasma-treated glass powder have a more homogeneous microstructure, a clear core-shell structure, a more stable capacitance against voltage and temperature changes, and a higher degradation resistance. It is inferred that nanosized spherical glass powder prepared by plasma treatment helps so-called magic dopants such as rare-earth elements to be distributed homogeneously around the BaTiO3 particles.

  4. Surface alteration and physical properties of glass from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barkatt, A.; Sang, J.C.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Talmy, I.G.; Norr, M.K.; Mazer, J.J.; Izett, G.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1994-01-01

    The scalloped surface feature on Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary glass is often explained as being due to terrestrial aqueous leaching. Leaching of man-made glass results in a reduction in density of the glass. Also, Fe, because of its relative insolubility, is concentrated by the leaching process. Thus, the Haitian glass specimens which have been heavily altered should have a thin rim of less dense glass in which the Fe is concentrated compared to the core glass. The higher Fe concentration in the rim glass should cause it to have an enhanced Curie constant and a lower density compared to the unaltered glass. The magnetic Curie constant, density, and scanning electron microscopic studies were made on altered specimens of Haitian glass and also on specimens showing a minimum of alteration. The results show that the less altered samples have the highest density and the lowest Curie constant. The data substantiate the terrestrial hypothesis. ?? 1994.

  5. Material, Mechanical, and Tribological Characterization of Laser-Treated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    Laser treatment under nitrogen assisting gas environment of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten-based superalloy and high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating of nickel-chromium-based superalloy on carbon steel was carried out to improve mechanical and tribological properties. Superalloy surface was preprepared to include B4C particles at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Material and morphological changes in the laser-treated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Residual stresses present at the surface region of the laser-treated layer were determined from the XRD data. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface was measured by indentation tests. Fracture toughness of the coating surfaces before and after laser treatment were also measured using overload indentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characterization were carried out using pin-on-disk tests.

  6. Dielectrophoretic micropatterning with microparticle monolayers covalently linked to glass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masato; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Mase, Yoshiaki; Oyamatsu, Daisuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2004-12-01

    Two-dimensional micropatterns of microparticles were fabricated on glass substrates with negative dielectrophoretic force, and the patterned microparticles were covalently bound on the substrate via cross-linking agents. The line and grid patterns of microparticles were prepared using the repulsive force of negative dielectrophoresis (n-DEP). The template interdigitated microband array (IDA) electrodes (width and gap 50 mum) were incorporated into the dielectrophoretic patterning cell with a fluidic channel. The microstructures on the glass substrates with amino or sulfhydryl groups were immobilized with the cross-linking agents disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) and m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS). Diaphorase (Dp), a flavoenzyme, was selectively attached on the patterned microparticles using the maleimide groups of MBS. The enzyme activity on the patterned particles was electrochemically characterized with a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) in the presence of NADH and ferrocenylmethanol as a redox mediator. The SECM images proved that Dp was selectively immobilized onto the surface of microparticles to maintain its catalytic activity. PMID:15568852

  7. Surface charge modulated aptasensor in a single glass conical nanopore.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng-Lin; Cao, Shuo-Hui; Zheng, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Jin-Lei; Li, Yao-Qun

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we have proposed a label-free nanopore-based biosensing strategy for protein detection by performing the DNA-protein interaction inside a single glass conical nanopore. A lysozyme binding aptamer (LBA) was used to functionalize the walls of glass nanopore via siloxane chemistry and negatively charged recognition sites were thus generated. The covalent modification procedures and their recognition towards lysozyme of the single conical nanopore were characterized via ionic current passing through the nanopore membrane, which was measured by recording the current-voltage (I-V) curves in 1mM KCl electrolyte at pH=7.4. With the occurring of recognition event, the negatively charged wall was partially neutralized by the positively charged lysozyme molecules, leading to a sensitive change of the surface charge-dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Our results not only demonstrate excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards the target protein, but also suggest a route to extend this nanopore-based sensing strategy to the biosensing platform designs of a wide range of proteins based on a charge modulation. PMID:25884732

  8. The glass transition temperature of polyurethane shape memory polymer reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite (playgorskite) clay in dry and wet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, G. H.; Huang, W. M.; Ng, Z. C.; Liu, N.; Phee, S. J.

    2008-08-01

    Attapulgite (playgorskite), a kind of nanosized fibrous clay mineral, may provide a simple and cheap alternative to improve the stiffness and actuation stress of shape memory polymers (SMPs). As a first step, in this paper, we investigate the glass transition temperature of a polyurethane SMP reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite in wet and dry conditions. In addition to confirming the strong influence of moisture, the results reveal that non-treated clay significantly reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, while the influence of treated clay on Tg is limited. However, for composites mixed with non-treated clay, after drying, the well pre-wetted samples have a much higher Tg than that of the dry ones. A partial detachment mechanism is proposed to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  9. Nanoscale topographic changes on sterilized glass surfaces affect cell adhesion and spreading.

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, Gretel; Lauer, Günter; Oswald, Steffen; Labudde, Dirk; Franz, Clemens M

    2014-08-01

    Producing sterile glass surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of laboratory and medical applications, including in vitro cell culture and tissue engineering. However, sterilization may change the surface properties of glass and thereby affect its use for medical applications, for instance as a substrate for culturing cells. To investigate potential effects of sterilization on glass surface topography, borosilicate glass coverslips were left untreated or subjected to several common sterilization procedures, including low-temperature plasma gas, gamma irradiation and steam. Imaging by atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the surface of untreated borosilicate coverslips features a complex landscape of microislands ranging from 1000 to 3000 nm in diameter and 1 to 3 nm in height. Steam treatment completely removes these microislands, producing a nanosmooth glass surface. In contrast, plasma treatment partially degrades the microisland structure, while gamma irradiation has no effect on microisland topography. To test for possible effects of the nanotopographic structures on cell adhesion, human gingival fibroblasts were seeded on untreated or sterilized glass surfaces. Analyzing fibroblast adhesion 3, 6, and 24 h after cell seeding revealed significant differences in cell attachment and spreading depending on the sterilization method applied. Furthermore, single-cell force spectroscopy revealed a connection between the nanotopographic landscape of glass and the formation of cellular adhesion forces, indicating that fibroblasts generally adhere weakly to nanosmooth but strongly to nanorough glass surfaces. Nanotopographic changes induced by different sterilization methods may therefore need to be considered when preparing sterile glass surfaces for cell culture or biomedical applications. PMID:24027204

  10. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  11. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  12. CO2 laser scribe of chemically strengthened glass with high surface compressive stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Vaddi, Butchi R.

    2011-03-01

    Chemically strengthened glass is finding increasing use in handheld, IT and TV cover glass applications. Chemically strengthened glass, particularly with high (>600MPa) compressive stress (CS) and deeper depth of layer (DOL), enable to retain higher strength after damage than non-strengthened glass when its surface is abraded. Corning Gorilla® Glass has particularly proven to be advantageous over competition in this attribute. However, due to high compressive stress (CS) and Central Tension (CT) cutting ion-exchanged glass is extremely difficult and often unmanageable where ever the applications require dicing the chemically strengthened mother glass into smaller parts. We at Corning have developed a CO2 laser scribe and break method (LSB) to separate a single chemically strengthened glass sheet into plurality of devices. Furthermore, CO2 laser scribe and break method enables debris-free separation of glass with high edge strength due to its mirror-like edge finish. We have investigated laser scribe and break of chemically strengthened glass with surface compressive stress greater than 600 MPa. In this paper we present the results of CO2 scribe and break method and underlying laser scribing mechanisms. We demonstrated cross-scribe repetitively on GEN 2 size chemically strengthened glass substrates. Specimens for edge strength measurements of different thickness and CS/DOL glass were prepared using the laser scribe and break technique. The specimens were tested using the standard 4-point bend method and the results are presented.

  13. Improving copper plating adhesion on glass using laser machining techniques and areal surface texture parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baofeng; Petzing, Jon; Webb, Patrick; Leach, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Glass is a promising substitute substrate material being evaluated for electronic packaging technology. Improving the electroless copper plated layer adhesion of the glass is one of the most important considerations for development of the technology. An excimer laser (248 nm) was used for structured texturing of glass surfaces (to improve adhesion) by changing mask dimensions, laser operating parameters and overlapping pitch spacing, and therefore producing a range of micro-scale features. Electroless plated copper adhesion strength was assessed using quantitative scratch testing, demonstrating that micro-patterned structures can significantly improve copper/glass adhesion. New ISO 25178 Part 2 areal surface texture parameters were used to characterise the surface roughness of ablated glass surfaces, and correlated to the scratch testing results. Highly correlated parameters were identified that could be used as predictive surface design tools, directly linking surface topography to adhesion performance, without the need for destructive adhesion quantification via scratch testing.

  14. Production of glass microspheres comprising 90Y and (177)Lu for treating of hepatic tumors with SPECT imaging capabilities.

    PubMed

    Poorbaygi, Hosein; Reza Aghamiri, Seyed Mahmoud; Sheibani, Shahab; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Mohagheghpoor, Elham

    2011-10-01

    Our objective was to determine if glass microspheres impregnated with two radionuclides, (90)Y as source of therapeutic beta emissions and (177)Lu as source of diagnostic gamma emissions can be useful for SPECT imaging during or after application of the (90)Y microspheres for treating of hepatic tumors. The glass-based microspheres labeled with (89)Y and lutetium (YAS (Lu)) or (89)Y and ytterbium (YAS (Yb)) were prepared by the sol-gel process where sol droplets directly were formed to gel microspheres. Results of the neutron activation indicate that such a combination of glass, microspheres allow bio-distribution studies by SPECT imaging with high resolution. PMID:21723135

  15. Glass carbon surface modified by the fluorine ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Ishizuka, Masanori; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Isao; Uematu, Takahiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Mitsuo, Atsushi; Morikawa, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Application of nano and micro fabrication techniques in industry requires solution to some crucial problems. One of the significant problems is the sticking interface between mold surface and imprinted polymer. In this study, we report a solution to the sticking interface problem by modification of nano imprinting mold using fluorine ion implantation. After the fluorine implantation, anti sticking layer appeared on the nano imprinting mold surface. After the implantation, a mold made from glass like carbon was patterned by focused ion beam lithography. The pattern was made up of word "TIRI". The line width was varied with 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm. The line depth was about 200 ˜ 300 nm. The average depth of implanted fluorine was approximately 90 nm. After imprinting, the resin was removed from the mold by mechanical lift-off process. Transferred pattern was observed and confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The pattern transferred from mold to resin was found to be successful.

  16. Optical Properties of Oxygen Plasma-Treated Carbon Nanowalls Grown on Glass Substrates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Ho; Choi, Won Seok

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of oxygen (02) plasma treatment on a synthesized carbon nanowall (CNW). A microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system was facilitated to grow CNWs on a glass, using a mixture of CH4 and H2 gases. First, the CNWs were post-plasma-treated for different treatment durations, and then their optical properties were analyzed. In addition, the cross-sectional and planar images of the CNWs were examined via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) depending on the different post-plasma-treatment durations. Then the structural characteristics were analyzed via Raman spectroscopy, and the changes in the light transmittance depending on the O2 plasma treatment durations were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of the post-plasma treatments on the synthesized CNWs were evaluated. The results confirmed that O2 gas is effective for plasma etching of CNWs. PMID:27483919

  17. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  18. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Nanosecond Laser Treated Titanium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Mizutani, Masayoshi; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Komotori, Jun

    We developed surface modification technologies for dental implants in this study. The study contributes to shortening the time required for adhesion between alveolar bone and fixtures which consist of dental implants. A Nd:YVO4 nanosecond laser was used to modify the surfaces of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) disks, and their biocompatibility was evaluated cytocompatibility and bioactivity. First, rows of 200 µm spaced rectilinear laser treatments were performed on surfaces of CP Ti disks. Osteoblasts derived from rat mesenchymal stem cells were then cultured on the treated surfaces. Cytocompatibility on the laser treated area was evaluated by observing adhesion behavior of cells on these surfaces. The results indicated that the micro-order structure formed by the laser treatment promoted adhesion of osteoblasts and that traces of laser treatment without microstucture didn't affect the adhesion. Second, surfaces of CP Ti disks were completely covered by traces of laser treatment, which created complex microstructures of titania whose crystal structure is rutile and anatase. This phenomenon allowed the creation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the disks in 1.5-times simulated body fluid (1.5SBF) while no hydroxyapatite was observed on conventional polished surfaces in the same conditions. This result indicates that bioactivity was enabled on CP Ti by the laser treatment. From these two results, laser treatment for CP Ti surfaces is an effective method for enhancing adhesion of osteoblasts and promoting bioactivity, which are highly appreciated properties for dental implants.

  19. Surface characterization of plasma-treated polypropylene fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q.F

    2004-06-15

    Plasma treatment is increasingly being used for surface modification of different materials in many industries. In this study, different techniques were employed to characterize the surface properties of plasma treated polypropylene fibers. The chemical nature of the fiber sufaces has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS examination indicated the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on fiber surfaces after plasma treatment. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) scans revealed the evolution of surface morphology under different experimental conditions. A Philips Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was also used to study the wetting behavior of the fibers. In the ESEM, relative humidity can be raised to 100% to facilitate the water condensation onto fiber surfaces for wetting observation. The ESEM observation revealed that the plasma treatment significantly altered the surface wettability of polypropylene fibers.

  20. Bioactive glass surface for fiber reinforced composite implants via surface etching by Excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Huhtinen, Hannu; Mattila, Riina; Donati, Ivan; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-07-01

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) prepared from bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)-based thermosets reinforced with E-glass fibers are promising alternatives to metallic implants due to the excellent fatigue resistance and the mechanical properties matching those of bone. Bioactive glass (BG) granules can be incorporated within the polymer matrix to improve the osteointegration of the FRC implants. However, the creation of a viable surface layer using BG granules is technically challenging. In this study, we investigated the potential of Excimer laser ablation to achieve the selective removal of the matrix to expose the surface of BG granules. A UV-vis spectroscopic study was carried out to investigate the differences in the penetration of light in the thermoset matrix and BG. Thereafter, optimal Excimer laser ablation parameters were established. The formation of a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer on the surface of the laser-ablated specimens was verified in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the proliferation of MG63 cells on the surfaces of the laser-ablated specimens was investigated. For the laser-ablated specimens, the pattern of proliferation of MG63 cells was comparable to that in the positive control group (Ti6Al4V). We concluded that Excimer laser ablation has potential for the creation of a bioactive surface on FRC-implants. PMID:27134152

  1. Controlling surface energy of glass substrates to prepare superhydrophobic and transparent films from silica nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hitoshi; Xie, Jing; Saji, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated superhydrophobic and transparent silica nanoparticle (SNP) films on glass plates via spray-coating technique. When suspensions containing 1-propanol and hydrophobic SNPs were sprayed over glass plates that were modified with dodecyl groups, superhydrophobic and transparent SNP films were formed on the substrates. Surface energy of the glass plates had a significant role to obtain superhydrophobic and transparent SNP films. SNP films did not show superhydrophobicity when bare glass plates were used as substrates, because water droplets tend to adhere the exposed part of the hydrophilic glass plate. Glass plates having extreme low surface energy were not also suitable because suspension solution was repelled from the substrates, which resulted in forming non-uniform SNP films. PMID:25310579

  2. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  3. The effect of exposed glass fibers and particles of bioactive glass on the surface wettability of composite implants.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG) particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a) fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) with different fiber orientations and (b) polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE) calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (P < 0.001) polar (γ(P)) and total SFE (γ(TOT)) components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m(2), resp.) than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m(2), resp.). The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (γ(P)) value, while the dispersive (γ(D)) value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (P < 0.001). Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics. PMID:22253628

  4. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. |

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  5. Induced hydrophobic recovery of oxygen plasma-treated surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Guckenberger, David J.; Berthier, Erwin; Young, Edmond W. K.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma treatment is a widely used method in microfabrication laboratories and the plasticware industry to functionalize surfaces for device bonding and preparation for mammalian cell culture. However, spatial control of plasma treatment is challenging because it typically requires a tedious masking step that is prone to alignment errors. Currently, there are no available methods to actively revert a surface from a treated hydrophilic state to its original hydrophobic state. Here, we describe a method that relies on physical contact treatment (PCT) to actively induce hydrophobic recovery of plasma-treated surfaces. PCT involves applying brushing and peeling processes with common wipers and tapes to reverse the wettability of hydrophilized surfaces while simultaneously preserving hydrophilicity of non-contacted surfaces. We demonstrate that PCT is a user-friendly method that allows 2D and 3D surface patterning of hydrophobic regions, and the protection of hydrophilic surfaces from unwanted PCT-induced recovery. This method will be useful in academic and industrial settings where plasma treatment is frequently used. PMID:22592853

  6. Effects of heat treating silane and different etching techniques on glass fiber post push-out bond strength.

    PubMed

    Samimi, P; Mortazavi, V; Salamat, F

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare two pretreatment methods of a fiber post and to evaluate the effect of heat treatment to applied silane on the push-out bond strength for different levels of root. In this in vitro study, 40 glass fiber posts were divided into five groups (n=8) according to the kind of surface treatment applied. They were then inserted into extracted and endodontically treated human canines using a self-etch resin cement (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray, Japan). Group HF+S = hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching and silane (S) application; group HF+S+WP = HF etching and heat-treated silane application and warmed posts (WP); group H2O2+S = hydrogen peroxide etching and silane application; group H2O2+S+WP = hydrogen peroxide and heat-treated-silane application and warmed post; and group C, the control group, received no pretreatment. After completion of thermal cycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C), all specimens were cut horizontally to obtain three sections. Each section was subjected to a push-out test, and the test results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, post-hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test, and a paired sample t-test (α=0.05). It was found that bond strength was not statistically influenced by the kind of etching material used (p=0.224), but was significantly affected by heat treatment of applied silane (p<0.001). The interaction between these two factors was not statistically significant (p=0.142). Group HF+S+WP showed the highest bond strength (12.56±1.73 MPa) (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the effect of the different treatments on the surface characteristics of posts. In the four pretreated groups, the bond strength decreased significantly from the coronal to the apical root canal sections (p≤0.05). The results of this study show that the use of heat-treated silane significantly enhances the push-out bond strength of the fiber posts to root. HF acid etching with heat-treated silane application led to the

  7. Adsorption of ammonia on treated stainless steel and polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaittinen, O.; Metsälä, M.; Persijn, S.; Vainio, M.; Halonen, L.

    2014-05-01

    Adsorption of dynamically diluted ammonia at part-per-billion to low part-per-million concentrations in dry nitrogen was studied with treated and non-treated stainless steel and polymer test tubes. The treatments included electropolishing and two types of coatings based on amorphous silicon. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with an external cavity diode laser operating in the near-infrared wavelength range was used to monitor the adsorption process in real time in continuous-flow conditions to obtain quantitative assessment of the adsorptive properties of the studied surfaces. The investigated polymers were all less adsorptive than any of the treated or non-treated stainless steel surfaces. Some of the commercial coatings reduced the adsorption loss of stainless steel by a factor of ten or more. Polyvinylidene fluoride was found to be superior (less adsorption) to the four other studied polymer coatings. The number of adsorbed ammonia molecules per surface area obtained at different ammonia gas phase concentrations was modeled with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The time behavior of the adsorption-desorption process occurring in the time scale of seconds and minutes was simulated with a simple kinetic model.

  8. Mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy/short glass fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.C.; Girish, B.M.; Satish, B.M.; Kamath, R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with glass fibers from 1 to 5 wt%. The composites were fabricated using the Compocasting method, in which short glass fibers were introduced into the vortex created in the molten alloy through an impeller rotated at 500 rpm. The molten mass was thoroughly stirred and poured into permanent molds and squeezed under pressure. The specimens were heat treated at 320 C for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. The tests on the as-cast composites revealed that as the glass content in the composites was increased, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), compressive strength, and hardness of the composite increased, while the ductility and impact strength were decreased. Heat treatment was found to improve significantly the ductility, compressive strength, and impact strength, while the hardness and UTS were reduced. This paper discusses the behavior of these composites.

  9. Mechanism study of femtosecond laser induced selective metallization (FLISM) on glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Liao, Yang; Zeng, Huidan; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the mechanism of selective metallization on glass surfaces with the assistance of femtosecond laser irradiation followed by electroless plating. Irradiation of femtosecond laser makes it possible to selectively deposit copper microstructures in the irradiated area on glass surfaces coated with silver nitrate films. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses reveal that silver atoms are produced on the surface of grooves formed by laser ablation, which serve as catalysis seeds for subsequent electroless copper plating.

  10. Surface mobility of molecular glasses and its importance in physical stability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous molecular materials (molecular glasses) are useful for drug delivery, bio-preservation and organic electronics. A central issue in developing amorphous materials is the stability against crystallization and other transformations that can compromise material performance. We review recent progress in understanding the stability of molecular glasses, particularly the role for surface mobility. Surface diffusion in molecular glasses can be vastly faster than bulk diffusion. This high surface mobility enables fast crystal growth on the free surface. In this process, surface crystals grow upward and laterally, with the lateral growth rate being roughly proportional to surface diffusivity. Surface mobility also influences bulk crystal growth as the process can create fracture and free surfaces. During vapor deposition, surface mobility allows efficient equilibration of newly deposited molecules, producing low-energy, high-density glasses that are equivalent to liquid-cooled glasses aged for thousands of years. Free surfaces can accelerate chemical degradation of proteins. Measures for inhibiting surface-facilitated transformations include minimizing free surfaces, applying surface coatings, and preventing fracture. PMID:26774328

  11. Stability of plasma treated superhydrophobic surfaces under different ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Faze; Liu, Jiyu; Cui, Yao; Huang, Shuai; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Xu, Wenji; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Plasma hydrophilizing of superhydrophobic substrates has become an important area of research, for example, superhydrophobic-(super)hydrophilic patterned surfaces have significant practical applications such as lab-on-chip systems, cell adhesion, and control of liquid transport. However, the stability of plasma-induced hydrophilicity is always considered as a key issue since the wettability tends to revert back to the untreated state (i.e. aging behavior). This paper focuses on the stability of plasma treated superhydrophobic surface under different ambient conditions (e.g. temperature and relative humidity). Water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to monitor the aging process. Results show that low temperature and low relative humidity are favorable to retard the aging process and that pre-storage at low temperature (-10°C) disables the treated surface to recover superhydrophobicity. When the aging is performed in water, a long-lasting hydropholicity is obtained. As the stability of plasma-induced hydrophilcity over a desired period of time is a very important issue, this work will contribute to the optimization of storage conditions of plasma treated superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:26945118

  12. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-02-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal.

  13. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    PubMed Central

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  14. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers.

    PubMed

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  15. Formation of metallic nanostructures on the surface of ion- exchange glass by focused electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarenko, F. E.; Zhukov, M. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Golubok, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for formation of metallic nanostructures on the surface of ion-exchange glass. The method is based on the interaction of a focused electron beam with ions in ion-exchange glass. In experiments nanostructures with different shapes were obtained, depending on the electrons irradiation conditions.

  16. Treating ocular surface disease: new agents in development

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Ahmad M; Hardten, David R

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances and investigation in the treatment of ocular surface pathology. There is significant investment in this area, paralleling the growing demand for more effective alternatives to current treatments. Clinicians are becoming more aware of surface pathology, yet the ability to treat the most common forms of ocular pathology are still limited to the few medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Medicines and devices currently under investigation are very promising. It is absolutely critical to understand the emerging options and think of their role in the treatment paradigm. PMID:21573093

  17. Durability of SRP Waste Glass - Effects of Pressure and Formation of Surface Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    2001-10-17

    This report discusses results of an assessment of pressure at anticipated storage temperature on the chemical durability of Savannah River Plant waste glass. Surface interactions were also examined and corrosion mechanisms discussed.

  18. Novel approaches to the surface modification of glass by thermo-electric poling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas J.

    Many new and emerging applications of glass rely critically on surface properties, and have led to an ever-increasing demand for methods to controllably modify glass surfaces as a pathway to enhanced properties. The genesis of this thesis arose from such pursuits, wherein the thermo-electric poling of glass---encompassing treatment with high voltage and blocking electrodes at moderate temperatures---was found to provide a fertile research area. Versatile in its application to a variety of glasses, as well as the diversity of phenomena it produces, several novel approaches to the thermo-electric treatments of multicomponent glass are carried out in this work. This included (1) poling to produce normally-forbidden, second-order nonlinearity in high breakdown strength glasses as a potential avenue to greater nonlinear coefficients; (2) capitalizing on poling-induced modifications toward the novel end of manipulating the observed breakdown strength of glass; and (3) venturing outside the "typical" parameter space of poling treatments in order to realize even greater modifications to surface composition and structure by electrolyzing the glass network. The primary outcome for the first study indicates that, contrary to the usual assumption, the stored internal field from poling is limited to a substantial fraction of the intrinsic breakdown strength, and seemingly in a broad range of glass systems. This is most likely due to nonlinear conduction effects at the high poling temperatures. Meanwhile, the results of the second study indicate that the observed breakdown strength of glass is minimally influenced by the presence of a stored space charge field, and is likely attributable to the presence of the modified surface layer concentrating the applied voltage. The results of the last study provide the most intriguing possibilities for extensive and stable surface modification. Applied to a model alkali-free glass, a nanoscale layer is formed adjacent to the anodic surface

  19. Oxygen-Plasma-Treated Indium-Tin-Oxide Films on Nonalkali Glass Deposited by Super Density Arc Plasma Ion Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Kihyon; Son, Jun Ho; Jung, Gwan Ho; Lee, Jong-Lam; Choi, Kyu Han; Song, Kyu Ho; Ahn, Kyung Chul

    2008-02-01

    The effects of O2 plasma treatment on both the chemical composition and work function of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film were investigated. ITO films were deposited on non-alkali glass substrate by super density arc plasma ion plating for application in active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The water contact angle decreased from 38 to 11° as the ITO films were treated with O2 plasma for 60 s at a plasma power of 150 W, indicating an increase in the hydrophilicity of the surface. It was found that there were no distinct changes in the microstructure or electrical properties of the ITO films with O2 plasma treatment. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy data revealed that O2 plasma treatment decreased the amount of carbon contamination and increased the number of unscreened states of In3+ and (O2)2- peroxo species. This played the role of increasing the work function of the ITO films by 1.7 eV. As a result, the turn-on voltage of the OLED decreased markedly from 24 to 8 V and the maximum luminance value of the OLED increased to 2500 cd/m2.

  20. Flame retardant polypropylene nanocomposites reinforced with surface treated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guleria, Abhishant

    Polypropylene nanocomposites are prepared by reinforcing carbon nanotubes by ex-situ solution mixing method. Interfacial dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polypropylene have been improved by surface modification of CNTs and adding surfactants. Polypropylene nanocomposites fabrication was done after treating CNTs. Firstly, oxidation of CNTs followed by silanization for addition of functionalized groups on the surface of CNTs. Maleic anhydride grafted PPs were used as surfactants. Maleic anhydrides with two different molecular weights were LAMPP and HMAPP. Successful oxidation of CNTs by nitric acid and functionalized CNTs by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with evidence of absorption peak at 1700 and 1100-1000 cm-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the CNTs dispersion quality was improved by directly adding LMAPP/HMAPP into PP/CNTs system and the PP-CNTs adhesion was enhanced through both the CNTs surface treatment and the addition of surfactant. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed an enhanced thermal stability in the PP/CNTs and PP/CNTs/MAPP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterization demonstrated that the crystalline temperature, fusion heat and crystalline fraction of hosting PP were decreased with the introduction of CNTs and surface treated CNTs; however, melting temperature was only slightly changed. Melting rheological behaviors including complex viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus indicated significant changes in the PP/MAPP/CNTs system before and after functionalization of CNTs, and the mechanism were also discussed in details.

  1. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  2. Influence of surface characteristics of modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of surface characteristics (surface roughness and specific surface area) of surface-modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization, and thus, the in vitro respirable fraction often referred to as fine particle fraction (FPF). By processing glass beads in a ball mill with different grinding materials (quartz and tungsten carbide) and varying grinding time (4 h and 8 h), and by plasma etching for 1 min, glass beads with different shades of surface roughness and increased surface area were prepared. Compared with untreated glass beads, the surface-modified rough glass beads show increased FPFs. The drug detachment from the modified glass beads is also more reproducible than from untreated glass beads indicated by lower standard deviations for the FPFs of the modified glass beads. Moreover, the FPF of the modified glass beads correlates with their surface characteristics. The higher the surface roughness and the higher the specific surface area of the glass beads the higher is the FPF. Thus, surface-modified glass beads make an ideal carrier for tailoring the performance of DPIs in the therapy of asthma and chronically obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:25632978

  3. Surface-relief gratings with high spatial frequency fabricated using direct glass imprinting process.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Hasegawa, K; Hatano, T; Kasa, H; Kintaka, K; Nishii, J

    2008-03-01

    Surface-relief gratings with high spatial frequencies were first fabricated using a direct imprinting process with a glassy carbon mold at the softening temperature of phosphate glass. A grating with maximum height of 730 nm and 500 nm period was formed on the glass surface by the pressing at the softening temperature of glass under constant pressure of 0.4 kN/cm(2). Phase retardation of 0.1 lambda was observed between TE-polarized and TM-polarized light at 600 nm wavelength. PMID:18311281

  4. Surface Treated Natural Fibres as Filler in Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzova, I.; Stevulova, N.; Singovszka, E.; Terpakova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Biocomposites based on natural fibres as organic filler have been studied for several years because traditional building materials such as concrete are increasingly being replaced by advanced composite materials. Natural fibres are a potential replacement of glass fibres in composite materials. Inherent advantages such as low density, biodegradability and comparable specific mechanical properties make natural fibres an attractive option. However, limitations such as poor thermal stability, moisture absorption and poor compatibility with matrix are challenges that need to be resolved. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of surface treatment on properties of hemp hurds like a natural lignocellulosic material and composites made thereof. Industrial hemp fibre is the one of the most suitable fibres for use in composite materials because of its good specific properties, as well as it being biologically degradable and CO2 neutral. Improving interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix is an important factor in using hemp fibres as reinforcement in composites. In order to improve interfacial bonding, modifications can be made to the hemp fibres to remove non- cellulosic compounds, separate hemp fibres from their bundles, and modify the fibre surface. This paper contains the comparison of FTIR spectra caused by combination of physical and chemical treatment of hemp material with unmodified sample. Modification of hemp hurds was carried out by NaOH solution and by ultrasonic treatment (deionized water and NaOH solution were used as the cleaning mediums).

  5. What can we learn about a dynamical length scale in glasses from measurements of surface mobility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. A.

    2013-08-01

    We consider the ability of recent measurements on the size of a liquid-like mobile surface region in glasses to provide direct information on the length scale of enhanced surface mobility. While these quantities are strongly related there are important distinctions that limit the ability of measurements to quantify the actual length over which the surface properties change from surface to bulk-like. In particular, we show that for temperatures near the bulk glass transition, measurements of a liquid-like mobile layer may have very limited predictive power when it comes to determining the temperature dependent length scale of enhanced surface mobility near the glass transition temperature. This places important limitations on the ability of measurements of such enhanced surface dynamics to contribute to discussion on the length scale for dynamical correlation in glassy materials.

  6. Effect of Loading Rate and Surface Conditions on Flexural Strength of Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, X; Chen, Wayne; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Templeton, D W

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the loading rate and surface condition dependence of the flexural strength of a borosilicate glass. The glass specimens are subjected to three different surface treatments before four-point bending tests to study the effect of surface flaws. Quasistatic (Material Test System 810) and dynamic (Kolsky bar) experiments are performed at loading rates ranging from 0.7 to 4 x 10{sup 6} MPa/s. The results show that the flexural strength of the borosilicate glass has a strong dependence on the loading rate. A chemically etched surface produces an enhanced flexural strength by about an order of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy images on fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is governed by different types of flaws under different surface treatment conditions. Edge failure is also identified for samples possessing high flexural strength.

  7. Dispersive surface properties of glass-ionomer cements determined by inverse gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejewska, E.; Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewski, M.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.

    2005-05-01

    The surface properties of several glass-ionomer cements (GIC), restorative dental materials, (GC-Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated for the first time by means of inverse gas chromatography. This method enables characterization of surface activity in dispersive (non-polar) and acid-base interactions. The ability of the surface of glass-ionomers to participate in dispersive interactions was expressed by the use of the dispersive component of surface free energy γsd. This parameter was determined with satisfactory precision, meaning that the values of γsd can be further used in the discussion of the influence of the type of GIC, its preparation and the storage time on the surface properties. The greatest capacity for dispersive interactions was revealed by Ketac Molar and the lowest by GC-Fuji. Dispersive interactions in the surface activity of glass-ionomers increased with increasing storage time after cement preparation.

  8. Stable Glass Transformation to Supercooled Liquid via Surface-Initiated Growth Front

    SciTech Connect

    Swallen, Stephen F.; Traynor, Katherine; McMahon, Robert J.; Ediger, M. D.; Mates, Thomas E.

    2009-02-13

    Highly stable glasses of tris-naphthylbenzene transform into a liquid when annealed above the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. In contrast to the predictions of standard models, the observed transformation is spatially inhomogeneous. Secondary ion mass spectrometry experiments on isotopically labeled multilayer films show that the liquid grows into the stable glass with sharp growth fronts initiated at the free surface and at the interface with the substrate. For the free surface, the growth velocity is constant in time and has the same temperature dependence as self-diffusion in the equilibrium supercooled liquid. These stable glasses are packed so efficiently that surfaces and interfaces are required to initiate the transformation to the liquid even well above T{sub g}.

  9. Surface energy increase of oxygen-plasma-treated PET

    SciTech Connect

    Cioffi, M.O.H.; Voorwald, H.J.C.; Mota, R.P

    2003-03-15

    Prosthetic composite is a widely used biomaterial that satisfies the criteria for application as an organic implant without adverse reactions. Polyethylene therephthalate (PET) fiber-reinforced composites have been used because of the excellent cell adhesion, biodegradability and biocompatibility. The chemical inertness and low surface energy of PET in general are associated with inadequate bonds for polymer reinforcements. It is recognized that the high strength of composites, which results from the interaction between the constituents, is directly related to the interfacial condition or to the interphase. A radio frequency plasma reactor using oxygen was used to treat PET fibers for 5, 20, 30 and 100 s. The treatment conditions were 13.56 MHz, 50 W, 40 Pa and 3.33x10{sup -7} m{sup 3}/s. A Rame-Hart goniometer was used to measure the contact angle and surface energy variation of fibers treated for different times. The experimental results showed contact angle values from 47 deg. to 13 deg. and surface energies from 6.4x10{sup -6} to 8.3x10{sup -6} J for the range of 5 to 100 s, respectively. These results were confirmed by the average ultimate tensile strength of the PET fiber/ polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix composite tested in tensile mode and by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Quantitative morphological and compositional evaluation of laboratory prepared aluminoborosilicate glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuxuan; Wren, Anthony W.; Mellott, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surface finishing techniques including polishing, etching and heat treatment can modify the topography and the surface chemical composition of glasses. It is widely acknowledged that atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to quantify the morphology of surfaces, providing various parameters including average, peak-to-valley, and apparent root-mean-square roughness. Furthermore advanced power spectral density (PSD) analysis of AFM-derived surface profiles offers quantification of the spatial homogeneity of roughness values along different wavelengths, resulting in parameters including equivalent RMS, Hurst exponent, and fractal dimension. Outermost surface (∼8 nm) chemical composition can be quantitatively measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this paper, we first developed a series of surface finishing methods for an aluminoborosilicate glass system by polishing, etching or heat treatment. The chemical composition and environment of prepared glass surfaces were quantified by XPS and topographical analysis was carried out by fractal and k-correlation model fitting of PSD profiles derived via AFM. The chemical environment of elements, as determined via XPS, present on the prepared surfaces are similar to those within the pristine bulk glass. The compositional evolution of polished and melt surfaces are discussed in context of corrosion phenomena associated with the grinding, polishing, and etching of surfaces and the thermal heat treatment utilized for processing, respectively. Good correlation between surface finishing methods, chemical composition and topographical parameters were observed. More importantly, extensive discussions on topographical parameters including equivalent RMS, Hurst exponent, and fractal dimension are presented as a function of processing method.

  11. Friction and surface chemistry of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses were measured both in argon and in vacuum to a temperature of 350 C. The alloy surfaces were also analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify the compounds and elements present on the surface. The results of the investigation indicate that even when the surfaces of the amorphous alloys, or metallic glasses, are atomically clean, bulk contaminants such as boric oxide and silicon dioxide diffuse to the surfaces. Friction measurements in both argon and vacuum indicate that the alloys exhibit higher coefficients of friction in the crystalline state than they do in the amorphous state.

  12. Dental ceramics coated with bioactive glass: Surface changes after exposure in a simulated body fluid under static and dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, L.; Kontonasaki, E.; Zorba, T.; Chatzistavrou, X.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K.; Sklavounos, S.; Koidis, P.

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive materials develop a strong bond with living tissues through a carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite layer, similar to that of bone. The fabrication of a thin bioactive glass coating on dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, could provide a bioactive surface, which in combination with a tissue regenerative technique could lead to periodontal tissues attachment. The aim of this study was the in vitro investigation of the surface structure changes of dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, coated with a bioactive glass heat-treated at 950 °C, after exposure in a simulated body fluid (SBF) under two different soaking conditions. Coating of dental ceramics with a bioactive glass resulted in the formation of a stable and well bonded with the ceramic substrate thin layer. The growth of a well-attached carbonate apatite layer on their surface after immersion in a simulated body fluid is well evidenced under both experimental conditions, although in static environment the rate of apatite growth is constant and the grown layers seem to be more dense and compact compared with the respective layers observed on specimens under dynamic conditions.

  13. Surface signatures of bioactivity: MD simulations of 45S and 65S silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Tilocca, Antonio; Cormack, Alastair N

    2010-01-01

    The surface of a bioactive (45S) and a bioinactive (65S) glass composition has been modeled using shell-model classical molecular dynamics simulations. Direct comparison of the two structures allowed us to identify the potential role of specific surface features in the processes leading to integration of a bioglass implant with the host tissues, focusing in particular on the initial dissolution of the glass network. The simulations highlight the critical role of network fragmentation and sodium enrichment of the surface in determining the rapid hydrolysis and release of silica fragments in solution, characteristic of highly bioactive compositions. On the other hand, no correlation has been found between the surface density of small (two- and three-membered) rings and bioactivity, thus suggesting that additional factors need to be taken into account to fully understand the role of these sites in the mechanism leading to calcium phosphate deposition on the glass surface. PMID:19725567

  14. Surface diffusion of molecular glasses: Material dependence and impact on physical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Shigang; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Lian

    Surface diffusion coefficients have been measured for molecular glasses tris-naphthylbenzene (TNB) and PMMA oligomers by surface grating decay. Surface diffusion on TNB is vastly faster than bulk diffusion, by a factor of 107 at Tg, while the process is very slow on PMMA. Along with the previous results on o - terphenyl, nifedipine, indomethacin, and polystyrene oligomers, we find that surface diffusion slows down with increasing molecular size and intermolecular forces, whereas bulk diffusion has a weaker material dependence. The molecular glasses studied show fast crystal growth on the free surface. A general correlation is observed between the coefficient of surface diffusion and the velocity of surface crystal growth, indicating surface crystallization is supported by surface mobility. (Zhu, L., et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011): 256103; Zhang, W., et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 119 (2015): 5071-5078) Nsf.

  15. The cleaning of early glasses: investigation about the reactivity of different chemical treatments on the surface of ancient glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, C.; Ciliberto, E.; La Delfa, S.; Panarello, S.; Scandurra, A.

    2008-07-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the reactivity of different chemical cleaning procedures on the surface of archaeological glasses. Investigations were performed on a series of Roman glass samples coming from Sicilian excavations. The ancient freshly fractured glass samples were subjected to different cleaning protocols such as piranha solution (solution of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide) and EDTA/ammonia and citric acid/ammonia solutions at different pH values. The atomic concentrations of alkaline and alkaline-earth ions, measured using XPS spectra acquired at the surface of all the samples, revealed that, in acid solution, the reactivities of the EDTA and citric acid solutions were higher than that of the piranha solution. Moreover, in alkaline conditions, the reactivities of the chelating agent/ammonia solutions seem to be very high and effective in taking out alkaline and alkaline-earth ions and in destroying the external glassy structure with the formation of a silica gel thin film.

  16. Mechanical Strength and Broadband Transparency Improvement of Glass Wafers via Surface Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we mechanically strengthened a borosilicate glass wafer by doubling its bending strength and simultaneously enhancing its transparency using surface nanostructures for different applications including sensors, displays and panels. A fabrication method that combines dry and wet etching is used for surface nanostructure fabrication. Specifically, we improved the bending strength of plain borosilicate glass by 96% using these surface nanostructures on both sides. Besides bending strength improvement, a limited optical transmittance enhancement of 3% was also observed in the visible light wavelength region (400–800 nm). Both strength and transparency were improved by using surface nanostructures of 500 nm depth on both sides of the borosilicate glass without affecting its bulk properties or the glass manufacturing process. Moreover, we observed comparatively smaller fragments during the breaking of the nanostructured glass, which is indicative of strengthening. The range for the nanostructure depth is defined for different applications with which improvements of the strength and transparency of borosilicate glass substrate are obtained. PMID:27322276

  17. Mechanical Strength and Broadband Transparency Improvement of Glass Wafers via Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we mechanically strengthened a borosilicate glass wafer by doubling its bending strength and simultaneously enhancing its transparency using surface nanostructures for different applications including sensors, displays and panels. A fabrication method that combines dry and wet etching is used for surface nanostructure fabrication. Specifically, we improved the bending strength of plain borosilicate glass by 96% using these surface nanostructures on both sides. Besides bending strength improvement, a limited optical transmittance enhancement of 3% was also observed in the visible light wavelength region (400-800 nm). Both strength and transparency were improved by using surface nanostructures of 500 nm depth on both sides of the borosilicate glass without affecting its bulk properties or the glass manufacturing process. Moreover, we observed comparatively smaller fragments during the breaking of the nanostructured glass, which is indicative of strengthening. The range for the nanostructure depth is defined for different applications with which improvements of the strength and transparency of borosilicate glass substrate are obtained. PMID:27322276

  18. Formation of nanoscale dots on glass surface by microprobe ion manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Tetsuji; Kubota, Shin-ichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Shibata, Shuichi

    2004-10-01

    Ion manipulation using micro-probe has been performed to fabricate the nano-scale dots on/or in the glass. Soda-lime-silica glass was subjected to the treatments. Two types of the manipulation treatments were carried out using various probes and electrical conditions. In the Na-extraction treatment, the thick needles and/or STM tips were used as a cathode. At 250°C, Na+ ions were extracted from the inside of the glass towards the cathode tip, and electrochemically reduced to Na-metal. Na-metal are held at the tip/glass interface as liquid state, and grew with the treatment time. After the treatment, they formed the micrometer-size dots of fodium compound on the glass surface, and their size was dependent on the total charge conducting through the tip. In the Ag-migration treatment, Ag-metal probes were prepared and used as an anode at 200°C. Ag atoms on the tip were oxidized to Ag+ ions and migrated into the glass. They could be optically recognized using the luminescence from Ag+ ions under the UV irradiation. a lot of Ag-metal dots with the size 100-300nm were also formed on the glass surface. They are considered to be transferred from the tip of Ag-metal probe onto the glass surface. The size of the Ag+ migrated region was dependent on the total charge of the treatment, and the available small size was found to be defined by the apex of the probe tip. The observed phenomena in these treatments were explained and the possibility of the formation of nano-scale dots on the glass by ion manipulation was discussed.

  19. Glass surface modification using Nd:YAG laser in SF6 atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghanpour, H. R.; Parvin, P.

    2015-02-01

    Glass surface modification is one of the processes which changes its physical properties. Changing optical property is a significant effect of surface modification. Among the surface modification methods, laser surface modification is attractive for researchers. Here, SiO2 glass target was irradiated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in SF6 atmospheres as well as vacuum. In this process, an Nd:YAG laser beam was focused near the glass target while the target was inserted in a chamber containing SF6 atmosphere or at vacuum condition. The surface morphology changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Noticeable surface changes were observed due to laser irradiation in SF6 atmosphere. Although the absorption lines of SF6 molecule are not near the Nd:YAG laser wavelength, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) showed decomposition of SF6 molecules near a glass target. The ablated fragments from the target impacted on gas molecules and decomposed them. In this work, LIBS showed that there were several fluorine ions when the target was irradiated in an SF6 atmosphere. This demonstrates SF6 molecule decomposition near the glass target by laser irradiation. The plasma temperature was ~2000 K. This temperature is much less than metallic or other gaseous materials' plasma temperatures.

  20. Glass delamination: a comparison of the inner surface performance of vials and pre-filled syringes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications. PMID:24938618

  1. Experimental study on the surface characteristics of Pd-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Bingli; Zhao, Na; Li, Qian; Hou, Jianhua; Feng, Weina

    2014-12-01

    The metallic glass has many unique and desirable physical and chemical characteristics for their long-range disordered atomic structure, among them the interfacial properties of the metallic glasses are crucial for their applications and manufacturing. In this work, the contact wetting angles between the polymer melts and Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk metallic glass (Pd-BMG) with four kinds of roughness were analyzed. Experiments show the order of four polymers wettability on Pd-BMG was PP > HDPE > COC > PC. The surface free energy of Pd-BMG was estimated by Owens-Wendt method using the contact angles of three testing liquids. Neumann method was also used to further evidence the surface free energy of Pd-BMG comparing with PTFE, mold steels NAK80 and LKM2343ESR. The results provide theoretical and technical supports for the fabrication of metallic glass micro mold and the parameter optimization of polymer micro injection molding.

  2. Re-Ir coating effect of molding core (WC) surface for aspheric glass lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Uk; Kim, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2007-10-01

    Recently, with increasing lightness and miniaturization of high resolution camera phones, the demand for aspheric glass lens has increased because plastic and spherical lenses are unable to satisfy the required performance. An aspheric glass lens is fabricated by high temperature and pressure molding using a tungsten carbide molding core, so precision grinding and coating technology for the molding core surface is required. In this paper, the optimal grinding condition of the tungsten carbide molding core was found after applying DOE to the development of the aspheric glass lens for the 3 mega pixel and 2.5 magnifications optical zoom for camera phone module. Also, the ultra precision grinding process was investigated under this condition by experiment. Rhenium-Iridium(Re-Ir) coating was applied on the ground surface of the tungsten carbide molding core. The influence of Re-Ir coating on the form accuracy and surface roughness was compared and evaluated. The form accuracy and surface roughness of the molding core were improved by application of Re-Ir coating on the surface of the tungsten carbide molding core. Aspheric lenses were also molded with the non-coated molding core and the Re-Ir coated molding core. Form accuracy(PV) and surface roughness(Ra) were measured. The form accuracy of the aspheric glass lens improved about 0.01 μm (aspheric surface) and the surface roughness by about 0.5 nm (aspheric surface).

  3. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, D. S.; Jung, S. T.

    2004-06-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit.

  4. Antireflective grassy surface on glass substrates with self-masked dry etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although recently developed bio-inspired nanostructures exhibit superior optic performance, their practical applications are limited due to cost issues. We present highly transparent glasses with grassy surface fabricated with self-masked dry etch process. Simultaneously generated nanoclusters during reactive ion etch process with simple gas mixture (i.e., CF4/O2) enables lithography-free, one-step nanostructure fabrication. The resulting grassy surfaces, composed of tapered subwavelength structures, exhibit antireflective (AR) properties in 300 to 1,800-nm wavelength ranges as well as improved hydrophilicity for antifogging. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis calculation provides design guidelines for AR surface on glass substrates. PMID:24289255

  5. Antireflective grassy surface on glass substrates with self-masked dry etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Min; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Kang, Eun Kyu; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2013-12-01

    Although recently developed bio-inspired nanostructures exhibit superior optic performance, their practical applications are limited due to cost issues. We present highly transparent glasses with grassy surface fabricated with self-masked dry etch process. Simultaneously generated nanoclusters during reactive ion etch process with simple gas mixture (i.e., CF4/O2) enables lithography-free, one-step nanostructure fabrication. The resulting grassy surfaces, composed of tapered subwavelength structures, exhibit antireflective (AR) properties in 300 to 1,800-nm wavelength ranges as well as improved hydrophilicity for antifogging. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis calculation provides design guidelines for AR surface on glass substrates.

  6. Three-Layer Model for the Emergence of Ultrastable Glasses from the Surfaces of Supercooled Liquids.

    PubMed

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Marvin, Michael D; Simmons, David S

    2016-06-01

    Ultrastable glasses produced by vapor deposition exhibit properties consistent with glasses that have been aged for thousands of years or more. These materials' properties are believed to emerge from the presence of a mobile layer at the surface of supercooled liquids that allows access to lower-energy states. However, the precise mechanism by which this enhanced mobility is translated into ultrastable glass behavior remains incompletely understood. Here we show that enhanced densities and stabilities consistent with ultrastable glasses specifically can emerge as a result of a mismatch in the length scales of thermodynamic and dynamic gradients at the surfaces of equilibrium supercooled liquids. In particular, ultrastable glass properties can be understood within a three-layer model of the interface in which a "facilitated layer" intermediate between the surface and bulk exhibits bulk-like liquid-state density but suppressed Tg. This mismatch in length-scale has previously been correlated with the scale of cooperative rearrangements in the supercooled state, suggesting that ultrastable glasses may be a direct consequence of the cooperative nature of dynamics in equilibrium supercooled liquids. PMID:27171532

  7. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; et al

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  8. Smoothing of surface of silica glass by heat treatment in wet atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Kenta; Katayama, Keiichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuno, Atsunobu; Zhang Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki; Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira; Tawarayama, Hiromasa; Kawazoe, Hiroshi

    2011-05-15

    The effect of heat treatment on the surface morphology of fused silica glass substrates was investigated. It was found that the water vapor pressure during heat treatment had a strong influence on the flattening of the silica glass surface. The surface of the frosted glass changed into a transparent and lustrous surface after heat treatment with water vapor at 1200 deg. C for 48 h, whereas surface irregularities remained for heat treatment under a dry atmosphere. It was suggested that the difference in surface flattening was caused by changes in surface viscosity that depended on the concentration of OH groups on the surface. In order to quantitatively understand the effect of the heat treatment atmosphere, power spectral density (PSD) analysis and a novel peak and valley method were applied to the experimental results. From the PSD analysis, it was found that the Mullins' model could not explain the smoothing behavior by heat treatment. The peak and valley method, which could separate the surface morphology into the surface irregularities and the background undulation, revealed that the Mullins' model limitation was mainly for the surface and the background undulation could be understood within the model. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms between for the surface smoothing and for the relaxation of the background undulation.

  9. The migration of fragments of glass from the pockets to the surfaces of clothing.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, S; Geddes, T; Lovelock, T J

    2011-05-20

    During the last decade or so there has been some discussion in the forensic community in the United Kingdom concerning whether it is necessary to search the pockets for glass particles in garments attributed to suspects arrested for glass breaking crimes. The removal of this practice would help expedite the searching and recovery process since examining only the surfaces of clothing would reduce the cost of recovering glass evidence. However, it is believed by many scientists that some glass fragments originally acquired in pockets can migrate to the surfaces of clothing prior to examination by the forensic scientist. As glass fragments have been encountered in the pockets of garments during examinations of casework items in the LGC Laboratories, the implications of this change in practice needs to be assessed. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate this possibility that fragments of glass migrate from a pocket of a garment to its surfaces during police and laboratory handling after a person is suspected of breaking glass during an offence. If this occurs to a significant extent then it could affect the evaluation of the glass evidence when using a Bayesian approach. Sixty fragments of glass were seeded into a pocket of a fleece jacket and a pair of denim jeans. Three experiments were performed; one examined a searching, recovery and blanking procedure, another examined the pre-laboratory 'handling' process of an item in an evidence bag, and the third experiment looked at the removal of an object from a pocket laden with glass and subsequent removal and packaging of the garment. Up to two (3.3%) fragments were recovered from the surfaces of the fleece jacket and the denim jeans via the searching, recovery and blanking procedure. Similar numbers were also recovered from the insides of the evidence bags. Up to four (6.7%) fragments were recovered from the surface of the fleece jacket and up to five (8.3%) fragments were recovered from the surface of the

  10. Facile creation of bio-inspired superhydrophobic Ce-based metallic glass surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Kesong; Li Zhou; Wang Weihua; Jiang Lei

    2011-12-26

    A bio-inspired synthesis strategy was conducted to fabricate superhydrophobic Ce-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) surfaces with self-cleaning properties. Micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures were first constructed on BMG surfaces and then modified with the low surface energy coating. Surface structures, surface chemical compositions, and wettability were characterized by combining scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Research indicated that both surface multiscale structures and the low surface free energy coating result in the final formation of superhydrophobicity.

  11. Surface analysis of polymers treated by remote atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eleazar; Hicks, Robert F

    2010-03-01

    The surfaces of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and polyethersulfone (PES) were treated with a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure oxygen and helium plasma. The polymers were exposed to the downstream afterglow of the plasma, which contained primarily oxygen atoms and metastable oxygen molecules ((1)Delta(g) O(2)), and no ions or electrons. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of HDPE revealed that 20% of the carbon atoms were converted into oxidized functional groups, with about half of these being carboxylic acids. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of all three polymers was obtained in order to determine the types of functional groups formed by atmospheric plasma exposure. It was found that the polymers were rapidly oxidized with addition of alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acids to the carbon backbone. Chain scission occurred on HDPE and PMMA, while on PES the aromatic groups underwent ring-opening and insertion of carboxylic acid. PMID:19950952

  12. Large scale micro-structured optical second harmonic generation response imprinted on glass surface by thermal poling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Dussauze, M.; Rodriguez, V.; Adamietz, F.; Marquestaut, N.; Deepak, K. L. N.; Grojo, D.; Uteza, O.; Delaporte, P.; Cardinal, T.; Fargin, E.

    2015-07-01

    Micro-structured second harmonic generation responses have been achieved on borophosphate niobium glasses by thermal poling using micro-patterned silicon substrates. The poling imprinting process has created sub-micrometer sized patterns of both surface relief and second order optical responses on the anode glass surface. Field enhancement effects within the micro structured electrode are believed to govern the charge density on the glass surface during the process and thus amplitudes of both implemented electric field and Maxwell stresses.

  13. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  14. Protein photoimmobilizations on the surface of quartz glass simply mediated by benzophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin; Tang, Qi; Liu, Chuanli; Li, Qin; Guo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yanlian; Lv, Xuefei; Geng, Lina; Deng, Yulin

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, photoinduced protein immobilizations on quartz glass slides utilizing benzophenone as photoinitiator without any photoactive group derivatizations involved were developed. Three different methods mediated by benzophenone were investigated, including protein photo-attachment onto untreated glass surface, protein attachment onto glass surface by reacting with pre-photografted maleic anhydride, and protein photo-attachment onto alkylamino silane functionalized glass surface, respectively. Protein immobilizations were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The preservation of biological activity after protein photo-attachments was confirmed by immunoassays. Area-defined protein immobilization was also primarily investigated. Comparative studies demonstrated that in respect of immobilization density, coverage homogeneities and photo-localization, protein photocoupling to amino-terminated quartz glass surfaces remarkably outperformed other photoinduced methods, as well as one kind of 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl isocyanate chemical protein immobilization. The feasibility of this protein photo-immobilization on silicon-based materials is promising for widespread application because of its simplicity and effectiveness.

  15. Crystalline monolayer surface of liquid Au-Cu-Si-Ag-Pd: Metallic glass former

    SciTech Connect

    Mechler, S; Yahel, E; Pershan, P S; Meron, M; Lin, B

    2012-02-06

    It is demonstrated by means of x-ray synchrotron reflectivity and diffraction that the surface of the liquid phase of the bulk metallic glass forming alloy Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3 consists of a two-dimensional crystalline monolayer phase for temperatures of up to about 50 K above the eutectic temperature. The present alloy as well as glass forming Au82Si18 and Au-Si-Ge alloys containing small amounts of Ge are the only metallic liquids to exhibit surface freezing well above the melting temperature. This suggests that the phenomena of surface freezing in metallic liquids and glass forming ability are related and probably governed by similar physical properties.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of silver ions embedded nanocomposite glass.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Pitchamuthu; Manikandan, Durgachalam; Manikandan, Elayaperumal; Ferdinand, Arumainathan Christy

    2014-04-24

    Silver nanocomposites (Ag-NCs) glasses are formed by the ion exchange technique of dipping the host matrix in the molten metal salt bath. These ions exchanged glasses are then annealed at different temperatures in air for one hour. They exhibit striking linear and nonlinear optical properties with potential applications in the field of photonics materials. The optical absorption spectra of Ag ion exchanged and annealed glasses confirm the presence of the nano sized metal (Ag) cluster embedded inside the glass matrix. The size and morphology of the embedded silver nanoclusters are studied from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Post Ag ion exchange made some structural changes in the soda lime glass which can be observed from Raman spectroscopy. It is observed that diffusion process lead to depolymerization of the glass network as it determined by analyzing the various peaks of SERS spectra. Significant enhancement in the Raman signal by these Ag-NCs, prove them as effective SERS substrates. PMID:24486788

  17. Laser-ultrasonic surface wave dispersion measurements on surface-treated metals.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alberto; Nagy, Peter B

    2004-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity spectroscopy has been long considered to be one of the leading candidates for nondestructive characterization of surface-treated metals because of its ability to probe the material properties at different penetration depths depending on the inspection frequency. We developed a high-precision laser-ultrasonic technique to study the feasibility of SAW dispersion spectroscopy for residual stress assessment on shot-peened metals. This technique is capable of measuring SAW dispersion with a relative error of 0.1% over a frequency range from 2 to 15 MHz. Our experimental results obtained from shot-peened aluminum 2024-T351 samples indicate that the dispersion of the surface wave is a superposition of different effects of surface treatment in the material, including surface roughness, compressive residual stress, and cold work. Although the surface roughness induced component is often the dominating part of the overall dispersion, the experimental results also indicate that it is feasible to observe a perceivable change in the dispersion of the SAW when the specimen is heat-treated at different temperatures, which has no perceivable effect on the surface roughness. The part of the dispersion, which changes during annealing via thermal relaxation, is due to near-surface residual stresses and the decay of texture, although at high frequencies nonuniform grain coarsening could also play a significant role. PMID:15047364

  18. Identification of surface defects on glass by parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyan; Shen, Yi; Bao, Wen; Li, Peng; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zhihua

    2015-09-01

    Defects can dramatically degrade glass quality, and automatic inspection is a trend of quality control in modern industry. One challenge in inspection in an uncontrolled environment is the misjudgment of fake defects (such as dust particles) as surface defects. Fortunately, optical changes within the periphery of a surface defect are usually introduced while those of a fake defect are not. The existence of changes within the defect peripheries can be adopted as a criterion for defect identification. However, modifications within defect peripheries can be too small to be noticeable in intensity based optical image of the glass surface, and misjudgments of modifications may occur due to the incorrectness in defect demarcation. Thus, a sensitive and reliable method for surface defect identification is demanded. To this end, a nondestructive method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed to precisely demarcate surface defects and sensitively measure surface deformations. Suspected surface defects are demarcated using the algorithm based on complex difference from expectation. Modifications within peripheries of suspected surface defects are mapped by phase information from complex interface signal. In this way, surface defects are discriminated from fake defects using a parallel spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) system. Both simulations and experiments are conducted, and these preliminary results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method to identify glass surface defects. PMID:26368461

  19. Surface-tension-driven flow in a glass melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneil, Thomas J.; Cole, Robert; Shankar Subramanian, R.

    1985-01-01

    Motion driven by surface tension gradients was observed in a vertical capillary liquid bridge geometry in a sodium borate melt. The surface tension gradients were introduced by maintaining a temperature gradient on the free melt surface. The flow velocities at the free surface of the melt, which were measured using a tracer technique, were found to be proportional to the applied temperature difference and inversely proportional to the melt viscosity. The experimentally observed velocities were in reasonable accord with predictions from a theoretical model of the system.

  20. Acid base surface properties of glass-ionomers determined by IGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewska, E.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.; Andrzejewski, M.

    2005-05-01

    SummaryThe surface properties of several glass-ionomer restorative dental materials (GC Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated by means of inverse gas chromatography. The capacity of the surface of glass-ionomers to undergo specific interactions was expressed using the specific component of free energy Δ Gs as well as the parameters KA and KD to describe the ability of the cement to act both as an electron acceptor and an electron donor, respectively. The character of the examined surface was expressed with the use of the SC parameter. All these parameters were determined with a high degree of precision. It was found that the surface of glass-ionomer cements had a well-marked acidic character. The ability of the cement surface to take part in specific interactions differed with the various types of commercial products. The surface activity of the glass-ionomers investigated changed with the storage time (up to 6 months) indicating an on-going setting reaction.

  1. Acid Etching and Surface Coating of Glass-Fiber Posts: Bond Strength and Interface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to glass-fiber post (GFP) treated or not with phosphoric acid, silane coupling agent, and unfilled resin. GFPs were etched or not with 37% phosphoric acid and different surface coating applied: silane coupling agent, unfilled resin, or both. Composite resin blocks were built around a 4-mm height on the GFP. Unfilled resin (20 s) and composite resin (40 s) were light activated by a light-emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h. Microtensile bond test was performed using a mechanical testing machine until failure (n=10). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p<0.05). Failure modes were classified as adhesive, mixed, or cohesive failures. Additional specimens (n=3) were made to analyze the bonded interfaces by scanning electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed the factor 'surface coating' was significant (p<0.05), whereas the factor 'HP etching' (p=0.131) and interaction between the factors (p=0.171) were not significant. The highest bond strength was found for the silane and unfilled resin group (p<0.05). A predominance of adhesive and cohesive failures was found. Differences regarding the homogeneity and thickness of the unfilled resin layer formed by different GFP surface treatments were observed. The application of silane and unfilled resin can improve the bond strength between GFP and resin composite. PMID:27058389

  2. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic glass surface using pyrophyllite nanosilica coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsandika, Gabriela; Fuad, Abdulloh; Diantoro, Markus; Zulaika, Siti; Subakti

    2016-02-01

    Costly effective superhydrophobic glass surface by deposition of modified homemade pyrophyllite nanosilica has been done. The thin layer coating was deposited on glass substrate by means of spin coating technique with further thermal annealing process. SEM images show the different topography of the surface layers as well as nanosilica layer thickness in the range of 7 to 19 µm. The optimum water contact angle of 142.54° is obtained for the nanosilica coating annealed at 65°C. The presence of the CH, OH, Si-O-Si, and Si-C secondary phases is discussed based on FTIR data analysis.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10222 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10222 Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic). (a) Chemical... as styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (PMN P-09-581) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10222 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10222 Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic). (a) Chemical... as styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (PMN P-09-581) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10222 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10222 Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic). (a) Chemical... as styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (PMN P-09-581) is subject to reporting under...

  6. Clinical and experimental study on regional administration of phosphorus 32 glass microspheres in treating hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Jiang, Zao; Teng, Gao-Jun; Song, Ji-Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Qing-Ming; Fang, Wen; He, Shi-Cheng; Guo, Jin-He

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutical effectiveness, dosage range an d toxic adverse effects of domestic phosphorus 32 glass microsphere and evaluate its clinical significance. METHODS: I. Fifty-two BALB/c tumor bearing male nude mice w ere allocated into treatment group ( n = 38) and control group ( n = 14). In the former group different doses of 32P-GMS were injected into the tumor mass, while in the latter 31P-GMS or no treatment was given. The experimental animals were sacrificed in batches, and then the tumors and their nearby tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. II. Through selective catheterizati on of hepatic artery, 32P-GMS was infused to 5 healthy domestic pigs in a dosage equivalent to the therapeutic dose for human being, and 31P-GMS was infused to another 5 healthy domestic pigs. Two pigs infused with con trast medium served as whole course blank controls. One pig from each group was surrendered to euthanasia at week 1, 4, 8 and 16 respectively. The ultrastructur al histopath-ological changes in liver tissues taken from different sites were evaluated semiquan-titatively. III. One hundred and twenty-seven times of 32P-GMS intrahepatic artery interventional therapies were performed on 93 patients with hepatic carcinoma, including 79 cases of primary hepatic carcinoma and 14 cases of secondary hepati c carcinoma. 32P-GMS ( n = 30), and group B, 32P-GMS and half-dose of trans-hepatic artery embolization ( TAE ) ( n = 49), and 18 patients with HCC by TAE only as control group C. Fourteen patients with secondary hepatic carcinoma were treated in the same way as group B or C. RESULTS: I. Comparing with the control group, the treatment group of tumor bearing nude mice attained the tumor inhibition rates of 59.7%-93.7% (F = 579.62, P < 0.01) at 14d. At an absorbed dose of 7320Gy, the tumor cells were completely destroyed. When the absorbed doses ranged from 1830Gy to 3660Gy, most of the tumor cells showed the evidences of injury or necrosis, but

  7. Measuring Surface Diffusion of Organic Glasses Using Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Probe Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Potter, Richard; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Recent studies have shown that diffusion on the surface of organic glasses can be many orders of magnitude faster than bulk diffusion, with lower activation barrier. Developing new probes that can readily measure the diffusion at the surface of an organic glass can help study the effect of chemical structure and molecule's size on the enhanced surface diffusion. In this study, surface diffusion coefficient of molecular glass (TPD) is measured using tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as probe particles. TMV is placed on the surface of bulk TPD films. The evolution of the meniscus formed around TMV, driven by curvature gradient, is probed at various temperatures. TMV has a well-defined cylindrical shape, with a large aspect ratio (18 nm wide, 300 nm long). As such, the shape of the meniscus around the center of TMV is semi-one dimensional. Based on the self-similarity nature of surface diffusion flow in one dimension, the surface diffusion coefficient and its temperature dependence are measured. It is found that the surface diffusion is greatly enhanced and has weak temperature dependence compared to bulk counterpart, consistent with previous studies, showing that TMV probes serve as an efficient method of measuring surface diffusion. NSF-CAREER DMR-1350044.

  8. Fabrication of broadband quasi-omnidirectional antireflective surface on glass for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Praveen; Srinivas, G.; Jakeer Khan G., H.; Siju, Barshilia, Harish C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a simple and cost effective HF-vapor phase etching method to fabricate the broadband quasi-omnidirectional antireflective surface on glass substrate. Both-sides etched sodalime glass substrates under optimized conditions showed a broadband enhancement in the transmittance spectra with maximum transmittance as high as ~97% at 598 nm. FESEM results confirmed the formation of a graded nanoporous surface, which lowers it refractive index. The etched surface exhibited excellent AR property over a wide range of incidence angles (8°-48°), which is attributed due to the formation of graded porosity. Silicon solar cell covered with plain glass showed Isc of 0.123A and efficiency of 8.76%, while it showed Isc of 0.130A and efficiency of 9.2% when it was covered by etched glass. Furthermore, it exhibited an excellent anti-soiling property as compared to plain glass. All these results show its strong potential in the photovoltaic application.

  9. Synthesis of sub-10 nm VO2 nanoparticles films with plasma-treated glass slides by aqueous sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shi-Di; Cheng, Chih-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Jem-Kun

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an aqueous sol-gel synthesis of thermochromic thin films consisted of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles (VNPs) on glass slides. The glass slides were treated by argon/oxygen plasma to generate dispersedly negative charge sites on the surface to attract VO2+ from a sol-gel solution. After heat treatment in a low-pressure carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide (CO/CO2) atmosphere, the VNPs could be generated in sub-10 nm of particle size on the surface. Various levels of doping were achieved by adding small quantities of a water-soluble tungsten compound to the sol; however, the particle size increased slightly with the tungsten doping levels. The change in electrical conductivity with temperature for VNP films were measured and compared to VO2 crystalline films. VNP films exhibited the lower transition temperature of the semiconductor to metal phase change; at a doping level of 4 wt% the transition temperature was measured at 32.2 ± 1.2 and 24.1 ± 1.2 °C for the VO2 and VNP films, respectively. The VNP films showed excellent visible transparency and a large change in transmittance at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths before and after the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT). The current method is a landmark in the development of nanostructured material toward applications in energy-saving smart windows.

  10. Risedronate adsorption on bioactive glass surface for applications as bone biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosbahi, Siwar; Oudadesse, Hassane; Lefeuvre, Bertand; Barroug, Allal; Elfeki, Hafed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Roiland, Claire; Keskes, Hassib

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current work is to study the physicochemical interactions between bisphosphonates molecules, risedronate (RIS) and bioactive glass (46S6) after their association by adsorption phenomenon. To more understand the interaction processes of RIS with the 46S6 surface we have used complementary physicochemical techniques such as infrared (FTIR), Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that risedronate adsorption corresponds to an ion substitution reaction with silicon ions occurring at the bioactive glass surface. Thus, a pure bioactive glass was synthesized and fully characterized comparing the solids after adsorption (46S6-XRIS obtained after the interaction of 46S6 and X% risedronate). Therefore, based on the spectroscopic results FTIR, Raman and MAS-NMR, it can be concluded that strong interactions have been established between RIS ions and 46S6 surface. In fact, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy illustrate the fixation of risedronate on the bioactive glass surface by the appearance of several bands characterizing risedronate. The 31P MAS-NMR of the composite 46S6-XRIS show the presence of two species at a chemical shift of 15 and 19 ppm demonstrating thus the fixation of the RIS on 46S6 surface.

  11. Abrasion resistance of restorative glass-ionomer cements with a light-cured surface coating.

    PubMed

    Hotta, M; Hirukawa, H

    1994-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the Knoop hardness number and the toothbrush wear of a surface coating agent applied to the surface of a glass-ionomer restorative cement. A reduction in surface hardness of the coating agent resulted in an increase in brush wear. The light-cured glazing agent (Bellfeel Brightener) proved to be significantly harder than those coated with a light-cured bonding agent (Occlusin). Occlusin bonding agent was removed by comparatively rapid abrasion; however, the Bellfeel Brightener was significantly more resistant to such abrasion. The analysis of the surface hardness and scanning electron microscopy observations of the brushed surfaces of the samples suggested that Bellfeel Brightener was effective as a glazing material for glass-ionomer cement restorations. PMID:8008609

  12. Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Vallée, Réal

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed study of waveguide inscription near the surface of bulk glass using a femtosecond laser. Three silicate glasses used extensively as hosts for photo-induced photonic devices were examined. Our results show that near-surface waveguides generally present a low-index contrast, as the pulse energy damage threshold decreases sharply at close proximity to the surface. We devised a novel method to allow the formation of optical waveguides that exhibit a high-index contrast up to the surface of any transparent material. As a proof of concept, the inscription of near-surface single-mode waveguides operating at a wavelength of 405 nm is demonstrated. PMID:27367105

  13. Comparison of removal torques between laser-treated and SLA-treated implant surfaces in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-Seok; Li, Lin-Jie

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare removal torques and surface topography between laser treated and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Laser-treated implants (experimental group) and SLA-treated implants (control group) 8 mm in length and 3.4 mm in diameter were inserted into both sides of the tibiae of 12 rabbits. Surface analysis was accomplished using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4800; Japan) under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Surface components were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Rabbits were sacrificed after a 6-week healing period. The removal torque was measured using the MGT-12 digital torque meter (Mark-10 Co., Copiague, NY, USA). RESULTS In the experimental group, the surface analysis showed uniform porous structures under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Pore sizes in the experimental group were 20-40 mm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the control group were 0.5-2.0 mm. EDS analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. The mean removal torque in the laser-treated and the SLA-treated implant groups were 79.4 Ncm (SD = 20.4; range 34.6-104.3 Ncm) and 52.7 Ncm (SD = 17.2; range 18.7-73.8 Ncm), respectively. The removal torque in the laser-treated surface implant group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=.004). CONCLUSION In this study, removal torque values were significantly higher for laser-treated surface implants than for SLA-treated surface implants. PMID:25177474

  14. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Reddy, M.; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K. A.

    2011-02-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  15. Effect of surface oxidation on the nm-scale wear behavior of a metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, A.; Louzguine-Luzguin, D. V.; Sharma, P.; Inoue, A.; Shluger, A.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2011-04-15

    Metallic glasses are good candidates for applications in micromechanical systems. With size reduction of mechanical components into the micrometer and submicrometer range, the native surface oxide layer starts playing an important role in contact mechanical applications of metallic glasses. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the wear behavior of the Ni{sub 62}Nb{sub 38} metallic glass with a native oxide layer and with an oxide grown after annealing in air. After the annealing, the wear rate is found to have significantly decreased. Also the dependency of the specific wear on the velocity is found to be linear in the case of the as spun sample while it follows a power law in the case of the sample annealed in air. We discuss these results in relation to the friction behavior and properties of the surface oxide layer obtained on the same alloy.

  16. Monte Carlo Simulations of Coupled Diffusion and Surface Reactions during the Aqueous Corrosion of Borosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Pierce, Eric M.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Borosilicate nuclear waste glasses develop complex altered layers as a result of coupled processes such as hydrolysis of network species, condensation of Si species, and diffusion. However, diffusion has often been overlooked in Monte Carlo models of the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses. Therefore, three different models for dissolved Si diffusion in the altered layer were implemented in a Monte Carlo model and evaluated for glasses in the compositional range (75-x) mol% SiO2 (12.5+x/2) mol% B2O3 and (12.5+x/2) mol% Na2O, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 20%, and corroded in static conditions at a surface-to-volume ratio of 1000 m-1. The three models considered instantaneous homogenization (M1), linear concentration gradients (M2), and concentration profiles determined by solving Fick’s 2nd law using a finite difference method (M3). Model M3 revealed that concentration profiles in the altered layer are not linear and show changes in shape and magnitude as corrosion progresses, unlike those assumed in model M2. Furthermore, model M3 showed that, for borosilicate glasses with a high forward dissolution rate compared to the diffusion rate, the gradual polymerization and densification of the altered layer is significantly delayed compared to models M1 and M2. Models M1 and M2 were found to be appropriate models only for glasses with high release rates such as simple borosilicate glasses with low ZrO2 content.

  17. Enamel Surface with Pit and Fissure Sealant Containing 45S5 Bioactive Glass.

    PubMed

    Yang, S-Y; Kwon, J-S; Kim, K-N; Kim, K-M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel demineralization adjacent to pit and fissure sealants leads to the formation of marginal caries, which can necessitate the replacement of existing sealants. Dental materials with bioactive glass, which releases ions that inhibit dental caries, have been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel surface adjacent to sealants containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) under simulated microleakage between the material and the tooth in a cariogenic environment. Sealants containing 45S5BAG filler were prepared as follows: 0% 45S5BAG + 50.0% glass (BAG0 group), 12.5% 45S5BAG + 37.5% glass (BAG12.5 group), 25.0% 45S5BAG + 25.0% glass (BAG25.0 group), 37.5% 45S5BAG + 12.5% glass (BAG37.5 group), and 50.0% 45S5BAG + 0% glass (BAG50.0 group). A cured sealant disk was placed over a flat bovine enamel disk, separated by a 60-µm gap, and immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) at 37 °C for 15, 30, and 45 d. After the storage period, each enamel disk was separated from the cured sealant disk, and the enamel surface was examined with optical 3-dimensional surface profilometer, microhardness tester, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in roughness and a decrease in microhardness of the enamel surface as the proportion of 45S5BAG decreased (P< 0.05). In the scanning electron microscopy images, enamel surfaces with BAG50.0 showed a smooth surface, similar to those in the control group with distilled water, even after prolonged acid storage. Additionally, an etched pattern was observed on the surface of the demineralized enamel with a decreasing proportion of 45S5BAG. Increasing the 45S5BAG filler contents of the sealants had a significant impact in preventing the demineralization of the enamel surface within microgaps between the material and the tooth when exposed to a cariogenic environment. Therefore, despite some marginal leakage, these novel sealants may be effective preventive dental materials for inhibiting

  18. Evaluation of the surface strength of glass plates shaped by hot slumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; D'Este, Alberto; Dall'Igna, Roberto; Silvestri, Mirko; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Hot slumping technology is under development by several research groups in the world for the realization of grazing-incidence segmented mirrors for x-ray astronomy, based on thin glass plates shaped over a mold at temperatures above the transformation point. The performed thermal cycle and related operations might have effects on the strength of the glass, with consequences for the structural design of the elemental optical modules and, consequently, on the entire x-ray optic for large astronomical missions such as IXO and ATHENA. The mechanical strength of glass plates after they underwent the slumping process was tested through destructive double-ring tests in the context of a study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera with the collaboration of Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro and BCV Progetti. The entire study was done on more than 200 D263 Schott borosilicate glass specimens of dimensions 100 mm×100 mm and a thickness 0.4 mm, either flat or bent at a radius of curvature of 1000 mm through the pressure-assisted hot slumping process developed by INAF-OAB. The collected experimental data have been compared with nonlinear finite element model analyses and treated with the Weibull statistic to assess the current IXO glass x-ray telescope design, in terms of survival probability, when subjected to static and acoustic loads characteristic of the launch phase. The paper describes the activities performed and presents the obtained results.

  19. The effect of silane applied to glass ceramics on surface structure and bonding strength at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Eraslan, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the surface structure and shear bond strength (SBS) of different ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS 288 specimens (lithium-disilicate, leucite-reinforced, and glass infiltrated zirconia) were first divided into two groups according to the resin cement used, and were later divided into four groups according to the given surface treatments: G1 (hydrofluoric acid (HF)+silane), G2 (silane alone-no heat-treatment), G3 (silane alone-then dried with 60℃ heat-treatment), and G4 (silane alone-then dried with 100℃ heat-treatment). Two different adhesive luting systems were applied onto the ceramic discs in all groups. SBS (in MPa) was calculated from the failure load per bonded area (in N/mm2). Subsequently, one specimen from each group was prepared for SEM evaluation of the separated-resin–ceramic interface. RESULTS SBS values of G1 were significantly higher than those of the other groups in the lithium disilicate ceramic and leucite reinforced ceramic, and the SBS values of G4 and G1 were significantly higher than those of G2 and G3 in glass infiltrated zirconia. The three-way ANOVA revealed that the SBS values were significantly affected by the type of resin cement (P<.001). FIN ceramics had the highest rate of cohesive failure on the ceramic surfaces than other ceramic groups. AFM images showed that the surface treatment groups exhibited similar topographies, except the group treated with HF. CONCLUSION The heat treatment was not sufficient to achieve high SBS values as compared with HF acid etching. The surface topography of ceramics was affected by surface treatments. PMID:27141250

  20. Alternate protection concepts for second surface silver/glass solar mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Buckwalter, C.Q.; Dake, L.S.; Hartman, J.S.; Lind, M.A.

    1980-10-01

    Investigations into three technologies having the potential of significantly enhancing the durability of solar mirrors are reported. The approaches are based on the assumption that sealing the silver layer on second surface mirrors from the external environment with protective overcoats will significantly extend their useful service life. Considered are: (1) edge sealing a second sheet of glass over the silver layer using solder glasses, (2) overcoating the silver layer with liquid applied SiO/sub 2/ or TiO/sub 2/ coatings, and (3) overcoating the silver layer with an electroless nickel film. Preliminary experiments were performed using Sb/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O and PbO based solder glasses to edge seal a second sheet of glass over the silver mirror surface. Problems encountered in the formulation of the Sb/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O glasses forced abandonment of these low melting point solder glass experiments. Materials compatibility problems were encountered when using several of the commercially available PbO based solder glasses alternatives. A cursory evaluation of liquid SiO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/ coatings was also undertaken. The films were applied as direct overcoats on both silver only and silver/copper mirror substrates. Although the process appeared to yield visually acceptable coatings, under microscopic examination the films were found to be porous and pinhole riddled after the final curing step. Consequently, they did not stand up well to salt spray and HCl vapor tests. Background data were collected in an investigation of overcoating the silver or silver/copper mirrors with an electroless deposited nickel film. Two formulations, one a basic solution, the other a commercial acidic solution, were attempted. Film integrity problems were encountered for fairly thick films in the feasibility experiments attempted. Nevertheless, the concept appears sound and merits further investigation.

  1. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, David Richard

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  2. Ejection of glass melts and generation of nanofibers from the back surface of a glass plate by pulsed UV laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Sho; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2016-03-01

    Several applications of glass nanofibers have been proposed for the past years. We found a new method for production of nanofibers with a diameter of 100 nm order from thin glass plates by irradiation with nanoseconds pulsed UV laser (wavelength is 355 nm). Although the generation of nanofibers from the back surface of a glass plate is convenient for continuous laser irradiation and collection of fibers, the details of the mechanism have not been elucidated yet. In this paper, we focused on the dynamics of ejection of glass melts that results in the formation of nanofibers, and investigated the mechanism of nanofiber generation. Based on the observation by a high-speed camera, we found that voids inside of the glass plate propagated in the laser propagation direction shot by shot, then, the void pushed the molten glass near the back surface. We also confirmed that the molten glass was ejected from the back surface of plates at a speed of 10-100 m/s. We assumed that the driving force is "recoil pressure", and compared the estimated pressure value from this experiment with that shown in the references. The value estimated by the relationship between pressure and momentum was 1.3 MPa, which was close to that reported in the past.

  3. Outstanding Antibiofilm Features of Quanta-CuO Film on Glass Surface.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bang, Seung Hyuck; Khang, Gilson; Min, Jiho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2016-06-22

    Intelligently designed surface nanoarchitecture provides defined control over the behavior of cells and biomolecules at the solid-liquid interface. In this study, CuO quantum dots (quanta-CuO; ∼3-5 nm) were synthesized by a simple, low-temperature solution process and further formulated as paint to construct quanta-CuO thin film on glass. Surface morphological characterizations of the as-coated glass surface reveal a uniform film thickness (∼120 ± 10 nm) with homogeneous distribution of quanta-CuO. The antibiofilm assay showed a very high contact bacteria-killing capacity of as-coated quanta-CuO glass surfaces toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This efficient antibacterial/antibiofilm activity was ascribed to the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the quanta-CuO attached to the bacterial cells, which leads to an oxidative assault and finally results in bacterial cell death. Although there is a significant debate regarding the CuO nanostructure's antibacterial mode of action, we propose both contact killing and/or copper ion release killing mechanisms for the antibiofilm activity of quanta-CuO paint. Moreover, synergism of quanta-CuO with conventional antibiotics was also found to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy of commonly used antibiotics. Collectively, this state-of-the-art design of quanta-CuO coated glass can be envisioned as promising candidates for various biomedical and environmental device coatings. PMID:27248981

  4. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as "click reaction" and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV-vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  5. Conducting polymers as electron glasses: surface charge domains and slow relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Miguel; Escasain, Elisa; Lopez-Elvira, Elena; Somoza, Andres M; Colchero, Jaime; Palacios-Lidon, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The surface potential of conducting polymers has been studied with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The results show that this technique can become an excellent tool to really 'see' interesting surface charge interaction effects at the nanoscale. The electron glass model, which assumes that charges are localized by the disorder and that interactions between them are relevant, is employed to understand the complex behavior of conducting polymers. At equilibrium, we find surface potential domains with a typical lateral size of 50 nm, basically uncorrelated with the topography and strongly fluctuating in time. These fluctuations are about three times larger than thermal energy. The charge dynamics is characterized by an exponentially broad time distribution. When the conducting polymers are excited with light the surface potential relaxes logarithmically with time, as usually observed in electron glasses. In addition, the relaxation for different illumination times can be scaled within the full aging model. PMID:26911652

  6. Conducting polymers as electron glasses: surface charge domains and slow relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño, Miguel; Escasain, Elisa; Lopez-Elvira, Elena; Somoza, Andres M.; Colchero, Jaime; Palacios-Lidon, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The surface potential of conducting polymers has been studied with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The results show that this technique can become an excellent tool to really ‘see’ interesting surface charge interaction effects at the nanoscale. The electron glass model, which assumes that charges are localized by the disorder and that interactions between them are relevant, is employed to understand the complex behavior of conducting polymers. At equilibrium, we find surface potential domains with a typical lateral size of 50 nm, basically uncorrelated with the topography and strongly fluctuating in time. These fluctuations are about three times larger than thermal energy. The charge dynamics is characterized by an exponentially broad time distribution. When the conducting polymers are excited with light the surface potential relaxes logarithmically with time, as usually observed in electron glasses. In addition, the relaxation for different illumination times can be scaled within the full aging model. PMID:26911652

  7. Conducting polymers as electron glasses: surface charge domains and slow relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, Miguel; Escasain, Elisa; Lopez-Elvira, Elena; Somoza, Andres M.; Colchero, Jaime; Palacios-Lidon, Elisa

    2016-02-01

    The surface potential of conducting polymers has been studied with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The results show that this technique can become an excellent tool to really ‘see’ interesting surface charge interaction effects at the nanoscale. The electron glass model, which assumes that charges are localized by the disorder and that interactions between them are relevant, is employed to understand the complex behavior of conducting polymers. At equilibrium, we find surface potential domains with a typical lateral size of 50 nm, basically uncorrelated with the topography and strongly fluctuating in time. These fluctuations are about three times larger than thermal energy. The charge dynamics is characterized by an exponentially broad time distribution. When the conducting polymers are excited with light the surface potential relaxes logarithmically with time, as usually observed in electron glasses. In addition, the relaxation for different illumination times can be scaled within the full aging model.

  8. Practical significance and calculation of surface tension of glass, enamels and glazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Surface tension is important in the formation of streaks in the whole procedure of enameling and glazing., in the action of TiO2 as opacifier, in the addition of borax to enamels, or metals to glasses, and in the corrosion of refractories by molten charges. By the use of known methods for measuring surface tension additive constants are found which give correct results within 1% with no discrepancy due to B2O3.

  9. Selective deposition of conductive copper films on glass surfaces using femtosecond laser surface modification and electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Liao, Yang; Zeng, Huidan; Zhou, Zenghui; Sun, Haiyi; Song, Juan; Wang, Xinshun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, selective deposition of conductive copper films on glass surfaces is demonstrated with the assistance of femtosecond laser surface modification followed by electroless plating. Irradiation of femtosecond laser makes it possible to selectively deposit copper films in the irradiated area on glass surfaces coated with silver nitrate films. The influence of the laser direct writing parameters and the electroless plating process on the formation of copper films is discussed. Meanwhile, the electric properties of copper films are investigated, which confirms that copper films are conductive. A tentative mechanism of the selective deposition process is also proposed. In addition, the potential application of this technique for integrating electrical and thermal functions into microdevices is discussed.

  10. Experimental study of glass molding process and transcription characteristics of mold surface in molding of aspheric glass lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Du Hwan; Park, Heung Su; Hwang, Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hye-Jeong

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the process parameters in the molding of aspheric glass lenses for camera phone modules have been investigated experimentally and the surface topographies of the mold and the molded lens were compared to ascertain the transcription characteristics. The molding conditions were optimized with respect to the form error (PV) (the response variable) of the molded lens. The experimental conditions were obtained by employing a factorial design method. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and P-value (significance level), the slow cooling rate was found to affect the response variable most significantly. For the form topography, the lens molded under the optimum molding condition showed a transcription ratio of 93.4% against the mold.

  11. Fabrication of Antireflective Subwavelength Structure on Spherical Glass Surface Using Imprinting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takamasa; Umetani, Makoto; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Kintaka, Kenji; Kasa, Haruya; Nishii, Junji

    2010-11-01

    For the first time, an antireflective structure (ARS) on a convex spherical glass surface was fabricated using an imprinting process. The inverted pattern of the ARS with a 250-nm period was fabricated on a SiC mold with a concave surface using electron beam (EB) direct writing and reactive ion etching. The sample surface height was adjusted to the EB focal position along the mold curvature during the step-and-repeat EB lithography. The imprinted lens with the ARS exhibited surface reflectance of 0.2% at a wavelength of 530 nm and a spherical error magnitude of less than 500 nm.

  12. Monolithically integrated micro- and nanostructured glass surface with antiglare, antireflection, and superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Tulli, Domenico; Hart, Shandon D; Mazumder, Prantik; Carrilero, Albert; Tian, Lili; Koch, Karl W; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Piech, Garrett A; Pruneri, Valerio

    2014-07-23

    Hierarchical micro- and nanostructured surfaces have previously been made using a variety of materials and methods, including particle deposition, polymer molding, and the like. These surfaces have attracted a wide variety of interest for applications including reduced specular reflection and superhydrophobic surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this paper reports the first monolithic, hierarchically structured glass surface that combines micro- and nanoscale surface features to simultaneously generate antiglare (AG), antireflection (AR), and superhydrophobic properties. The AG microstructure mechanically protects the AR nanostructure during wiping and smudging, while the uniform composition of the substrate and the micro- and nanostructured surface enables ion exchange through the surface, so that both the substrate and structured surface can be simultaneously chemically strengthened. PMID:24960031

  13. Development of sheet molding compound solar collectors with molded-in silvered glass reflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, R. L.; Allred, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to the fabrication of a line-focusng parabolic trough reflector structure which offers the potential of high performance while utilizing mass production type technology with potential for low cost is discussed. The concept is one of a molded structure of fiber reinforced plastic with an integrally molded silvered glass reflective surface. Sheet molding compound (SMC), a mixture of glass fibers and inorganic fillers in polyester resin, has been selected for evaluation as representative of reinforced plastic molding materials. The purpose of the work was to establish the feasibility of molding glass mirrors into SMC structural trough panels. If the effort proved successful, the next stage of development would be demonstration of the structure in a trough collector which incorporates individual SMC reflector panels. The trough has a 2 x 6 m aperture with six individual SMC panels mounted on a torque tube as the main support structure. Results are described. (WHK)

  14. Mid-infrared surface plasmon polariton chemical sensing on fiber-coupled ITO coated glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Javier; Ródenas, Airán; Aguiló, Magdalena; Fernandez, Toney; Solis, Javier; Díaz, Francesc

    2016-06-01

    A novel fiber-coupled ITO coated glass slide sensor for performing surface plasmon polariton chemical monitoring in the 3.5 um mid-IR range is reported. Efficient mid-IR fiber coupling is achieved with 3D laser written waveguides, and the coupling of glass waveguide modes to ITO SPPs is driven by the varying phase matching conditions of different aqueous analytes across the anomalous dispersion range determined by their molecular fingerprints. By means of using both a mid-IR fiber supercontinuum source and a diode laser the excitation of SPPs is demonstrated. The efficient optical monitoring of mid-IR SPPs in smart glass could have a broad range of applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  15. The Surface Finish of Thermally Aged Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites Using E-glass as a Surface Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, M. L.; Fox, B. L.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigated the effect of woven E-glass mass (25 g/m2, 50 g/m2, 85 g/m2, 135 g/m2) on the painted surface finish of various thermoset (EPIKOTETM RIM935, EPIKOTETM 04434, Ultratec LpTM ES300, Ultratec LpTM SPV6035) carbon fibre composite laminates, before and after aging at 95 °C for 168 h. The as-moulded laminate surfaces were evaluated using surface profilometry techniques and the painted and aged surfaces were evaluated using a wave-scan distinctness of image (DOI) instrument. It was found that the 25 g/m2 E-glass surface layer assisted with reducing the roughness of the as-moulded surfaces and the long-term waviness of the painted surfaces due to the increase in resin-richness at the surface. The EPIKOTETM 04434 resin system that contained diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy had the least change in long-term waviness with thermal aging due to the rigid fluorene-based backbone in comparison to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) systems.

  16. Surface control and cryogenic durability of transparent CNT coatings on dip-coated glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; Gu, Ga-Young; Devries, K Lawrence; Park, Joung-Man

    2012-11-15

    Transparent carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings were deposited on boro-silicate glass substrates by dip-coating. Ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectra, surface resistance measurement, and the wettability tests were used to investigate the optical transmittance and electrical properties of these CNT coatings. The changes in electrical and optical properties of these coatings were observed to be functions of the number of dip-coating cycles. The surface resistance of the CNT coated substrates decreased dramatically as the number of dip-coatings was increased, whereas the increases in the CNT layer thickness beyond that for the first dipping cycle had little effect on the transparent-properties. Static contact angle measurements proved to be an effective means for evaluating the surface morphology of CNT coatings. The interfacial durability of the CNT coatings on a glass substrate was much better than that of ITO coatings over the temperature range from -150°C to +150°C. PMID:22918050

  17. Correlation between contact surface and friction during the optical glass polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkhir, N.; Aliouane, T.; Bouzid, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the correlation between the contact surface, the polishing pressure and the friction coefficient during the optical glass polishing. For this purpose, BK7 optical glass samples were polished and the mentioned parameters were measured to find a correlation between them. Several methods of characterization have been used; the mechanical profilometer, the AFM, and in addition setups for measuring forces and the contact surface have been developed and adapted to the polishing machine. The found results have shown the existence of a close relationship between the three parameters and the influence of each other. This have allowed to deduce that during the polishing process it is very important to control the contact pressure and the polisher form according to the pressure distribution in order to guarantee a very high quality of the polished surface.

  18. In vitro culture and harvest of BMMSCs on the surface of a novel thermosensitive glass microcarrier.

    PubMed

    Song, Kedong; Yang, Yanfei; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Shihao; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Ling; Liu, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2D) static culture environment for stem cells followed by enzymatic cell detachment or mechanical treatment is routinely used in research laboratories. However, this method is not ideal as stem cells expand slowly, with cell damage and partial loss of specific stemness. For this reason, a better culture condition is urgently needed to improve stem cell recovery. A novel thermosensitive P(NIPAAm-co-HPM)-g-TMSPM-g-microcarrier was prepared here as a three-dimensional (3D) culture substitute. This novel microcarrier was prepared by grafting NIPAAm and HPM to the surface of glass microcarrier using TMSPM through surface free radical copolymerization. The prepared material was tested in cell culture and via cooling harvest method. We found that NIPAAm was successfully grafted on to the surface of the microcarriers, providing an excellent biocompatible environment for BMMSC adhesion and growth. More importantly, BMMSCs could be fully removed from the thermosensitive glass microcarriers with remained cell viability. PMID:26478317

  19. Fast Crystal Growth in o-Terphenyl Glasses: A Possible Role for Fracture and Surface Mobility.

    PubMed

    Powell, C Travis; Xi, Hanmi; Sun, Ye; Gunn, Erica; Chen, Yinshan; Ediger, M D; Yu, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Molecular liquids can develop a fast mode of crystal growth ("GC growth") near the glass transition temperature. This phenomenon remains imperfectly understood with several explanations proposed. We report that GC growth in o-terphenyl conserves the overall volume, despite a 5% higher density of the crystal, and produces fine crystal grains with the same unit cell as normally grown crystals. These results indicate that GC growth continuously creates voids and free surfaces, possibly by fracture. This aspect of the phenomenon has not been considered by previous treatments and is a difficulty for those models that hypothesize a 5% strain without voids. Given the existence of even faster crystal growth on the free surface of molecular glasses, we consider the possibility that GC growth is facilitated by fracture and surface mobility. This notion has support from the fact that GC growth and surface growth are both highly correlated with surface diffusivity and with fast crystal growth along preformed cracks in the glass. PMID:26161577

  20. Controllable surface morphology and properties via mist polymerization on a plasma-treated polymethyl methacrylate surface.

    PubMed

    Wan, S J; Wang, L; Xu, X J; Zhao, C H; Liu, X D

    2014-02-14

    Surface modification by grafting polymers on solid materials is an important strategy used to improve surface properties. This article reports that under appropriate conditions, very thin layers with desired morphologies may be constructed on a plasma-treated substrate by feeding a small quantity of a monomer with a mist stream carrying droplets produced from monomer solutions. We investigate the effects of process parameters that affect layer morphology, including exposure time to the mist stream, concentration of the monomer solution, and solvent selectivity. For a methyl methacrylate solution in ethanol, nanoparticles are uniformly grown with increasing monomer concentration or exposure time and finally form a porous layer at 3.65 mol L(-1) for 30 min. Decreasing solvent polarity not only affects surface morphology, but also increases hydrophobicity of the resulting surface. With 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate as the monomer, SEM and AFM micrographs indicated that mist polymerization results in numerous microspheres on the activated surface. These experimental results were interpreted by a mechanism in terms of an in situ polymerization accompanied by a phase transformation of the resulting polymer. Specifically, plasma treatment provides highly active cations and radicals to initiate very rapid polymerization, and the resulting polymers are consequently deposited from the liquid onto the surface under phase transition mechanisms. PMID:24835436

  1. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10223 Styrenyl surface treated... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrenyl surface...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10223 Styrenyl surface treated... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrenyl surface...

  3. Crystallization of glass-forming liquids: Specific surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Abyzov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    A generalization of the Stefan-Skapski-Turnbull relation for the melt-crystal specific interfacial energy is developed in terms of the generalized Gibbs approach extending its standard formulation to thermodynamic non-equilibrium states. With respect to crystal nucleation, this relation is required in order to determine the parameters of the critical crystal clusters being a prerequisite for the computation of the work of critical cluster formation. As one of its consequences, a relation for the dependence of the specific surface energy of critical clusters on temperature and pressure is derived applicable for small and moderate deviations from liquid-crystal macroscopic equilibrium states. Employing the Stefan-Skapski-Turnbull relation, general expressions for the size and the work of formation of critical crystal clusters are formulated. The resulting expressions are much more complex as compared to the respective relations obtained via the classical Gibbs theory. Latter relations are retained as limiting cases of these more general expressions for moderate undercoolings. By this reason, the formulated, here, general relations for the specification of the critical cluster size and the work of critical cluster formation give a key for an appropriate interpretation of a variety of crystallization phenomena occurring at large undercoolings which cannot be understood in terms of the Gibbs' classical treatment.

  4. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  5. Antibacterial and bioactive composite bone cements containing surface silver-doped glass particles.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Fucale, Giacomo; Maina, Giovanni; Verné, Enrica

    2015-09-01

    A bioactive silica-based glass powder (SBA2) was doped with silver (Ag(+)) ions by means of an ion-exchange process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced that the glass powder was enriched with Ag(+) ions. However, a small amount of Ag2CO3 precipitated with increased Ag concentrations in the exchange solution. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Ag-SBA2 towards Staphylococcus aureus were also evaluated and were respectively 0.05 mg ml(-1) and 0.2 mg ml(-1). Subsequently, Ag-SBA2 glass was used as filler (30%wt) in a commercial formulation of bone cement (Simplex(™) P) in order to impart both antibacterial and bioactive properties. The composite bone cement was investigated in terms of morphology (using SEM) and composition (using EDS); the glass powder was well dispersed and exposed on the cement surface. Bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) evidenced the precipitation of hydroxyapatite on sample surfaces. Composite cement demonstrated antibacterial properties and a compressive strength comparable to the commercial formulation. PMID:26481324

  6. Non-textured laser modification of silica glass surface: Wettability control and flow channel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Local wettability of silica glass surface is modified by infrared laser irradiation. The silica glass surface exhibits hydrophobic property in the presence of sbnd CF3 or sbnd (CH3)2 terminal functional groups, which are decomposed by thermal treatment, and degree of the decomposition depends on the applied heat. Laser irradiation can control the number of remaining functional groups according to the irradiation conditions; the contact angle of deionized water on the laser modified surfaces range from 100° to 40°. XPS analysis confirms that the variation in wettability corresponds to the number of remaining sbnd CF3 groups. The laser irradiation achieves surface modification without causing any cracks or damages to the surface, as observed by SEM and AFM; moreover, surface transparency to visible light and surface roughness remains unaffected. The proposed method is applied to plane flow channel systems. Dropped water spreads only on the hydrophilic and invisible line modified by the laser irradiation without formation of any grooves. This indicates that the modified line can act as a surface channel. Furthermore, self-transportation of liquid is also demonstrated on a channel with gradually-varied wettability along its length. A water droplet on a hydrophobic side is self-transported to a hydrophilic side due to contact-angle hysteresis force without any actuators or external forces.

  7. High energy ion irradiation induced surface patterning on a SiO2 glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Ganesan, K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nair, K. G. M.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Experimental results about formation of self-organized surface patterns on a silica glass substrate due to irradiations with high energy Au ions at various angles of incidences have been reported in this paper. Pattern formations are found to vary significantly from theoretical predictions. Orientation, growth of ripples and ripple characteristics observed here do not conform to established results of low energy heavy-ion irradiation studies. High energy Au ion-induced effects (e.g., surface stress, mass redistribution and surface current) have been suitably invoked to explain observed phenomena.

  8. Finished surface texture, abrasion resistance, and porosity of Aspa glass-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Smales, R; Joyce, K

    1978-11-01

    1. With the finishing agents tested Concise had a smoother surface texture than Aspa. 2. The smoothest surface was on Concise polymerized against a Mylar matrix strip. The smoothest surface for Aspa was obtained with a silicon carbide disk. 3. Aspa abraded about three times as rapidly by volume as Concise when tested by a two-body abrasion method. 4. Significantly more air bubbles were entrapped by hand mixing within Aspa than within Concise. 5. Controlled clinical studies of the glass-ionomer cements are needed before they can be fully evaluated as restorative materials. PMID:281506

  9. Surface spin-glass in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, F.; Sarwer, W.; Nadeem, K.; Kamran, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Krenn, H.; Letofsky-Papst, I.

    2016-06-01

    Surface effects in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a silica (SiO2) matrix were studied by using AC and DC magnetization. Nanoparticles with different concentration of SiO2 were synthesized by using sol-gel method. Average crystallite size lies in the range 25-34 nm for different SiO2 concentration. TEM image showed that particles are spherical and elongated in shape. Nanoparticles with higher concentration of SiO2 exhibit two peaks in the out-of-phase ac-susceptibility. First peak lies in the high temperature regime and corresponds to average blocking temperature of the nanoparticles. Second peak lies in the low temperature regime and is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing in these nanoparticles. Low temperature peak showed SiO2 concentration dependence and was vanished for large uncoated nanoparticles. The frequency dependence of the AC-susceptibility of low temperature peak was fitted with dynamic scaling law which ensures the presence of spin-glass behavior. With increasing applied DC field, the low temperature peak showed less shift as compared to blocking peak, broaden, and decreased in magnitude which also signifies its identity as spin-glass peak for smaller nanoparticles. M-H loops showed the presence of more surface disorder in nanoparticles dispersed in 60% SiO2 matrix. All these measurements revealed that surface effects become strengthen with increasing SiO2 matrix concentration and surface spins freeze in to spin-glass state at low temperatures.

  10. Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Casting Post and Core and Glass-Fiber with Composite Core

    PubMed Central

    Saatian, Sedigheh

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prefabricated metal and ceramic posts can be used with different kinds of core materials as an alternative to the conventional casting post and cores. It is unclear how these post and core systems can withstand different kind of forces in the mouth. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated, crowned maxillary incisors restored with casting post and cores and glass- fiber post with composite core and to evaluate their mode of fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty caries free, human maxillary central incisors with incisoapical length of 23 ± 1 mm were divided into two groups. After root canal treatment procedures and decronation of teeth 2mm above cementoenamel junction, Grope 1 was restored with glass- fiber posts and composite cores and group 2 received casting post and cores. Teeth were prepared with a circumferential shoulder including a 1-2 mm ferrule and 0.5 mm bevel; all posts were cemented with an adhesive resin and teeth were restored with complete coverage crowns. Loads were applied at an angle of 135 degrees using a universal testing machine. Compression force was applied until the specimens fractured. RESULTS: The median fracture strengths of groups 1 and 2 were 459 and 686 respectively (p<0.5). In group I, all fractures occurred in incisal third of roots. In groups II, 40% of fractures were in apical third and middle of roots. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study, the results suggested that glass fiber with composite cores can be used as an alternative to cast posts and cores in anterior teeth when creating 2mm ferrule effect was possible in normal occlusion. Clinical trial is required to verify these in vitro results. PMID:24470803

  11. Near-surface leaching studies of Pb-implanted Savannah River waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, G.W.; Northrup, C.J.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The present experiments with Savannah River Plant simulated nuclear waste glass implanted with Pb ions, used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection to follow in detail the changes in composition which occur in the near-surface region upon leaching in deionized water at 90/sup 0/C. Analyses of the leach solutions were made in an attempt to correlate the actual leach rates with the observed near-surface compositional changes. These experiments show that radiation damage can cause changes in the composition of the near-surface of the leached glass. We also find that a critical fluence is reached where abrupt changes of the surface elemental composition occur as a result of leaching. This fluence is near the value observed by both Dran, et al. and Primak. Solution analyses were not made for all the leaching experiments. However, those analyses which were made indicate that the amount of material actually leaving the glass is not significantly increased as a result of the radiation damage.

  12. Surface modified, collapsible controlled pore glass materials for sequestration and immobilization of trivalent metal ions.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.; Tisch, A.; Marin, T.; Muntean, J.; Kaminski, M.; Kropf, A.

    2011-04-20

    We report a one-pot method for sequestration, containment, and immobilization of lanthanide (Ln) ions from dilute aqueous waste streams. The approach is based on the use of collapsible, surface modified controlled pore glass (CPG) nanomaterials. We present several approaches for a single-step chemical modification of 3-propylaminated CPGs that yield highly efficient Ln-extracting materials with distribution coefficients exceeding 10000 mL/g. The resulting Ln complexes were studied using X-ray absorption, magnetic resonance, and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopies. One of these CPG materials involving an imidodi(methanediphosphate) moiety demonstrated high extraction efficacy, significant ionic radius sensitivity, and exceptional tolerance to masking agents, which is conducive to its use for removal of traces of radionuclide ions from aqueous TALSPEAK raffinate (trivalent actinide-lanthanide separation by phosphorus reagent extraction from aqueous complexes process used in processing of spent nuclear fuel). The glass loaded with the extracted metal ions can be calcined and sintered at 1100 C, yielding fused material that buries Ln ions in the vitreous matrix. This processing temperature is significantly lower than 1700 C that is required for direct vitrification of lanthanide oxides in high-silica glass. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and acid leaching tests indicate that the immobilized ions are isolated and dispersed in the fused glass matrix. Thus, the method integrates Ln ions into the glass network. The resulting glass can be used for temporary storage or as the source of silica for production of borosilicate waste forms that are used for long-term disposal of high level radioactive waste.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of coupled diffusion and surface reactions during the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Pierce, Eric M.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-09-19

    Borosilicate nuclear waste glasses develop complex altered layers as a result of coupled processes such as hydrolysis of network species, condensation of Si species, and diffusion. However, diffusion has often been overlooked in Monte Carlo models of the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses. Therefore, in this paper three different models for dissolved Si diffusion in the altered layer were implemented in a Monte Carlo model and evaluated for glasses in the compositional range (75 - x) mol% SiO2 (12.5 + x/2) mol% B2O3 and (12.5 + x/2) mol% Na2O, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 20%, and corroded in static conditionsmore » at a surface-area-to-volume ratio of 1000 m-1. The three models considered instantaneous homogenization (M1), linear concentration gradients (M2), and concentration profiles determined by solving Fick's 2nd law using a finite difference method (M3). Model M3 revealed that concentration profiles in the altered layer are not linear and show changes in shape and magnitude as corrosion progresses, unlike those assumed in model M2. Furthermore, model M3 showed that, for borosilicate glasses with a high forward dissolution rate compared to the diffusion rate, the gradual polymerization and densification of the altered layer is significantly delayed compared to models M1 and M2. Finally, models M1 and M2 were found to be appropriate models only for glasses with high release rates such as simple borosilicate glasses with low ZrO2 content.« less

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of coupled diffusion and surface reactions during the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Pierce, Eric M.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-09-19

    Borosilicate nuclear waste glasses develop complex altered layers as a result of coupled processes such as hydrolysis of network species, condensation of Si species, and diffusion. However, diffusion has often been overlooked in Monte Carlo models of the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses. Therefore, in this paper three different models for dissolved Si diffusion in the altered layer were implemented in a Monte Carlo model and evaluated for glasses in the compositional range (75 - x) mol% SiO2 (12.5 + x/2) mol% B2O3 and (12.5 + x/2) mol% Na2O, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 20%, and corroded in static conditions at a surface-area-to-volume ratio of 1000 m-1. The three models considered instantaneous homogenization (M1), linear concentration gradients (M2), and concentration profiles determined by solving Fick's 2nd law using a finite difference method (M3). Model M3 revealed that concentration profiles in the altered layer are not linear and show changes in shape and magnitude as corrosion progresses, unlike those assumed in model M2. Furthermore, model M3 showed that, for borosilicate glasses with a high forward dissolution rate compared to the diffusion rate, the gradual polymerization and densification of the altered layer is significantly delayed compared to models M1 and M2. Finally, models M1 and M2 were found to be appropriate models only for glasses with high release rates such as simple borosilicate glasses with low ZrO2 content.

  15. On the surface topography of ultrashort laser pulse treated steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenc Obona, J.; Ocelík, V.; Skolski, J. Z. P.; Mitko, V. S.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper concentrates on observations of the surface topography by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on alloyed and stainless steels samples treated by ultrashort laser pulses with duration of 210 fs and 6.7 ps. Globular-like and jet-like objects were found depending on the various levels of the fluence applied. It is shown that these features appear due to solid-liquid and liquid-gas transitions within surface layer irradiated by intense laser light. The observations are confronted to the theory of short-pulsed laser light-matter interactions, including interference, excitation of electrons, electron-phonon coupling as well as subsequent ablation. It is shown that the orientation of small ripples does not always depend on the direction of the polarization of laser light.

  16. Magnetic activity of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric magnetic materials fabricated on quartz glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narushima, Kazuki; Ashizawa, Yoshito; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius; Nakagawa, Katsuji

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic activity of surface plasmons in Au/MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, and Zn) polycrystalline bilayer films fabricated on a quartz glass substrate was studied for future magnetic sensor applications using surface plasmon resonance. The excitation of surface plasmons and their magnetic activity were observed in all investigated Au/MFe2O4 films. The magnetic activity of surface plasmons of the polycrystalline Au/NiFe2O4 film was larger than those of the other polycrystalline Au/MFe2O4 films, the epitaxial NiFe2O4 film, and metallic films. The large magnetic activity of surface plasmons of the polycrystalline film is controlled by manipulating surface plasmon excitation conditions and magnetic properties.

  17. Mathematical modeling of surface roughness in magnetic abrasive finishing of BK7 optical glass.

    PubMed

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Rahimi, Abdolreza; Kazemi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced machining processes efficiently used to finish hard-to-machine materials. Simulation and modeling of the process is of particular importance to understand the mechanics of material removal and consequently achieve a high-quality surface with a minimum of surface defects. Hence, in this paper, we performed a numerical-experimental study to mathematically model the surface roughness during the MAF of BK7 optical glass. For this purpose, the initial roughness profile was estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a Gaussian filter. We obtained the final surface profile based on the material removal mechanisms and the corresponding chipping depth values evaluated by finite element analysis. We then validated experimentally the simulation results in terms of the arithmetic average surface roughness (R(a ). The comparison between the obtained results demonstrates that the theoretical and experimental findings are in good agreement when predicting the parameters' effect on surface roughness behavior. PMID:26479596

  18. Effects of Photovoltaic Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-06-14

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 orders of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  19. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spartaru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-12-03

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 order of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  20. Absorbed dose measurements on external surface of Kosmos-satellites with glass thermoluminescent detectors.

    PubMed

    Akatov YuA; Arkhangelsky, V V; Kovalev, E E; Spurny, F; Votochkova, I

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present absorbed dose measurements with glass thermoluminescent detectors on external surface of satellites of Kosmos-serie flying in 1983-87. Experiments were performed with thermoluminescent aluminophosphate glasses of thicknesses 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1 mm. They were exposed in sets of total thickness between 5 and 20 mm, which were protected against sunlight with thin aluminized foils. In all missions, extremely high absorbed dose values were observed in the first layers of detectors, up to the thickness of 0.2 to 0.5 gcm-2. These experimental results confirm that, during flights at 250 to 400 km, doses on the surface of the satellites are very high, due to the low energy component of the proton and electron radiation. PMID:11537297

  1. Generalized model for laser-induced surface structure in metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin-Mao, Ye; Zhen-Wei, Wu; Kai-Xin, Liu; Xiu-Zhang, Tang; Xiang-Ming, Xiong

    2016-06-01

    The details of the special three-dimensional micro-nano scale ripples with a period of hundreds of microns on the surfaces of a Zr-based and a La-based metallic glass irradiated separately by single laser pulse are investigated. We use the small-amplitude capillary wave theory to unveil the ripple formation mechanism through considering each of the molten metallic glasses as an incompressible viscous fluid. A generalized model is presented to describe the special morphology, which fits the experimental result well. It is also revealed that the viscosity brings about the biggest effect on the monotone decreasing nature of the amplitude and the wavelength of the surface ripples. The greater the viscosity is, the shorter the amplitude and the wavelength are. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10572002, 10732010, and 11332002).

  2. Electric-Field-Induced Nanoscale Surface Patterning in Mexylaminotriazine-Functionalized Molecular Glass Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hirohito; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Lebel, Olivier; Sabat, Ribal Georges

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale surface patterns were observed in thin films of mexylaminotriazine-functionalized glasses containing polar groups upon the application of an electric field at temperatures over their glass transition temperatures (Tg). This phenomenon occurred due to the surface deformation process initiated by external electric field instabilities on the films. The minimal surface deformation temperature (Tdewet) relative to Tg was found to increase as a function of the polarity of the substituents and the surface pattern roughness was observed to increase linearly with temperature for a fixed electric field and exposure time. Reversal of the electrical field polarity and the use of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates did not significantly change the surface deformation behavior of the films, which is due to the deposition of charges at the free interface. The application of a mask between the electric field electrodes allowed to selectively pattern areas that are exposed. Furthermore, it was observed that this surface deformation behavior was reversible, since heating the films to a temperature above Tg in the absence of an electric field caused the erasure of all surface patterns. PMID:27186805

  3. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  4. The role of adsorption of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate in wetting of glass and poly(methyl methacrylate) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkot, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2008-02-01

    Advancing contact angles, θ, for aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) were measured on glass and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface. Using the obtained results we determined the properties of aqueous AOT solutions in wetting of these surfaces. It occurs that the wettability of glass and PMMA by these solutions depends on the concentration of AOT in solution. There is almost linear dependence between the contact angle ( θ) and concentration of AOT (log C) in the range from 5 × 10 -4 to 2.5 × 10 -3 M/dm 3 (value of the critical micelle concentration of AOT—CMC) both for glass and PMMA surface. For calculations of AOT adsorption at solid (glass, PMMA)-solution drop-air system interfaces the relationship between the adhesion tension ( γLV cos θ) and surface tension ( γLV) and the Gibbs and Young equations were taken into account. From the measurement and calculation results the slope of the γLV cos θ - γ LV curve was found to be constant and equal 0.7 for glass and -0.1 for PMMA over the whole range of AOT concentration in solution. From this fact it can be concluded that if ΓSV is equal zero then ΓSL > 0 for the PMMA-solution and ΓSL < 0 for glass-solution systems. It means that surfactant concentration excess at PMMA-solution interface is considerably lower than at solution-air interface, but this excess of AOT concentration at glass-solution interface is lower than in the bulk phase. By extrapolating the linear dependence between the adhesion and surface tension the value of the critical surface tension ( γc) of wetting for glass and PMMA was also determined, that equaled 25.9 and 25.6 mN/m for glass and PMMA, respectively. Using the value of the glass and PMMA surface tension as well as the measured surface tension of aqueous AOT solutions in Young equation, the solid-liquid interface tension ( γSL) was found. There was a linear dependence between the γSL and γLV both for glass and PMMA

  5. Nonlinear optical effects on the surface of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, K. X.; Bryant, William; Venkateswarlu, Putcha

    1991-01-01

    The second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate (LTF) glass have been directly studied by measurement of surface enhanced second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation. The three photon excitation fluorescence is also observed. Based on these results, the large nonlinearities of the acridine LTF system which is a new nonlinear optical material are experimentally demonstrated.

  6. How to optimize ultrashort pulse laser interaction with glass surfaces in cutting regimes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Zhukov, Vladimir P.; Collins, Adam R.; Rostohar, Danijela; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of short and ultrashort pulse laser radiation with glass materials is addressed. Particular attention is paid to regimes which are important in industrial applications such as laser cutting, drilling, functionalization of material surfaces, etc. Different factors influencing the ablation efficiency and quality are summarized and their importance is illustrated experimentally. The effects of ambient gas ionization in front of the irradiated target are also analyzed. A possibility to enhance laser coupling with transparent solids by bi-wavelength irradiation is discussed.

  7. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application. PMID:24611412

  8. Guided Evolution of Bulk Metallic Glass Nanostructures: A Platform for Designing 3D Electrocatalytic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Kinser, Emily; Liu, Yanhui; Tong, Xiao; Osuji, Chinedum O; Schroers, Jan; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Taylor, André D

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, electrolyzers, lithium-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors are expected to play a major role in energy conversion/storage in the near future. Here, it is demonstrated how desirable bulk metallic glass compositions can be obtained using a combinatorial approach and it is shown that these alloys can serve as a platform technology for a wide variety of electrochemical applications through several surface modification techniques. PMID:26689722

  9. A Novel Injectable Borate Bioactive Glass Cement as an Antibiotic Delivery Vehicle for Treating Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xu; Gu, Yi-Fei; Jia, Wei-Tao; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel injectable cement composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass (BG) particles was evaluated as a carrier for local delivery of vancomycin in the treatment of osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. Materials and Methods The setting time, injectability, and compressive strength of the borate BG cement, and the release profile of vancomycin from the cement were measured in vitro. The capacity of the vancomycin-loaded BG cement to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis in rabbit tibiae in vivo was evaluated and compared with that for a vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate (CS) cement and for intravenous injection of vancomycin. Results The BG cement had an injectability of >90% during the first 3 minutes after mixing, hardened within 30 minutes and, after hardening, had a compressive strength of 18±2 MPa. Vancomycin was released from the BG cement into phosphate-buffered saline for up to 36 days, and the cumulative amount of vancomycin released was 86% of the amount initially loaded into the cement. In comparison, vancomycin was released from the CS cement for up 28 days and the cumulative amount released was 89%. Two months post-surgery, radiography and microbiological tests showed that the BG and CS cements had a better ability to eradicate osteomyelitis when compared to intravenous injection of vancomycin, but there was no significant difference between the BG and CS cements in eradicating the infection. Histological examination showed that the BG cement was biocompatible and had a good capacity for regenerating bone in the tibial defects. Conclusions These results indicate that borate BG cement is a promising material both as an injectable carrier for vancomycin in the eradication of osteomyelitis and as an osteoconductive matrix to regenerate bone after the infection is cured. PMID:24427311

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Huade; Woollam, John A.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Both ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were employed to investigate the effects of HF cleaning on Si surfaces. The hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was modeled as an equivalent dielectric layer, and monitored in real time by SE measurements. The SE analyses indicate that after a 20-s 9:1 HF dip without rinse, the Si(100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si(100) surface was observed, in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber, and analyzed by the in situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface-layer, after being heated to approximately 550 C in the UHV chamber, is presented and discussed. This is the first use of an ex situ and in situ real-time, nondestructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the rate of reoxidation, and the surface roughness of the H-terminated Si surfaces.

  11. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Huade; Woollam, John A.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Both ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were employed to investigate the effect of HF cleaning on Si surfaces. The hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was modeled as an equivalent dielectric layer, and monitored in real time by SE measurements. The SE analyses indicate that, after a 20-sec 9:1 HF dip without rinse, the Si (100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si (100) surface was observed, in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber (UHV), and analyzed by the in situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface layer, after being heated to about 550 C in the UHV chamber, is presented and discussed. This is the first use of an ex situ and in situ real-time, nondestructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the rate of reoxidation, and the surface roughness of the H-terminated Si surfaces.

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Huade; Woollam, John A.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-08-01

    Both ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were employed to investigate the effects of HF cleaning on Si surfaces. The hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was modeled as an equivalent dielectric layer, and monitored in real time by SE measurements. The SE analyses indicate that after a 20-s 9:1 HF dip without rinse, the Si(100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si(100) surface was observed, in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber, and analyzed by the in situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface-layer, after being heated to approximately 550 C in the UHV chamber, is presented and discussed. This is the first use of an ex situ and in situ real-time, nondestructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the rate of reoxidation, and the surface roughness of the H-terminated Si surfaces.

  13. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Huade; Woollam, John A.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-06-01

    Both ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were employed to investigate the effect of HF cleaning on Si surfaces. The hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was modeled as an equivalent dielectric layer, and monitored in real time by SE measurements. The SE analyses indicate that, after a 20-sec 9:1 HF dip without rinse, the Si (100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si (100) surface was observed, in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber (UHV), and analyzed by the in situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface layer, after being heated to about 550 C in the UHV chamber, is presented and discussed. This is the first use of an ex situ and in situ real-time, nondestructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the rate of reoxidation, and the surface roughness of the H-terminated Si surfaces.

  14. Magnetic properties of pure and surface-treated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    DeSchutter, F.; Bruynseraede, Y.; Gilabert, A.

    1983-05-01

    The very high surface pinning present in superconductors strongly hinders the analysis of fission fragment irradiation experiments which produce heavy damage in a surface layer of approximately 10 ..mu..m. In order to decrease this pinning effect, different treatments such as coating with a normal metal or oxygen diffusion can be used. In this paper we show that oxygen doping lowers the critical temperature T /SUB c/ of Vanadium and surface oxidation reduces drastically the irreversibility of magnetization curves. The authors show that the dependence of T /SUB c/ on the oxygen concentration combined with the measurement of the oxygen concentration gradient (obeying Fick's diffusion law) can explain their magnetic permeability data.

  15. Superhydrophobic films on glass surface derived from trimethylsilanized silica gel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debmita; Medda, Samar Kumar; De, Goutam

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with the fabrication of sol-gel-derived superhydrophobic films on glass based on the macroscopic silica network with surface modification. The fabricated transparent films were composed of a hybrid -Si(CH(3))(3)-functionalized SiO(2) nanospheres exhibiting the desired micro/nanostructure, water repellency, and antireflection (AR) property. The wavelength selective AR property can be tuned by controlling the physical thickness of the films. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies revealed the existence of SiO(2) nanoparticles of average size ∼9.4 nm in the sols. TEM studies showed presence of interconnected SiO(2) NPs of ∼10 nm in size. The films were formed with uniformly packed SiO(2) aggregates as observed by FESEM of film surface. FTIR of the films confirmed presence of glasslike Si-O-Si bonding and methyl functionalization. The hydrophobicity of the surface was depended on the thickness of the deposited films. A critical film thickness (>115 nm) was necessary to obtain the air push effect for superhydrophobicity. Trimethylsilyl functionalization of SiO(2) and the surface roughness (rms ≈30 nm as observed by AFM) of the films were also contributed toward the high water contact angle (WCA). The coated glass surface showed WCA value of the droplet as high as 168 ± 3° with 6 μL of water. These superhydrophobic films were found to be stable up to about 230-240 °C as confirmed by TG/DTA studies, and WCA measurements of the films with respect to the heat-treatment temperatures. These high water repellant films can be deposited on relatively large glass surfaces to remove water droplets immediately without any mechanical assistance. PMID:21823656

  16. Suppression of surface crystallization on borosilicate glass using RF plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunghyun; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Jin, Joo-Young; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2014-10-01

    Surface crystallization on a commercial grade borosilicate glass wafer, Borofloat® 33, is effectively prevented against 3 h of thermal reflow process at 850 °C. Surface plasma treatment with three different reactive gases, CF4, SF6, and Cl2, has been performed prior to the annealing. The effect of plasma treatment on surface ion concentration and nucleation of cristobalite were examined through optical microscope and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The dominant cause that suppresses crystallization was verified to be the increase of surface ion concentration of alumina during the plasma treatment. Both CF4 and SF6 treatment of no less than 30 s showed significant efficacy in suppressing crystallization by a factor of more than 112. Average surface roughness and the optical transparency were also enhanced by a factor of 15 and 3, respectively, compared to untreated sample.

  17. Optically Transparent, Mechanically Durable, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Enabled by Spinodally Phase-Separated Glass Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Hunter, Scott Robert; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Trejo, Rosa M; Winters, Kyle O.; Haynes, James A; Simpson, John T

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by highly non-wetting natural biological surfaces (e.g., lotus leaves and water strider legs), artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibit water droplet contact angles exceeding 150o have previously been constructed by utilizing various synthesis strategies.[ , , ] Such bio-inspired, water-repellent surfaces offer significant potential for numerous uses ranging from marine applications (e.g., anti-biofouling, anti-corrosion), anti-condensation (e.g., anti-icing, anti-fogging), membranes for selective separation (e.g., oil-water, gas-liquid), microfluidic systems, surfaces requiring reduced maintenance and cleaning, to applications involving glasses and optical materials.[ ] In addition to superhydrophobic attributes, for integration into device systems that have extended operational limits and overall improved performance, surfaces that also possess multifunctional characteristics are desired, where the functionality should match to the application-specific requirements.

  18. Spectra of volcanic rocks glasses as analogues of Mercury surface spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, C.; Capaccioni, F.; de Sanctis, M.; Filacchione, G.; Sgavetti, M.; di Genova, D.; Vona, A.; Visonà, D.; Ammannito, E.

    2010-12-01

    Remote-sensing studies have revealed that most of the inner planets surfaces are composed by magmatic effusive rocks as lava flows or pyroclastic deposits, that are the natural products of magma-rock dynamic systems controlled by T, P, oxygen fugacity and time. These materials generally contain a fair amount of volcanic glass, due to the magma rapid cooling once effused on the surface. The VNIR reflectance spectroscopy is one of the most relevant tools for remote-sensing studies and in the last decades gave important results identifying the presence of different Fe-Mg silicates, such as olivine and pyroxenes, on the planets surfaces. However, the mineralogical interpretation of the observed spectral features of several volcanic areas on the inner Solar System bodies is still matter of debate. In particular the presence of dark volcanic glass, which can dominate or not the rock texture, influences the spectra signatures. In fact samples with a glass-bearing groundmass have lower albedo and reduced band intensity of the spectra of samples with comparable mineral composition and intergranular texture. As a consequence, an important goal for studying the planetary crusts is to understand the spectral behavior of volcanic material, where chemical or physical parameters are different depending on geologic context and effusive processes. We present here preliminary laboratory activity to investigate VNIR reflectance spectra of several volcanic glasses. Reflectance spectra, in the wavelength range between 0.35- 2.50 μm, are measured on powders of magmatic rocks, having different composition and textures, at fine (<60 μm in diameter) and very fine (<10 μm) grain sizes. For each rock sample a corresponding “thermal shocked-sample” is produced by heating at 1300°C and P=1 atm and a glass-sample was produced by melting at 1500°C and P=1 atm, than quenching it in air. Reflectance spectra of powders of shocked and glass-samples were acquired at the same grain size, and

  19. Direct visualization of Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses surface: From initial nucleation to full crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, A. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Savinov, S. V.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Panov, V. I.; Maslova, N. S.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.

    2012-10-01

    This article is devoted to in situ investigation of the Ni-based bulk metallic glass structural evolution and crystallization behavior by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. The possibility of different surface nanostructures formation is shown by annealing of an original bulk glassy alloy in ultra high vacuum. Atomic locations in these surface nanostructures are completely different from those formed according to Ni-Nb binary phase diagram in the bulk area of the sample. The validity of the results is also verified by transmission electron microscopy and nano-beam diffraction measurements.

  20. Surface photoconductivity of organosilicate glass dielectrics induced by vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Nichols, M. T.; Pei, D.; Shohet, J. L.; Nishi, Y.

    2013-08-14

    The temporary increase in the electrical surface conductivity of low-k organosilicate glass (SiCOH) during exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet radiation (VUV) is investigated. To measure the photoconductivity, patterned “comb structures” are deposited on dielectric films and exposed to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–25 eV, which is in the energy range of most plasma vacuum-ultraviolet radiation. The change in photo surface conductivity induced by VUV radiation may be beneficial in limiting charging damage of dielectrics by depleting the plasma-deposited charge.

  1. Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, S; Blanc, D; Andrews, M P; Najafi, S I; Tishchenko, A V; Parriaux, O

    1999-11-10

    Efficient surface gratings are UV imprinted in an acrylate-rich hybrid solgel glass. Structural changes occurring in the material upon exposure to light are investigated. Large amplitude modulation (700 nm) and low surface roughness (0.2 nm) were measured by atomic force microscopy. Diffraction efficiencies were found to be close to theoretical predictions. The method of fabrication does not involve any etching step, and an all-UV process is proposed. The gratings are resistant to temperature and to solvent effects. These devices could have useful applications in sensor and spectroscopic devices. PMID:18324214

  2. Effect of free surface roughness on the apparent glass transition temperature in thin polymer films measured by ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Mikhail Yu

    2014-12-01

    Ellipsometry is one of the standard methods for observation of glass transition in thin polymer films. This work proposes that sensitivity of the method to surface morphology can complicate manifestation of the transition in a few nm thick samples. Two possible mechanisms of free surface roughening in the vicinity of glass transition are discussed: roughening due to lateral heterogeneity and roughening associated with thermal capillary waves. Both mechanisms imply an onset of surface roughness in the glass transition temperature range, which affects the experimental data in a way that shifts apparent glass transition temperature. Effective medium approximation models are used to introduce surface roughness into optical calculations. The results of the optical modeling for a 5 nm thick polystyrene film on silicon are presented. PMID:25554303

  3. Mid-infrared surface plasmon polariton chemical sensing on fiber-coupled ITO coated glass.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Ródenas, Airán; Aguiló, Magdalena; Fernandez, Toney; Solis, Javier; Díaz, Francesc

    2016-06-01

    A novel fiber-coupled indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slide sensor for performing surface plasmon polariton chemical monitoring in the ∼3.5  μm mid-infrared (IR) range is reported. Efficient mid-IR fiber coupling is achieved with 3D laser written waveguides, and the coupling of glass waveguide modes to ITO surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is driven by the varying phase matching conditions of different aqueous analytes across the anomalous dispersion range determined by their molecular fingerprints. By means of using both a mid-IR fiber supercontinuum source and a diode laser, the excitation of SPPs is demonstrated. The sensor sensitivity is tested by discriminating CH from OH features of ethanol in water solutions, demonstrating an instrumental ethanol limit of detection of 0.02% in a wide concentration range of at least 0%-50%. The efficient optical monitoring of mid-IR SPPs in smart glass could have a broad range of applications in biological and chemical sensing. PMID:27244397

  4. Surface plasmon resonance induced Er3+ photoluminescence enhancement in tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Hssen; Elhouichet, Habib; Gelloz, Bernard; Férid, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    The melt quenching method is used to prepare tellurite glasses co-activated with erbium ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The glass samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD pattern shows no sharp peak indicating an amorphous nature of the glasses. The presence of Ag NPs is confirmed from TEM micrograph. The absorption spectra reveal not only the peaks due to Er3+ ions, but also the surface plasmon resonance band of silver NPs in the 510-535 nm range. The J-O model has been applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Er3+ (4f11) transitions to establish the so-called J-O intensity parameters: Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6. The intensity parameters are used to determine the radiative decay rates (emission probabilities of transitions) and branching ratios of the Er3+ transitions from the excited state J manifolds to the lower-lying J' manifolds. Intensified of 1.53 μm band is obtained for the sample containing 0.5 mol. % of AgNO3 (Ag0.5 glass) using for excitation a laser operating at 980 nm. The simultaneous influence of the Ag NPs → Er3+ energy transfer and the contribution of the intensified local field effect due to the silver NPs give origin to the enhancement of both the Photoluminescence (PL) intensity and the PL lifetime relative to the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition, whereas the quenching is ascribed to the energy transfer from Er3+ ions to silver NPs. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL intensity and decay time, we identified a weak back transfer process from Er to the glass host that makes the quenching of the PL intensity weak. Large magnitudes of calculated emission cross-section (σe), effective bandwidth (Δλeff), and bandwidth quality factor (FWHM × σe) relatives to 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition in Er doped Ag0.5 glass have been shown. They indicate that this glass sample has good prospect as a

  5. Surface plasmon resonance induced Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence enhancement in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fares, Hssen Férid, Mokhtar; Elhouichet, Habib; Gelloz, Bernard

    2015-05-21

    The melt quenching method is used to prepare tellurite glasses co-activated with erbium ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The glass samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD pattern shows no sharp peak indicating an amorphous nature of the glasses. The presence of Ag NPs is confirmed from TEM micrograph. The absorption spectra reveal not only the peaks due to Er{sup 3+} ions, but also the surface plasmon resonance band of silver NPs in the 510–535 nm range. The J-O model has been applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Er{sup 3+} (4f{sup 11}) transitions to establish the so-called J-O intensity parameters: Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4}, and Ω{sub 6}. The intensity parameters are used to determine the radiative decay rates (emission probabilities of transitions) and branching ratios of the Er{sup 3+} transitions from the excited state J manifolds to the lower-lying J' manifolds. Intensified of 1.53 μm band is obtained for the sample containing 0.5 mol. % of AgNO{sub 3} (Ag0.5 glass) using for excitation a laser operating at 980 nm. The simultaneous influence of the Ag NPs → Er{sup 3+} energy transfer and the contribution of the intensified local field effect due to the silver NPs give origin to the enhancement of both the Photoluminescence (PL) intensity and the PL lifetime relative to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition, whereas the quenching is ascribed to the energy transfer from Er{sup 3+} ions to silver NPs. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL intensity and decay time, we identified a weak back transfer process from Er to the glass host that makes the quenching of the PL intensity weak. Large magnitudes of calculated emission cross-section (σ{sub e}), effective bandwidth (Δλ{sub eff}), and bandwidth quality factor (FWHM × σ{sub e}) relatives to {sup 4}I{sub 13

  6. Investigation of carbonized layer on surface of NaAlSi glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentjuss, E.; Lusis, A.; Bajars, G.; Gabrusenoks, J.

    2013-12-01

    There are presented and discussed experimental results about carbonate shell on the sodium rich alumosilicate (NaAlSi) glass fibers and carbonization in wet air atmosphere and water uptake kinetic of such fiber fabrics. The analyzes of water uptake kinetic by regression technique, leaching and heating of carbonized glass fabrics helped to separate stages of fast and slow processes between fiber and carbonate shell and air atmosphere. The shell contains mixture of trona and hydrated sodium carbonate. Heating converts both substances to sodium carbonate. The weight uptake after heating encounters two fast exponential processes associated with water absorption on the surface of carbonated shell and its diffusion into volume. The slow process associates with CO2 and H2O absorption from air, hydration and sodium carbonate conversion to trona.

  7. Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Coating on the Surface of Hollow Glass Microspheres Using a Biomimetic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ying-Long; Duan, Rong-Shuai; Lu, Yu-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Microcarrier culture technology has attached more attention, especially for scale-up cell culture in the filed of tissue engineering. The present work introduces a microcarrier with hydroxyapatite (HA) on hollow glass microsphere. Hollow glass microspheres with a main composition of SiO2 (55-65 wt.%), Al2O3 (26-35 wt.%), were pretreated by NaOH, on which hydroxyapatite coating was deposited by biomimetic process. The phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that after immersion for 15 days in 1.5 SBF, the uniform and dense HA coating was formed and it has porous surface and low crystallinity.

  8. Surface Analysis of Stressed and Control Tin Oxide Thin Films on Soda Lime Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, J. W.

    2003-05-01

    Surface analysis techniques have been used to investigate tin oxide-coated soda lime glass specimens prior and subsequent to their exposure to DC bias, heat, and humidity. All specimens reported here comprise the following layered structure: tin oxide/silicon oxycarbide/glass. Depth profiling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly shows the interfacial regions in both control samples and samples exposed to the above-mentioned conditions (stressed). Control samples show distinct and relatively compact interfacial regions as well as an intact silicon oxycarbide diffusion barrier. Stressed films, however, show more diffuse interfacial regions and a physically and chemically altered silicon oxycarbide diffusion barrier. This deterioration of the diffusion barrier is proposed to be a pre-requisite event to enable tin oxide delamination.

  9. Surface characteristics of metallic glass spheres of Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the production of metallic glasses of high atomic number is currently of considerable importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target applications. In connection with the present investigation, spherules of the alloy Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5) were produced. Metallic glass was formed on solidification. With the aid of X-ray diffraction studies, it was established that the spheres were completely amorphous. A near-surface phase separation on spheres of the metallic glass could be observed. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements showed that the average composition of the surface differed from that of the bulk.

  10. Influence of surface treatment of contaminated lithium disilicate and leucite glass ceramics on surface free energy and bond strength of universal adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Fumi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Ishii, Ryo; Nojiri, Kie; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Masashi; Latta, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of surface treatment of contaminated lithium disilicate and leucite glass ceramic restorations on the bonding efficacy of universal adhesives. Lithium disilicate and leucite glass ceramics were contaminated with saliva, and then cleaned using distilled water (SC), or 37% phosphoric acid (TE), or hydrofluoric acid (CE). Specimens without contamination served as controls. The surface free energy was determined by measuring the contact angles formed when the three test liquids were placed on the specimens. Bond strengths of the universal adhesives were also measured. Saliva contamination and surface treatment of ceramic surfaces significantly influenced the surface free energy. The bond strengths of universal adhesives were also affected by surface treatment and the choice of adhesive materials. Our data suggest that saliva contamination of lithum disilicate and leucite glass ceramics significantly impaired the bonding of the universal adhesives, and reduced the surface free energy of the ceramics. PMID:26632235

  11. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  12. Experimental analysis of the surface roughness evolution of etched glass for micro/nanofluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J.; Ganapathysubramanian, B.; Sundararajan, S.

    2011-02-01

    Roughness of channel surfaces, both deterministic and random, is known to affect the fluid flow behavior in micro/nanoscale fluidic devices. This has relevance particularly for applications involving non-Newtonian fluids, such as in biomedical lab-on-chip devices. While several studies have investigated effects of relative large, deterministic surface structures on fluid flow, the effect of random roughness on microfluidic flow remains relatively unexplored. In this study, the effects of processing conditions for wet etching of glass including etching time and etching orientation on centre-line average (Ra) and the autocorrelation length (ACL) were investigated. Statistical distribution of the roughness was also studied. Results indicated that ACL can be tailored in the range of 1-4 µm by changing etching time in horizontal etching while Ra was found to increase weakly with etching time in all three etching orientations. Analysis of the experimental data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit hypothesis test shows that the glass surface roughness does not follow a Gaussian distribution, as is typically assumed in the literature. Instead, the T location-scale distribution fits the roughness data with 1.11% error. These results provide promising insights into tailoring surface roughness for improving microfluidic devices.

  13. Surface pH of resin-modified glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements.

    PubMed

    Woolford, M J; Chadwick, R G

    1992-12-01

    The recently developed group of materials known as light-activated, or resin-modified, glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements have been produced in response to clinical demands for a command set cavity base material. This study monitored the surface pH of three commercially available resin-modified glass ionomer cements over a 60-min period following either mixing alone or mixing followed by a 30-s exposure to a curing lamp. The results indicate that each material behaves in a unique manner. For all materials and conditions the pH reached after a 60-min period was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than the initial value. Light curing the materials significantly increased (P < 0.01) the surface pH of two of the materials (Baseline VLC and Vitrebond) as compared to the same materials in the uncured state. In the case of XR-Ionomer, however, no significant (P > 0.05) effect of light curing upon the surface pH was apparent. The precise clinical consequences of a low surface pH are unclear but may be an aetiological factor in postoperative pulpal sensitivity. It is therefore recommended that a sublining of a proprietary calcium hydroxide lining material should be placed routinely beneath these materials and every effort made to ensure effective light curing. PMID:1452877

  14. Modifying glass fiber surface with grafting acrylamide by UV-grafting copolymerization for preparation of glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Luo, Nan; Zhong, Hui; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Fan, Yaobo

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the modification of conditions for glass surface grafting with acrylamide (AM) monomer for preparation of a glass fiber reinforced poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite membrane (GFRP-CM). The factors considered for experimental design were the UV (ultraviolet)-irradiation time, the concentrations of the initiator and solvent, and the kinds and concentrations of the silane coupling agent. The optimum operating conditions determined were UV-irradiation time of 25 min, an initiator concentration of 0-0.25 wt.%, solvent of N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC), and silane coupling agent KH570 with a concentration of 7 wt.%. The obtained optimal parameters were located in the valid region and the experimental confirmation tests conducted showed good accordance between predicted and experimental values. Under these optimal conditions, the water absorption of the grafted modified glass fiber was improved from 13.6% to 23%; the tensile strength was enhanced and the peeling strength of the glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane was improved by 23.7% and 32.6% with an AM concentration at 1 wt.% and 2 wt.%. The surface composition and microstructure of AM grafted glass fiber were studied via several techniques including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analysis of the EDX and FTIR-ATR results confirmed that the AM was grafted to the glass fiber successfully by detecting and proving the existence of nitrogen atoms in the GFRP-CM. PMID:26899659

  15. Fabrication of nano-structures on glass substrate by modified nano-imprint patterning with a plasma-induced surface-oxidized Cr mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, So Hee; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Heon; Lee, Hee Chul

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we introduce a process for fabrication of nano-sized structural arrays on glass using modified nano-imprint patterning. A PVC (polyvinyl chloride) stamp was prepared by hot embossing, and a Cr-oxide-pattern etch-mask was used. The etch-mask was formed by oxidizing the surface of exposed Cr region by oxygen plasma treatment at room temperature. The fabrication of the etch-mask was conducted by immersing the locally oxidized Cr pattern in resin remover and Cr-etchant. The residual UV resin and un-oxidized Cr pattern were selectively removed, resulting in the obvious array of Cr-oxide etch-mask-pattern. The array of glass nano-structures was formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using CF4 and Ar gas discharge. After removing the Cr-oxide mask, the final nano-structure had a height of 40 nm and a diameter of 170 nm, which was slightly less than the diameter of the original master-mold. The plasma treatment gave rise to a rough glass surface with root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of 29.25 nm, while that of bare glass was 0.66 nm. A high optical transmittance due to reduction in reflectance was observed at the plasma-treated rough surface, as well as for the array of nano-structures. The highest measured optical transmittance was 97.2% at a wavelength of 550 nm; an increase of about 7.2% compared to bare glass.

  16. Bone regeneration performance of surface-treated porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, Saber; van der Stok, Johan; Chai, Yoke Chin; Wauthle, Ruben; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Habibovic, Pamela; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas

    2014-08-01

    The large surface area of highly porous titanium structures produced by additive manufacturing can be modified using biofunctionalizing surface treatments to improve the bone regeneration performance of these otherwise bioinert biomaterials. In this longitudinal study, we applied and compared three types of biofunctionalizing surface treatments, namely acid-alkali (AcAl), alkali-acid-heat treatment (AlAcH), and anodizing-heat treatment (AnH). The effects of treatments on apatite forming ability, cell attachment, cell proliferation, osteogenic gene expression, bone regeneration, biomechanical stability, and bone-biomaterial contact were evaluated using apatite forming ability test, cell culture assays, and animal experiments. It was found that AcAl and AnH work through completely different routes. While AcAl improved the apatite forming ability of as-manufactured (AsM) specimens, it did not have any positive effect on cell attachment, cell proliferation, and osteogenic gene expression. In contrast, AnH did not improve the apatite forming ability of AsM specimens but showed significantly better cell attachment, cell proliferation, and expression of osteogenic markers. The performance of AlAcH in terms of apatite forming ability and cell response was in between both extremes of AnH and AsM. AcAl resulted in significantly larger volumes of newly formed bone within the pores of the scaffold as compared to AnH. Interestingly, larger volumes of regenerated bone did not translate into improved biomechanical stability as AnH exhibited significantly better biomechanical stability as compared to AcAl suggesting that the beneficial effects of cell-nanotopography modulations somehow surpassed the benefits of improved apatite forming ability. In conclusion, the applied surface treatments have considerable effects on apatite forming ability, cell attachment, cell proliferation, and bone ingrowth of the studied biomaterials. The relationship between these properties and the bone

  17. Covalent Immobilization of Microtubules on Glass Surfaces for Molecular Motor Force Measurements and Other Single-Molecule Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Rigid attachment of microtubules (MTs) to glass cover slip surfaces is a prerequisite for a variety of microscopy experiments in which MTs are used as substrates for MT-associated proteins, such as the molecular motors kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. We present an MT-surface coupling protocol in which aminosilanized glass is formylated using the cross-linker glutaraldehyde, fluorescence-labeled MTs are covalently attached, and the surface is passivated with highly pure beta-casein. The technique presented here yields rigid MT immobilization while simultaneously blocking the remaining glass surface against nonspecific binding by polystyrene optical trapping microspheres. This surface chemistry is straightforward and relatively cheap and uses a minimum of specialized equipment or hazardous reagents. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of optical tweezers experiments with MT-associated molecular motors and may also be useful in other assays requiring surface-immobilized proteins. PMID:24633798

  18. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  19. Subnanometric Roughness Affects the Deposition and Mobile Adhesion of Escherichia coli on Silanized Glass Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumedha; Jaimes-Lizcano, Yuly Andrea; McLay, Ryan B; Cirino, Patrick C; Conrad, Jacinta C

    2016-05-31

    We investigate the deposition and transient adhesion of Escherichia coli on alkyl and fluoroalkyl silanized glass surfaces of different carbon chain lengths. The rate at which bacteria deposit onto these surfaces decreases as the shear stress is increased from 3 to 67 mPa, but trends in the deposition rate across all surfaces cannot be predicted from extended DLVO calculations of the interaction potential. As the surface root-mean-square (rms) roughness increases, the deposition rate increases and the percentage of motile tethered cells decreases. Furthermore, on surfaces of root-mean-square roughness of less than 0.2 nm, bacteria exhibit mobile adhesion, for which surface-associated cells linearly translate distances greater than approximately 1.5 times their average body length along the flow direction. E. coli bacteria with and without flagella exhibit mobile adhesion, indicating that this behavior is not driven by these appendages. Cells that express fimbriae do not exhibit mobile adhesion. These results suggest that even subnanoscale roughness can influence the deposition and transient adhesion of bacteria and imply that strategies to reduce frictional interactions by making cells or surfaces smoother may help to control the initial fouling of surfaces by E. coli bacteria. PMID:27158837

  20. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  1. A Simple Preparation of Photoactive Glass Surfaces Allowing Coatings via the "Grafting-from" Method.

    PubMed

    Sangermano, Marco; Periolatto, Monica; Castellino, Micaela; Wang, Jieping; Dietliker, Kurt; Grützmacher, Joëlle Levalois; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    A simple and straightforward synthesis was developed to prepare the siloxy-substituted bis(acylphosphane)oxide 4-(trimethoxysilyl)butyl-3-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphinoyl]-2-methyl-propionate TMESI(2)-BAPO. This new photoinitiator was successfully fixed to glass surfaces. Subsequent irradiation with UV light in the presence of either a partially fluorinated acrylate or a specifically synthesized polysiloxane containing polymerizable acrylate functions allowed the generation of polymer chains which grew from the surface in an efficient radical polymerization process ("grafting-from" procedure). Durable hydrophobic surfaces were prepared which have contact angles between 93° and 95°. The silanization process with the photoinitiator and the grafting process were followed and analyzed with various techniques including high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:27403625

  2. [Influence of ancient glass samples surface conditions on chemical composition analysis using portable XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2011-07-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence analysis (PXRF) is one kind of surface analysis techniques, and the sample surface condition is an important factor that influences the quantitative analysis results. The ancient glass samples studied in the present paper were excavated from Xinjiang, Guangxi, Jiangsu provinces, and they belong to Na2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-SiO2, and PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, respectively. Quantitative analysis results of weathered surface and inside of the ancient glass samples were compared. The concentration change of main fluxes in different parts of the samples was pointed out. Meanwhile, the authors studied the effect of distance between the sample and the reference plane, and curve shape of the sample on the quantitative results. The results obtained were calibrated by three methods, and the validity of these three methods was proved. Finally, the normalizing method was proved to be a better method for quantitative analysis of antiques. This paper also has guiding significance for chemical composition analysis of ancient jade samples using PXRF. PMID:21942060

  3. Spectra of Fe-Ti silicate glasses - Implications to remote-sensing of planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolet, D. A.; Burns, R. G.; Flamm, S. L.; Besancon, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Optical spectra of synthetic Fe-Ti silicate glasses and the temperature variations of the spectral features were investigated. The spectra are assigned to absorptions due to crystal field (CF) transitions in Ti(3+), Fe(2+) in octahedral coordination, and Fe(2+) in tetrahedral coordination, and to metal-metal and oxygen-metal charge transfer (CT) transitions which contribute to the near ultraviolet absorption edge. Temperature variations of the optical bands have been studied to explore implications for remote sensing. Caution is urged in the use of the absorption edge as a measure of TiO2 concentrations on planetary surfaces and in regolith samples.

  4. NMR Wool Tube: a novel method for NMR solution analysis of derivatized glass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Olivia Maria

    2004-08-13

    Glass wool was placed within an NMR tube as a solid support for the covalent attachment of a molecule to allow for a simple one-dimensional 1H FT NMR solution analysis. This novel procedure avoids the use of expensive sample tubes or platforms, as required for magic angle or fast spinning, exotic pulse sequences, isotopic labeling or the use of a large number of scans to provide the ability to analyze the structure, mobility, ligand binding, and solvent interactions of the surface bound molecule. PMID:15387199

  5. Laser ablation-ICP-MS depth profiling to study ancient glass surface degradation.

    PubMed

    Panighello, Serena; Van Elteren, Johannes T; Orsega, Emilio F; Moretto, Ligia M

    2015-05-01

    In general the analysis of archeological glass represents a challenge for a wide variety of objects because of the presence of physical and/or chemical damage on the surface of the artifact, also known as weathering or corrosion. To retrieve accurate bulk elemental information by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the original, pristine glass needs to be "reached", thereby penetrating the alteration layer which is often more than 10 μm thick. To study this alteration layer the laser was operated in the drilling mode, either with a low (1 Hz) or a high (10 Hz) pulse repetition rate for a period of 50 s yielding detailed spatial information for ca. 20 elements over a shallow depth (ca. 5 μm) or less-detailed spatial information for 50-60 elements over a greater depth (ca. 50 μm). Quantitative elemental depth profiles (in wt%) were obtained with the so-called sum normalization calibration protocol, based on summation of the elements as their oxides to 100 wt%. We were able to associate the increase of SiO2 (in wt%) in the alteration layer to the volumetric mass density change in the glass as a result of depletion of Na2O and K2O. Also the interaction of the number of laser shots with the alteration layer is shown experimentally via depth measurements using profilometry. Chemical and physical changes in four ancient glass artifacts, directly and indirectly measureable by laser drilling, were studied as a function of internal and external factors such as age, composition, and exposure conditions. PMID:25716469

  6. Surface roughness mediated adhesion forces between borosilicate glass and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Emily; Perni, Stefano; Nipiĉ, Damijan; Bohinc, Klemen; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-08-12

    It is well-known that a number of surface characteristics affect the extent of adhesion between two adjacent materials. One of such parameters is the surface roughness as surface asperities at the nanoscale level govern the overall adhesive forces. For example, the extent of bacterial adhesion is determined by the surface topography; also, once a bacteria colonizes a surface, proliferation of that species will take place and a biofilm may form, increasing the resistance of bacterial cells to removal. In this study, borosilicate glass was employed with varying surface roughness and coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in order to replicate the protein layer that covers orthopedic devices on implantation. As roughness is a scale-dependent process, relevant scan areas were analyzed using atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine Ra; furthermore, appropriate bacterial species were attached to the tip to measure the adhesion forces between cells and substrates. The bacterial species chosen (Staphylococci and Streptococci) are common pathogens associated with a number of implant related infections that are detrimental to the biomedical devices and patients. Correlation between adhesion forces and surface roughness (Ra) was generally better when the surface roughness was measured through scanned areas with size (2 × 2 μm) comparable to bacteria cells. Furthermore, the BSA coating altered the surface roughness without correlation with the initial values of such parameter; therefore, better correlations were found between adhesion forces and BSA-coated surfaces when actual surface roughness was used instead of the initial (nominal) values. It was also found that BSA induced a more hydrophilic and electron donor characteristic to the surfaces; in agreement with increasing adhesion forces of hydrophilic bacteria (as determined through microbial adhesion to solvents test) on BSA-coated substrates. PMID:25019516

  7. An In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Custom Made, Metal, Glass Fiber Reinforced and Carbon Reinforced Posts in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Sonkesriya, Subhash; Olekar, Santosh T; Saravanan, V; Somasunderam, P; Chauhan, Rashmi Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posts are used to enhance crown buildup in pulpless teeth with destructed crown portion. Different types of post are used in endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate fracture resistance of custom made, metal, glass fiber reinforced and carbon reinforced posts in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was carried out on extracted 40 human maxillary central incisor teeth, which was divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group with custom made, metal post, glass fiber reinforced, and carbon reinforced posts. The samples were decoronated at cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Post space was prepared and selected posts were cemented. The composite cores were prepared at the height of 5 mm and samples mounted on acrylic blocks. Later fracture resistance to the compressive force of samples was measured using Universal Testing Machine. Results: The maximum resistance to the compressive force was observed in carbon reinforced and glass fiber reinforced posts compared others which is statistically significant (P > 0.001) and least was seen in custom fabricated post. Conclusion: It is concluded that carbon reinforced fiber post and glass fiber posts showed good fracture resistance compared to custom made and metal posts. PMID:26028904

  8. Gold nanoparticles assisted characterization of amine functionalized polystyrene multiwell plate and glass slide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharanivasan, Gunasekaran; Rajamuthuramalingam, Thangavelu; Michael Immanuel Jesse, Denison; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kathiravan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated citrate-capped gold nanoparticles assisted characterization of amine functionalized polystyrene plate and glass slide surfaces through AuNPs staining method. The effect of AuNPs concentration on the characterization of amine modified surfaces was also studied with different concentration of AuNPs (ratios 1.0-0.0). 3-Aminopropylyl triethoxy silane has been used as amine group source for the surface modification. The interactions of AuNPs on modified and unmodified surfaces were investigated using atomic force microscopy and the dispersibility, and the aggregation of AuNPs was analyzed using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to further confirmation of amine modified surfaces. The aggregation of AuNPs in modified multiwell plate leads to the color change from red to purple and they are found to be adsorped on the modified surfaces. Aggregation and adsorption of AuNPs on the modified surfaces through the electrostatic interactions and the hydrogen bonds were revealed by XPS analysis. Remarkable results were found even in the very low concentration of AuNPs (ratio 0.2). This AuNPs staining method is simple, cost-effective, less time consuming, and required very low concentration of AuNPs. These results can be read out through the naked eye without the help of sophisticated equipments.

  9. Fluorescent film sensor for nitroaromatics via monolayer assembly of arylethenyl-branched s-triazine on glass slide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qiang; Cui, Yue-Zhi; Tao, Fu-Rong; Wang, Yong-Tao; Li, Jun-Ying; Li, Tian-Duo

    2014-11-01

    A fluorescent compound, arylethenyl-branched s-triazine (II), is synthesized. It can be immobilized onto the glass surface with the molecule plane parallel to the surface, decreasing the π-π stacking between molecules on glass surface. Measurements of contact angle to water, XPS spectra and light absorbance of the functionalized glass confirm the success of grafting II onto the surface of the glass. The quenching efficiency of this sensor reaches 68.7% and 89.3% when CDNT in THF is 2 × 10-5 and 2 × 10-3 mol/L, respectively. From recycle 2-10, the recovered fluorescence intensity of the glass sensor remains between 72.4% and 58.0% of the original emission intensity, which implies good reversibility of the quenching process. The quenching efficiency of the glass sensor reaches 95% immediately once upon it is exposed to saturated DNT vapor, showing no time delay to get to the quenching equilibrium.

  10. Regulation of arsenic mobility on basaltic glass surfaces by speciation and pH.

    PubMed

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Meharg, Andrew A; Gislason, Sigurdur R

    2008-12-01

    The importance of geothermal energy as a source for electricity generation and district heating has increased over recent decades. Arsenic can be a significant constituent of the geothermal fluids pumped to the surface during power generation. Dissolved As exists in different oxidation states, mainly as As(III) and As(V), and the charge of individual species varies with pH. Basaltic glass is one of the most important rock types in many high-temperature geothermal fields. Static batch and dynamic column experiments were combined to generate and validate sorption coefficients for As(III) and As(V) in contact with basaltic glass at pH 3-10. Validation was carried out by two empirical kinetic models and a surface complexation model (SCM). The SCM provided a better fit to the experimental column data than kinetic models at high pH values. However, in certain circumstances, an adequate estimation of As transport in the column could not be attained without incorporation of kinetic reactions. The varying mobility with pH was due to the combined effects of the variable charge of the basaltic glass with the pH point of zero charge at 6.8 and the individual As species as pH shifted, respectively. The mobility of As(III) decreased with increasing pH. The opposite was true for As(V), being nearly immobile at pH 3 to being highly mobile at pH 10. Incorporation of appropriate sorption constants, based on the measured pH and Eh of geothermal fluids, into regional groundwater-flow models should allow prediction of the As(III) and As(V) transport from geothermal systems to adjacent drinking water sources and ecosystems. PMID:19192803

  11. Supercritical angle fluorescence biosensor for the detection of molecular interactions on cellulose-modified glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laib, Stephan; Krieg, Alexander; Rankl, Michael; Seeger, Stefan

    2006-09-01

    Cellulose films have been proposed as a convenient substrate for producing flat and homogeneous surface coatings. Additionally, amino-labelled cellulose species, like aminopropyltrimethylsilylethercellulose (ATMSC), are excellent support matrices for covalent binding of biomolecules, with low probe density and prevention of non-specific adsorption of unbound analyte molecules. Due to ATMSC films fulfil important requirements as substrate for analyse techniques of surface-tethered proteins and nucleic acids, we consequently report a new preparation for DNA-functionalised surfaces. Single-stranded DNA molecules are covalently coupled to cellulose-coated glass cover slips to interact with complementary free Cy5-labelled oligonucleotides in solution. Hybridisation efficiencies at the new substrate and at standard surface coatings are determined by detection of the surface-generated fluorescence. In order to discriminate against the fluorescence from unbound oligonucleotides the detection volume was restricted to the surface by collecting supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF). Thus, it is demonstrated that cellulose films are utilised to investigate DNA-hybridisation reactions highly sensitive.

  12. Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Desmoulin, Jean-Charles; Petit, Yannick; Cardinal, Thierry; Canioni, Lionel; Dussauze, Marc; Lahaye, Michel; Gonzalez, Hernando Magallanes; Brasselet, Etienne

    2015-12-07

    Femtosecond direct laser writing in silver-containing phosphate glasses allows for the three-dimensional (3D) implementation of complex photonic structures. Sample translation along or perpendicular to the direction of the beam propagation has been performed, which led to the permanent formation of fluorescent structures, either corresponding to a tubular shape or to two parallel planes at the vicinity of the interaction voxel, respectively. These optical features are related to significant modifications of the local material chemistry. Indeed, silver depletion areas with a diameter below 200 nm were evidenced at the center of the photo-produced structures while photo-produced luminescence properties are attributed to the formation of silver clusters around the multiphoton interaction voxel. The laser-triggered oxidation-reduction processes and the associated photo-induced silver redistribution are proposed to be at the origin of the observed original 3D luminescent structures. Thanks to such material structuring, surface engineering has been also demonstrated. Selective surface chemical etching of the glass has been obtained subsequently to laser writing at the location of the photo-produced structures, revealing features with nanometric depth profiles and radial dimensions strongly related to the spatial distributions of the silver clusters.

  13. Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmoulin, Jean-Charles; Petit, Yannick; Canioni, Lionel; Dussauze, Marc; Lahaye, Michel; Gonzalez, Hernando Magallanes; Brasselet, Etienne; Cardinal, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Femtosecond direct laser writing in silver-containing phosphate glasses allows for the three-dimensional (3D) implementation of complex photonic structures. Sample translation along or perpendicular to the direction of the beam propagation has been performed, which led to the permanent formation of fluorescent structures, either corresponding to a tubular shape or to two parallel planes at the vicinity of the interaction voxel, respectively. These optical features are related to significant modifications of the local material chemistry. Indeed, silver depletion areas with a diameter below 200 nm were evidenced at the center of the photo-produced structures while photo-produced luminescence properties are attributed to the formation of silver clusters around the multiphoton interaction voxel. The laser-triggered oxidation-reduction processes and the associated photo-induced silver redistribution are proposed to be at the origin of the observed original 3D luminescent structures. Thanks to such material structuring, surface engineering has been also demonstrated. Selective surface chemical etching of the glass has been obtained subsequently to laser writing at the location of the photo-produced structures, revealing features with nanometric depth profiles and radial dimensions strongly related to the spatial distributions of the silver clusters.

  14. Surface micro-structuring of glassy carbon for precision glass molding of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Glassy carbon is used nowadays for a variety of applications because of its mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties. This makes it also a suitable candidate as mold material for precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature materials. To fabricate molds for diffractive optics a highresolution structuring technique is needed. We introduce a process that allows the micro-structuring of glassy carbon by reactive ion etching. Key parameters such as uniformity, surface roughness, edge definition and lateral resolution are discussed. They are the most relevant parameters for a stamp in optical applications. The use of titanium as a hard mask makes it possible to achieve a reasonable selectivity of 4:1, which has so far been one of the main problems in microstructuring of glassy carbon. We investigate the titanium surface structure with its 5-10 nm thick layer of TiO2 grains and its influence on the shape of the hard mask. In our fabrication procedure we were able to realize optically flat diffractive structures with slope angles of more than 80° at typical feature sizes of 5 μm and at 700 nm depth. The fabricated glassy carbon molds were applied to thermal imprinting onto different glasses. Glassy carbon molds with 1 mm thickness were tested with binary optical structures. Our experiments show the suitability of glassy carbon as molds for cost efficient mass production with a high quality.

  15. Fabrication of micro-structure on glass surface using micro-indentation and wet etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Shinya; Miki, Atsushi; Inomata, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Takeshi; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2008-09-01

    In order to improve the new micro-fabrication technology using micro-indentation and wet etching, in which the etching rate drastically decrease at the indented area and consequently micro-structure can be formed on the glass surface, the effect of the applying load on the etching rate change was investigated. The extent of the etching rate change was found to be almost constant irrespective of the amount of the applying load. Therefore, the height of the structure could be controlled simply by the etching depth as far as the densified portion remains beneath the glass surface. And some example micro-patterns were fabricated in this process. Various kinds of indentation methods were employed, including scanning a pointed tool under a load and wet abrasive blast. The patterns can be freely drawn by the use of numerical control (NC) machine. Mold pattern can be also applied, which enables drawing many lines simultaneously. In every method, the heights of the patterns were confirmed to be very uniform. This new type of the micro-fabrication method was referred to as "SMIL (Stress Masked Image Lithography)".

  16. Self-masking controlled by metallic seed layer during glass dry-etching for optically scattering surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, E.; Fox, D.; Fouckhardt, H.

    2010-02-15

    During reactive ion etching in a high density Ar/CF{sub 4} plasma, nonvolatile halogen compounds are generated on the glass surface and act as statistically distributed micromasks. As a consequence surface roughness occurs, which can be used as additional surface functionality in certain classes of applications, where defined optical scattering is desired. The glass etch process described in this contribution enables user-defined scattering characteristics. The deposition of a thin metallic layer of Cu on top of the samples before dry-etching provides an additional seed for the production of micromasks, resulting in higher reproducibility. By varying the etch parameters a multitude of different surface morphologies can be realized both on borosilicate glasses and on fused silica.

  17. Self-Partitioned Droplet Array on Laser-Patterned Superhydrophilic Glass Surface for Wall-less Cell Arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kerui; Wang, Xiaopu; Ford, Roseanne M; Landers, James P

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we report a novel method for the creation of superhydrophilic patterns on the surface of hydrophobically coated glass through CO2 laser cleaning. This mask-free approach requires no photolithography for the print of the features, and only a single-step surface pretreatment is needed. The laser-cleaned glass surface enables self-partitioning of liquid into droplet arrays with controllable, quantitative volumes. We further designed wall-less cell arrays for the mapping of culturing conditions and demonstrated the potential of this droplet-arraying method. PMID:26878418

  18. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of glass fiber reinforced, carbon, and quartz post in endodontically treated teeth: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Attokaran, George; Singh, Kunwar S.; Jerry, Jeethu J.; Ahmed, Naima; Mitra, Nirban

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Use of posts improves the physical properties of endodontically-treated teeth. Different post types are developed such as metal, custom-made, carbon, and quartz. The present study was conducted to evaluate the fracture resistance of glass fiber-reinforced, carbon, and quartz post in endodontically-treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were decoronated and endodontically treated and equally divided into 4 groups; control, glass fiber-reinforced, carbon, and quartz posts. No post was used in the control group. Post space was prepared and cemented with different posts and subjected to universal testing machine to check fracture resistance. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance to compare the mean difference between groups (SPSS version 20, IBM). Results: Quartz type of endodontic post showed good fracture resistance compared to carbon and resin-reinforced post. Least resistance was observed in the control group without post. Conclusion: Quartz, carbon, and glass fiber-reinforced posts show good resistance to fracture, and hence can be used in endodontically-treated teeth to enhance their strength. PMID:27583227

  19. Waved glass: Towards optimal light distribution on solar cell surfaces for high efficient modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamin, L.; Sammaraee, T.

    2010-01-15

    A method to improve the module efficiency of solar cells by modifying the surface of the glass cover of the solar cells module is proposed. A model is built to show that a better efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the light distribution on the cell, which reduces the shadow losses and thereby allows the finger spacing to be decreased, which in turn decreases the (resistive) ohmic losses. This method is illustrated by considering industrial crystalline silicon solar cells as an example, however, it applies to all solar cells that are characterized by a metallization pattern on the surface of the solar cell. It is estimated that this method can improve the relative module efficiency by about 5% and halve the front side losses. (author)

  20. Pulse voltage determination for electrostatic micro manipulation considering surface conductivity and adhesion of glass particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Ryo; Hemthavy, Pasomphone; Takahashi, Kunio; Saito, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    A model with surface conductivity and adhesional force is proposed to investigate the mechanism for electrostatic micro manipulation of a dielectric object using a single probe. The manipulation system consists of three elements: a conductive probe as a manipulator, a conductive plate as a substrate, and a dielectric particle as the target object for manipulation. The particle can be successfully picked up/placed if a rectangular pulse voltage is applied between the probe and the plate. The reliability of the picking up/placing operation is improved by applying a pulse voltage that is determined by a theoretical model considering surface conductivity and adhesion. To verify the theoretical prediction, manipulation experiment is conducted using soda-lime glass particles with radii of 20 μm and 40 μm.

  1. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

    2014-10-01

    In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process.

  2. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:24840197

  3. Evaluation of various substances to prevent adsorption of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) to glass surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Landi, S.; Held, H. R.; Tseng, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    It is well known that a dilute tuberculin PPD solution (1 IU or 5 IU per dose) very rapidly loses its potency owing to adsorption of tuberculoprotein to the wall of the container into which it is dispensed. The amount of tuberculoprotein adsorbed per cm2 of glass surface has been measured for phosphate-buffered saline over a wide pH range (pH 1 to pH 10). The maximum adsorption was found at pH 4 (0.31 μg/cm2) and the least at between pH 6 and pH 10 (0.15 μg/cm2). The rate of adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass was not changed when the phosphate-buffered saline was replaced by borate-buffered saline. Tuberculin PPD prepared by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method and by a combination of both methods adsorbed equally well to glass and no difference in the rate of adsorption for these tuberculoproteins was found. Forty-two substances in addition to Tween 80 were tested for their property to prevent adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass in dilute tuberculin PPD solutions (50 IU/ml of 14C-labelled PPD). The most efficient anti-adsorption agents were found to be nonionic surfactants, some ionic surfactants and some colloidal substances; polypeptides and non-surface-active substances of low molecular weight showed little or no anti-adsorption property. The labelling of PPD with 14C has proved to be a valuable tool, particularly for long-term adsorption studies and for screening substances to be used as efficient anti-adsorption agents. These studies have permitted the selection of agents which could be added to dilute solutions of tuberculin PPD (10 IU/ml to 500 IU/ml or 0.2 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml respectively) in order to avoid loss of potency due to adsorption. PMID:5312323

  4. Amino acid conjugated self assembling molecules for enhancing surface wettability of fiber laser treated titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkan, Cagri K.; Hür, Deniz; Uzun, Lokman; Garipcan, Bora

    2016-03-01

    Surface wetting properties of implants are one of the most critical parameter, which determine the interaction of proteins and cells with the implant surface. In this regards, acid etching and sand blasting are the mostly used methods at surface modification of Titanium (Ti) for enhanced surface wettability. Besides, these kinds of modifications may cause a conflict whether the surface wettability is influenced by the process related surface contaminations or by the surface roughness. In contrast, lasers might be an option for the alteration of surface wetting properties via supporting micro and/or nano surface topographies while preventing surface chemical contaminations. In this work, we focused on two steps of surface processing approaches of Ti surface: physical and chemical modifications. Herein, we hierarchically structured Ti surfaces by using microsecond modulated pulsed fiber laser. Subsequently, laser structured and non-structured Ti surfaces were further modified with novel histidine and leucine Amino Acid conjugated Self-Assembled Molecules (His1-SAMs2 and Leu3-SAMs) to alter the surface wettability by introducing biologically hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Modification of Ti surfaces with His-SAMs and Leu-SAMs ended up with stable wetting properties when compared to non-modified surfaces after 7 days which may enhances the cell-surface interaction.

  5. Enhanced bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with surface-modified and BMP-loaded bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Yongxing; Bal, B. Sonny; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2013-01-01

    The repair of large bone defects, such as segmental defects in the long bones of the limbs, is a challenging clinical problem. Our recent work has shown the ability to create porous scaffolds of silicate 13-93 bioactive glass by robocasting which have compressive strengths comparable to human cortical bone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of those strong porous scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (porosity = 50%; filament width = 330 μm; pore width = 300 μm) to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model. Six weeks postimplantation, the amount of new bone formed within the implants was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. The amount of new bone formed in implants composed of the as-fabricated scaffolds was 32% of the available pore space (area). Pretreating the as-fabricated scaffolds in an aqueous phosphate solution for 1, 3, and 6 days, to convert a surface layer to hydroxyapatite prior to implantation, enhanced new bone formation to 46%, 57%, and 45%, respectively. New bone formation in scaffolds pretreated for 1, 3, and 6 days and loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (1 μg/defect) was 65%, 61%, and 64%, respectively. The results show that converting a surface layer of the glass to hydroxyapatite or loading the surface-treated scaffolds with BMP-2 can significantly improve the capacity of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds to regenerate bone in an osseous defect. Based on their mechanical properties evaluated previously and their capacity to regenerate bone found in this study, these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds, pretreated or loaded with BMP-2, are promising in structural bone repair. PMID:23567939

  6. Self-Cleaning Features of Plasma-Treated Surfaces with Self-Assembled Monolayer Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang‑Joon; Paik, Bu‑Geun; Kim, Guk‑Bae; Jang, Young‑Gil

    2006-02-01

    A biomimic surface was coated onto a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrate. The coated PTFE surface was found to have nanoscale roughness and high hydrophobicity. In the first preparation step, the PTFE surface was modified by plasma etching. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS) was then deposited onto the modified surface with a thickness of a 2-3 nm. This surface was found to have self-cleaning features similar to those of a lotus leaf. The self-cleaning features were confirmed by comparing the contact and sliding angles of the original PTFE surface, a PTFE surface plasma treated, and a PTFE surface plasma treated and SAM coated. The PTFE surface treated with plasma and SAM coated had an increased contact angle and a decreased sliding angle compared with the other surfaces. It also exhibited increased stability and slow aging. The quantity of oxygen-containing groups that can be greatly influenced by plasma treatment, SAM coating, and aging, seems to play an important role in surface modification.

  7. Surface modification of apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic by synthetic coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Qin; Zhou, Da-Li; Zhang, Xiang; Zhou, Jia-Bei

    2014-06-01

    In this study, lysine was introduced into the surface of apatite—wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) to improve its cytocompatibility by two steps reaction procedure. Firstly, lysine connected to N-β-(aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane (A-1120) by covalent binding of amide group. Secondly, the lysine-functionalized A-1120 was deposited on the surface of AW-GC through a silanization reaction involving a covalent attachment. FTIR spectra indicated that lysine had been immobilized onto the surface of AW-GC successfully. Bioactivity of the surface modified AW-GC was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF), and the in vitro cytocompatibility was evaluated by coculturing with human osteosarcoma cell MG63. The results showed that the process of hydroxyapatite layer formed on the modified material was similar to AW-GC while the mode of hydroxyapatite deposition was changed. The growth of MG63 cells showed that modifying the AW-GC surface with lysine enhances the cell adhesion and proliferation.

  8. Surface defect detection method for glass substrate using improved Otsu segmentation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Sun, Lining

    2015-11-20

    The image quality degradation caused by noise makes the automatic optical inspection of surface defects difficult. This paper develops a method based on thresholding segmentation to detect the surface defects in a glass substrate. Traditional Otsu segmentation has poor anti-noise ability. In order to improve the traditional Otsu method, a straight-line intercept histogram is established directly from the two-dimensional information of an image, and then Otsu criteria can be used to find the best intercept threshold from the one-dimensional histogram established. The improved Otsu algorithm not only is simpler than the two-dimensional Otsu methods, but also has a robust anti-noise ability. In the surface defect detection, the contrast feature between object and background is simply extracted after the segmentation based on the improved Otsu method, and surface defects can be decided by the threshold of the contrast feature. The data used in the experiments include the surface images acquired by a line-scan CCD camera. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and computationally efficient. PMID:26836544

  9. High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Waugh, D. G.; Gillett, A.; Lawrence, J.

    2016-07-01

    A preliminary study into the impact of high speed laser processing on the surface of iron and cobalt co-doped glass substrates using a 60 W continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser. Two types of processing, termed fill-processing and line-processing, were trialled. In fill-processed samples the surface roughness of the glass was found to increase linearly with laser power from an S a value of 20.8 nm–2.1 μm at a processing power of 54 W. With line processing, a more exponential-like increase was observed with a roughness of 4 μm at 54 W. The change in surface properties of the glass, such as gloss and wettability, have also been measured. The contact angle of water was found to increase after laser processing by up to 64°. The surface gloss was varied between 45 and 100 gloss units (GUs).

  10. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  12. Effects of surface treatments on bond strength of glass-infiltrated ceramic.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y C; Tseng, H; Shih, Y H; Lee, S Y

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various surface treatments on the bond strength at the In-Ceram/resin composite interface. Ninety-eight In-Ceram specimens were divided into seven groups and exposed to various surface treatments as follows: (A) control (B) saliva contamination (C) saliva contamination plus aluminum oxide sandblasting (D) glove powder contamination (E) glove powder contamination plus aluminum oxide sandblasting (F) rough aluminum oxide sandblasting and (G) excess glass infiltration. A resin composite cylinder was cemented to each In-Ceram specimen with Panavia 21 resin luting cement. Half of the cemented specimens in each group were stored in water for 24 h, and the other half were stored in water for 2 weeks and then were thermo-cycled for 2000 cycles. Shear bond strengths (SBS) of seven specimens in each subgroup were determined and analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test as well as Student's t-test. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to identify the type of bond failure. Shear bond strength was significantly decreased by saliva and glove powder contaminations (P < 0.05). Sandblasting treatment did not improve the saliva-contaminated specimens. However, the glove powder plus sandblasting group showed no significant difference in SBS compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in SBS between the excess glass-infiltrating group and the control group. The SBS was significantly decreased by rough aluminum oxide sandblasting (P < 0.05). The SBS values of groups without thermocycling were significantly greater than those of groups with thermocycling (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among SBS values of the seven groups with thermocycling. Combined cohesive and adhesive bond failures were seen in every group. Various surface treatments or contaminants may significantly influence the bond strength of In-Ceram restorative in clinical use. PMID:11580818

  13. Structural changes of surfaces of spacecraft solar array protective glasses being irradiated by 20-keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, R. H.; Novikov, L. S.

    2016-05-01

    When irradiating K-208 and CMG glasses by 20-keV electrons with flux densities of 1010 < φe < 2 × 1011 cm-2 s-1 in vacuum 10-4 Pa, electrostatic discharges accompanied by plasma emission and destruction of glass surfaces were observed. Examination of glasses by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed significant difference in structural changes of surfaces of K-208 and CMG samples irradiated by equal flux densities within the range from 2.0 × 1010 to 9.0 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 that can be explained by different mechanisms of removal of charge accumulated in glasses. Surface discharges generating channels on surfaces of K-208 and CMG glasses appear when φ ⩾ 7.4 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 and φ ⩾ 8.7 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 respectively. In average, if radiation conditions are the same and φ ⩾ 1.4 × 1011 cm-2 s-1, the channels are 1.5 times deeper in K-208 than in CMG.

  14. Extending a transonic small disturbance code to treat swept vertical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    A flexible-swept vertical surface capability has been developed and implemented within the CAP-TSD transonic small disturbance (TSD) code. The new capability required a modification to the TSD equation and a grid transformation for swept vertical surfaces. Modifications to the vertical surface boundary conditions allow it to be treated as a flexible surface. The new capability extends the range of problems which the code can treat. In order to assess the accuracy of the modifications, calculations were performed for a rectangular T-tail configuration and an AGARD T-tail configuration. Unsteady forces and moments are presented for the rectangular T-tail oscillating in yaw for a range of reduced frequencies. Comparisons are presented with linear theory and experiment. Steady and unsteady surface pressures are presented for the AGARD T-tail along with generalized aerodynamic forces. Comparisons are made with linear theory. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the vertical surface modifications.

  15. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lai, Kun-Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-26

    Fused-silica packaging glass fabricated with a hierarchical structure by integrating small (ultrathin nanorods) and large (honeycomb nanowalls) structures was demonstrated with exceptional light-harvesting solar performance, which is attributed to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence, and the enhancement went up to 46% at the incident angle of 60°. The hierarchical structured packaging glass shows excellent self-cleaning characteristics: 98.8% of the efficiency is maintained after 6 weeks of outdoor exposure, indicating that the nanostructured surface effectively repels polluting dust/particles. The presented self-cleaning omnidirectional light-harvesting design using the hierarchical structured packaging glass is a potential universal scheme for practical solar applications. PMID:26623934

  16. Modification of epoxy resin, silicon and glass surfaces with alkyl- or fluoroalkylsilanes for hydrophobic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, Jacek; Kargol, Marta; Psarski, Maciej; Celichowski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Preparation of superhydrophobic materials inspired by nature has attracted a great scientific interest in recent decades. Some of these materials have hierarchical lotus-like structures, i.e. micro- and nano-objects coated by hydrophobic compounds. A major challenge of applying the superhydrophobic surfaces for the self-cleaning coatings preparation is their improved efficiency in varying atmospheric conditions, e.g. UV light. The objective of this research work was to investigate the effect of the different chemical structure and the surface free energy on the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes deposited on silicon wafers, glass slides and epoxy resin. Tribological and hydrophobic properties of the modified surfaces were correlated with their chemical structures. Chemical structures of the deposited materials were examined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and hydrophobic properties were investigated by water contact angle (WCA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements. The modified surfaces exhibited water contact angles of above 100° for the selected modifiers. It was noticed that the replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms in alkyl chain caused an increase in the water contact angle values and a decrease in friction coefficients. The obtained results showed that the carbon chain length of a modifier and its chemical structure can strongly affect the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the modified surfaces. The highest values of WCA, lowest values of SFE and coefficient of friction were obtained for samples covered by fluorinated compounds. Moreover, some preliminary aging test was performed to give an insight into the effectiveness of deposited alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes coatings. After accelerated UV exposure, no significant changes in the chemical structure, hydrophobic and tribological properties of the modified surfaces were noticed. The samples degradation

  17. Light-induced atom desorption from glass surfaces characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Ryo; Hatakeyama, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the surfaces of vitreous silica (quartz) and borosilicate glass (Pyrex) substrates exposed to rubidium (Rb) vapor by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the surface conditions of alkali metal vapor cells. XPS spectra indicated that Rb atoms adopted different bonding states in quartz and Pyrex. Furthermore, Rb atoms in quartz remained in the near-surface region, while they diffused into the bulk in Pyrex. For these characterized surfaces, we measured light-induced atom desorption (LIAD) of Rb atoms. Clear differences in time evolution, photon energy dependence, and substrate temperature dependence were found; the decay of LIAD by continuous ultraviolet irradiation for quartz was faster than that for Pyrex, a monotonic increase in LIAD with increasing photon energy from 1.8 to 4.3 eV was more prominent for quartz, and LIAD from quartz was more efficient at higher temperatures in the range from 300 to 580 K, while that from Pyrex was almost independent of temperature.

  18. Surface modification of biodegradable porous Mg bone scaffold using polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite.

    PubMed

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-04-01

    A reduction in the degradation rate of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys is in high demand to enable these materials to be used in orthopedic applications. For this purpose, in this paper, a biocompatible polymeric layer reinforced with a bioactive ceramic made of polycaprolactone (PCL) and bioactive glass (BG) was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds using dip-coating technique under low vacuum. The results indicated that the PCL-BG coated Mg scaffolds exhibited noticeably enhanced bioactivity compared to the uncoated scaffold. Moreover, the mechanical integrity of the Mg scaffolds was improved using the PCL-BG coating on the surface. The stable barrier property of the coatings effectively delayed the degradation activity of Mg scaffold substrates. Moreover, the coatings induced the formation of apatite layer on their surface after immersion in the SBF, which can enhance the biological bone in-growth and block the microcracks and pore channels in the coatings, thus prolonging their protective effect. Furthermore, it was shown that a three times increase in the concentration of PCL-BG noticeably improved the characteristics of scaffolds including their degradation resistance and mechanical stability. Since bioactivity, degradation resistance and mechanical integrity of a bone substitute are the key factors for repairing and healing fractured bones, we suggest that PCL-BG is a suitable coating material for surface modification of Mg scaffolds. PMID:25686970

  19. Surface modification of amorphous substrates by disulfide derivatives: A photo-assisted route to direct functionalization of chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalric, Julien; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline

    2011-12-01

    A novel route for chalcogenide glass surface modification is disclosed. The formation of an organic monolayer from disulfide derivatives is studied on two different glasses of formula GexAsySez by water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR). The potential anchoring group is the disulfide functionality. Since thioctic acid derivatives absorb around 335 nm, an irradiation step is included, in order to favor S-S disruption. Three types of disulfide compounds are grafted onto small glass breaks for contact angle and XPS analyses. The results show effective changes of surface state. According to contact angle measurement, the deposited organic layer functionalized by a small polyethylene glycol chain leads to a more hydrophilic surface, long alkyl chain or a perfluorinated carbon chain leads to a more hydrophobic surface. XPS shows the presence at the surface of an organic layer with sulfur and ethylene oxide chains, or augmentation of organic carbons or fluorine and Csbnd F bonds. The photo-assisted grafting of the disulfides onto an ATR prism made of chalcogenide glass shows that this surface modification process does not affect infrared transparency, despite UV treatment, and accurate structural analysis can be performed.

  20. Distribution of electric field and energy flux around the cracks on the surfaces of Nd-doped phosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lei; Huang Li; Fan Sijun; Bai Gongxun; Li Kefeng; Chen Wei; Hu Lili

    2010-12-10

    We simulate and calculate numerically the electromagnetic field and energy flux around a surface crack of an Nd-doped phosphate laser glass by using the finite-difference time-domain method. Because of a strong interference between the incident wave and the total internal reflections from the crack and the glass surface, the electric field is redistributed and enhanced. The results show that the electric-field distribution and corresponding energy flux component depend sensitively on the light polarization and crack geometry, such as orientation and depth. The polarization of the incident laser beam relative to the crack surfaces will determine the profile of the electric field around the crack. Under TE wave incidence, the energy flux peak is always inside the glass. But under TM wave incidence, the energy flux peak will be located inside the glass or inside the air gap. For both incident modes, the light intensification factor increases with the crack depth, especially for energy flux along the surface. Because cracks on the polished surfaces are the same as the roots extending down, the probability for much larger intensification occurring is high. The results suggest that the surface laser-damage threshold of Nd-doped phosphate may decrease dramatically with subsurface damage.

  1. Distribution of electric field and energy flux around the cracks on the surfaces of Nd-doped phosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Li; Fan, Sijun; Bai, Gongxun; Li, Kefeng; Chen, Wei; Hu, Lili

    2010-12-10

    We simulate and calculate numerically the electromagnetic field and energy flux around a surface crack of an Nd-doped phosphate laser glass by using the finite-difference time-domain method. Because of a strong interference between the incident wave and the total internal reflections from the crack and the glass surface, the electric field is redistributed and enhanced. The results show that the electric-field distribution and corresponding energy flux component depend sensitively on the light polarization and crack geometry, such as orientation and depth. The polarization of the incident laser beam relative to the crack surfaces will determine the profile of the electric field around the crack. Under TE wave incidence, the energy flux peak is always inside the glass. But under TM wave incidence, the energy flux peak will be located inside the glass or inside the air gap. For both incident modes, the light intensification factor increases with the crack depth, especially for energy flux along the surface. Because cracks on the polished surfaces are the same as the roots extending down, the probability for much larger intensification occurring is high. The results suggest that the surface laser-damage threshold of Nd-doped phosphate may decrease dramatically with subsurface damage. PMID:21151222

  2. Detection of harmful algal bloom causing microalgae using covalently immobilised capture oligonucleotide probes on glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Karen L.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Leterme, Sophie C.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Lenehan, Claire E.

    2013-12-01

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) events have been on the rise in the last few decades with some of the causative microalgae exhibiting toxic properties. Therefore, detection is essential in order to prevent mortality of aquatic life and poisoning events from consumption of these biotoxins. Here, oligonucleotide modified glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces have been developed for the detection of the HAB causing microalgae, Alexandrium catenella, in a model system. Our preliminary studies show that the glass surface offers superior stability and analytical response when compared to those prepared from PDMS.

  3. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts accumulate differentially on titanium surfaces treated with nanosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Radmanesh, Mitra; Ektesabi, Amin M; Wyatt, Rachael A; Crawford, Bryan D; Kiani, Amirkianoosh

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial engineering, specifically in bone implant and osseointegration, is currently facing a critical challenge regarding the response of cells to foreign objects and general biocompatibility of the materials used in the production of these implants. Using the developing technology of the laser surface treatment, this study investigates the effects of the laser repetition rate (frequency) on cell distribution across the surface of the titanium substrates. The main objective of this research is building a fundamental understanding of how cells interact with treated titanium and how different treatments affect cell accumulation. Cells respond differently to surfaces treated with different frequency lasers. The results of this research identify the influence of frequency on surface topography properties and oxidation of titanium, and their subsequent effects on the pattern of cell accumulation on its surface. Despite increased oxidation in laser-treated regions, the authors observe that fibroblast cells prefer untreated titanium to laser-treated regions, except the regions treated with 25 kHz pulses, which become preferentially colonized after 72 h. PMID:27581527

  4. Optimization of laser-assisted glass frit bonding process by response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Xiao, Yanyi; Wu, Xingyang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a systematic study on laser-assisted glass frit bonding process was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Laser power, sealing speed and spot diameter were considered as key bonding parameters. Combined with a central rotatable experimental design, RSM was employed to establish mathematical model to predict the relationship between the shear force after bonding and the bonding process parameters. The model was validated experimentally. Based on the model, the interaction effects of the process parameters on the shear force were analyzed and the optimum bonding parameters were achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to illustrate the relationship between the shear force and the bonding parameters. The predicted results obtained under the optimized parameters by the models are consistent with the experimental results.

  5. Effect of electrolytes on wettability of glass surface using anionic and cationic surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    Wetting behavior of a flat glass surface using pure nonionic, anionic, and cationic surfactants solutions has been studied by the dynamic contact angle (Wilhelmy plate) measurement technique. The advancing contact angle increases with the increasing concentration of surfactant and the value is maximum in the presence of cationic surfactant CTAB. The effect of different electrolytes in the presence of ionic surfactants was also studied to see the wetting behavior in the presence of electrolytes. The presence of electrolytes on ionic surfactant solutions significantly enhance the contact angle at very low concentration, which in turn lead to reduction in ionic surfactant requirement by more than 90% to achieve a particular contact angle. The effectiveness of electrolyte highly depends on the valance of counter ion. The reduction of ionic surfactant requirement is mostly useful for different applications such as flotation, and colloidal stability to reduce the production cost as well as environmental pollution. PMID:24183426

  6. Direct laser writing of aluminum and copper on glass surfaces from metal powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2001-04-01

    In this paper, a new, simple, high-speed method of selective metal deposition on glass substrates is proposed. The method is as follows: metal powder is placed on a glass substrate, then an argon ion laser is irradiated through the glass from the other side, consequently the powders are deposited on the glass substrates. Soda glass, Pyrex glass and silica glass were used as substrates, because they are popular materials and their thermal properties were varied. Aluminum and copper powders, with grain sizes of 7.0 and 4.6 μm, respectively, were chosen. Glass substrates and metal powder were placed in a chamber to enable control of the atmosphere, the chamber was fixed on an electronically controlled X-Y-Z stage. Aluminum and copper can be deposited on all three types of glass. Aluminum deposited on the soda glass were 80-800 μm in width and 10-120 μm in height. The deposited aluminum and copper had high conductivity and resistances of 0.017-0.64 and 0.0014-0.2 Ω/mm (1 mm long), respectively. The adhesion between deposited copper and soda glass was stronger than 3 MPa. The interface between the glass substrate and deposited metals have a complicated shape, but the border is distinct and aluminum was not diffused, as determined by observation of the cross section and etching the deposited metal.

  7. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Papelis, Charalambos; Um, Wooyong; Russel, Charles E.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2003-03-28

    The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces. To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area (1.65 m2/g), while one of the samples of in situ vitrified rock had the lowest surf ace area (0.0016 m2/g). The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: (1) samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size. The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. (2) samples that showed a trend of decreasing surface area dependence on particle size as the particle size increased. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0.1 and 0.01 m2/g and was also attributed to internal porosity and surface roughness. (3) samples whose surface area showed a monotonic decrease with increasing particle size, never reaching an ultimate surface area limit within the particle

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on surface-treated open-cell Ti6Al4V foams.

    PubMed

    Türkan, Uğur; Güden, Mustafa; Sudağıdan, Mert

    2016-06-01

    The effect of alkali and nitric acid surface treatments on the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to the surface of 60% porous open-cell Ti6Al4V foam was investigated. The resultant surface roughness of foam particles was determined from the ground flat surfaces of thin foam specimens. Alkali treatment formed a porous, rough Na2Ti5O11 surface layer on Ti6Al4V particles, while nitric acid treatment increased the number of undulations on foam flat and particle surfaces, leading to the development of finer surface topographical features. Both surface treatments increased the nanometric-scale surface roughness of particles and the number of bacteria adhering to the surface, while the adhesion was found to be significantly higher in alkali-treated foam sample. The significant increase in the number of bacterial attachment on the alkali-treated sample was attributed to the formation of a highly porous and nanorough Na2Ti5O11 surface layer. PMID:26057214

  9. Surface characteristics analysis of polypropylene treated by dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishime, T. M. C.; Toth, A.; Hein, L. R. O.; Kostov, K. G.

    2012-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) samples were treated by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) in order to modify their surface characteristics. The XPS analysis reveals that the DBD treatment added oxygen atoms to the PP surface. These polar groups cause increase in the wettability as shown by water contact angle measurements. The formation of low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs) in the form of small nodules on the PP surface was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The presence of oxygen polar groups on the PP surface was also confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All analysis were performed before and after rinsing the treated samples in water and showed that the LMWOM can be removed from the surface by polar solvents.

  10. Characterization of the surface and the interphase of PVC-copper amine-treated wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haihong; Kamdem, D. Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Contact angles and surface energy of wood, as well as interfacial shear strength between wood and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were investigated and used to monitor the modifications generated on the surfaces of wood treated with a copper ethanolamine solution. An increase in surface energy of wood after treatments promotes wetting of PVC on wood surfaces. Improved interfacial shear strength between treated wood and PVC matrix can be attributed to the formation of a stronger wood-PVC interphase. This suggests that treatment may be used to improve the adhesion between wood surface and PVC in the formulation of wood fiber composites to yield products with enhanced mechanical properties and better biological and physical performance against decay and insect destroying wood.

  11. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P < 0.05). In general, improvements in bond strength (MPa) were found in the following order: M10 > C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. PMID:25424595

  12. Surface characterization of alkali- and heat-treated Ti with or without prior acid etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sang-Hyun; Matsumoto, Takuya; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Narayanan, Ramaswamy; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2012-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are used as implant materials in dental and orthopaedic applications. The material affinities to host bone tissue greatly concern with the recovery period and good prognosis. To obtain a material surface having excellent affinity to bone, acid etching prior to alkali- and heat-treatment of Ti was conducted. The surface characteristics of the prepared sample indicated that the roughness as well as the wettability increased by pre-etching. Bone-like apatite was formed on pre-etched, alkali- and heat-treated Ti surface in simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days, while it takes 5 days on the solely alkali- and heat-treated surface. Osteoblastic cells showed better compatibility on the per-etched surface compared to the pure Ti surface or alkali- and heat-treated surface. Moreover, the pre-etched surface showed better pull-off tensile adhesion strength against the deposited apatite. Thus, acid etching prior to alkali- and heat-treatment would be a promising method for enhancing the affinity of Ti to host bone tissue.

  13. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  14. Effect of nanosecond pulse laser ablation on the surface morphology of Zr-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunhu; Fu, Jie; Zheng, Chao; Ji, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the ripple patterns formation on the surface of Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (vit1) bulk metallic glass using a nanosecond pulse laser ablation in air with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The strong thermal ablation phenomenon could be observed on vit1 BMG surface at laser energy of 200 mJ as a result of the adhibition of confining overlay. Many periodic ripples had formed on the edge of the ablated area at laser energy of 400 mJ because of the high intensity pulsed laser beam. The underlying mechanism of the periodic ripples formation could be explained by the K-H hydrodynamic instability theory. It had been shown that laser ablation with 600 mJ and 200 pulses results in the formation of many micro-cracks on the ablated area. Further analysis showed that the spatial occupation of the laser ablated area and the spacing between two adjacent ripples increased as the laser energy and the number of incident laser pulses increasing. The surface ripples feature on the edge of ablated area became more obvious with increasing laser pulses, but it was not correlated closely with the laser energies variation.

  15. Surfaces and interfaces of glass and ceramics; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Special Topics in Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, N.Y., August 27-29, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, V. D. (Editor); Lacourse, W. C.; Burdick, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characterization of surfaces and interfaces is considered along with the infrared spectra of several N-containing compounds absorbed on montmorillonites, applications of surface characterization techniques to glasses, the observation of electronic spectra in glass and ceramic surfaces, a method for determining the preferred orientation of crystallites normal to a surface, and the friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics. Attention is given to the wear behavior of cast surface composites, an experimental investigation of the dynamic and thermal characteristics of the ceramic stock removal process, a dynamic elastic model of ceramic stock removal, and the structure and properties of solid surfaces. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  16. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Ganesh C.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Neogi, Sudarsan; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -Cdbnd O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  17. Surface chemistry of dihydromyrcenol (2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol) with ozone on silanized glass, glass, and vinyl flooring tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jason E.; Raymond Wells, J.

    The surface-phase reaction products of dihydromyrcenol (2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol) with ozone (O 3), air, or nitrogen (N 2) on silanized glass, glass and vinyl flooring tile were investigated using the recently published FACS (FLEC (Field and Laboratory Emission Cell) Automation and Control System). The FACS was used to deliver ozone (100 ppb), air, or N 2 to the surface at a specified flow rate (300 mL min -1) and relative humidity (50%) after application of a 2.0% dihydromyrcenol solution in methanol. Oxidation products were detected using the derivatization agents: O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and N, O-bis(trimethysilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The positively identified reaction products were glycolaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, and glyoxal. The proposed oxidation products based on previously published VOC/O 3 reaction mechanisms were: 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptenal, 6-methyl-7-octen-2-one and the surface-specific reaction products: 6-methyl-6-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-hydroxy-6-methylheptan-2-one. Though similar products were observed in gas-phase dihydromyrcenol/O 3 reactions, the ratio, based on peak area, of the reaction products was different suggesting stabilization of larger molecular weight species by the surface. Emission profiles of these oxidation products over 72 h are also reported.

  18. Self-organized growth of small arrays of metal nanoislands on the surface of poled ion-exchange glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduto, I. V.; Chervinskii, S. D.; Kamenskii, A. N.; Karpov, D. V.; Lipovskii, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized metal nanostructures have been obtained by an original method on the surface of soda-lime glasses. The nanostructures are grown by heat treatment of poled glass substrates in hydrogen upon preliminary ion-exchange introduction of silver. The poling is produced with the aid of a profiled anode electrode. Using the proposed method, it is possible to grow separate metal nanoislands and ordered nanostructures of several islands on the glass surface. The islands are formed in submicron-sized unpoled regions as a result of self-assembly during out-diffusion of silver. Minimum spacing in linear groups of two or three silver islands is 20-30 nm at their characteristic size of about 100 nm. The proposed method allows nanoisland arrays and groups of a few islands to be grown and multiplicated.

  19. Mechanical Strength and Surface Roughness of Magnesium-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson; de Souza Resende, Celso Renato; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluated the mechanical strength and surface roughness of MgZn30Ca5 ribbon manufactured via a melt spinning technique for applications in the biomedical field. Annealing was performed at 280°C. The inner side (in contact with the wheel) and the outer side (not in contact with the wheel) of the ribbons were mechanically evaluated using nanoindentation, and its surfaces were analyzed by an optical profilometer. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were also performed to identify the structure and devitrification of the magnesium metallic glass (MgMG). The nanohardness and elastic modulus increased after annealing (p < 0.0001). No differences were seen in the strength between the two sides of the ribbons (p > 0.05). Although both sides of the ribbons showed different surface profiles (p < 0.0001), no statistical difference was detected in roughness parameters on either ribbon side before (p = 0.3094) and after (p = 0.8742) annealing. DSC curves showed disturbances in enthalpy attributed to a relaxation in the MgMG structure and free volume annihilation. The DRX diffractogram showed sharp peaks after annealing, with MgZn and Ca2Mg5Zn13 phases being identified. Although the use of MgMG in biomedical applications is promising, the ribbons displayed limited ductility, toughness, and a relevant embrittlement after the annealing procedure. There were significant changes in the surface profile of both sides of the ribbons. Nevertheless, neither annealing nor the ribbon side had influenced surface roughness parameters.

  20. Formation of silver nanoparticles under anodic surface of tellurite glass via thermal poling-assisted ion implantation across solid-solid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Kawase, Sonoko; Ukon, Sakiko; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a technique by which poling and ion implantation in solid state are simultaneously accomplished. The technique has been applied to 2Ag{sub 2}O{center_dot}3Na{sub 2}O{center_dot}25ZnO{center_dot}70TeO{sub 2} (in mol %) glass. The glass is sandwiched by two cover glasses containing Na{sup +} and then the thermal poling is carried out. We have accidentally found that Ag nanoparticles are selectively precipitated in the vicinity of the anode-side glass surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the glass composition of the anode-side glass surface becomes rich in Na{sup +} after the thermal poling, which is caused by the Na{sup +} implantation from the cover glass at the anode side.

  1. Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein on DOPA- or Dopamine-Treated Titanium Surfaces to Enhance Osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeonghwa; Tada, Seiichi; Kitajima, Takashi; Son, Tae Il; Aigaki, Toshiro; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Titanium was treated with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) or dopamine to immobilize bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), a biomolecule. DOPA and dopamine solutions turned into suspensions, and precipitates were produced at high pH. Both treatments produced a brown surface on titanium that was thicker at high pH than low pH. Dopamine produced a thicker layer than DOPA. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces increased after treatment with dopamine independent of pH. Furthermore, there were more amino groups in the layers formed at pH 8.5 than pH 4.5 in both treatments. Dopamine treatment produced more amino groups in the layer than DOPA. BMP2 was immobilized on the treated surfaces via a coupling reaction using carbodiimide. More BMP2 was immobilized on surfaces treated at pH 8.5 than pH 4.5 in both treatments. The immobilized BMP induced specific signal transduction and alkali phosphatase, a differentiation marker. Thus, the present study demonstrates that titanium treated with DOPA or dopamine can become bioactive via the surface immobilization of BMP2, which induces specific signal transduction. PMID:24459666

  2. Optimization of surface morphology and scattering properties of TCO/AIT textured glass front electrode for thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addonizio, M. L.; Fusco, L.; Antonaia, A.; Cominale, F.; Usatii, I.

    2015-12-01

    Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrate suitable for silicon based thin film solar cell technology. Wet etch step parameters of AIT process have been varied and effect of different etchants and different etching times on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. The resulting morphology features (shape, size distribution, inclination angle) have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. ZnO:Ga (GZO) films have been deposited by sputtering technique on AIT-processed glass. Two different ZnO surface morphologies have been obtained, strongly depending on the underlying glass substrate morphology induced by different etching times. Very rough and porous texture (σrms ∼ 150 nm) was obtained on glass etched 2 min showing cauliflower-like structure, whereas a softer texture (σrms ∼ 78 nm) was obtained on glass etched 7 min giving wider and smoother U-shaped craters. The effect of different glass textures on optical confinement has been tested in amorphous silicon based p-i-n devices. Devices fabricated on GZO/high textured glass showed a quantum efficiency enhancement due to both an effective light trapping phenomenon and an effective anti-reflective optical behaviour. Short etching time produce smaller cavities (<1 μm) with deep U-shape characterized by high roughness, high inclination angle and low autocorrelation length. This surface morphology promoted a large light scattering phenomenon, as evidenced by haze value and by angular resolved scattering (ARS) behaviour, into a large range of diffraction angles, giving high probability of effective light trapping inside a PV device.

  3. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures. PMID:26503506

  4. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  5. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures. PMID:26503506

  6. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point tomore » highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.« less

  7. Silanated Surface Treatment: Effects on the Bond Strength to Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Baratto, Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina, Denis Roberto Falcão; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Baratto Filho, Flares; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization protocols on the bond strength of two resin cements to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Thirty-two ceramic discs were assigned to 2 groups (n=16): G1 - dual-cured resin cement and G2 - light-cured resin cement. Four subgroups were evaluated according to the used silanization protocol. The glass-ceramic was etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and silane was applied for 1 min, as follows: CTL - according to the manufacturer's instructions; HA - dried with hot air; NWA - washed and dried with water and air at room temperature; HWA - washed and dried with hot water and hot air. Thereafter, adhesive was applied and light-cured for 20 s. Silicon molds were used to prepare resin cement cylinders (1x1 mm) on the ceramic surface. The specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 48 h and subjected to a micro-shear test. The data were submitted to statistical analysis (?#61537;=0.05). Group G1 showed higher bond strengths than G2, except for the CTL and NWA subgroups. Differences as function of the silanization protocol were only observed in G1: HWA (25.13±6.83)≥HA (22.95±7.78)≥CTL(17.44±7.24) ≥NWA(14.63±8.76). For G2 there was no difference among the subgroups. In conclusion, the silanization protocol affected the resin cement/ceramic bond strengths, depending on the material. Washing/drying with hot water and/or hot air increased only the bond strength of the dual-cured resin cement. PMID:26647931

  8. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  9. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  10. Novel fabrication of Ag thin film on glass for efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Kun; Yoon, Jae Keun; Kim, Kwan

    2006-02-14

    This paper describes a very simple electroless-plating method used to prepare optically tunable nanostructured Ag films. Very stable Ag films can be reproducibly fabricated simply by soaking glass substrates in ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine. The grain size of silver can be readily controlled to range from 20 to 150 nm, and these nanostructural features correlated well with their UV/vis absorption characteristics, as well as with their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities. It is also very advantageous that the Ag films prepared exhibit very even SERS activity over an area up to hundreds thousand square-micrometers, and the enhancement factor estimated using benzenethiol as a prototype adsorbate reaches approximately 2 x 10(5). Since the proposed method is cost-effective and is suitable for the mass production of diverse Ag films irrespective of the shapes of the underlying substrates, it is expected to play a significant role in the development of surface plasmon-based analytical devices. PMID:16460083

  11. Damage localization in a glass fiber reinforced composite plate via the surface interpolation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongelli, M. P.; Carvelli, V.

    2015-07-01

    This work deals with the application to composite plates of the surface interpolation method (SIM) for damage localization. The procedure, which is a generalization to the two-dimensional case of the previously published Interpolation Damage Detection Method (IDDM), locates reductions of stiffness in two-dimensional structures such as plates. The method is based on the damage sensitive of a spline function accuracy in fitting the operational displacement shapes, relies on the so-called Gibbs’ phenomenon for splines. This phenomenon occurs when a spline function interpolates discontinuous functions and consists in sharp oscillations and overshoots (values higher than those of the function to be interpolated) near a discontinuous point. The operational deformed shapes are recovered from frequency response functions (FRF's) measured at different locations of the structure during vibrations. The accuracy of the spline interpolation is measured by an error function defined as the difference between the measured and interpolated operational deformed shapes. At a certain location an increase (statistically meaningful) of the interpolation error, with respect to a reference configuration, points out a localized variation of the operational shapes thus revealing the existence of damage. The accuracy of the surface interpolation method is experimentally assessed by impact hammer tests on glass fiber/vinylester composite plates progressively damaged and using finite element numerical modelling.

  12. The facile surface chemical modification of a single glass nanopore and its use in the nonenzymatic detection of uric acid.

    PubMed

    He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lizhen; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-02-01

    A conical glass nanopore was first modified with ultrathin gold nanofilm via a simple and innovative chemical reduction of HAuCl4 on a surface-attached poly(L-histidine) monolayer in the presence of a mild reductant, NH2OH·HCl, followed by surface functionalization with 2-thiouracil, and exploited for the selective nonenzymatic detection of uric acid and especially for serum sample detection. PMID:25531580

  13. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Dapeng

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island

  14. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  15. Study on the surface properties of wood/polyethylene composites treated under plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Tao, Yan; Lv, Xinying; Zhang, Yanhua; Di, Mingwei

    2010-11-01

    Wood/polyethylene (PE) composites are widely used in many fields for its excellent properties, but they are hard to adhere for the surface lacking of polarity. So low-pressure glow discharge of air plasma was used to improve the adhesion properties of wood/PE composites. The composites were treated by plasma under different discharge power. And the changes on the surface properties of the treated and untreated composites were studied by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The measurement showed that the contact angle decreased after plasma treatment, and the contact angle decreased gradually with the increasing of discharge power. The FTIR analysis results showed that the polar groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl were formed on the surface of the composites treated under plasma. SEM and AFM results showed that the roughness of plasma treated samples increased. XPS analysis results indicated that the content of carbon element decreased while the content of oxygen element in the composition of wood/PE composites surface element increased and it reached a balance in a higher power, meanwhile a lot of carboxyl groups were formed. The newly formed polar groups are benefit for the adhesion of composites. The shear bonding strength test showed that the adhesion properties of wood/PE composites improved effectively after plasma treatment.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10223 Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  17. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  18. A note on Feynmanʼs calculation of reflection amplitudes for radiation striking a glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, Giancarlo

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we present a detailed calculation of reflection amplitudes for s- and p-polarized radiation striking a glass surface, closely following the derivation found in the Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol I. The basic idea underlying Feynman's exposition is the extinction theorem, which is used here in a very unique, Feynmanesque way. The calculation is carried out both for the case of radiation coming from the air and from the glass. We also show that the same reasonings are useful to discuss the internal Brewster's law.

  19. Structure, surface reactivity and physico-chemical degradation of fluoride containing phospho-silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Santos, Luis F.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-03-28

    We report on the structure, apatite-forming ability and physicochemical degradation of glasses along fluorapatite [FA; Ca5(PO4)3F] - diopside (Di; CaMgSi2O6) join. A series of glasses with varying FA/Di ratio have been synthesised by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous glasses could be obtained only for compositions up to 40 wt.% of FA. The detailed structural analysis of glasses has been made by infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Silicon was predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species while phosphorus was found in orthophosphate type environment in all the investigated glasses. The apatite forming ability of glasses was investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h – 28 days. An extensive precipitation of calcite (CaCO3) after immersion in SBF was found in all the glasses which considerably masked the formation of hydroxyapatite [HA; Ca5(PO4)3OH] as depicted by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The possible mechanism favouring formation of calcite instead of HA has been explained on the basis of experimental results obtained for structure of glasses, leaching profile of glass powders in SBF solution and pH variation in SBF solution. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses has been studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 “Biological evaluation of medical devices – Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics” in Tris HCl and citric acid buffer. All the FA containing glasses exhibited a weight gain (instead of weight loss) after immersion in citric acid buffer due to the formation of different crystalline products.

  20. Strength of inorganic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkjian, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

  1. XPS investigation on vacuum thermal desorption of UV/ozone treated GaAs(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Mattogno, G.; Padeletti, G.; Proietti, G. M.

    In order to prepare suitable surfaces for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sacrificial thin oxide layers on HCl etched GaAs(100) surfaces were grown by both air and UV/ozone exposure. Passive films were subsequently removed by vacuum thermal desorption to achieve surfaces that were smooth and clean on an atomic scale. The evolution of the surface chemical composition, as a function of vacuum desorption temperature, has been studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results have evidenced for air and UV/ozone exposed GaAs(100) surfaces a relationship between desorption temperature and surface chemical composition; indeed, the oxide removal is temperature dependent and sequentially selective as follows: As 2O 3. AsO and Ga 2O 3. Furthermore, XPS results have shown that air-grown films have a chemical composition and thermal desorption behaviour different from UV/ozone treated materials. Indeed, these latter have an As 2O 3/Ga 2O 3 and an unoxidized As/Ga ratio close to unity for as grown and thermal treated at 580°C surfaces, respectively. By contrast, air-exposed GaAs(100) materials are Ga 2O 3-enriched and after vacuum thermal desorption treatments have never a stoichiometric composition(As (GaAs)/Ga (GaAs)= 1). Furthermore UV/ozone treated GaAs(100) surfaces subjected to a vacuum thermal treatment at 580°C, have a troublesome organic contamination level below XPS detectability, whereas from air-exposed surfaces, carbon is not completely thermally removable

  2. Highly efficient silver particle layers on glass substrate synthesized by the sonochemical method for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy purposes.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Petr; Prucek, Robert; Černá, Klára; Fargašová, Ariana; Panáček, Aleš; Gedanken, Aharon; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2016-09-01

    A fast method for preparing of silver particle layers on glass substrates with high application potential for using in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is introduced. Silver particle layers deposited on glass cover slips were generated in one-step process by reduction of silver nitrate using several reducing agents (ethylene glycol, glycerol, maltose, lactose and glucose) under ultrasonic irradiation. This technique allows the formation of homogeneous layers of silver particles with sizes from 80nm up to several hundred nanometers depending on the nature of the used reducing agent. Additionally, the presented method is not susceptible to impurities on the substrate surface and it does not need any additives to capture or stabilize the silver particles on the glass surface. The characteristics of prepared silver layers on glass substrate by the above mentioned sonochemical approach was compared with chemically prepared ones. The prepared layers were tested as substrates for SERS using adenine as a model analyte. The factor of Raman signal enhancement reached up to 5·10(5). On the contrary, the chemically prepared silver layers does not exhibit almost any pronounced Raman signal enhancement. Presented sonochemical approach for preparation of silver particle layers is fast, simple, robust, and is better suited for reproducible fabrication functional SERS substrates than chemical one. PMID:27150757

  3. EFFECT OF ACID ETCHING OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENT SURFACE ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF SANDWICH RESTORATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Álvaro Della; Pinzetta, Caroline; Rosa, Vinícius

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the sealing ability of different glass ionomer cements (GICs) used for sandwich restorations and to assess the effect of acid etching of GIC on microleakage at GIC-resin composite interface. Forty cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of 20 permanent human premolars (2 cavities per tooth), assigned to 4 groups (n=10) and restored as follows: Group CIE – conventional GIC (CI) was applied onto the axial and cervical cavity walls, allowed setting for 5 min and acid etched (E) along the cavity margins with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s, washed for 30 s and water was blotted; the adhesive system was applied and light cured for 10 s, completing the restoration with composite resin light cured for 40 s; Group CIN – same as Group CIE, except for acid etching of the CI surface; Group RME – same as CIE, but using a resin modified GIC (RMGIC); Group RMN – same as Group RME, except for acid etching of the RMGIC surface. Specimens were soaked in 1% methylene blue dye solution at 24°C for 24 h, rinsed under running water for 1 h, bisected longitudinally and dye penetration was measured following the ISO/TS 11405-2003 standard. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests (α=0.05). Dye penetration scores were as follow: CIE – 2.5; CIN – 2.5; RME – 0.9; and RMN – 0.6. The results suggest that phosphoric acid etching of GIC prior to the placement of composite resin does not improve the sealing ability of sandwich restorations. The RMGIC was more effective in preventing dye penetration at the GIC-resin composite- dentin interfaces than CI. PMID:19089135

  4. Surface composition XPS analysis of a plasma treated polystyrene: Evolution over long storage periods.

    PubMed

    Ba, Ousmane M; Marmey, Pascal; Anselme, Karine; Duncan, Anthony C; Ponche, Arnaud

    2016-09-01

    A polystyrene surface (PS) was initially treated by cold nitrogen and oxygen plasma in order to incorporate in particular amine and hydroxyl functions, respectively. The evolution of the chemical nature of the surface was further monitored over a long time period (580 days) by chemical assay, XPS and contact angle measurements. Surface density quantification of primary amine groups was performed using three chemical amine assays: 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (4-NBZ), Sulfo succinimidyl 6-[3'(2 pyridyldithio)-pionamido] hexanoate (Sulfo-LC-SPDP) and iminothiolane (ITL). The results showed amine densities were in the range of 2 per square nanometer (comparable to the results described in the literature) after 5min of nitrogen plasma treatment. Over the time period investigated, chemical assays, XPS and contact angles suggest a drastic significant evolution of the chemical nature of the surface within the first two weeks. Beyond that time period and up to almost two years, nitrogen plasma modified substrates exhibits a slow and continuous oxidation whereas oxygen plasma modifed polystyrene surface is chemically stable after two weeks of storage. The latter appeared to "ease of" showing relatively mild changes within the one year period. Our results suggest that it may be preferable to wait for a chemical "stabilization" period of two weeks before subsequent covalent immobilization of proteins onto the surface. The originality of this work resides in the study of the plasma treated surface chemistry evolution over long periods of storage time (580 days) considerably exceeding those described in the literature. PMID:27131091

  5. In vitro attachment of osteoblasts on contaminated rough titanium surfaces treated by Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Anton; Antic, Lilly; Bernimoulin, Jean-Pierre; Purucker, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Microbial contamination of implant surfaces inhibits formation of new osseous tissues. Biocompatibility of sandblasted large grid (SLA) surface, after previous in vitro cocultivation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and concomitant Er:YAG laser irradiation of microorganisms, was tested by attachment of newly cultured osteoblasts. A total of 36 customized titanium cubes with SLA surface were placed into human osteoblast culture for 14 days. After removal of 1 control cube, 35 other cubes were contaminated with precultured P. gingivalis (ATCC33277) and incubated in broth medium for 1 week. Ablation was carried out on 32 cubes. Each side was treated for 23.5 s with a pulsed, water-cooled laser beam. After irradiation, cubes were again placed into fresh osteoblast culture for 2 weeks. One randomly selected single side per cube was analyzed by scanning electron microscope in 22 cubes. On other 10 cubes, vitality of attached cells was tested with ethidiumbromide staining by fluorescence microscopy. Three negative controls revealed constantly adherent P. gingivalis, and no osteoblasts were detectable after P. gingivalis contamination on the surfaces. Laser-treated specimens showed newly attached osteoblasts, extending over 50-80% of the surface. Positive control cube (without bacterial contamination) showed over 80% cell coverage of the surface. Vitality of widely stretched osteoblasts was confirmed by FITC staining. Our results indicate that Er:YAG laser was effective in removing P. gingivalis and cell compounds, offering an acceptable surface for new osteoblast attachment. PMID:16758451

  6. X-ray irradiation of soda-lime glasses studied in situ with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, A.; Gálvez, F.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; García, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    We present here a study of hard X-ray irradiation of soda-lime glasses performed in situ and in real time. For this purpose, we have used a Au thin film grown on glass and studied the excitation of its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) while irradiating the sample with X-rays, using a recently developed experimental setup at a synchrotron beamline [Serrano et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 083101 (2012)]. The extreme sensitivity of the SPR to the features of the glass substrate allows probing the modifications caused by the X-rays. Irradiation induces color centers in the soda-lime glass, modifying its refractive index. Comparison of the experimental results with simulated data shows that both, the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index of soda-lime glasses, change upon irradiation in time intervals of a few minutes. After X-ray irradiation, the effects are partially reversible. The defects responsible for these modifications are identified as non-bridging oxygen hole centers, which fade by recombination with electrons after irradiation. The kinetics of the defect formation and fading process are also studied in real time.

  7. X-ray irradiation of soda-lime glasses studied in situ with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, A.; Galvez, F.; Rodriguez de la Fuente, O.; Garcia, M. A.

    2013-03-21

    We present here a study of hard X-ray irradiation of soda-lime glasses performed in situ and in real time. For this purpose, we have used a Au thin film grown on glass and studied the excitation of its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) while irradiating the sample with X-rays, using a recently developed experimental setup at a synchrotron beamline [Serrano et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 083101 (2012)]. The extreme sensitivity of the SPR to the features of the glass substrate allows probing the modifications caused by the X-rays. Irradiation induces color centers in the soda-lime glass, modifying its refractive index. Comparison of the experimental results with simulated data shows that both, the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index of soda-lime glasses, change upon irradiation in time intervals of a few minutes. After X-ray irradiation, the effects are partially reversible. The defects responsible for these modifications are identified as non-bridging oxygen hole centers, which fade by recombination with electrons after irradiation. The kinetics of the defect formation and fading process are also studied in real time.

  8. Patterning of silica MCM-41 high-order material on a glass surface by XeCl laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahibakhsh, Somayeh; Hadi Maleki, Mohammad; Jelvani, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Silica glass samples (with the compositions of SiO2 96.66, Na2O 0.62, MgO 0.80, Al2O3 1.66 and CaO 0.26 in wt%) were irradiated with 5 pulses of a nanosecond XeCl excimer laser at a fluence of 300mJ/cm2 and 1Hz repetition rate. Scanning electron microscopy images of the irradiated area showed that micro and nanostructures were developed on the glass surface by the XeCl laser irradiation. It is found from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy that the structures are fine crystalline patterns of silica MCM-41 materials. It is supposed that crystallization of the glass is induced through the absorption of 308nm wavelength XeCl laser irradiation by silicon ions. Therefore, it is proposed that this method of spatially selective crystallization of glass could be applicable to other glass materials for potential optics and photonics applications.

  9. Surface chemistry, microstructure and friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses at temperatures to 750 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, diffraction studies, and sliding friction experiments were conducted with ferrous-base metallic glasses in sliding contact with aluminum oxide at temperatures from room to 750 C in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that there is a significant temperature influence on the friction properties, surface chemistry, and microstructure of metallic glasses. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surface of the sputtered specimens were very different from the normal bulk compositions. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The coefficient of friction increased with increasing temperature to 350 C. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The segregation of contaminants may be responsible for the friction behavior.

  10. Dissolution rates and surface chemistry of feldspar glass and crystal. Final technical report, June 15, 1995 - August 14, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, S.; Pantano, C.

    2002-06-11

    Final report summarizing the completed work of the project entitled 'Dissolution of Feldspar in the Field and Laboratory.' One of the highly debated questions today in low-temperature geochemical kinetics centers upon the rate and mechanism of dissolution of feldspar, the most common mineral in the crust. In this project, the mechanisms of feldspar dissolution were investigated by emphasizing experiments with feldspar glass and crystal while comparing surface and solution chemistry. Specifically, laboratory work focused on the structure of altered surface layers on feldspars, the rate of dissolution of feldspar crystal and glass, and the presence of porosity and surface coatings on feldspars. In a complementary field project, the use of Sr concentrations and isotopic ratios were used to calculate feldspar dissolution rates.

  11. Self-cleaning antimicrobial surfaces by bio-enabled growth of SnO2 coatings on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Rute; Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Berger, Rüdiger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Conventional vapor-deposition techniques for coatings require sophisticated equipment and/or high-temperature resistant substrates. Therefore bio-inspired techniques for the fabrication of inorganic coatings have been developed in recent years. Inspired by the biology behind the formation of the intricate skeletons of diatoms orchestrated by a class of cationic polyamines (silaffins) we have used surface-bound spermine, a naturally occurring polyamine, to promote the fast deposition of homogeneous, thin and transparent biomimetic SnO2 coatings on glass surfaces. The bio-enabled SnO2 film is highly photoactive, i.e. it generates superoxide radicals (O2&z.rad;-) upon sunlight exposure resulting in a strong degradation of organic contaminants and a strong antimicrobial activity. Upon illumination the biomimetic SnO2 coating exhibits a switchable amphiphilic behavior, which - in combination with its photoactivity - creates a self-cleaning surface. The intrinsic self-cleaning properties could lead to the development of new protective, antifouling coatings on various substrates.Conventional vapor-deposition techniques for coatings require sophisticated equipment and/or high-temperature resistant substrates. Therefore bio-inspired techniques for the fabrication of inorganic coatings have been developed in recent years. Inspired by the biology behind the formation of the intricate skeletons of diatoms orchestrated by a class of cationic polyamines (silaffins) we have used surface-bound spermine, a naturally occurring polyamine, to promote the fast deposition of homogeneous, thin and transparent biomimetic SnO2 coatings on glass surfaces. The bio-enabled SnO2 film is highly photoactive, i.e. it generates superoxide radicals (O2&z.rad;-) upon sunlight exposure resulting in a strong degradation of organic contaminants and a strong antimicrobial activity. Upon illumination the biomimetic SnO2 coating exhibits a switchable amphiphilic behavior, which - in combination with its

  12. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of carbon fiber surfaces. 22. Comparison between surface treatment of untreated and previously surface-treated fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Q.; Viswanathan, H.; Audi, A.A.; Sherwood, P.M.A.

    2000-04-01

    IM7 PAN-based carbon fibers, with a proprietary surface treatment applied by the manufacturer, were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface treatment applied by the manufacturer was removed by heating in a vacuum. The fibers detreated in this manner were then subjected to electrochemical treatment. The electrochemical behavior of the as-received fibers and detreated fibers were measured and analyzed. When the same electrochemical treatment was applied to the as-received fibers with their commercial surface treatment intact, a different surface chemistry was observed for the detreated fibers. This study shows that the surface chemistry of treated fibers depends closely on the initial surface chemistry of the fibers and its detreatment. This work shows the importance of using untreated or detreated fibers as precursors for applying reproducible surface treatment so that one can understand and control the surface chemistry of fibers and their interfacial interaction in composites.

  14. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  15. Effects of Mg and Zn on the surface of doped melt-derived glass for biomaterials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, E.; Oudadesse, H.; Lucas-Girot, A.; Le Gal, Y.; Jeanne, S.; Cathelineau, G.

    2008-11-01

    Bioactive glasses in the system SiO 2-CaO-Na 2O-P 2O 5 were synthesized pure and doped with magnesium or zinc by melt-derived method. The bioactivity was studied during in vitro assays: the ability of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer to form on the glass surface was examined after contact with simulated body fluid (SBF). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed before and after immersion in vitro assays. The SBF solutions were also analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Introduction of magnesium and zinc as trace element induces several modifications on the observed phenomena at the glass surface and in SBF solution after immersion of the samples. The chemical durability of the glasses, the formation of the silica-rich layer and the crystallization of the HCA layer were affected, but not present the same modifications as the introduced doping element.

  16. Kinetics of the formation and structure of oligoperoxide nanolayers and grafted polymer brushes on glass plate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostruba, Andriy; Zaichenko, Alexander; Mitina, Natalya; Rayevska, Kateryna; Hertsyk, Kateryna

    2008-09-01

    Functional oligoperoxide surfactants and coordinating oligoperoxide metal complexes were studied as modifiers of glass flat plates to provide the localization of radical forming sites and other functional fragments in adsorbed polymeric layers of a nanoscale thickness. Both the kinetics of the coating formation and properties of the nanolayers witness the dependence of the packing density of oligoperoxide molecules in the coatings on the oligoperoxide natures, concentrations and conditions of the sorption modification. The availability of definite amount of peroxide groups in formed nanolayer provides the possibility of controlled radical graft polymerization initiated from modified surface leading to reliable surface protection, functionality and targeted surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties.

  17. Development of sheet molding compound solar collectors with molded-in silvered glass reflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, R. L.; Allred, R. E.

    1980-12-01

    The reflecting concentrator of a parabolic trough solar collector system comprises approximately 40% of initial system cost. The parabolic concentrator structure is also the most influential component in determining overall system efficiency. Parabolic test moldings have been fabricated from a general purpose sheet molding compound with flat chemically strengthened glass, flat annealed glass, and thermally formed glass. The test panel configuration was a 1.22 m x 0.61 m, 45/sup 0/ rim angle (0.762 m focal length) parabola. Attempts to mold with annealed sheet glass (1 mm thick) and thermally formed glass (1.25 mm thick) were unsuccessful; only the chemically strengthened glass (1.25 mm thick) was strong enough to survive molding pressures. Because of the mismatch in thermal expansion between glass and sheet molding compound, the as-molded panels contained a sizeable residual stress. The results are given of dimensional changes taking place in the panels under accelerated thermal cycling and outdoor aging conditions; these results are compared to an analytical model of the laminate. In addition, the sheet molding compound has been examined for thermomechanical properties and flow behavior in the rib sections. Results indicated that lowering the thermal expansion coefficient of the sheet molding compound through material modifications would produce a more stable structure.

  18. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Daly, Michael; Clémence, Lopez; Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L.; Devine, Declan M.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is often treated with stearic acid (SA) to decrease its polarity. However, the method of application of the SA treatments has a strong influence on CaCO3 thermoplastic composite's interfacial structure and distribution. Several of papers describe the promising effects of SA surface treatment, but few compare the treatment process and its effect on the properties of the final thermoplastic composite. In the current study, we assessed a new SA treatment method, namely, complex treatment for polymer composite fabrication with HDPE. Subsequently, a comparative study was performed between the "complex" process and the other existing methods. The composites were assessed using different experiments included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), void content, density, wettability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. It was observed that the "complex" surface treatment yielded composites with a significantly lower voids content and higher density compared to other surface treatments. This indicates that after the "complex" treatment process, the CaCO3 particles and HDPE matrix are more tightly packed than other methods. DSC and wettability results suggest that the "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites had a significantly higher heat of fusion and moisture resistance compared to the "dry" treated CaCO3 composites. Furthermore, "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites have a significantly higher tensile strength than the composites containing untreated and "dry" treated CaCO3. This is mainly because the "wet" and "complex" treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the "complex" method minimised the negative effects of void

  19. Surface roughness and color characteristics of wood treated with preservatives after accelerated weathering test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, Ali; Yildiz, Umit C.; Aydin, Ismail; Eikenes, Morten; Alfredsen, Gry; Çolakoglu, Gürsel

    2005-08-01

    Wood samples treated with ammonium copper quat (ACQ 1900 and ACQ 2200), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), Tanalith E 3491 and Wolmanit CX-8 have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 h UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 min. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by roughness and color measurements on the samples with 0, 200, 400 and 600 h of total weathering. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes created by weathering on impregnated wood with several different wood preservatives. This study was performed on the accelerated weathering test cycle, using UV irradiation and water spray in order to simulate natural weathering. Surface roughness and color measurement was used to investigate the changes after several intervals (0-200-400-600 h) in artificial weathering of treated and untreated wood.

  20. Deposition of cobalt on surface-treated stainless steel under PWR conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, D.H.; Anderson, P.G.; Barry, B.J.; Lavoie, R.G. . Chalk River Nuclear Labs.)

    1989-10-01

    As part of an on-going program aimed at reducing radiation exposures in light water reactors, the modification of surfaces to minimize their propensity to pick up radioactivity under reactor conditions has been studied. This report describes how stainless steel specimens, surface-treated with a variety of processes, picked up Co-60 from high-temperature water under PWR conditions in a high-pressure loop. The build-up of activity was monitored on-line with a movable gamma spectrometer. Off-line counting at the end of the experiment established the absolute activity levels, and selective examinations with SEM and metallography characterized the surface condition of the exceptional specimens. The effectiveness of the surface treatments was gauged by fitting simple parabolae to the activity build-up data and comparing the coefficients with those obtained from untreated control specimens. 10 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Roughness modification of surfaces treated by a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrascu, N.; Borcia, G.; Apetroaei, N.; Popa, G.

    2002-05-01

    Local modifications of surface roughness are very important in many applications, as this surface property is able to generate new mechano-physical characteristics of a large category of materials. Roughness is one of the most important parameters used to characterize and control the surface morphology, and techniques that allow modifying and controlling the surface roughness present increasing interest. In this respect we propose the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as a simple and low cost method that can be used to induce controlled roughness on various surfaces in the nanoscale range. DBD is produced in helium, at atmospheric pressure, by a pulsed high voltage, 28 kV peak to peak, 13.5 kHz frequency and 40 W power. This type of discharge is a source of energy capable of modifying the physico-chemical properties of the surfaces without affecting their bulk properties. The discharge is characterized by means of electrical probes and, in order to analyse the heat transfer rate from the discharge to the treated surface, measurements of temperature distribution on the surface are performed. Influence of DBD on the roughness of surfaces with various properties, a semiconductor (tin oxide), a dielectric (polyvinylchloride) and a metallic (silver) surface, respectively, are investigated. Modifications of the surface morphology are detected by atomic force microscopy images, statistic roughness parameters and contact angle measurements. Results show an important increase of roughness and porosity of the thin films after DBD treatment, depending on the type of the material (semiconductor, dielectric and metallic). In the case of dielectric surfaces, this new morphology is correlated with adhesion work estimations. DBD treatments should be a convenient tool to induce a controlled roughness of various types of materials.

  2. The long-term management of patients with tooth surface loss treated using removable appliances.

    PubMed

    Packer, M E; Davis, D M

    2000-11-01

    The causes of tooth surface loss are multi-factorial and hence can be difficult to eradicate. This paper identifies the problems that may be anticipated during the long-term management of patients where tooth surface loss has been treated using removable appliances, where the number of teeth is often reduced. Wear and tear are inevitable and patients should therefore be made fully aware of the possibility of the gradual deterioration and failure of restorative work. Treatments should be planned, which would enable the dentist to recover the situation, with minimal inconvenience to the patient. PMID:11218599

  3. Dislodgeable copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated wood surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, David; Toner, Michael; Sawhney, Brij

    2003-08-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is commonly used to preserve wood, but its use poses risk of arsenic exposure. In order to evaluate the extent of exposure to As from physical contact with CCA-treated wood, dislodgeable As from treated wood surfaces (as well as Cu and Cr) was determined as a function of weathering time using dampened polyester wipe materials. Six sets of 2.5-m-long CCA-treated boards, three-four boards per set, were purchased from lumber yards and cut into 30- or 60-cm coupons. A total of 44 such coupons were placed outdoors and the dislodgeable CCA components from the surfaces of the wooden coupons were periodically determined over a 1- or 2-year period by a systematic wipe method followed by nitric acid extraction of the CCA components from the cloth. In all 316 samples, appreciable amounts of the three elements, Cu, Cr and As, were detected. The amounts of surface-dislodgeable As, the most potentially hazardous element and the one of major concern in this study, varied from 5 to 122 microg/100 cm(2) with an average value of 37+/-22 microg/100 cm(2). There was considerable variation in As dislodged among coupons, boards, sets and time. Test coupons that tended to release relatively higher (or lower amounts) over time initially, continued to do so over time. However, the amounts of arsenic dislodged over time did not follow a simple pattern. While the As dislodged tended to decrease with time during the first year, it approached the initial value or increased somewhat during the second year, presumably due to surface rejuvenation effects caused by erosion and weathering. When all the data were normalized to the initial values, no trend emerged, as indicated by the average normalized value of 1.0+/-0.4 for As dislodged over time. Apparently, on installations constructed with CCA-treated wood, arsenic may remain available for a number of years. PMID:12873405

  4. A Novel Micro-Scale Plastic Deformation Feature on a Bulk Metallic Glass Surface under Laser Shock Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yan-Peng; Wei, Bing-Chen; Wang, Xi; Xu, Guang-Yue; Li, Lei; Wu, Xian-Qian; Song, Hong-Wei; Huang, Chen-Guang

    2013-03-01

    Laser shocking peening is a widely applied surface treatment technique that can effectively improve the fatigue properties of metal parts. We observe many micro-scale arc plastic steps on the surface of Zr47.9Ti0.3Ni3.1Cu39.3Al9.4 metallic glass subjected to the ultra-high pressure and strain rate induced by laser shock peening. The scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the arc plastic step (APS) has an arc boundary, 50-300 nm step height, 5-50 μm radius and no preferable direction. These APSs have the ability to accommodate plastic deformation in the same way as shear band. This may indicate a new mechanism to accommodate the plastic deformation in amorphous metallic glass under high pressure, ultra-high strain rates, and short duration.

  5. Spheres of the metallic glass Au55 Pb22.5 Sb22.5 and their surface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spheres of the metallic glass Au55 Pb22.5 Sb22.5 have been formed up to a size of approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. X-ray diffraction was used to establish the glassy nature of the samples and to provide evidence of two phase-separated glass regions. Scanning electron microscopy provided a direct visual observation of the two-phase amorphous network on the surface of the sphere. The physical dimensions of the phase-separated regions were observed to be cooling-rate sensitive. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that the compositions of these two glassy phases were Au-rich and Pb-rich, respectively, confirming the results of Kim and Johnson (1981). In addition, the spheres exhibited an unusual surface smoothness of better than + or - 250 A

  6. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns. PMID:27291796

  7. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

  8. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns. PMID:27291796

  9. The behavior of silicon and boron in the surface of corroded nuclear waste glasses : an EFTEM study.

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E. C.; Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.

    1999-11-23

    Using electron energy-loss filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have observed the formation of silicon-rich zones on the corroded surface of a West Valley (WV6) glass. This layer is approximately 100-200 nm thick and is directly underneath a precipitated smectite clay layer. Under conventional (C)TEM illumination, this layer is invisible; indeed, more commonly used analytical techniques, such as x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have failed to describe fully the localized changes in the boron and silicon contents across this region. Similar silicon-rich and boron-depleted zones were not found on corroded Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) borosilicate glasses, including SRL-EA and SRL-51, although they possessed similar-looking clay layers. This study demonstrates a new tool for examining the corroded surfaces of materials.

  10. Second-harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses in the BaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TeO{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect

    Murugan, G. Senthil; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Benino, Yasuhiko; Fujiwara, Takumi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2004-10-18

    A transparent glass-ceramic containing borate crystallites in tellurite glass is reported. Controlled heat treatment resulted in surface crystallization of BaB{sub 4}O{sub 7} in the BaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TeO{sub 2} glass system. The second-order optical nonlinearities observed in these surface crystallized glasses were attributed to the distortion present in the BaB{sub 4}O{sub 7} unit cell as evidenced by x-ray powder diffraction studies. A d{sub 33} value of 0.08 pm/V was obtained from the Maker fringe analysis for a surface crystallized glass.

  11. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Custom Engineering trough with glass reflector surface and Sandia-designed receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Custom Engineering trough and Sandia-designed receivers, with glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States. Two experimental receivers were tested, one with an antireflective coating on the glass envelope around the receiver tube and one without the antireflective coating.

  12. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy on synthetic glasses as analogues of planetary surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Iris; Morlok, Andreas; Klemme, Stephan; Dittmer, Isabelle; Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Helbert, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    One of the fundamental aims of space mission is to understand the physical, chemical, and geologic processes and conditions of planetary formation and evolution. For this purpose, it is important to investigate analog material to correctly interpret the returned spacecraft data, including the spectral information from remote planetary surfaces. For example, mid-infrared spectroscopy provides detailed information on the mineralogical compositions of planetary surfaces via remote sensing. Data is affected by numerous factors such as grain size, illumination geometry, space weathering, and temperature. These features need to be systematically investigated on analog material in terrestrial laboratories in order to understand the mineralogy/composition of a planetary surface. In addition, Raman spectroscopy allows non-destructive analyses of planetary surfaces in the case of a landing mission. Our work at the IRIS (Infrared spectroscopy for Interplanetary Studies) laboratory at the Institut für Planetologie produces spectra for a database of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Onboard is a mid-infrared spectrometer (MERTIS-Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer). This unique instrument allows us to map spectral features in the 7-14 µm range, with a spatial resolution of ~500 m [1-5]. Comparably, using our Raman spectrometer, we are continuously contributing to the Raman database for upcoming mission, e.g., the Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) onboard of ExoMars [6]. Material on the surface of Mercury and the other terrestrial bodies was exposed to heavy impact cratering [4]. Depending on the P/T conditions during the impact, minerals on planetary surfaces can react with the formation of glassy material. Thus, understanding the effects of impact shock and heat on the mineral structure and the resulting corresponding change in the spectral properties is of high interest for the MERTIS project. Here, we present spectral information on the first glass

  13. Effect of several surface treatments on the strength of a glass ceramic-to-metal seal

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D P; Salerno, R F; Egleston, E E

    1982-02-10

    Test shells of Inconel 625, Inconel 718, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and Hastelloy, C-276 were plasma and/or chemically cleaned before sealing with a multi-component glass-ceramic-to-metal seal was evaluated using a hydrostatic burst test. The results show that plasma cleaning can be used to increase the hydrostatic burst strength and hermeticity of a glass ceramic-to-metal seal.

  14. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  15. Gain enhancement of a multiband resonator using defected ground surface on epoxy woven glass material.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Shahidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A multiband microstrip resonator is proposed in this study which is realized through a rectangular radiator with embedded symmetrical rectangular slots in it and a defected ground surface. The study is presented with detailed parametric analyses to understand the effect of various design parameters. The design and analyses are performed using the FIT based full-wave electromagnetic simulator CST microwave studio suite. With selected parameter values, the resonator showed a peak gain of 5.85 dBi at 5.2 GHz, 6.2 dBi at 8.3 GHz, 3.9 dBi at 9.5 GHz, 5.9 dBi at 12.2 GHz, and 4.7 dBi at 14.6 GHz. Meanwhile, the main lobe magnitude and the 3 dB angular beam width are 6.2 dBi and 86°, 5.9 dBi and 53.7°, 8.5 dBi and 43.9°, 8.6 dBi and 42.1°, and 4.7 dBi and 30.1°, respectively, at the resonant frequencies. The overall resonator has a compact dimension of 0.52λ  × 0.52λ  × 0.027λ at the lower resonant frequency. For practical validation, a lab prototype was built on a 1.6 mm thick epoxide woven glass fabric dielectric material which is measured using a vector network analyzer and within an anechoic chamber. The comparison between the simulated and measured results showed a very good understanding, which implies the practical suitability of the proposed multiband resonator design. PMID:24883354

  16. Gain Enhancement of a Multiband Resonator Using Defected Ground Surface on Epoxy Woven Glass Material

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A multiband microstrip resonator is proposed in this study which is realized through a rectangular radiator with embedded symmetrical rectangular slots in it and a defected ground surface. The study is presented with detailed parametric analyses to understand the effect of various design parameters. The design and analyses are performed using the FIT based full-wave electromagnetic simulator CST microwave studio suite. With selected parameter values, the resonator showed a peak gain of 5.85 dBi at 5.2 GHz, 6.2 dBi at 8.3 GHz, 3.9 dBi at 9.5 GHz, 5.9 dBi at 12.2 GHz, and 4.7 dBi at 14.6 GHz. Meanwhile, the main lobe magnitude and the 3 dB angular beam width are 6.2 dBi and 86°, 5.9 dBi and 53.7°, 8.5 dBi and 43.9°, 8.6 dBi and 42.1°, and 4.7 dBi and 30.1°, respectively, at the resonant frequencies. The overall resonator has a compact dimension of 0.52λ  × 0.52λ  × 0.027λ at the lower resonant frequency. For practical validation, a lab prototype was built on a 1.6 mm thick epoxide woven glass fabric dielectric material which is measured using a vector network analyzer and within an anechoic chamber. The comparison between the simulated and measured results showed a very good understanding, which implies the practical suitability of the proposed multiband resonator design. PMID:24883354

  17. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  18. Estimation of the adhesive force distribution for the flagellar adhesion of Escherichia coli on a glass surface.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Akinori; Nobuhira, Noritaka; Narahara, Hisaya; Toyoda, Syunsuke; Tokumoto, Hayato; Konishi, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Toshiyuki

    2015-07-01

    The effects of the presence or absence of microbial flagella and the microbial motility on the colloidal behaviors of microbial cells were quantitatively evaluated. The microbial cell attachment and detachment processes on a glass surface were observed directly using a parallel-plate flow chamber. Wild-type, flagellar paralyzed, and nonflagellated Escherichia coli strains were used as model microbial cells. In the cell attachment tests, the microbial adhesion rate in a 160mM NaCl solution was approximately 10 times higher than that in a 10mM solution, for all E. coli strains. The colloidal behavior of the microbial cells agreed well with the predictions of the DLVO theory. In addition, the microbial flagella and motility did not significantly affect the cell attachment, regardless of the existence of a potential barrier between the cell and the glass substratum. In the cell detachment tests, the cumulative number of microbial cells detached from the glass substratum with increasing flow rate was fit well with the Weibull distribution function. The list of strains arranged in order of increasing median drag force required to remove them was nonflagellated strain, flagellar paralyzed strain, and wild-type strain. These results indicated that the flagella and the flagellar motility inhibited the cell detachment from the glass substratum. Furthermore, a large external force would likely be required to inhibit the microbial adhesion in the early stage of the biofilm formation. PMID:25956746

  19. Corrosion behavior of Al-surface-treated steels in liquid Pb?Bi in a pot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.; Saito, S.

    2004-12-01

    Corrosion tests were performed in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi at 450 °C and 550 °C in a pot for 3000 h for Al-surface-treated steels containing various levels of Cr contents. The Al surface treatments were achieved using a gas diffusion method and a melt dipping method. Al2O3, FeAl2 and AlCr2 produced by the gas diffusion method exhibited corrosion resistance to liquid Pb-Bi, while the surface layer produced by the melt dipping method suffered a severe corrosion attack. Fe4Al13 and Fe2Al5 produced by the melt dipping method disappeared during the corrosion test at 550 °C and only FeAl remained.

  20. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Nanbu, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Komotori, J.

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP) treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  1. Thermodynamics of native protein/foreign surface interactions. IV. Calorimetric and microelectrophoretic study of human fibrinogen sorption onto glass and LTI-carbon.

    PubMed

    Chiu, T H; Nyilas, E; Lederman, D M

    1976-01-01

    1. According to a working hypothesis put forward in the previous papers of this series2-4, the initial phases of native blood/foreign surface interactions have been considered within the framework of a physicochemical model of contact activation at the molecular level. The salient features of this hypothesis are: a) the arrival and adsorption of native plasma proteins on a contact surface overwhelmingly precedes that of the cellular blood components; b) the interaction energy that arises between a particular foreign surface and native plasma proteins settling on it, is a characteristic quantity depending upon the effective surface molecular structure as well as the nature of the proteins; c) the "intensity" of native protein/foreign surface interactions can be treated in terms of thermodynamic quantities since these energy terms are independent of the type of forces acting between protein and surface; and d) depending upon the degree to which the adsorption of a native protein is thermodynamically favored by enthalpy and/or entropy factors, the interaction energy can be utilized to induce conformational changes of varying degree in the sorbed protein. 2. Using glass and low temperature isotropic (LTI) carbon adsorbents, i.e., a known procoagulant and a relevant biomaterial, respectively, the adsorption properties and the potential surface-induced conformational changes of high-purity native human fibrinogen (clottability greater than or equal to 92%) were studied, at 25 degrees C, by 3 independent methods. In all of the experiments performed, a) both adsorbents were employed in the form of particles less than or equal to 1.0 mu representing specific surface areas of 9.85 M2/Gm and 27.7 (nominal) M2/Gm for the glass and LTI-carbon powders, respectively, and b) the fibrinogen was absorbed from a standaridized buffer (pH = 7.2, ionic strength 0.05) using the same fixed surface area/protein solution volume ratio with a given adsorbent. 3. The 25 degrees C adsorption

  2. A facile deposition of silver onto the inner surface of a glass capillary tube for micro-surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Kun; Lee, Hyang Bong; Kim, Kwan

    2007-01-01

    Silver can be deposited very efficiently onto glass substrates using only ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine. This paper reports that the inner surface of a glass capillary can also be coated evenly with silver by shaking it after soaking in ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine; the silver deposited outside the capillary can be easily wiped off with cotton wool before drying. The grain size of the silver deposited onto the inner surface can be readily controlled within the range from 20 to 100 nm by varying the relative molar ratio of butylamine and AgNO3 used as reactants. Due to its nanoaggregated structure, the Ag coated capillary is a very efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate, particularly usable in the microanalysis of chemicals; the detection limit of adenine is as low as 1.0x10(-7) M based on a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Since the proposed method is cost-effective and is suitable for the mass production of Ag coated capillaries, we fully expect it to play a significant role in the development of SERS based microchip analyzers and even in the fabrication of Ag coated hollow glass waveguides. PMID:17311712

  3. Surface properties of low alloy steel treated by plasma nitrocarburizing prior to laser quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. X.; Yan, M. F.; Li, B.; Guo, L. X.; Zhang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. X.; Bai, B.; Chen, L.; Long, Z.; Li, R. W.

    2015-04-01

    Laser quenching (LQ) technique is used as a part of duplex treatments to improve the thickness and hardness of the surface layers of steels. The present study is to investigate the surface properties of low alloy steel treated by plasma nitrocarburizing (PNC) prior to a laser quenching process (PNC+LQ). The microstructure and properties of PNC+LQ layer determined are compared with those obtained by PNC and LQ processes. OM, XRD, SEM and EDS analyses are utilized for microstructure observation, phases identification, morphology observation and chemical composition detection, respectively. Microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer are used to investigate the mechanical properties of the modified layers. Laser quenching of plasma nitrocarburized (PNC+LQ) steel results in much improved thickness and hardness of the modified layer in comparison with the PNC or LQ treated specimens. The mechanism is that the introduction of trace of nitrogen decreases the eutectoid point, that is, the transformation hardened region is enlarged under the same temperature distribution. Moreover, the layer treated by PNC+LQ process exhibits enhanced wear resistance, due to the lubrication effect and optimized impact toughness, which is contributed to the formation of oxide film consisting of low nitrogen compound (FeN0.076) and iron oxidation (mainly of Fe3O4).

  4. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm-2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC-C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  5. Surface morphology and subsurface damaged layer of various glasses machined by 193-nm ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunn-shiuan; Chen, Ying-Tung; Chao, Choung-Lii; Liu, Yih-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the high bonding energy, most of the glasses are removed by photo-thermal rather than photo-chemical effect when they are ablated by the 193 or 248nm excimer lasers. Typically, the machined surface is covered by re-deposited debris and the sub-surface, sometimes surface as well, is scattered with micro-cracks introduced by thermal stress generated during the process. This study aimed to investigate the nature and extent of the surface morphology and sub-surface damaged (SSD) layer induced by the laser ablation. The effects of laser parameters such as fluence, shot number and repetition rate on the morphology and SSD were discussed. An ArF excimer laser (193 nm) was used in the present study to machine glasses such as soda-lime, Zerodur and BK-7. It is found that the melt ejection and debris deposition tend to pile up higher and become denser in structure under a higher energy density, repetition rate and shot number. There are thermal stress induced lateral cracks when the debris covered top layer is etched away. Higher fluence and repetition rate tend to generate more lateral and median cracks which propagate into the substrate. The changes of mechanical properties of the SSD layer were also investigated.

  6. Microscopic study of surface degradation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer rods embedded in concrete castings subjected to environmental conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, L.C.; Puterman, M.

    1997-12-31

    The surface degradation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded rods when embedded in concrete castings and subjected to environmental conditioning is discussed in this paper. Investigation of the degradation of the GFRP rods were performed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unidirectionally reinforced pultruded rods (6.3- and 12.7-mm diameters) containing E-glass fibers in polyester and vinylester matrices were conditioned at standard laboratory conditions (21 C, 65% relative humidity) or submerged in aqueous solutions (tap water) at 80 C for durations of 14 and 84 days. Observations of the surfaces and cross-sections of the rods by optical microscopy and SEM revealed a variety of degradation phenomena. Embedded hygrothermally conditioned rods were found to have developed surface blisters of different sizes and depths. SEM studies of the surface revealed degradation of the polymer matrix material and exposure and degradation of the fibers close to the surface of the rods. The rods with the vinylester resin matrix showed less extensive degradation than those with the polyester resin matrix; however, the degradation characteristics of the two types of rods appear to be similar.

  7. On the surface characteristics of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass processed by microelectrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Yan, Jiwang

    2015-11-01

    Microelectrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) performance of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass was investigated experimentally. Various discharge voltages and capacitances were used to study their effects on the material removal rate, cross-sectional profile, surface morphology and roughness, carbonization, and crystallization. Experimental results indicated that many randomly overlapped craters were formed on the EDMed surfaces, and their size and distribution were strongly dependent of the applied voltage and capacitance as well as their positions (center region or outer region), which further affected the surface roughness. Raman spectra and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that amorphous carbons originating from the decomposition of the EDM oil were deposited on the EDMed surface. Although some small sharp peaks appeared in the X-ray diffraction patterns of the micro-EDMed surfaces, a broad hump was maintained in all patterns, suggesting a dominant amorphous characteristic. Furthermore, crystallization was also affected by experimental conditions and machining positions. Results in this study indicate that micro-EDM under low discharge energy is useful for fabricating bulk metallic glass microstructures or components because of the ability to retain an amorphous structure.

  8. Effect of Structural Defects, Surface Irregularities, and Quenched-In Defects on Corrosion of Zr-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanadh, B.; Abraham, Geogy J.; Jagannath; Neogy, S.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.

    2009-05-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed a fully amorphous structure for as-cast bulk metallic glass (BMG) and melt-spun ribbons of Zr52Ti6Al10Cu18Ni14 prepared by copper mold casting and the melt-spinning technique, respectively. For melt-spun ribbons, the wheel-side surface contained a higher concentration of quenched-in defects (air pockets), whereas surface irregularities were noticed in the air side. Fluctuation microscopy indicated more medium-range order for the as-cast structure of BMG than for the melt-spun ribbon, whereas in the BMG, the medium-range order was located more in the central region than in the periphery. Macro- and microcell electrochemical experiments of the BMG along the cross section and macrocell experiments of each side of the ribbons in dilute acidic chloride environments indicated that the corrosion resistance of the BMG decreased with the increase in the medium-range order; the medium-range order, however, was less deleterious than either the surface irregularities or the quenched-in defects from the viewpoint of corrosion. A surface film formed on the metallic glasses in a dilute acidic chloride environment mainly consisted of oxide of zirconium, in which zirconium was present in the Zr+3, Zr+2, and Zr+1 state in the BMG and in the air-side and wheel-side surfaces, respectively.

  9. Effects of surface treating methods of high-strength carbon fibers on interfacial properties of epoxy resin matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quansheng; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of surface treating methods, including electrolysis of anodic oxidation, sizing and heat treatment at 200 °C, on physical and chemical properties of T700 grade high-strength carbon fiber GQ4522. The fiber surface roughness, surface energy and chemical properties were analyzed for different treated carbon fibers, using atom force microscopy, contact angle, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the adopted surface treating methods significantly affect surface roughness, surface energy and active chemical groups of the studied carbon fibers. Electrolysis and sizing can increase the roughness, surface energy and chemical groups on surface, while heat treatment leads to decreases in surface energy and chemical groups due to chemical reaction of sizing. Then, unidirectional epoxy 5228 matrix composite laminates were prepared using different treated GQ4522 fibers, and interlaminar shear strength and flexural property were measured. It is revealed that the composite using electrolysis and sizing-fiber has the strongest interfacial bonding strength, indicating the important roles of the two treating processes on interfacial adhesion. Moreover, the composite using heat-treating fiber has lower mechanical properties, which is attributed to the decrease of chemical bonding between fiber surface and matrix after high temperature treatment of fiber.

  10. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  11. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the spectral properties of rare-earth ions in a sodium borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obadina, Victor O.; Reddy, B. Rami

    2012-03-01

    Silver doped sodium borate glass was made by the melt quenching technique. As made glass, did not reveal any absorption transitions in the visible or ultraviolet region. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure glass transition temperature. Heat treated glass revealed absorption peak at 410 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. Under violet laser excitation the glass revealed emission at 450 - 620 nm, whose lifetimes are more than 30μs. Under near resonant excitation it revealed intense Raman scattering. We also made multielement oxide glasses co-doped with silver and Er3+ and performed spectroscopic studies. Energy upconversion was observed from Er3+ at 415 nm in a 2% Ag co-doped oxide glass but not in other glasses. Infrared to visible upconversion studies were performed in all these glasses under near-infrared laser excitation. 2% Ag doped glass exhibited enhanced upconversion signals from erbium than that of other glasses.

  12. Thermodynamics and ideal glass transition on the surface of a monatomic system modeled as quasi "2-dimensional" recursive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran

    Two quasi 2-dimensional recursive lattices formed by planar elements have been designed to investigate the surface thermodynamics of monatomic Ising glass system with the aim to study the metastability of supercooled liquids and the ideal glass transition. Both lattices are constructed as hybrids of a Husimi lattice representing the bulk and lower dimensional recursive trees representing the surface. The coordination number, i.e. the number of neighbor sites surrounding one site, is designed to be 3 on the surface and 4 inside the bulk to mimic the 2D regular square lattice case. The recursive properties of recursive lattices were adopted to obtain exact thermodynamic calculations without approximation. The model has a strong anti-ferromagnetic interaction to give rise to an ordered phase identified as a crystal, and a metastable solution is also found to represent the amorphous phase. Interactions between particles farther away than the nearest neighbor distance are taken into consideration. The calculations were done with C/C++ programs. A recursive calculation technique was employed to approach an exact description of the system with the ratio of partial partition functions (PPF) on each site of the lattice. Thermal properties including free energy, energy density and entropy of the ideal crystal and supercooled liquid state of the model on the surface are calculated by the PPF. By analyzing the free energies and entropies of the crystal and supercooled liquid state, we are able to identify the melting transition and the second order ideal glass transition on the surface. The effects of different energy terms that produce competitions between crystallization and glass transition are studied. The results show that due to the coordination number change, the transition temperature on the surface decreases significantly compared to the transition temperature of the bulk system obtained in our previous research. Our theoretical calculation agrees with experiments and

  13. Hepatitis B surface antigen clearance in inactive hepatitis B surface antigen carriers treated with peginterferon alfa-2a

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hui; Xie, Yao; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Mu, Cai-Qin; Hu, Lei-Ping; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Jun; Xu, Dao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between interferon (IFN) therapy and loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in inactive HBsAg carriers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in inactive HBsAg carriers, who were treatment-naive, with a serum HBsAg level < 100 IU/mL and an undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level (< 100 IU/mL). All the 20 treated patients received subcutaneous PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg/wk for 72 wk and were then followed for 24 wk. There were 40 untreated controls matched with 96 wk of observation. Serum HBsAg, HBV DNA, and alanine aminotransferases were monitored every 3 mo in the treatment group and every 3-6 mo in the control group. RESULTS: Thirteen (65.0%) of 20 treated patients achieved HBsAg loss, 12 of whom achieved HBsAg seroconversion. Mean HBsAg level in treated patients decreased to 6.69 ± 13.04 IU/mL after 24 wk of treatment from a baseline level of 26.22 ± 33.00 IU/mL. Serum HBV DNA level remained undetectable (< 100 IU/mL) in all treated patients during the study. HBsAg level of the control group decreased from 25.72 ± 25.58 IU/mL at baseline to 17.11 ± 21.62 IU/mL at week 96 (P = 0.108). In the control group, no patient experienced HBsAg loss/seroconversion, and two (5.0%) developed HBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: IFN treatment results in HBsAg loss and seroconversion in a considerable proportion of inactive HBsAg carriers with low HBsAg concentrations. PMID:27239256

  14. Characterization of Surface Treated Aero Engine Alloys by Rayleigh Wave Velocity Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, B.; Barth, M.; Schubert, F.; Bamberg, J.; Baron, H.-U.

    2010-02-01

    In aero engines mechanically high stressed components made of high-strength alloys like IN718 and Ti6Al4V are usually surface treated by shot-peening. Other methods, e.g. laser-peening, deep rolling and low plasticity burnishing are also available. All methods introduce compres-sive residual stress desired for minimize sensitivity to fatigue or stress corrosion failure mechanisms, resulting in improved performance and increased lifetime of components. Beside that, also cold work is introduced in an amount varying from method to method. To determine the remaining life time of critical aero engine components like compressor and turbine discs, a quantitative non-destructive determination of compressive stresses is required. The opportunity to estimate residual stress in surface treated aero engine alloys by SAW phase velocity measurements has been re-examined. For that original engine relevant material IN718 has been used. Contrary to other publications a significant effect of the surface treatment to the sound velocity was observed which disappeared after thermal treatment. Also preliminary measurements of the acousto-elastic coefficient fit into this picture.

  15. Data for accelerated degradation of calcium phosphate surface-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Patrina S.P.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Solanki, Anu K.; Woodruff, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)-based composite scaffolds containing 50 wt% of 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) particles were fabricated into scaffolds using melt-extrusion based additive manufacturing technique. Additionally, the PCL scaffolds were surface coated with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP). For a comparison of the scaffold degradation, the scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro accelerated degradation by immersion in 5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for up to 7 days. The scaffold׳s morphology was observed by means of SEM imaging and scaffold mass loss was recorded over the experimental period. PMID:27081669

  16. Data for accelerated degradation of calcium phosphate surface-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Holzapfel, Boris M; Solanki, Anu K; Woodruff, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)-based composite scaffolds containing 50 wt% of 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) particles were fabricated into scaffolds using melt-extrusion based additive manufacturing technique. Additionally, the PCL scaffolds were surface coated with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP). For a comparison of the scaffold degradation, the scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro accelerated degradation by immersion in 5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for up to 7 days. The scaffold׳s morphology was observed by means of SEM imaging and scaffold mass loss was recorded over the experimental period. PMID:27081669

  17. Surface topographic study of chalcogenide thin films of GexSb(As)₄₀-xS₅₀Te₁₀ glasses.

    PubMed

    Anastasescu, M; Gartner, M; Szekeres, A; Pamukchieva, V

    2014-04-01

    The surface topography and fractal properties of GexSb(As)40-xS50Te10 (x=10, 20, 27 at.%) films, evaporated onto glass substrates, have been studied by atomic force microscopic imaging at different scales. The surface of the chalcogenide films is smooth (<5 nm roughness), isotropic and having some particular differences in texture. All films are self-similar with Mean Fractal Dimension in the range of 2.25-2.63. The films with GexSb40-xS50Te10 composition are more uniform in terms of surface morphology (grains structure) than those with GexAs40-xS50Te10 composition for which the film surface exhibits a superimposed structure of large particles at x=10 and 20 at.%. PMID:24530358

  18. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron . E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G.

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  19. Biocompatible, smooth, plasma-treated nickel-titanium surface--an adequate platform for cell growth.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, W; Szade, J; Hart, A D; Knowles, J C; Dalby, M J

    2012-02-01

    High nickel content is believed to reduce the number of biomedical applications of nickel-titanium alloy due to the reported toxicity of nickel. The reduction in nickel release and minimized exposure of the cell to nickel can optimize the biocompatibility of the alloy and increase its use in the application where its shape memory effects and pseudoelasticity are particularly useful, e.g., spinal implants. Many treatments have been tried to improve the biocompatibility of Ni-Ti, and results suggest that a native, smooth surface could provide sufficient tolerance, biologically. We hypothesized that the native surface of nickel-titanium supports cell differentiation and insures good biocompatibility. Three types of surface modifications were investigated: thermal oxidation, alkali treatment, and plasma sputtering, and compared with smooth, ground surface. Thermal oxidation caused a drop in surface nickel content, while negligible chemistry changes were observed for plasma-modified samples when compared with control ground samples. In contrast, alkali treatment caused significant increase in surface nickel concentration and accelerated nickel release. Nickel release was also accelerated in thermally oxidized samples at 600 °C, while in other samples it remained at low level. Both thermal oxidation and alkali treatment increased the roughness of the surface, but mean roughness R(a) was significantly greater for the alkali-treated ones. Ground and plasma-modified samples had 'smooth' surfaces with R(a)=4 nm. Deformability tests showed that the adhesion of the surface layers on samples oxidized at 600 °C and alkali treatment samples was not sufficient; the layer delaminated upon deformation. It was observed that the cell cytoskeletons on the samples with a high nickel content or release were less developed, suggesting some negative effects of nickel on cell growth. These effects were observed primarily during initial cell contact with the surface. The most favorable

  20. Adhesion strength measurements of excimer-laser-treated PTFE surfaces using liquid photoreagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Bela; Smausz, Tomi; Kresz, Norbert; Ignacz, Ferenc

    2003-04-01

    The most known feature of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is its adhesion behavior: it is hydrophobic and oleophobic at the same time. This can cause serious problems and obstacles during the surface treatment and fixing of PTFE objects. During our experiments Teflon films were irradiated by an ArF excimer laser beam in presence of liquid photoreagents containing amine groups (aminoethanol, 1,2-diaminoethane, triethylene-tetramine). In consequence of the treatment the adhesion of the modified surfaces significantly increased, the samples could be glued and moistened. The adhesion strength of the glued surfaces was measured in the function of the applied laser fluence. The adhesion strength increased drastically between 0 - 1 mJ/cm2 and showed saturation above 1 mJ/cm2 at approximately 5 - 9 MPa values depending on the applied photoreagents. On the basis of our experiments it was found that the treatment with triethylene-tetramine was the most effective. The surface chemical modifications of the treated Teflon samples can be due to the incorporation of amine groups into the surface layer.

  1. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. RESULTS Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. CONCLUSION An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required. PMID:27555896

  2. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  3. Study of the influence of surface carbon on the tribological properties of ion-treated steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyagoub, Abdenacer; Faussemagne, Arielle

    1999-01-01

    Samples of 100Cr6 steel were treated by different ion beams in order to study the evolution of their tribological properties. A strong correlation was found between the amount of surface carbon, whatever its origin (contamination, direct C implantation or ion-beam mixing of a deposited carbon layer), and the reduction of the friction coefficient as well as the improvement of the wear resistance. These results are discussed in the framework of a recent statistical model founded on the asperity concept and describing the tribological behaviour of bilayer systems.

  4. The reinforcement effect of polyethylene fibre and composite impregnated glass fibre on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Luthria, Archana; Srirekha, A; Hegde, Jayshree; Karale, Rupali; Tyagi, Sanjana; Bhaskaran, Sajeev

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with wide mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored with either composite resin, or composite resin reinforced with different types of fibres. Materials and Methods: Fifty human maxillary premolars were selected. Five intact teeth served as positive controls. Endodontic therapy was carried out in the remaining forty-five teeth. Standardized MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth. The teeth were restored with a nanocomposite using an incremental technique. These forty five teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (n = 15). The teeth in Group A did not undergo any further procedures. The teeth in Group B and C were reinforced with composite impregnated glass fibre and polyethylene fibre, respectively. Fracture resistance was measured in Newtons (N). Results: The positive controls showed the highest mean fracture resistance (811.90 N), followed by Group B (600.49N), Group A (516.96N) and Group C (514.64N), respectively. One Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed a statistically significant difference between all the groups (P = 0.001). Post-hoc Tukey test revealed a moderately significant difference (P = 0.034) between Control and Group B, and a strongly significant difference between Control and Group A (P = 0.002), and Control and Group C (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Endodontic therapy and MOD cavity preparation significantly reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars (P = 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (P > 0.1). However, the fracture resistance of the composite impregnated glass fibre reinforced group was much higher than the others. PMID:23112487

  5. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically-treated Maxillary Premolars Restored with Composite Resin along with Glass Fiber Insertion in Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The aim was to evaluate the effect of three methods of fiber insertion on fracture resistance of root-filled maxillary premolars in vitro. Materials and methods Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars received endodontic treatment followed by preparation of mesioocclusodistal (MOD) cavities, with gingival cavosurface margin 1.5 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Subsequently, the samples were randomly divided into four groups: no-fiber group; occlusal fiber group (fiber was placed in the occlusal third); circumferential fiber group (fiber was placed circumferentially in the cervical third); and dual-fiber group (occlusal and circumferential fibers). Subsequent to restoring with composite resin and thermocycling, a compressive force was applied until fracture. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at significance levels of P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively. Results Fiber placement significantly increased fracture resistance. Fracture resistance in the dual-fiber group was significantly higher than that in the circumferential fiber group (P < 0.007); however, there were no significant differences between the dual-fiber and occlusal fiber groups (P = 0.706). The highest favorable fracture rate was observed in the circumferential fiber group (60%). Conclusion Composite resin restoration along with glass fiber in the occlusal and gingival thirds can be an acceptable treatment option for restoring root-filled upper premolars. PMID:23277858

  6. Surface and crystalline analysis of aluminum oxide single crystal treated by quasistationary compression plasma flow

    SciTech Connect

    Maletic, S.; Popovic, D.M.; Cubrovic, V.; Zekic, A.A.; Dojcilovic, J.

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface by CPF are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented low-dimensional structures are occurred for the treated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dimension of these ripples are 1 {mu}m and the distance between them is about 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ripple-shaped structures contain a higher percentage of oxygen than the surroundings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results could promote CPF as a tool for producing organized oxygen-rich structures. -- Abstract: Material such as aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is important in electronics industry. On the other hand, plasma is one of the most efficient and sophisticated tools for materials processing. In this work a treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface by quasistationary compression plasma flow (CPF) is analyzed in detail. Offline metrology was performed using dielectric measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oriented low-dimensional periodic structures are occurred for the plasma treated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal. In the paper is reported that these oriented ripple-shaped structures contain a higher percentage of oxygen than the surrounding crystal surface. This could be the framework for usage of CPF as a tool in manufacturing of surfaces containing the highly organized oxygen-rich structures.

  7. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  8. Adhesive forces and surface properties of cold gas plasma treated UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Emily Callard; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Evans, Sam L; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-10-20

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment was used on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common articulating counter material employed in hip and knee replacements. UHMWPE is a biocompatible polymer with low friction coefficient, yet does not have robust wear characteristics. CAP effectively cross-links the polymer chains of the UHMWPE improving wear performance (Perni et al., Acta Biomater. 8(3) (2012) 1357). In this work, interactions between CAP treated UHMWPE and spherical borosilicate sphere (representing model material for bone) were considered employing AFM technique. Adhesive forces increased, in the presence of PBS, after treatment with helium and helium/oxygen cold gas plasmas. Furthermore, a more hydrophilic surface of UHMWPE was observed after both treatments, determined through a reduction of up to a third in the contact angles of water. On the other hand, the asperity density also decreased by half, yet the asperity height had a three-fold decrease. This work shows that CAP treatment can be a very effective technique at enhancing the adhesion between bone and UHMWPE implant material as aided by the increased adhesion forces. Moreover, the hydrophilicity of the CAP treated UHMWPE can lead to proteins and cells adhesion to the surface of the implant stimulating osseointegration process. PMID:25431523

  9. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Sara M.; Alshimy, Ahmad M.; Fahmy, Amal E.

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (α = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  10. Adhesive forces and surface properties of cold gas plasma treated UHMWPE

    PubMed Central

    Preedy, Emily Callard; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Evans, Sam L.; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment was used on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common articulating counter material employed in hip and knee replacements. UHMWPE is a biocompatible polymer with low friction coefficient, yet does not have robust wear characteristics. CAP effectively cross-links the polymer chains of the UHMWPE improving wear performance (Perni et al., Acta Biomater. 8(3) (2012) 1357). In this work, interactions between CAP treated UHMWPE and spherical borosilicate sphere (representing model material for bone) were considered employing AFM technique. Adhesive forces increased, in the presence of PBS, after treatment with helium and helium/oxygen cold gas plasmas. Furthermore, a more hydrophilic surface of UHMWPE was observed after both treatments, determined through a reduction of up to a third in the contact angles of water. On the other hand, the asperity density also decreased by half, yet the asperity height had a three-fold decrease. This work shows that CAP treatment can be a very effective technique at enhancing the adhesion between bone and UHMWPE implant material as aided by the increased adhesion forces. Moreover, the hydrophilicity of the CAP treated UHMWPE can lead to proteins and cells adhesion to the surface of the implant stimulating osseointegration process. PMID:25431523

  11. In vitro screening procedure for characterization of thrombogenic properties of plasma treated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Modic, Martina; Mozetič, Miran

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of thrombogenic surface properties is an important aspect of hemocompatibility studies. To improve our understanding of interaction between blood and biomaterial surfaces, there is a need to employ standardized methods that are both effective and efficient. This contribution details a systematic approach for the in vitro analysis of plasma modified polymer surfaces and human blood platelet interaction, following the recently introduced ISO 10933-4 guidelines. A holistic multistep process is presented that considers all aspects of testing procedure, including blood collection, platelet function testing, and incubation parameters, right through to a comparison and evaluation of the different methods and analysis available. In terms of detection and analysis, confocal light microscopy is shown to offer many advantages over the widely used scanning electron microscopy technique; this includes simpler, less-invasive sample preparation, and less time-consuming analysis procedure. On the other hand, as an alternative to microscopy techniques, toxicology sulforhodamine B based assay (TOX assay) was also evaluated. It has been shown that the assay could be used for rapid estimation of relative concentration of blood platelets on the surface of plasma treated materials, especially when samples do not allow the implementation of microscopy techniques. PMID:27154919

  12. A study on the surface severe plastic deformation behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, J.W.; Shaw, L.L.; Wang, Y.D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Liaw, P.K.

    2009-10-14

    A surface treatment process, which can generate the severe plastic deformation in the near-surface layer of crystalline materials, is successfully applied on the Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass (BMG). The experiment is implemented using 20 WC/Co balls with a velocity of about 5 m/s to bombard the surface of the samples in a purified argon atmosphere. The plastic-flow deformation in the unconstrained sample edge was observed, which exhibits the good intrinsic ductility of this material under the experimental condition. In the sub-surface layer, the bombardment-induced shear-band operations generate the extrusion and intrusion marks on the side face. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows that the free volumes of the deformed BMG have increased, and possible crystallization may occur during the process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction techniques were used to inspect the possible crystal phase. A nanoindentation test shows that on the side surface, the hardness increases and, then, decreases with the distance from the processed surface. Four-point-bending-fatigue behavior has been studied and related to the modified surface structure and the compressive residual stress introduced by the surface treatment.

  13. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  14. Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications. PMID:25425458

  15. High-Power Diode Laser Surface Treated HVOF Coating to Combat High Energy Particle Impact Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2013-07-01

    High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed coatings have performed exceptionally well in low-energy particle impact wear and are accepted worldwide. However, their application for high-energy particle impact wear (HEPIW) requires a different approach and more efforts. HVOF-coating systems typically use WC-Co, WC-Co-Cr, WC-Ni-Cr, and FeCrAlY-Cr3C2 powders. WC-Co-Cr powders are preferred when there is a high demand for corrosion resistance. WC-10Co-4Cr coating powder has been selected in the current study. To improve coating properties such as microhardness, fracture toughness, and HEPIW resistance, a new approach of surface treatment with robotically controlled high-power diode laser (HPDL) is attempted. The robotically controlled HVOF-coating deposition and laser surface treatment were monitored using real-time diagnostic control. The HPDL-treated coating has been compared with "as-sprayed" HVOF coating for HEPIW resistance, fracture toughness, microhardness and microstructure. The coating characteristics and properties after laser surface treatment have improved many times compared with "as-sprayed" HVOF coating. This is due to the elimination of pores in the coating and formation of a metallurgical bond between coating and substrate. This new development opens up a possibility of using such laser treatments in specialized areas where HEPIW damages are acute. The fracture toughness and HEPIW resistance along with optical micrographs of HPDL-treated and untreated HVOF coatings are discussed and reported in this article. HEPIW resistance is observed to be proportional to the product of fracture toughness and microhardness of the HVOF coating.

  16. Mechanical resistance evaluation of a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced post in artificial endodontically treated premolar under rotational/lateral fracture fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (anatomical SGFR) post and evaluates the mechanical performance in artificial endodontically treated premolars. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch designs was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. The three-point bending test and crown/core restorations using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test were executed to understand the mechanical resistances. The results showed that static and dynamic rotational resistance were found significantly higher in the anatomical SGFR fiber post than in the commercial post. The endurance limitations at 1.2×10(6) cycles were 66.81 and 64.77 N for the anatomical SGFR and commercial fiber posts, respectively. The anatomical SGFR fiber post presented acceptable value of flexural strength and modulus, better fit adaption in the root canal resist torque more efficiency but was not a key issue in the lateral fracture resistance in an endodontically treated premolar. PMID:27041013

  17. Graded index antireflective coatings for glass. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, J.S.

    1980-05-01

    M.I.T. is conducting research which will lead to a process for forming broad band antireflective (AR) coatings on glass. Use of these coatings increases the extractable heat from flat-plate solar collectors by 30 to 50% compared with their performance under equivalent solar flux, surface temperature and ambient conditions without broad band AR coatings. Graded index surface films can virtually eliminate reflection losses if controlled properly. Graded index films on a borosilicate glass (Corning Glass Works No. 7740, Pyrex) has been demonstrated. While glass treated this way exhibited adequate optical properties, the glass itself, cannot be fabricated by the float glass process because of excessive working temperatures, and consequently is too expensive for solar applications. The objective of this work is to define glass compositions and processing steps which will result in graded index surface films (which exhibit broad band AR characteristics) on glasses which can be fabricated by the float glass process. The mechanism by which these graded index surface films are produced on glass surfaces consists of preferentially etching one phase from a phase separated glass. The film which remains consists of a porous structure in which the fraction of solid phase increases continuously from the free surface toward the bulk glass. Scattering effects are eliminated by limiting the size of the pore structure to dimensions which are substantially less than the wavelength of light. With this structure, the local index of refraction is proportional to the fraction of solid phase which is present. Characterizations are intended to define the microstructural and chemical nature of the surface film throughout its thickness. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  18. Mesoporous bioactive glass surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shijie; Jian, Zhiyuan; Huang, Linsheng; Xu, Wei; Liu, Shaohua; Song, Dajiang; Wan, Zongmiao; Vaughn, Amanda; Zhan, Ruisen; Zhang, Chaoyue; Wu, Song; Hu, Minghua; Li, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) surface modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration was prepared by dip-coating a PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold into MBG precursor solution. Different surface structures and properties were acquired by different coating times. Surface morphology, chemical composition, microstructure, pore size distribution, and hydrophilicity of the PLGA-MBG scaffold were characterized. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that MBG surface coating made the scaffold rougher with the increase of MBG content. Scaffolds after MBG modification possessed mesoporous architecture on the surface. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of MBG into the PLGA scaffold improved the surface hydrophilicity. An energy dispersive spectrometer evidenced that calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite formed on the PLGA-MBG scaffolds after a 7-day immersion in simulated body fluid. In vitro studies showed that the incorporation of MBG favored cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on the PLGA scaffolds. Moreover, the MBG surface-modified PLGA (PLGA-MBG) scaffolds were shown to be capable of providing the improved adsorption/release behaviors of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). It is very significant that PLGA-MBG scaffolds could be effective for BMP-2 delivery and bone regeneration. PMID:26082632

  19. Mesoporous bioactive glass surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shijie; Jian, Zhiyuan; Huang, Linsheng; Xu, Wei; Liu, Shaohua; Song, Dajiang; Wan, Zongmiao; Vaughn, Amanda; Zhan, Ruisen; Zhang, Chaoyue; Wu, Song; Hu, Minghua; Li, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) surface modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration was prepared by dip-coating a PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold into MBG precursor solution. Different surface structures and properties were acquired by different coating times. Surface morphology, chemical composition, microstructure, pore size distribution, and hydrophilicity of the PLGA-MBG scaffold were characterized. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that MBG surface coating made the scaffold rougher with the increase of MBG content. Scaffolds after MBG modification possessed mesoporous architecture on the surface. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of MBG into the PLGA scaffold improved the surface hydrophilicity. An energy dispersive spectrometer evidenced that calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite formed on the PLGA-MBG scaffolds after a 7-day immersion in simulated body fluid. In vitro studies showed that the incorporation of MBG favored cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on the PLGA scaffolds. Moreover, the MBG surface-modified PLGA (PLGA-MBG) scaffolds were shown to be capable of providing the improved adsorption/release behaviors of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). It is very significant that PLGA-MBG scaffolds could be effective for BMP-2 delivery and bone regeneration. PMID:26082632

  20. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  1. Estimating Dermal Transfer of Copper Particles from the Surfaces of Pressure-Treated Lumber and Implications for Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lumber pressure-treated with micronized copper was examined for the release of copper and copper micro/nanoparticles using a surface wipe method to simulate dermal transfer. In 2003, the wood industry began replacing CCA treated lumber products for residential use with copper ba...

  2. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  3. Turning geothermal waste into glasses and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, C. ); Torres-Martinez, L.M.; Garza, L. ); Avalos-Borja, M. ); Rincon, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Researchers investigating the waste on the pipes at the Cerro Prieto geothermal plant in Mexico found that it contained high amounts of silica. Initial tests showed that this waste silica had a high specific surface area, contained salts that could easily be eliminated, and resisted high temperatures effectively. Further research was done to see if this waste material could be used as silica sand in the production of glass. Testing of the waste material included the following: X-ray diffraction with nickel filters; EDX spectroscopy with ultrathin window; Differential thermal analysis; IR spectroscopy analysis; Electron microscope analysis. The tests were done on the raw material itself and on four sets of glass formulated from the raw material. Two sets of glass were formulated from untreated waste material, and two sets were formulated from treated waste material. The raw material was tested for purity, and the glass was tested for hardness, toughness, and transparency. As the tests show, the silica material from the Cerro Prieto plant steam pipes is not merely useless industrial waste. It is a reproducible source of silica sand that producers can use in ceramic and glass production. The initial tests show that the properties of the raw material, and those of the glass formulated from the raw material, will meet industry requirements.

  4. Fracture resistance of tooth restored with four glass fiber post systems of varying surface geometries-An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Sathish, Emmanuel; Venkatalakshmi-Aparna, Potluri; Balagopal, Sunderasan

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to relate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth in relation to post geometry. Material and Methods Forty single rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented by step - back technique and obturated by lateral condensation. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Reforpost glass fiber X-ray®, RelyX®, Exacto conical® and Parapost Fiber Lux®. The post spaces were prepared using respective drills and luted. The core build up was done and metal crowns were luted. Fracture resistance was determined in universal testing machine. The statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey Kramer test. Results The teeth restored with Reforpost showed highest fracture resistance followed by Parapost and Exacto conical. The teeth restored with RelyX showed least fracture resistance. The teeth restored with Parapost had less unfavourable fracture followed by exacto conical. Conclusions Parallel design had less number of catastrophic failure and had better fracture resistance. Key words:Fracture resistance, glass fiber post, post geometry, stress. PMID:26855705

  5. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments. PMID:27069905

  6. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments. PMID:27069905

  7. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  8. The effects of particle size on the optical properties and surface roughness of a glass-balloon-filled black paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heslin, T.; Heaney, J.; Harper, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of particle size on the optical properties and surface roughness of a glass-balloon-filled, carbon-pigmented paint were studied in order to develop a diffuse-reflecting, low-total-reflectance, low-outgassing black paint. Particle sizes ranged between 20 microns and 74 microns. Surface roughness was found to increase with increasing particle size. Relative total reflectance at near-normal incidence (MgO standard) of the filled paints was less than for the unfilled paint between 230 nm and 1800 nm. Total absolute reflectance at 546 nm decreased with increasing particle size at grazing angles of incidence. Near-normal, total emittance was greater for the filled paints than for the unfilled paint. Specularity decreased with increasing particle size over the range studied.

  9. Photoemission study of ternary to penternary Fe-based metallic glasses: Chemical analysis of surface and bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, M.; Wang, H.-J.; Dongare, A. M.; Shiflet, G. J.; Reinke, P.; Oelhafen, P.; Mun, B. S.; Gu, X. J.; Poon, S. J.

    2007-08-01

    Bulk metallic glasses consisting of Fe, Mo, Cr, C, B, and Er have been investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, aimed to elucidate the local atomic structure of the amorphous phase. In order to examine the electronic properties of this class of material, photon energy dependent measurements in combination with argon-ion irradiation were employed to identify and separate surface and bulk contributions to the spectra. The core levels suggest the presence of a carbon-rich surface layer with oxidized boron and metals, and metal carbides and borides in the bulk. Exposure to molecular oxygen and annealing experiments probe the chemical reactivity of the material. Formation of boron oxides at comparably low temperatures (300°C) might have consequences for the stability of the amorphous phase. We observe variations in binding energy of the Fe 3p core level with respect to the alloy composition, which indicate changes in the chemical state of iron.

  10. The influence of the conditions of ion exchange in CuSO4:Na2SO4 melt on the optical properties of surface layers of silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demichev, I. A.; Sidorov, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of the temperature and duration of ion exchange in BK7 silicate glass in CuSO4:Na2SO4 melt on the optical properties of the glass surface layers has been investigated. It is shown that ion exchange occurs from the melt according to the Cu2+ ↔ 2Na+ scheme. Cu2+ ions penetrate the sample to a depth of about 1 µm. Reduction of Cu2+ ions near the glass surface gives rise to the Cu+ ↔ Na+ ion exchange in the glass. Measurements of refractive index profiles in the glass sample subjected to ion exchange have revealed the formation of two waveguides in the sample: near the surface and at a depth of more than 3 µm; the second waveguide is formed by Cu+ ions. It is shown that relatively low temperatures and short durations of ion exchange lead to the formation of copper molecular clusters Cu n in glass. An increase of ion exchange temperature and duration leads to decomposition of molecular clusters with formation of Cu2+ ions.

  11. Biocompatibility evaluation of surface-treated AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martinesi, M; Bruni, S; Stio, M; Treves, C; Bacci, T; Borgioli, F

    2007-01-01

    The effects of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel, tested in untreated state or subjected to glow-discharge nitriding (at 10 or 20 hPa) and nitriding + post-oxidizing treatments, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were evaluated. All the treated samples showed a better corrosion resistance in PBS and higher surface hardness in comparison with the untreated alloy. In HUVEC put in contact for 72 h with the sample types, proliferation and apoptosis decreased and increased, respectively, in the presence of the nitrided + post-oxidized samples, while only slight differences in cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and TGF-beta1) release were registered. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) increased in HUVEC incubated with all the treated samples, while vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin increased in the presence of all the sample types. PBMC incubated for 48 h with the samples showed a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis in the presence of the untreated samples and the nitrided + post-oxidized ones. All the sample types induced a remarkable increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 release in PBMC culture medium, while only the untreated sample and the nitrided at 10 hPa induced an increase in ICAM-1 expression. In HUVEC cocultured with PBMC, previously put in contact with the treated AISI 316L samples, increased levels of ICAM-1 were detected. In HUVEC coincubated with the culture medium of PBMC, previously put in contact with the samples under study, a noteworthy increase in ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin levels was always registered, with the exception of VCAM-1, which was not affected by the untreated sample. In conclusion, even if the treated samples do not show a marked increase in biocompatibility in comparison with the untreated alloy, their higher corrosion resistance may suggest a better performance as the contact with physiological environment becomes longer. PMID

  12. LiBr treated porous silicon used for efficient surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroug, Ahmed; Haddadi, Ikbel; Derbali, Lotfi; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-01

    A simple but effective passivation method of both front and rear surfaces using porous silicon (PS) has been developed. This paper investigates the effect of LiBr on the passivation of PS. The immersion of as-etched PS in dilute LiBr solution followed by an annealing in an infrared furnace, under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures, led to the passivation of the PS layer and the improvement of the electronic properties of the crystalline silicon substrates. The influence of substrate temperature was investigated, since the processed wafers were found to be sensitive to heat, which in turn was optimized to have a gettering effect. The bromide of lithium can effectively saturate dangling bonds and hence contributed to the formation of a stable passivation film, at both front and back surfaces. Such a reaction was found to have a beneficial effect on the passivation process of the PS layer grown on both sides. The obtained results exhibited a significant improvement of the minority carrier lifetime, which is an important parameter that defines the quality of crystalline silicon substrates, and an apparent enhancement of its photoluminescence (PL). The internal quantum efficiency was investigated and found to be significantly improved. The qualitative effect of the above-mentioned procedure proved a significant enhancement of the electronic quality of the treated substrates.

  13. [Joint prostheses components of warm-forged and surface treated Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy].

    PubMed

    Semlitsch, M; Weber, H; Streicher, R M; Schön, R

    1991-05-01

    In 1978 development of a TiAl alloy with the inert alloying element niobium was initiated. In 1984, the optimal composition was found to be Ti-6Al-7Nb (Protasul-100). This custom-made alloy for implants has the same alpha/beta micro-structure and equally good mechanical properties as Ti-6Al-4V. The corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-7Nb is better than that of pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V, due to the very dense and stable passive layer. Since 1985, highly stressed anchoring stems of various hip prosthesis designs have been manufactured from hot-forged Ti-6Al-7Nb/Protasul-100. Polished surfaces of hip, knee or wrist joints made of Ti-6Al-7Nb intended to articulate with polyethylene are surface-treated by the application of a very hard, 3-5 microns thick titanium nitride coating (Tribosul-TiN), or by oxygen diffusion hardening (Tribosul-ODH) to a depth of 30 microns. PMID:1859861

  14. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  15. Incorporation of amino acids within the surface reactive layers of bioactive glass in vitro: an XPS study.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T A; Davies, J E

    2000-01-01

    Surface reaction layers grown on bioactive glass (Bioglass), by immersion in either simulated body fluid (SBF) or minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) for 2, 5, 32 and 72 h, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Layers grown in alpha-MEM exhibited delamination when observed in SEM. Low resolution XPS analysis detected nitrogen at the surface of the Bioglass exposed to alpha-MEM for 72 h (8 relative at%), whereas insignificant nitrogen was found at the surface of any sample immersed in SBF. XPS depth profiling (argon) showed the presence of nitrogen throughout the depth of the surface layer of the sample incubated in alpha-MEM for 72 h. Deconvolution of the nitrogen envelope in a high resolution XPS spectrum demonstrated nitrogen characteristic of the amine bonds present in amino acids. Carbon concentration also considerably increased over time with exposure to alpha-MEM (24-55%), whereas it remained in the 20-25% range in SBF. These results demonstrate that the amino acids contained in the culture medium were incorporated within the growing calcium phosphate rich surface reaction layer of Bioglass. PMID:15348094

  16. Interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a glass surface - A combined experimental and cohesive zone modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Safari, Ashkan; Tukovic, Zeljko; Cardiff, Philip; Walter, Maik; Casey, Eoin; Ivankovic, Alojz

    2016-02-01

    A good understanding of the mechanical stability of biofilms is essential for biofouling management, particularly when mechanical forces are used. Previous biofilm studies lack a damage-based theoretical model to describe the biofilm separation from a surface. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a rigid glass substrate using a combined experimental and numerical modelling approach. In the current work, the biofilm-glass interfacial separation process was investigated under tensile and shear stresses at the macroscale level, known as modes I and II failure mechanisms respectively. The numerical simulations were performed using a Finite Volume (FV)-based simulation package (OpenFOAM®) to predict the separation initiation using the cohesive zone model (CZM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based retraction curve was used to obtain the separation properties between the biofilm and glass colloid at microscale level, where the CZM parameters were estimated using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. In this study CZM is introduced as a reliable method for the investigation of interfacial separation between a biofilm and rigid substrate, in which a high local stress at the interface edge acts as an ultimate stress at the crack tip.This study demonstrated that the total interfacial failure energy measured at the macroscale, was significantly higher than the pure interfacial separation energy obtained by AFM at the microscale, indicating a highly ductile deformation behaviour within the bulk biofilm matrix. The results of this study can significantly contribute to the understanding of biofilm detachments. PMID:26474034

  17. An in vitro study to assess the setting and surface crazing of conventional glass ionomer cement when layered over partially set mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Suma; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Nandini, Suresh; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2008-04-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the setting time and surface crazing of glass ionomer cement when layered over partially set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). To assess setting time, 40 hollow, cylindrical stainless steel molds were taken and equally divided into 4 groups. In groups I, II, and III glass ionomer cement was layered over partially setting MTA at 45 minutes, 4 hours, and 3 days, respectively. Group IV was used as a control. An additional 50 specimens were prepared for assessment of surface crazing. Twenty specimens (groups I and II) were prepared to study normal and desiccated patterns of conventional glass ionomer cement, respectively. Thirty specimens (groups III, IV, and V) were prepared by layering glass ionomer cement over partially set MTA at various time intervals. All the specimens were stained with red ink and analyzed for craze lines by light microscopy. From our study, it was observed that there was no statistical difference in setting time of glass ionomer cement when layered over partially set MTA in comparison to that of the control group. No craze lines were observed in those specimens (groups III, IV, and V) when viewed under staining and light microscopy. It could be concluded that conventional glass ionomer cement might be layered over partially set MTA after 45 minutes and could be used for single visit procedures. PMID:18358902

  18. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density and high performance for glass surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Masahiro; Matsudaira, Yuto; Hori, Masaru; Inui, Hirotoshi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Naofumi; Ito, Masafumi

    2008-02-25

    We produced a nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by applying an alternative current between two electrodes. The gas temperature and electron density were evaluated using optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the plasma had gas temperatures from 1800 to 2150 K and ultrahigh electron densities in the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. A remarkably high oxygen radical concentration of 1.6x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} was obtained at a 1% O{sub 2}/Ar gas flow rate of 15 slm (standard liters per minute). Contact angles below 10 deg. were obtained in the process of glass cleaning with a plasma exposure time of 23 ms.

  19. Potential utilization of glass experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidl, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    Materials processing in space utilizing the microgravity environment is discussed; glass processing in particular is considered. Attention is given to the processing of glass shells, critical cooling rate and novel glasses, gel synthesis of glasses, immiscibility, surface tension, and glass composites. Soviet glass experiments in space are also enumerated.

  20. Surface Treatments that Demonstrate a Significant Positive Effect on the Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Resin-modified Glass Ionomer.

    PubMed

    Welch, D; Seesengood, B; Hopp, C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined surface treatment options used to repair resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI; GC Fuji II LC, GC America). Two hundred forty specimens were equally divided into four different water/temperature cycling environmental conditions. The conditions were 1) five-minute delay, 2) one-week delay with one thermocycle, 3) 500 thermocycles, and 4) 24-hour delay in a dry environment, followed by 500 thermocycles. Within each of the condition groups, the specimens were equally divided again into three different surface treatment groups with 20 specimens in each. The treatment groups comprised A) sanding, B) sanding and acid etch, and C) sanding, acid etch, and dental bonding agent. Our results suggest that RMGI is extremely susceptible to the simultaneous exposure of temperature cycling and water during the first 24 hours. Our main results reflect that 1) during the first five minutes after the initial placement, the surface treatments made no difference in terms of the shear bond strength (NS); and 2) when we weakened the RMGI by exposing it to water and temperature cycling immediately after initial placement, each of the treatments (Asurface treatment with a dental bonding agent did have a significant positive effect on the micromechanical bond strength of the repair. PMID:25575195

  1. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  2. Paleomagnetism and Mineralogy of Unusual Silicate Glasses and Baked Soils on the Surface of the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile: A Major Airburst Impact ~12ka ago?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P. J.; Blanco, N.; Valenzuela, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Lorand, J. P.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Arriagada, C.; Rochette, P.

    2015-12-01

    Unusual silicate glasses were found in northern Chile in one of the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert. The scoria-type melted rocks are littered on the ground at several localities distributed along a longitudinal band of about 50km. The silicate glasses have a stable natural remanent magnetization carried by fine-grained magnetite and acquired during cooling. At one locality, fine-grained overbank sediments were heated to form a 10 to 20 cm-thick layer of brick-type samples. Magnetic experiments on oriented samples demonstrate that the baked clays record a thermoremanent magnetization acquired in situ above 600°C down to more than 10cm depth and cooled under a normal polarity geomagnetic field with a paleointensity of 40μT. In some samples of the silicate glass, large grains of iron sulphides (troilite) are found in the glass matrix with numerous droplets of native iron, iron sulphides and iron phosphides indicating high temperature and strong redox conditions during melting. The paleomagnetic record of the baked clays and the unusual mineralogy of the silicate glasses indicate a formation mainly by in situ high temperature radiation. Paleomagnetic experiments and chemical analyses indicate that the silicate glasses are not fulgurite type rocks due to lightning events, nor volcanic glasses or even metallurgical slags related to mining activity. The existence of a well-developped baked clay layer indicates that the silicate glasses are not impact-related ejectas. The field, paleomagnetic and mineralogical observations support evidence for a thermal event likely related to a major airburst. The youngest calibrated 14C age on a charcoal sample closely associated with the glass indicates that the thermal event occurred around 12 to 13 ka BP. The good conservation of the surface effects of this thermal event in the Atacama Desert could provide a good opportunity to further estimate the threats posed by large asteroid airbursts.

  3. Chemistry of glass-ceramic to metal bonding for header applications. I. Effect of treatments on Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C-276 metallic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D P; Craven, S M; Schneider, R E; Moddeman, W E; Brohard, D W

    1984-02-02

    Auger electron spectroscopy and depth Auger profiling were used to study the surfaces of Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C-276. The metal surfaces were processed in the same manner as is presently being used in the manufacturing of glass-ceramic headers. At each step in the process, samples were studied with Auger spectroscopy to determine their resultant elemental surface composition and film thickness. In addition, the effect of a final plasma cleaning operation on the metal surface was examined. The results show that the type and concentration of surface species and the thickness of the surface oxides are dependent on the processing technique.

  4. A two-dimensional phase separation on the spherical surface of the metallic glass Au55Pb22.5Sb22.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that a phase separation in a spherical sample of the metallic glass Au55Pb22.5Sb22.5 occurs near the surface of the sphere. This strongly suggests either a contribution of surface-free energy to the decomposition process or a possible influence of near surface impurities absorbed during synthesis of the sphere. The surface phase separation has been studied as a function of cooling rate of the sphere. At high cooling rates (small sphere sizes), the surface separation disappears altogether suggesting that the surface of the parent liquid droplet is initially homogeneous.

  5. Effects of glass surface area-to-solution volume ratio (S/V) on glass dissolution. Part one: Relationship between S/V and leachate pH

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Pegg, I.L.

    1992-11-01

    The observed relationship between S/V and leachate pH is discussed in terms of a simple model of the glass dissolution process. Data from leach tests on several nuclear waste glass compositions at different S/V ratios show that the leachate pH increases with time and then stabilizes at a nearly constant value beyond about 28 days. This stabilized pH increases systematically with the S/V ratio of the test. The model developed here reproduces the essential features of the data and suggests that a single parameter describing the intrinsic rate of alkali diffusion and ion exchange from the glass is sufficient to represent the major glass composition dependence. Interestingly, the results are essentially independent of the rate constant for matrix dissolution. This study suggests that the diffusion-ion exchange process is central in determining the solution pH and its dependence on S/V and the glass reaction, at least under static or low-flow-rate test conditions, is driven by alkali release.

  6. The Effect of Surface Treated Nanoparticles on Single and Multi-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, D. A.; Aminzadeh, B.; Chung, D.; Zhang, X.; Wung, R.; Huh, C.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Surface treated nanoparticles have been suggested to be an additive to CO2 storage scenarios. This is because 1) the nanoparticles have been shown to freely transport through permeable media, and 2) the nanoparticles can stabilize a CO2 in water foam by adhering to the surface of CO2 bubbles/droplets preventing their coalescence. In terms of storage, The formation of CO2 foam will limit the CO2 mobility which can potentially help limit the CO2 leakage. Here, we will show how nanoparticles in porous media can have many interesting properties in single and multi-phase flow. For multi-phase CO2, we have performed experiments where high pressure liquid CO2 displaces brine and vice versa with and without nanoparticles in the brine. We measure the displacement pattern and in-situ CO2 saturation using CT scanning and measure the pressure drop using pressure transducers. We find that the flow is less preferential and the pressure drop is greater than when nanoparticles are present. This suggest the formation of in-situ foam/emulsion. We also show that on a brine chase, the residual saturation of CO2 is greater in the presence of nanoparticles. In terms of nanoparticle transport, it is observed that nanoparticles accumulate at the front of a brine/octane displacement. We hypothesize that this occurs due to the nanoparticles being size excluded from portions of the pore-space. To determine if this occurs in single phase flow, we have also performed experiments single-phase flow with the nanoparticles and tracer. We find that the nanoparticles arrive roughly 5% faster than the tracer. This also has implications for the positioning of nanoparticles in the pore space and how this can change the effective viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension.

  7. Molecular weight dependence of surface flow near the bulk glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yu; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphael, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the study on molecular weight dependent sub-Tg surface dynamics of polymer thin films by using the Nano-step experiment [McGraw et al. Soft Matter 7, 7832 (2011)]. By varying the molecular weight, we are able to probe the surface dynamics of the free surface below Tg with the polymer size comparable to the surface depth. In particular, we define and use a correlation function to compare measured and calculated profiles to analyze the transition from the bulk flow to flow restricted to the surface region. Surprisingly, even for the polymers with Mw = 22,000 surface flow is still observed below the bulk Tg value. A numerical simulation of random walk is used to find the fraction of polymer of which all of the polymer segments are located in the free surface region. The simulation results indicate that there are still a significant fraction of polymer molecules where all segments are in the near free surface region. These molecules can undergo flow consistent with the experimental results.

  8. Properties of thermo-chemically surface treated carbon fibers and of their epoxy and vinyl ester composites

    SciTech Connect

    Vautard, Frederic; Ozcan, Soydan; Meyer III, Harry M

    2012-01-01

    High strength carbon fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermo-chemical surface treatment. The surface and the mechanical properties of the fibers were investigated before and after treatment and compared to the properties obtained with a conventional industrial electro-chemical surface treatment. An increase of the oxygen atomic content from 3 % to 20 % with a preferential generation of carboxylic acid functionalities and hydroxyl groups was highlighted after the thermo-chemical surface treatment, compared to an oxygen atomic content of 7 % and a wide variety of oxygen moieties with the electro-chemical surface treatment. The tensile strength of the fibers increased slightly after the thermo-chemical surface treatment and remained the same after the electro-chemical surface treatment. Short beam shear and 90 flexural tests of composites revealed that the improvement of interfacial adhesion with a vinyl ester matrix was limited, revealing that oxidation of the carbon fiber surface alone cannot tremendously improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. Atomic force microscopy showed that the creation of roughness with both surface treatments at a nanometric scale. Although the surface is slightly rougher after the electro-chemical surface treatment and is expected to lead to higher adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between the fiber surface and the matrix, the effect of covalent bonding coming from the high concentration of chemical groups on the surface results in higher adhesion strength, as obtained with the thermo-chemical surface treatment.

  9. Fungistatic activity of heat-treated flaxseed determined by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Hall, C; Wolf-Hall, C

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the fungistatic activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. The radial growth of Penicilliumn chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from moldy noodles, as well as the mold count of fresh noodle enriched with heat treated flaxseed, were used to assess antifungal activity. A central composite design in the response surface methodology was used to predict the effect of heating temperature and time on antifungal activity of flaxseed flour (FF). Statistical analysis determined that the linear terms of both variables (that is, heating temperature and time) and the quadratic terms of the heating temperature had significant (P<0.05) effects on the radial growth of all 3 test fungi and the mold count log-cycle reduction of fresh noodle. The interactions between the temperature and time were significant for all dependent variables (P<0.05). Significant reductions in antifungal activities were found when FF was subjected to high temperatures, regardless of heating time. In contrast, prolonging the heating time did not substantially affect the antifungal activities of FF at low temperature. However, 60% of the antifungal activity was retained after FF was heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min, which suggests a potential use of FF as an antifungal additive in food products subjected to low to mild heat treatments. PMID:19241553

  10. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. PMID:27544264

  11. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  12. Surface chemistry and optical property of TiO{sub 2} thin films treated by low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dhayal, Marshal Jun, Jin; Gu, Hal Bon; Hee Park, Kyung

    2007-10-15

    The low temperature RF plasma treatment was used to control the surface chemistry and optical property of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering with a very good uniformity at 300 deg. C substrate heating temperature. The XRD pattern indicates the crystalline structure of the film could be associated to amorphous structure of TiO{sub 2} in thin film. The plasma treatment of TiO{sub 2} film can increase the proportion of Ti{sup 3+} in Ti2p and decrease in carbon atoms as alcohol/ether group in C1s at the surface. The optical transmittance of the film was enhanced by 50% after the plasma treatment. The surface structure and morphology remain the same for untreated and low-pressure plasma-treated films. Therefore, increase in the optical transmission could be due to change in surface chemistry and surface cleaning by plasma treatment. - Graphical abstract: The surface chemistry and surface states of TiO{sub 2} films was modified using low-pressure RF plasma treatment. The surface roughness and crystalline structure remain unchanged for low-pressure plasma-treated films. There was an increase in the Ti{sup 3+} surface states of Ti2p at the surface and this can be useful to increase the photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2} films. The proportion of carbon atoms as carboxyl group in C1s was also increased after plasma treatment. All the plasma-treated films show a higher optical transmittance when untreated and it was increased when the power was increased. The increase in the optical transmission could be due to surface cleaning of films by plasma treatment and possibly due to change in the surface chemistry.

  13. Surface-initiated hyperbranched polyglycerol as an ultralow-fouling coating on glass, silicon, and porous silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli; Delalat, Bahman; Vasani, Roshan; McPhee, Gordon; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-09-10

    Anionic ring-opening polymerization of glycidol was initiated from activated glass, silicon, and porous silicon substrates to yield thin, ultralow-fouling hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) graft polymer coatings. Substrates were activated by deprotonation of surface-bound silanol functionalities. HPG polymerization was initiated upon the addition of freshly distilled glycidol to yield films in the nanometer thickness range. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and ellipsometry were used to characterize the resulting coatings. The antifouling properties of HPG-coated surfaces were evaluated in terms of protein adsorption and the attachment of mammalian cells. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin and collagen type I was found to be reduced by as much as 97 and 91%, respectively, in comparison to untreated surfaces. Human glioblastoma and mouse fibroblast attachment was reduced by 99 and 98%, respectively. HPG-grafted substrates outperformed polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted substrates of comparable thickness under the same incubation conditions. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of antifouling HPG graft polymer coatings on a selected range of substrate materials and open the door for their use in biomedical applications. PMID:25137525

  14. Self-cleaning antimicrobial surfaces by bio-enabled growth of SnO2 coatings on glass.

    PubMed

    André, Rute; Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Berger, Rüdiger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-21

    Conventional vapor-deposition techniques for coatings require sophisticated equipment and/or high-temperature resistant substrates. Therefore bio-inspired techniques for the fabrication of inorganic coatings have been developed in recent years. Inspired by the biology behind the formation of the intricate skeletons of diatoms orchestrated by a class of cationic polyamines (silaffins) we have used surface-bound spermine, a naturally occurring polyamine, to promote the fast deposition of homogeneous, thin and transparent biomimetic SnO2 coatings on glass surfaces. The bio-enabled SnO2 film is highly photoactive, i.e. it generates superoxide radicals (O2˙(-)) upon sunlight exposure resulting in a strong degradation of organic contaminants and a strong antimicrobial activity. Upon illumination the biomimetic SnO2 coating exhibits a switchable amphiphilic behavior, which - in combination with its photoactivity - creates a self-cleaning surface. The intrinsic self-cleaning properties could lead to the development of new protective, antifouling coatings on various substrates. PMID:23475228

  15. Method for making glass nonfogging

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Carter, Gary W.; Petrini, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    A method for rendering glass nonfogging (to condensation fog) by sandwiching the glass between two electrodes such that the glass functions as the dielectric of a capacitor, a large alternating current (AC) voltage is applied across the electrodes for a selected time period causing the glass to absorb a charge, and the electrodes are removed. The glass absorbs a charge from the electrodes rendering it nonfogging. The glass surface is undamaged by application of the AC voltage, and normal optical properties are unaffected. This method can be applied to optical surfaces such as lenses, auto windshields, mirrors, etc., wherever condensation fog on glass is a problem.

  16. Commenting on the effects of surface treated- and non-surface treated TiO2 in the Caco-2 cell model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a recent work published in Particle and Fibre Toxicology by Fisichella and coworkers investigating surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticle exposure in a model human intestinal epithelium (Caco-2), albeit degraded to mimic conditions in the gut and exposure to natural sunlight, purportedly resulted in no toxic effects. The authors (Fisichella et al.) claim to have confirmed the results of a 2010 report by Koeneman et al. However, the study by Koeneman and colleagues revealed significant effects of unmodified TiO2 nanoparticles. These contradicting data warrant further investigation into the possible effects of aluminum hydroxide, as these nanoparticles appear to have resulted in an abnormal apical surface in Caco-2 cells. This is a comment on http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/pdf/1743-8977-9-18.pdf. PMID:23146628

  17. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on different Ti surfaces: modified sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (MSLA), laser-treated, and laser and acid-treated Ti surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jie; Kim, So-Nam

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface treatment on cell differentiation of osteoblast cells. For this purpose, three surfaces were compared: (1) a modified SLA (MSLA: sand-blasted with large grit, acid-etched, and immersed in 0.9% NaCl), (2) a laser treatment (LT: laser treatment) titanium surface and (3) a laser and acid-treated (LAT: laser treatment, acid-etched) titanium surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS The MSLA surfaces were considered as the control group, and LT and LAT surfaces as test groups. Alkaline phosphatase expression (ALP) was used to quantify osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell. Surface roughness was evaluated by a contact profilometer (URFPAK-SV; Mitutoyo, Kawasaki, Japan) and characterized by two parameters: mean roughness (Ra) and maximum peak-to-valley height (Rt). RESULTS Scanning electron microscope revealed that MSLA (control group) surface was not as rough as LT, LAT surface (test groups). Alkaline phosphatase expression, the measure of osteoblastic differentiation, and total ALP expression by surface-adherent cells were found to be highest at 21 days for all three surfaces tested (P<.05). Furthermore, ALP expression levels of MSLA and LAT surfaces were significantly higher than expression levels of LT surface-adherent cells at 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively (P<.05). However, ALP expression levels between MSLA and LAT surface were equal at 7, 14, and 21 days (P>.05). CONCLUSION This study suggested that MSLA and LAT surfaces exhibited more favorable environment for osteoblast differentiation when compared with LT surface, the results that are important for implant surface modification studies. PMID:27350860

  18. Five year water and nitrogen balance for a constructed surface flow wetland treating agricultural drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Tocchetto, Davide

    2007-07-15

    The performance of a constructed surface flow wetland in reducing diffuse N pollution coming from croplands is being investigated in an ongoing experiment, begun in 1998 in NE Italy. The 0.32 ha wetland is vegetated with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. and Typha latifolia (L.). It receives drainage water from 6 ha of land managed for an experiment on drainage systems, where maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and soybean are cultivated. During the period 1998-2002, the wetland received from 4698 to 8412 mm of water per year (on average, about 9 times the environmental rainfall); its water regimen was discontinuous and flooding occurred on a variable number of days per year (from 13 to 126). Nitric nitrogen was the most important form of element load. Its concentration in the inflow water over time was rather discontinuous, with median values ranging from 0.2 (in 2001) to 4.5 (in 2000) mg L(-1). Inflow nitric N concentrations were occasionally in the 5-15 mg L(-1) range. Concentrations reduced passing through the wetland, with a more evident effect in the last year. Over 5 years, the wetland received slightly more than 2000 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen, 87% in nitric form mostly from farmland drainage. The remaining 13% of N was applied as organic slurry directly onto the wetland, with 5 distributions during 1998 to assess wetland performance in treating occasional organic loads. Field drainage loads had a discontinuous time pattern and occurred mostly during autumn-winter, with the exception of the 2001-2002 season which was a very dry. The wetland discharged 206 kg ha(-1) of N, over the 5-year period, with an apparent removal efficiency of about 90%. The disappearance was mostly due to plant uptake (1110 kg ha(-1)) and soil accumulation (570 kg ha(-1)), with the contribution of denitrification being estimated at around 7%. PMID:17270250

  19. Can alteration experiments on impact melts from El'gygytgyn and volcanic glasses shed new light on the formation of the Martian surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellevang, Helge; Dypvik, Henning; Kalleson, Elin; Pittarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-07-01

    This investigation involved three specimens: an altered felsic sample of impactite from the ICDP El'gygytgyn drill core D1c, and two reference volcanics from Iceland, namely a rhyolitic glass and a basaltic glass. The goal of this work was to better understand the alteration of impact melt and volcanic glass, and to apply the results to an investigation of alteration processes below the surface of Mars. Hydrothermal batch alteration experiments with the El'gygytgyn sample showed formation of various silica phases such as cristobalite, opal, and quartz. According to geochemical modeling, zeolites were also expected, but zeolite minerals already present in the impactite prior to the experiment may have masked possible experimental zeolite growth. Basaltic glass was altered to smectite, talc, and opal. The accompanying numerical modeling gave results that were similar or comparable to the laboratory experiments. Rhyolitic glass was kinetically more stable than basaltic glass, and showed only minor formation of calcite and feldspar during the 3-week experiment. The study showed that closed-system isochemical alteration of both siliceous and mafic glasses and melts results in the formation of smectites and zeolites. Therefore, to link alteration features on Mars to specific physical conditions, the exact identity of the mineral phases present in surface rocks must be known. Moreover, our simulations on closed-system isochemical alteration showed that the fraction of zeolites and silica formed relative to smectite depends on the source mineral altered. Therefore, fractions of these mineral groups present in the Martian soil may be used to better predict source rock characteristics.

  20. Effect of reactive species on surface crosslinking of plasma-treated polymers investigated by surface force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, S.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2006-09-18

    Polymer surface modification by ions, uncharged particles, and photons of inductively coupled Ar plasma was investigated with a surface force microscope. Optical windows consisting of crystals with different cutoff wavelengths and a metal shield were used to deconvolute the effects of the various plasma species on the modification of the surface nanomechanical properties of polyethylene. The extent of surface crosslinking was related to the frictional energy dissipated during nanoscratching. It is shown that surface crosslinking is primarily due to the simultaneous effects of uncharged particles and vacuum ultraviolet photons, while the ion bombardment effect is secondary.

  1. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  2. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  3. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  4. Effect of silicon carbide on devitrification of a glass coating for reusable surface insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, P. O.

    1978-01-01

    Devitrification (nucleation and growth of cristobalite) were investigated in the LI-0042 coating used for the space shuttle surface insulation. Excessive devitrification was found to be associated with the silicon carbide (SiC) constituent in the coating. Test results show that significant devitrification occurred only when SiC was present in the coating and when the thermal-exposure atmosphere was oxidizing.

  5. Surface wettability and energy effects on the biological performance of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate films treated with RF plasma.

    PubMed

    Syromotina, D S; Surmenev, R A; Surmeneva, M A; Boyandin, A N; Nikolaeva, E D; Prymak, O; Epple, M; Ulbricht, M; Oehr, C; Volova, T G

    2016-05-01

    The surface properties of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) membranes were modified using oxygen and an ammonia radio-frequency (RF, 13.56MHz) plasma. The plasma treatment procedures used in the study only affected the surface properties, including surface topography, without inducing any significant changes in the crystalline structure of the polymer, with the exception being a power level of 250W. The wettability of the modified P3HB surfaces was significantly increased after the plasma treatment, irrespective of the treatment procedure used. It was revealed that both surface chemistry and surface roughness changes caused by the plasma treatment affected surface wettability. A treatment-induced surface aging effect was observed and resulted in an increase in the water contact angle and a decrease in the surface free energy. However, the difference in the water contact angle between the polymers that had been treated for 4weeks and the untreated polymer surfaces was still significant. A dependence between cell adhesion and proliferation and the polar component of the surface energy was revealed. The increase in the polar component after the ammonia plasma modification significantly increased cell adhesion and proliferation on biodegradable polymer surfaces compared to the untreated P3HB and the P3HB modified using an oxygen plasma. PMID:26952446

  6. The characteristics of treated zone processed by pulsed Nd-YAG laser surface remelting on hot work steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Lin, Pengyu; Cong, Dalong; Kong, Shuhua; Zhou, Hong; Ren, Luquan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the surface of H13 steel was treated using laser surface remelting. Some important characteristics of the treated zone (biomimetic strengthening units) were investigated, e.g. size, cross-sectional morphology, microstructure and hardness as functions of average peak power density and effective peak power density. The results indicate that different combinations of average peak power density and effective peak power density could vary the appearance of cross-sectional morphology, microstructure and hardness. An appropriate range of EPPD for preparing the treated zone was acquired: 595-1448 W/mm2. In this range, the depth/width ratio of 0.31-0.47 and microhardness of 559-667 HV were obtained.

  7. Surface treatments for repair of feldspathic, leucite - and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramics using composite resin.

    PubMed

    Neis, Christian Alencar; Albuquerque, Nadine Luísa Guimarães; Albuquerque, Ivo de Souza; Gomes, Erica Alves; Souza-Filho, Celso Bernardo de; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro; Bacchi, Atais

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a restorative composite repair in three types of dental ceramics: lithium disilicate-reinforced, leucite-reinforced and feldspathic. Twelve blocks were sintered for each type of ceramic (n=3) and stored for 3 months in distilled water at 37 °C. The bonding surface of ceramics was abraded with 600-grit SiC paper. Surface treatments for each ceramic were: GC (control) - none; GDB - diamond bur #30 µm; GHF - hydrofluoric acid (10%); GT- tribochemical silica coating (45-μm size particles). Treatments were followed by cleaning with phosphoric acid 37% for 20 s + silane + adhesive. The composite resin was used as restorative material. After repair, samples were subjected to thermocycled ageing (10,000 cycles between 5 °C and 55 °C for 30 s). Thereafter, the samples were sectioned into 1.0 mm2 sticks and tested for microtensile bond strength with 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The superficial wear with diamond bur proved to be suitable for feldspathic porcelain and for leucite-reinforced glass ceramic while hydrofluoric acid-etching is indicated for repairs in lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic; tribochemical silica coating is applicable to leucite-reinforced ceramic. Predominance of adhesive failures was observed (>85% in all groups). In conclusion, the success of surface treatments depends on the type of ceramic to be repaired. PMID:25831106

  8. Recovery of phosphonate surface contaminants from glass using a simple vacuum extractor with a solid-phase microextraction fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; Jill R. Scott; Cathy Rae

    2011-07-01

    Recovery of chemical contaminants from fixed surfaces for analysis can be challenging particularly if it is not possible to acquire a solid sample. A simple device is described that collects semivolatile organic compounds from fixed surfaces by creating an enclosed volume over the surface, then generating a modest vacuum. A solid-phase microextraction fiber is then inserted into the evacuated volume where it functions to sorb volatilized organic contaminants. The device is based on a syringe modified with a seal that is used to create the vacuum, with a perforable plunger through which the SPME fiber is inserted. The vacuum speeds partitioning of the semivolatile compounds into the gas phase, and reduces the boundary layer around the SPME fiber, which enables a fraction of the volatilized organics to partition into the SPME fiber. After sample collection the SPME fiber is analyzed using conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The methodology has been used to collect organophosphorus compounds from glass surfaces, to provide a simple test for the functionality of the devices. Thirty minute sampling times (deltaTvac) resulted in fractional recovery efficiencies ranged from 10(-3) to > 10(-1), and in absolute terms collection of low nanograms was demonstrated. Fractional recovery values were correlated to the vapor pressure of the compounds being sampled. Fractional recovery increased with increasing deltaTvac, and displayed a roughly logarithmic profile indicating that an operational equilibrium is being approached. Fractional recovery decreased with increasing time between exposure and sampling, however recordable quantities of the phosphonates could be collected three weeks after exposure.

  9. Modeling and prediction of transmission laser bonding process between titanium coated glass and PET based on response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huixia; Wang, Kai; Li, Pin; Zhang, Cheng; Du, Daozhong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Xiao

    2012-03-01

    Laser bonding parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of laser transmission bonding between PET films and titanium films coated glass sheets. In order to achieve good bond strength and minimal bond width, three key process parameters affecting the bond quality of transmission laser bonding, namely, laser power, bond speed and film thickness were optimized by response surface methodology in this paper. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop mathematical models between the key process parameters and the desired responses and the central composite design (CCD) was utilized to conduct experimental planning. The samples were tested using an electromechanical universal micro-tester in order to determine bond strength. The morphology of the bonded area was observed with an optical microscope. The interaction effect of main process parameters on bond quality was researched. Design Expert analysis indicated that the best laser power, bond speed and film thickness on bond quality were 11.2 W, 4 mm/s and 163 nm, respectively. Finally, the experimental results are consistent with the predicted, which illustrates that the developed mathematical models can predict the responses adequately.

  10. Effect of antioxidants on push-out bond strength of hydrogen peroxide treated glass fiber posts bonded with two types of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Tarighi, Pardis; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) surface treatment of fiber posts has been reported to increase bond strength of fiber posts to resin cements. However, residual oxygen radicals might jeopardize the bonding procedure. This study examined the effect of three antioxidant agents on the bond strength of fiber posts to conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Post spaces were prepared in forty human maxillary second premolars. Posts were divided into five groups of 8 each: G1 (control), no pre-treatment; G2, 10% H2O2 pre-treatment; G3, G4 and G5. After H2O2 application, Hesperidin (HES), Sodium Ascorbate (SA) or Rosmarinic acid (RA) was applied on each group respectively. In each group four posts were cemented with Duo-Link conventional resin cement and the others with self-adhesive BisCem cement. Push-out test was performed and data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the cement type and post surface treatment on push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p < 0.001, F = 16). Also it was shown that different posts' surface treatments significantly affect the push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p = 0.001). H2O2 treated posts (G2) and control posts (G1) cemented with Duo-link showed the highest (15.96 ± 5.07MPa) and lowest bond strengths (6.79 ± 3.94) respectively. Conclusions It was concluded that H2O2 surface treatment might enhance the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with conventional resin cements. The effect of antioxidants as post's surface treatment agents depends on the characteristics of resin cements used for bonding procedure. PMID:25383350

  11. [In vivo study of bacterial invasion in root planed and citric acid treated radicular surfaces of periodontally involved human teeth].

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Arai, N; Otogoto, J; Murai, S

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether plaque bacteria invade the exposed radicular dentin after root planing or chemical root treatment in vivo. Eighteen caries-free human periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognoses were studied. Fourteen teeth were scaled and root planed with hand curette type scalers. The proximal surface of each treated tooth was designated as the RP surface. The remaining half of the proximal surface was treated with citric acid (pH 1.0) for 3 minutes and was designated as the CA surface. Four untreated teeth served as controls. After 4 weeks, the teeth were extracted, and were processed for light microscopy and for scanning electron microscopy concerning bacterial invasion into the supragingival radicular dentin. The following results were obtained. 1. Radicular cementum was present on most untreated tooth surfaces. However, bacteria were never seen in the dentinal tubules. 2. Bacterial invasion into the dentinal tubules was observed in five of the 10 proximal surfaces (50% of the RP surfaces) and in nine of the 10 proximal surfaces (90% of the CA surfaces). 3. The depth (9.5 +/- 24.1 microns vs 84.6 +/- 136.3 microns) and percentage (0.8 +/- 2.1% vs 20.3 +/- 17.3%) of bacterial invasion in the dentinal tubules of the RP surfaces was lower than that of the CA surfaces. 4. Cocci and short rods were present in the supragingival dentinal tubules. 5. Since CA surfaces may accelerate bacterial invasion the citric acid treatment might be harmful in patients with inadequate plaque control. PMID:2700200

  12. Wave guiding by low refractive-index strips on surfaces of Chalcogenide glass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanfen; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated a simple ChG waveguide structure, guided by low refractive-index strips on the surfaces of planar ChG films. Theoretical analysis shows that it supports quasi-TE mode transmission in 1.5μm band with high nonlinearity. Samples of this surface guiding ChG waveguides are fabricated. Its transmission properties are measured by the cut-off method, showing a waveguide attenuation of 0.67dB/mm and a coupling loss with optical fibers of ~8dB/facet. It provides a simple way to realize high quality ChG waveguides, which has great potential in developing nonlinear photonic devices.

  13. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anasane, Nayana; Ahirrao, Yogesh; Chitnis, Deepa; Meshram, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each), depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round), with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05). Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < 0.001) (88.77 MPa), with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa) which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours (P < 0.001). Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins. PMID:23946739

  14. Bone attachment to glass-fibre-reinforced composite implant with porous surface.

    PubMed

    Mattila, R H; Laurila, P; Rekola, J; Gunn, J; Lassila, L V J; Mäntylä, T; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2009-06-01

    A method has recently been developed for producing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC) with porous surfaces, intended for use as load-bearing orthopaedic implants. This study focuses on evaluation of the bone-bonding behaviour of FRC implants. Three types of cylindrical implants, i.e. FRC implants with a porous surface, solid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) implants and titanium (Ti) implants, were inserted in a transverse direction into the intercondular trabeculous bone area of distal femurs and proximal tibias of New Zealand White rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post operation, and push-out tests (n=5-6 per implant type per time point) were then carried out. At 12 weeks the shear force at the porous FRC-bone interface was significantly higher (283.3+/-55.3N) than the shear force at interfaces of solid PMMA/bone (14.4+/-11.0 N; p<0.001) and Ti/bone (130.6+/-22.2N; p=0.001). Histological observation revealed new bone growth into the porous surface structure of FRC implants. Solid PMMA and Ti implants were encapsulated mostly with fibrous connective tissue. Finite element analysis (FEA) revealed that porous FRC implants had mechanical properties which could be tailored to smooth the shear stress distribution at the bone-implant interface and reduce the stress-shielding effect. PMID:19268643

  15. Persistence of Arcobacter butzleri CCUG 30484 on plastic, stainless steel and glass surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cervenka, Libor; Kristlova, Jana; Peskova, Iva; Vytrasova, Jarmila; Pejchalova, Marcela; Brozkova, Iveta

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of A. butzleri CCUG 30484 on various surfaces under 32% and 64% relative humidity suspended in physiological saline or nutrient broth to simulate relatively clean or soiled conditions was studied using various isolation techniques. Our study revealed that A. butzleri CCUG 30484 cells were able to survive for a considerable period of time, even after the droplet of suspending medium has been visibly dried. An extended survival on polypropylene coupons at both humidity levels was observed, particularly at soiled conditions. PMID:24031258

  16. Influence of surface processes on surface discharges generated on borosilicate glass barriers in high-pressure CO2 up to supercritical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) generated in CO2from atmospheric pressure up to supercritical conditions (Tc = 304.13 K, pc = 7.4 MPa) using 10-kHz AC excitation are investigated experimentally using current-voltage and charge-voltage measurements, imaging, and optical emission spectroscopy. Surface processes are investigated to resolve unexplained phenomena from related work on the ``standard'' and ``field-emitting Townsend'' discharge regimes. Variations in the energy, residual or ``memory'' charge, and spatial homogeneity of the field-emitting Townsend regime are shown to depend on the duration that the discharge runs continuously. The memory charge is positive for the field-emitting Townsend regime but negative for the standard regime. It is demonstrated that high discharge homogeneity and low variation in the discharge energy is correlated with the maximization of positive memory charge. Charge neutralization of plasma ions and electrons by anions and cations in the borosilicate glass is proposed as the process responsible for the presence of nanosecond current pulses in the field-emitting Townsend regime. This work was supported financially in part by MEXT and JSPS.

  17. Impact of surface treatment of different reinforced glass-ceramic anterior crowns on load bearing capacity.

    PubMed

    Emslander, Angela; Reise, Michael; Eichberger, Marlis; Uhrenbacher, Julia; Edelhoff, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of different surface treatments on fracture load (FL) of canine crowns fabricated from two different pressable lithium-disilicate ceramics: A (HS10PC, estetic ceram, n=180) and B (IPS e.max Press, IvoclarVivadent, n=120). The standardized specimens were divided into groups of six different surface treatments and two glazing temperatures. A-group specimens were additionally assigned two glazing pastes with various thermal expansion coefficients (TEC). FL was measured and TECs were determined. Data were analyzed using three/one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Scheffe's test. B showed comparable or higher FL than A (B: 503-876 N; A: 375-734 N). Lithium-disilicate crowns show higher FL when not grinded but only polished or glazed. Glazing pastes affected FL depending on their TECs, firing temperature and crown treatment. TEC of A and B was 10 ppm/K, glazing pastes for A presented TECs of 7.5 ppm/K and 10 ppm/K and for B of 9 ppm/K. PMID:26438982

  18. PARAMETERS OF TREATED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES IMPORTANT FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety during processing. Common finishing treatments of stainless steel surfaces used for components of poultry processing equipment were tested for resistance to bacterial attachment. Surface char...

  19. Thermotriggered Catalyst-Free Modification of a Glass Surface with an Orthogonal Agent Possessing Nitrile N-Oxide and Masked Ketene Functions.

    PubMed

    Cheawchan, Sumitra; Uchida, Satoshi; Sogawa, Hiromitsu; Koyama, Yasuhito; Takata, Toshikazu

    2016-01-12

    The thermotriggered modification of surfaces was performed under catalyst-free conditions using an orthogonal agent possessing both nitrile N-oxide and Meldrum's acid moieties. The nitrile N-oxide moiety of the orthogonal agent successfully underwent catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to unsaturated bonds of glass surfaces to produce Meldrum's acid-functionalized surfaces. The subsequent thermal decomposition of Meldrum's acid moiety in the presence of nucleophiles afforded versatile nucleophile-modified surfaces (e.g., wet, waterproof, and photoactive surfaces). Surface characteristics were investigated with the water contact angle, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, the surface modification of silica nanoparticles using the orthogonal agent was also achieved to evaluate the density of the functional group concentration on the surface. PMID:26652940

  20. Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear waste glass at 200{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, W.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    The SON 68 inactive {open_quotes}R7T7{close_quotes} composition is the French reference glass for the LWR nuclear waste glass. Vapor phase alteration was used to accelerate the reaction progress of glass corrosion and to develop the characteristic suite of secondary, alteration phases. Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six inactive R7T7 waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200{degrees}C) for 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The AEM samples were examined in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered with a thin altered rind. The layer became thicker with time: 0.5 {mu}m for 22 days; 4 {mu}m for 91 days; 6 {mu}m for 241 days; 10 {mu}m for 908 days; 26 {mu}m for 1013 days; and <35 {mu}m for 1021 days. The composite alteration layer of the SON 68 samples is at least four time less thick than that of the SRL 131 glass composition. Six distinctive zones, based on phase chemistry and microstructure, were distinguished within the well-developed surface layers. Numerous crystalline phases such as analcime, tobermorite, apatite, and weeksite were identified on the surfaces of the reacted glasses as precipitates. Two crystalline phases, Ag{sub 2}TeO{sub 3} and (Ca,Sr)Mo{sub 3}O{sub 9}(OH){sub 2}, were found within the inner zones of surface layers, and they must have nucleated in situ, indicating that Ag, Te, Sr, and Mo can be retained within the surface layer. The majority of the surface layer volume is composed of two morphologically and chemically different structures: one consists of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates occurring along with cavities, the A-domain; and the other consists of poorly-crystallized regions containing needle-like smectite (montmorillonite) crystallites, a silica-rich amorphous matrix, and possibly ZrO{sub 2} particles, the B-domain.