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Sample records for glaucoma valve implant

  1. A Novel Implantable Glaucoma Valve Using Ferrofluid

    PubMed Central

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I.; Chodosh, James; Sperling, Ralph A.; Salvador-Culla, Borja; Dohlman, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel design of an implantable glaucoma valve based on ferrofluidic nanoparticles and to compare it with a well-established FDA approved valve. Setting Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA. Methods A glaucoma valve was designed using soft lithography techniques utilizing a water-immiscible magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) as a pressure-sensitive barrier to aqueous flow. Two rare earth micro magnets were used to calibrate the opening and closing pressure. In-vitro flow measurements were performed to characterize the valve and to compare it to Ahmed™ glaucoma valve. The reliability and predictability of the new valve was verified by pressure/flow measurements over a period of three months and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis over a period of eight weeks. In vivo assessment was performed in three rabbits. Results In the in vitro experiments, the opening and closing pressures of the valve were 10 and 7 mmHg, respectively. The measured flow/pressure response was linearly proportional and reproducible over a period of three months (1.8 µl/min at 12 mmHg; 4.3 µl/min at 16 mmHg; 7.6 µl/min at 21 mmHg). X-ray diffraction analysis did not show oxidization of the ferrofluid when exposed to water or air. Preliminary in vivo results suggest that the valve is biocompatible and can control the intraocular pressure in rabbits. Conclusions The proposed valve utilizes ferrofluid as passive, tunable constriction element to provide highly predictable opening and closing pressures while maintaining ocular tone. The ferrofluid maintained its magnetic properties in the aqueous environment and provided linear flow to pressure response. Our in-vitro tests showed reliable and reproducible results over a study period of three months. Preliminary in-vivo results were very promising and currently more thorough investigation of this device is underway. PMID:23840691

  2. Efficacy and safety of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant in Chinese eyes with complicated glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, J.; Poon, A.; Chua, J.; Tham, C.; Leung, A.; Lam, D.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant in Chinese eyes with complicated glaucomas.
METHODS—This retrospective study reviewed the final intraocular pressure, visual outcome, and incidence of complications in all patients with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant performed at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, between June 1996 and November 1998.
RESULTS—A total of 65 eyes from 60 patients were treated with the Ahmed glaucoma implant. At a mean follow up (SD, median) of 21.8 (9.2, 28.0) months (range 6-37 months), the mean intraocular pressure was reduced from 37.0 (SD 12.1) mm Hg before the implant surgery to 16.1 (12.4) mm Hg at the last follow up after surgery. The success rate of intraocular pressure control of <22 mm Hg was achieved in 73.8% of operated eyes. Transient postoperative hypotony with shallow anterior chamber occurred in 10.8% of cases. The most common postoperative complication was the formation of encapsulated bleb (24.6%).
CONCLUSIONS—The Ahmed glaucoma valve implant appears to be effective and relatively safe for treating complicated glaucomas in Chinese eyes. The success rate is comparable with those reported in non-Asian eyes. Formation of postoperative encapsulated bleb is, however, more commonly encountered.

 PMID:10873981

  3. In vitro experiment of the pressure regulating valve for a glaucoma implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Byunghoon; Kee, Hongseok; Kim, Seonho; Lee, Yeon; Sim, Taeseok; Kim, Yongkweon; Park, Kyihwan

    2003-09-01

    Glaucoma is an eye disease which is caused by abnormal high intraocular pressure (IOP) in the eye. If the condition of the patient becomes serious, the use of an implant device is recommended, which decreases the IOP compulsory. Active implants for glaucoma implants are capable of controlling the IOP actively and coping with the personal differences of patients. However, the conventional active valves for the glaucoma implant are not convenient for the patient and feasibility is not shown for the glaucoma treatment. In this paper, we propose, analyze, fabricate and experiment on the pressure regulating valve for the active implant. Based on the analysis, we carry out optimal design of the proposed valve. The in vitro experiments are performed extensively both using and not using a rabbit in open- and closed-loop pressure control. The various experimental results verify the possibility of the proposed valve for a glaucoma implant.

  4. Evaluation of success after second Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anis Alsadat; Karimi, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of the second Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery in eyes with failed previous AGV surgery. Design: Retrospective case series. Patients and Methods: Following chart review, 36 eyes of 34 patients with second AGV implantation were enrolled in this study. The primary outcome measure was surgical success defined in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) control using two criteria: Success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg (criterion 1) and IOP ≤16 mmHg (criterion 2), with at least 20% reduction in IOP, either with no medication (complete success) or with no more than two medications (qualified success). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to determine the probability of surgical success. Results: The average age of the patients was 32.7 years (range 4–65), and the mean duration of follow-up was 21.4 months (range 6–96). Preoperatively, the mean IOP was 26.94 mmHg (standard deviation [SD] 7.03), and the patients were using 2.8 glaucoma medications on average (SD 0.9). The mean IOP decreased significantly to 13.28 mmHg (SD 3.59) at the last postoperative visit (P = 0.00) while the patients needed even fewer glaucoma medications on average (1.4 ± 1.1, P = 0.00). Surgical success of second glaucoma drainage devices (Kaplan–Meier analysis), according to criterion 1, at 6, 12, 18, and 42 months was 94%, 85%, 80%, and 53% respectively, and according to criterion 2, was 94%, 85%, 75%, and 45%, respectively. Conclusion: Repeated AGV implantation seems to be a safe modality of treatment with acceptable success rate in cases with failed previous AGV surgery. PMID:27146930

  5. Intravitreal bevacizumab and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yu-Xin; Xu, Ying-Ying; Yang, Rui-Min; Wang, Bao-Jun; Hu, Jun-Xi

    2014-01-01

    AIM To explore the efficacy of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection combined with Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). METHODS This retrospective study included 35 eyes from 35 patients who underwent preoperative IVB and AGV implantation for treatment of NVG. Findings such as intraocular pressure (IOP) number of anti-glaucoma medications, visual acuity (VA), surgical success rates, and complications were recorded. RESULTS After AGV implantation, IOP was 18.2±4.0 mm Hg, 15.5±3.3 mm Hg and 9.8±2.6 mm Hg at 6, 12 and 36mo, significantly decreased compared with pre-IOP (P<0.01). The number of anti-glaucoma medications was 0.9±0.5, 0.8±0.9 and 0.8±0.6 at 6, 12 and 36mo, significantly decreased compared to pre-treatment (P<0.01). At last visit, there were 19 eyes with stable VA, 4 with VA improvement, 12 with diminished VA and 3 with complete loss light perception. There were 7 cases that failed during 3-year fellow up period. Cumulative probabilities of valve survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 82.9%, 74.1% and 71.0% at 12, 24 and 36mo, respectively. Cox stepwise regression analysis found that the survival time was significant associated with the pre-visual acuity <2/400 (P<0.05). Post-operative complications occurred in 8 eyes, of which hyphema presented in 2 eyes, choroidal effusion in 2 eyes. CONCLUSION The procedure of preoperative IVB and AGV implantation should be one of treatments for NVG because of its safety and effectiveness. PMID:25349803

  6. Complication of an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: tube exposure with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection

    PubMed Central

    Pansegrau, Morgan L.; Mengarelli, Eddie; Dersu, Inci Irak

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neovascular glaucoma is commonly treated surgically with implantation of glaucoma drainage devices. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who underwent an uneventful Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) placement for radiation-induced neovascular glaucoma but later developed early postoperative infection with tube exposure. The infection was identified 3 weeks postoperatively and antibiotic treatment was immediately initiated. However, the conjunctival melt progressed, and the AGV had to be removed. Culture of the device revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There is a potential increased risk of postoperative infection and tube exposure following glaucoma valve implantation in patients with previous radiation therapy. To our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature of MRSA causing early postoperative infection following drainage device placement that required explantation. PMID:27330471

  7. Wound Dehiscence and Device Migration after Subconjunctival Bevacizumab Injection with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Nilforushan, Naveed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a complication pertaining to subconjunctival bevacizumab injection as an adjunct to Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Case Report: A 54-year-old woman with history of complicated cataract surgery was referred for advanced intractable glaucoma. AGV implantation with adjunctive subconjunctival bevacizumab (1.25 mg) was performed with satisfactory results during the first postoperative week. However, 10 days after surgery, she developed wound dehiscence and tube exposure. The second case was a 33-year-old man with history of congenital glaucoma and uncontrolled IOP who developed AGV exposure and wound dehiscence after surgery. In both cases, for prevention of endophthalmitis and corneal damage by the unstable tube, the shunt was removed and the conjunctiva was re-sutured. Conclusion: The potential adverse effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab injection on wound healing should be considered in AGV surgery. PMID:27195095

  8. Ahmed valve implantation for neovascular glaucoma after 23-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Shen, Xi; Zhong, Yi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM To report on the outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation for the management of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after 23-gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS Twelve medically uncontrolled NVG with earlier 23-gauge vitrectomy for PDR underwent AGV implantation. The control of intraocular pressure (IOP), preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, the development of intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated during the follow-up. RESULTS The mean follow-up was 15.4±4.3 months (9-23 months). Mean preoperative IOP was 49.4±5.1mmHg and mean postoperative IOP at the last visit was 17.5±1.6mmHg. The control of IOP was achieved at the final follow-up visits in all patients, however, 8 of 12 patients still needed anti-glaucoma medication (mean number of medications, 0.8±0.7). The visual acuity improved in nine eyes, and the visual acuity unchanged in three eyes at the final follow-up visits. The complications that occurred were minor hyphema in three eyes, choroid detachment in two eyes, and the minor hyphema and choroid detachments were reabsorbed without any surgical intervention. CONCLUSION AGV implantation is a safe and effective procedure that enables successful IOP control and vision preservation in the NVG patients with the history of earlier 23-gauge vitrectomy for PDR. PMID:23826525

  9. Intraocular pressure control after the implantation of a second Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Román, Jesús; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Costa, Vital Paulino; Schimiti, Rui Barroso; Lerner, Fabián; Santana, Priscila Rezende; Vascocellos, Jose Paulo Cabral; Castillejos-Chévez, Armando; Turati, Mauricio; Fabre-Miranda, Karina

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a second Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) in eyes with refractory glaucoma that had undergone prior Ahmed device implantation. This multicenter, retrospective study evaluated 58 eyes (58 patients) that underwent a second AGV (model S2-n = 50, model FP7-n = 8) due to uncontrolled IOP under maximal medical therapy. Outcome measures included IOP, visual acuity, number of glaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Success was defined as IOP <21 mmHg (criterion 1) or 30 % reduction of IOP (criterion 2) with or without hypotensive medications. Persistent hypotony (IOP <5 mmHg after 3 months of follow-up), loss of light perception, and reintervention for IOP control were defined as failure. Mean preoperative IOP and mean IOPs at 12 and 30 months were 27.55 ± 1.16 mmHg (n = 58), 14.45 ± 0.83 mmHg (n = 42), and 14.81 ± 0.87 mmHg (n = 16), respectively. The mean numbers of glaucoma medications preoperatively at 12 and 30 months were 3.17 ± 0.16 (n = 58), 1.81 ± 0.2 (n = 42), and 1.83 ± 0.35 (n = 18), respectively. The reductions in mean IOP and number of medications were statistically significant at all time intervals (P < 0.001). According to criterion 1, Kaplan-Meier survival curves disclosed success rates of 62.9 % at 12 months and 56.6 % at 30 months. According to criterion 2, Kaplan-Meier survival curves disclosed success rates of 43.9 % at 12 months and 32.9 % at 30 months. The most frequent early complication was hypertensive phase (10.3 %) and the most frequent late complication was corneal edema (17.2 %). Second AGV implantation may effectively reduce IOP in eyes with uncontrolled glaucoma, and is associated with relatively few complications. PMID:26334729

  10. Our experience of fibrin sealant-assisted implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Nikhil S; Neog, Aditya; Sharma, Anuj; Iyer, Geetha K; Srinivasan, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To report our experience with the fibrin sealant as a suture substitute for securing the human scleral patch graft during implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV). Materials and Methods: A retrospective, non-comparative study of 12 eyes of 12 patients who underwent an AGV implantation with fibrin sealant for part of the procedure during June 2009 to September 2010. Results: The mean patient age was 21.5 ± 20.6 years. Male: Female ratio was 2 : 1. Seven (58.3%) patients were monocular. The indications for AGV were varied. The mean number of intra-ocular surgeries prior to an implantation of AGV was 1.8. The mean follow-up duration was 24.5 ± 17.9 weeks. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean IOP and in the mean number of anti-glaucoma medications at the final visit compared to the pre-operative values (P < 0.01, paired t test). Conjunctival retraction was seen in 1 (8.3%) case. The scleral patch graft was retracted posteriorly in another (8.3%) case. There was no case of AGV tube exposure, tube-cornea touch, or conjunctival erosion. Vision threatening complication viz. late post-operative rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, unlikely to be related to the use of the fibrin sealant, occurred in 2 (16.6%) eyes. Conclusion: The fibrin sealant offers the advantages of safety and convenience to the placement of a scleral patch graft during an AGV implantation. PMID:23275217

  11. Clinical outcomes of trabeculectomy vs. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with penetrating keratoplasty : (Trabeculectomy vs. Ahmed galucoma valve in patients with penetrating keratoplasty).

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Acar, Banu Torun; Kokturk, Furuzan; Acar, Suphi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the visual outcomes, intraocular pressure (IOP), and endothelial cell loss caused by trabeculectomy (TRAB) and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in patients who had previously undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). The data from all patients who underwent surgical treatment of glaucoma after PKP were reviewed at the Cornea Department of Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital. Eighteen patients who had undergone surgical treatment of glaucoma after PKP were included in this retrospective study. Time between PKP and glaucoma surgeries, visual acuity results, IOP results, endothelial cell counts (ECC) before the surgery, at 1st, 6th, and 12th month of surgery were recorded. Differences between two groups were evaluated. Mean loss of ECC was 315 cells/mm(2) in the AGV group and 197 cells/mm(2) in TRAB group at 12th month of glaucoma surgery. The difference between endothelial cell loss at 12th month of surgery was statistically significant and higher in AGV group (p < 0.001). The decrease in IOP was 64.2 % in AGV group and 46.9 % in TRAB group at 12th month of surgery. Both differences were statistically significant between 2 groups (p = 0.001, 0.001). TRAB successfully decreased both the IOP and endothelial cell loss in patients with post-PKP glaucoma. Ahmed glaucoma valve had a significantly better IOP lowering but higher endothelial cell loss effect. PMID:26646776

  12. Application of 5-Fluorouracil-Polycaprolactone Sustained-Release Film in Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation Inhibits Postoperative Bleb Scarring in Rabbit Eyes.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiu-Zeng; Pan, Wei-Hua; Yu, Xin-Ping; Song, Zong-Ming; Ren, Zeng-Jin; Sun, Min; Li, Cong-Hui; Nan, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-polycaprolactone sustained-release film in Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation inhibits postoperative bleb scarring in rabbit eyes. Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C; n = 6 per group). Group A received combined 5-Fu-polycaprolactone sustained-release film application and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, group B received local infiltration of 5-Fu and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, and group C received Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Postoperative observations were made of the anterior segment, intraocular pressure, central anterior chamber depth, blebs, drainage tube, and accompanying ciliary body detachment. The pathology of the blebs and surrounding tissues were observed at month 3 postoperatively. We revealed that the 5-Fu-polycaprolactone sustained-release film maintained a release concentration range of 13.7 ± 0.12 to 37.41 ± 0.47 μg/ml over three months in vitro. Postoperatively, diffuse blebs with ridges were found in all eyes in group A, two blebs were observed in group B, and no bleb formation was present in group C. The postoperative central anterior chamber depth in group A was significantly less than that of the other two groups. The postoperative intraocular pressure of group A stabilized at 6.33-8.67 mmHg, whereas that of group C gradually remained at 7.55-10.02 mmHg. The histopathology showed that the fibrous tissue thickness of the blebs in group A was significantly thinner than that of the other groups. We conclude that the 5-Fu-polycaprolactone sustained-release film had a sustained drug release effect, which promoted the inhibition of bleb scarring after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. PMID:26579716

  13. Application of 5-Fluorouracil-Polycaprolactone Sustained-Release Film in Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation Inhibits Postoperative Bleb Scarring in Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiu-Zeng; Pan, Wei-Hua; Yu, Xin-Ping; Song, Zong-Ming; Ren, Zeng-Jin; Sun, Min; Li, Cong-Hui; Nan, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-polycaprolactone sustained-release film in Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation inhibits postoperative bleb scarring in rabbit eyes. Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C; n = 6 per group). Group A received combined 5-Fu-polycaprolactone sustained-release film application and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, group B received local infiltration of 5-Fu and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, and group C received Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Postoperative observations were made of the anterior segment, intraocular pressure, central anterior chamber depth, blebs, drainage tube, and accompanying ciliary body detachment. The pathology of the blebs and surrounding tissues were observed at month 3 postoperatively. We revealed that the 5-Fu-polycaprolactone sustained-release film maintained a release concentration range of 13.7 ± 0.12 to 37.41 ± 0.47 μg/ml over three months in vitro. Postoperatively, diffuse blebs with ridges were found in all eyes in group A, two blebs were observed in group B, and no bleb formation was present in group C. The postoperative central anterior chamber depth in group A was significantly less than that of the other two groups. The postoperative intraocular pressure of group A stabilized at 6.33–8.67 mmHg, whereas that of group C gradually remained at 7.55–10.02 mmHg. The histopathology showed that the fibrous tissue thickness of the blebs in group A was significantly thinner than that of the other groups. We conclude that the 5-Fu-polycaprolactone sustained-release film had a sustained drug release effect, which promoted the inhibition of bleb scarring after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. PMID:26579716

  14. Implants for draining neovascular glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Molteno, A C; Van Rooyen, M M; Bartholomew, R S

    1977-01-01

    The implant design, surgical technique, and pharmacological methods of controlling bleb fibrosis, used to treat neovascular glaucoma, are described, together with the results of 14 operations performed on 12 eyes. Images PMID:843508

  15. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Oliemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to offer a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacement. The improvement in transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes is still of concern in the areas of stroke, vascular injury, heart block, paravalvular regurgitation and valve durability. Concomitantly, the progress, both technical and in terms of material advances of transcatheter valve systems, as well as in patient selection, renders transcatheter aortic valve implantation an increasingly viable treatment for more and more patients with structural heart disease. PMID:25374670

  16. Clinical findings following Ahmed Glaucoma Valve™ implantation in pediatric glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pirouzian, Amir; Demer, Joseph L

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe clinical findings after Ahmed valve drainage implantation in children. Design All records in one practice were reviewed to identify and describe clinical findings in all children who had undergone Ahmed Glaucoma Valve™ S2 model insertion for uncontrolled primary or secondary glaucoma. Results A total of 6 patients were identified, ranging in age from 2–15 years. Mean follow-up time averaged from 2–5 years from the time of tube insertion. Three patients exhibited pupillary peaking towards the tube of the valve. All patients required additional surgery or additional medications to control intraocular pressure. Lenticular opacification near the tube site developed in one patient. Gradual tube extrusion was also noted in another two patients. Conclusion Multiple clinical events follow the Ahmed valve insertion in children. Pupillary irregularity is the most commonly noted event in this series. To avoid or reduce the risk of this complication, additional or modification of surgical procedures could be considered. The mechanism of such occurrence will further be discussed. PMID:19668395

  17. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  18. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  19. Dynamic tube movement after reimplantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve in a child with glaucoma in aphakia.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Sirisha; Badakare, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl underwent an Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation as a primary procedure for glaucoma in aphakia due to congenital cataract surgery. Following an unintended accidental excision of AGV tube during bleb revision for hypertensive phase, AGV was explanted and a second AGV was implanted in the same quadrant after 2 weeks. This resulted in a rare complication of dynamic tube movement in the anterior chamber with tube corneal touch and localised corneal oedema. Excision of the offending unstable tube and placement of a paediatric AGV in a different quadrant led to resolution of this complication, stable vision and well-controlled intraocular pressure. This case highlights the possible causes of dynamic tube, related complications and its management. This case also highlights the importance of understanding the various physiological phases after glaucoma drainage device implantation and their appropriate management. PMID:24695662

  20. The Results of the Use of Ahmed Valve in Refractory Glaucoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bikbov, Mukharram Mukhtaramovich

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The treatment of refractory glaucoma (RG) is challenging. The commonly adopted strategy in RG treatment is a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation, which despite its radical nature may not always provide the desired intraocular pressure (IOP) levels for a long term. This review is based on the scientific literature on Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation for refractory glaucoma. The technique of AGV implantation is described and data for both the types, FP7 and FP8 performance are presented. The outcome with adjunct antimetabolite and anti-VEGF drugs are also highlighted. An insight is given about experimental and histological examinations of the filtering bleb encapsulation. The article also describes various complications and measures to prevent them. How to cite this article: Bikbov MM, Khusnitdinov II. The Results of the Use of Ahmed Valve in Refractory Glaucoma Surgery. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):86-91. PMID:26997843

  1. Combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy versus Ahmed valve implantation for refractory primary congenital glaucoma in Egyptian patients: a long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Hazem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is the most common type of glaucoma in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy versus Ahmed valve implantation for cases of PCG refractory to traditional incisional angle surgery (goniotomy and trabeculotomy) in the Egyptian population. Methods The study was conducted in the Glaucoma Clinic of the Research Institute of Ophthalmology (Egypt). The study included 66 eyes of 66 patients (in two groups) with advanced PCG who had previous failed goniotomy, trabeculotomy, or both. Group 1 included 33 patients who underwent trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy procedures; group 2 included 33 patients who underwent FP 8 Ahmed valve implantation. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, corneal diameter, and axial length stability in both groups. Secondary outcome measures included detection of complications in both groups. Results The average ages of the patients were 13.5 ± 3.9 months and 15.3 ± 5.8 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Ten patients (30.3%) in group 1 and 9 patients (27.3%) in group 2 had family histories of PCG. Positive consanguinity was present in 26 patients (78.8%) in group 1 and in 27 patients (81.8%) in group 2. In group 1, the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) value decreased from 33.6 ± 3.4 mmHg preoperatively to 13.8 ± 0.6, 16.9 ± 1.5, 18.2 ± 2.5, 19.8 ± 3.6, and 20.2 ± 3.1 mmHg in the first postoperative month and after years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p < 0.001). In group 2, the mean IOP value decreased from 33.4 ± 4.5 mmHg preoperatively to 13.3 ± 1.1, 16.3 ± 1.6, 18.1 ± 1.0, 19.1 ± 3.5, and 19.9 ± 3.7 mmHg in the first postoperative month and after years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p < 0.001). The average number of medications decreased from 2.2 ± 0.4 preoperatively to 1.8 ± 0.4 postoperatively in group 1, while it decreased from 2.1 ± 0.4 preoperatively to 1.9 ± 0

  2. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Malaisrie, S Chris; Iddriss, Adam; Flaherty, James D; Churyla, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a life-threatening condition when left untreated. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the gold standard treatment for the majority of patients; however, transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) has emerged as the preferred treatment for high-risk or inoperable patients. The concept of transcatheter heart valves originated in the 1960s and has evolved into the current Edwards Sapien and Medtronic CoreValve platforms available for clinical use. Complications following TAVI, including cerebrovascular events, perivalvular regurgitation, vascular injury, and heart block have decreased with experience and evolving technology, such that ongoing trials studying TAVI in lower risk patients have become tenable. The multidisciplinary team involving the cardiac surgeon and cardiologist plays an essential role in patient selection, procedural conduct, and perioperative care. PMID:27021619

  3. Late-Onset Endophthalmitis Secondary to Exposed Glaucoma Tube Implant in a Rare Case of Paediatric Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Akshatha; Hashim, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma drainage implants (GDIs) are used to treat paediatric glaucoma resistant to conventional medical and surgical treatment, achieving good intraocular pressure (IOP) control and long-term success. Late endophthalmitis is a rare complication that may develop following GDI surgery. A 17-year-old male presented with acute endophthalmitis 2 years after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with pericardial patch graft for management of refractory glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uveae. The glaucoma tube was exposed due to erosion of the overlying conjunctiva with no visible pericardial graft. After control of active infection, he underwent tube revision surgery whereby the exposed tube was retained and repatched with a double-thickness pericardial patch graft. He did well following surgery with good control of IOP and restoration of vision. Conjunctival dehiscence with graft melting over the GDI tube presented a major risk factor for endophthalmitis. Prompt surgical revision of an exposed tube is highly recommended to avoid ocular morbidity. PMID:22611505

  4. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans Henrik Møller

    2012-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was introduced experimentally in 1989, based on a newly developed heart valve prosthesis - the stentvalve. The valve was invented by a Danish cardiologist named Henning Rud Andersen. The new valve was revolutionary. It was foldable and could be inserted via a catheter through an artery in the groin, without the need for heart lung machine. This allowed for a new valve implantation technique, much less invasive than conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Surgical aortic valve replacement is safe and improves symptoms along with survival. However, up to 1/3 of patients with aortic valve stenosis cannot complete the procedure due to frailty. The catheter technique was hoped to provide a new treatment option for these patients. The first human case was in 2002, but more widespread clinical use did not begin until 2006-2010. Today, in 2011, more than 40,000 valves have been implanted worldwide. Initially, because of the experimental character of the procedure, TAVI was reserved for patients who could not undergo SAVR due to high risk. The results in this group of patients were promising. The procedural safety was acceptable, and the patients experienced significant improvements in their symptoms. Three of the papers in this PhD-thesis are based on the outcome of TAVI at Skejby Hospital, in this high-risk population [I, II and IV]. Along with other international publications, they support TAVI as being superior to standard medical treatment, despite a high risk of prosthetic regurgitation. These results only apply to high-risk patients, who cannot undergo SAVR. The main purpose of this PhD study has been to investigate the quality of TAVI compared to SAVR, in order to define the indications for this new procedure. The article attached [V] describes a prospective clinical randomised controlled trial, between TAVI to SAVR in surgically amenable patients over 75 years of age with isolated aortic valve stenosis

  5. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

  6. Glaucoma Drainage Implant Surgery – An Evidence-Based Update with Relevance to Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Aminlari, Ardalan E.; Scott, Ingrid U.; Aref, Ahmad A.

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma represents a leading cause of preventable vision loss in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies evaluating outcomes of glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery suggest an important role for this approach in the African patient population. The Tube Versus Trabeculectomy study demonstrated a higher success rate with non-valved GDI surgery compared to trabeculectomy with mitomycin C after five years. The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison study showed no difference in surgical failure rates between the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant (BGI) but better intraocular pressure outcomes with the BGI at one year. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt study demonstrated a lower failure rate for the BGI, but also a requirement for more post-operative interventions. Further study of GDI surgery in the Sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to determine its optimal place in the treatment paradigm for glaucoma patients in the region. PMID:23741131

  7. When a Mechanical Valve Goes Freestyle: A Patient Tailored Valve-In-Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    François, J; Cathenis, K; Hamerlijnck, R

    2015-01-01

    In case of a redo operation after a full root replacement there are two possible options: replacing the entire root or performing a more conservative valve-in-valve implantation. Regarding the relatively high morbidity and mortality of a redo root replacement, the valve-in-valve implantation is the preferred choice if technically feasible. We present the case of a valve-in-valve implantation with a St. Jude mechanical valve in a Medtronic bioprosthesis in a 57-year old man. Follow-up echocardiography after 1 month showed a mean gradient of 17 mmHg and no paravalvular leakage. The combination of a St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valve implanted in a Freestyle root prosthesis has not been described. This case shows that patient tailored treatment with a St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valve in a Freestyle aortic root valve can be safely performed and might be the preferred choice for younger patients, if technically feasible. PMID:26560005

  8. Critical Assessment of Implantable Drug Delivery Devices in Glaucoma Management

    PubMed Central

    Manickavasagam, Dharani; Oyewumi, Moses O.

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a group of heterogeneous disorders involving progressive optic neuropathy that can culminate into visual impairment and irreversible blindness. Effective therapeutic interventions must address underlying vulnerability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to degeneration in conjunction with correcting other associated risk factors (such as elevated intraocular pressure). However, realization of therapeutic outcomes is heavily dependent on suitable delivery system that can overcome myriads of anatomical and physiological barriers to intraocular drug delivery. Development of clinically viable sustained release systems in glaucoma is a widely recognized unmet need. In this regard, implantable delivery systems may relieve the burden of chronic drug administration while potentially ensuring high intraocular drug bioavailability. Presently there are no FDA-approved implantable drug delivery devices for glaucoma even though there are several ongoing clinical studies. The paper critically assessed the prospects of polymeric implantable delivery systems in glaucoma while identifying factors that can dictate (a) patient tolerability and acceptance, (b) drug stability and drug release profiles, (c) therapeutic efficacy, and (d) toxicity and biocompatibility. The information gathered could be useful in future research and development efforts on implantable delivery systems in glaucoma. PMID:24066234

  9. Comparison of Outcomes of Resident-performed Ahmed Valve Implantation vs Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kammerdiener, Leah L; Wannamaker, Kendall W; Fan, Jie; Sharpe, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To compare outcomes of resident-performed Ahmed valve surgery vs trabeculectomy in a Veteran Affairs medical facility. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort of 103 eyes in 91 patients receiving Ahmed valve (valve) or trabeculectomy (trab) performed at a Veterans Administration Medical Center by residents in their third year of training. The primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP), treatment failure, and complications over 1 year. Results: Of 103 eyes, 44 received valve and 59 received trab. Primary open-angle glaucoma was primary diagnosis more often in trab, while neovascular glaucoma predominated in the valve group (p < 0.001). Preoperative mean IOP was 35.1 ± 11.8 and 24.5 ± 7.1 mm Hg for valve and trabeculectomy respectively (p < 0.001), but at 1 year the IOP difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.064). Overall, 11 (25.0%) and 11 (18.6%) eyes met any criteria for failure for valve and trab respectively. At 1 year, 22.5% of valves had IOP > 21 mm Hg vs only 4.3% of trab (p = 0.02). Complications were infrequent. There were no intraoperative complications for valve, whereas five for trab. Most common immediate complication for valve was hyphema. Both groups had low rates of choroidal effusions and reoperation. Conclusion: Ahmed valve implantation and trabeculectomy produce significant reductions in IOP when performed by residents-in-training. Valves tend to be used more frequently in patients with secondary glaucoma. Although complication profiles differ between procedures, both are safe and well tolerated when performed by resident physicians. Clinical significance: This study provides support for evidence-based patient counseling that supervised, resident-performed Ahmed valve implantation and trabeculectomy are indeed safe and effective. How to cite this article: Sharpe RA, Kammerdiener LL, Wannamaker KW, Fan J, Sharpe ED. Comparison of Outcomes of Resident-performed Ahmed Valve Implantation vs

  10. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Glaucoma What is Glaucoma? Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can ... is much greater for people over 60. How Glaucoma Develops There are several different types of glaucoma. ...

  11. Pirfenidone inhibits fibrosis in foreign body reaction after glaucoma drainage device implantation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the antiscarring effects of pirfenidone on foreign body reaction in a rabbit model of glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Methods Adult New Zealand White rabbits had glaucoma drainage device implantation using Model FP8 Ahmed glaucoma valves. One eye was randomly assigned to receive postoperative intrableb injection of pirfenidone followed by topical treatment. The other eye underwent the same procedure but without the addition of pirfenidone. Histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry for blebs were performed. Results The degree of cellularity was smaller in the pirfenidone group than in the control group at 2 weeks post operation (P=0.005). A few foreign body giant cells were detected in the inner border of the capsule, and their numbers were similar in the control and pirfenidone groups (P>0.05). Using Masson’s trichrome stain, the inner collagen-rich layer was found to be thinner in the pirfenidone group than the control group at 4 weeks (P=0.031) and 8 weeks (P=0.022) post operation. The percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells was lower in the pirfenidone group than in the control group at 2 weeks post operation (total bleb, P=0.022; inner bleb, P=0.036). Pirfenidone treatment decreased the immunoreactivity of connective tissue growth factor at 2 weeks post operation (total bleb, P=0.029; inner bleb, P=0.018). The height and area of α-smooth muscle actin expression were lower in the pirfenidone group than the control group at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks post operation (all P<0.05). Conclusion Postoperative intrableb injection of pirfenidone followed by topical administration reduced fibrosis following glaucoma drainage device implantation. These findings suggest that pirfenidone may function as an antiscarring treatment in foreign body reaction after tube-shunt surgery. PMID:27143855

  12. Pseudophacomorphic Glaucoma along with Pupillary Block after Visian™ Implantable Collamer Lens Implantation for High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Michael V.; Mifflin, Thomas; Fenzl, Carlton R.; Goldsmith, Jason; Moshirfar, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of bilateral glaucoma related to pseudophacomorphic mechanism in one eye and pupillary block in the other eye after Visian Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL, STAAR Surgical) insertion. Methods A 44 year-old female with high myopia underwent bilateral ICL implantation of MICL12.6 after sulcus diameter measurements were performed by Pentacam. Results Pseudophacomorphic glaucoma-related angle closure occurred due to lens oversizing in the right eye. The mechanism was relieved via ICL explantation. In the left eye, pupillary block developed in a subacute manner after closure of the peripheral iridotomy (PI). The attack was ameliorated by reestablishing patency of the iridotomy. Conclusions ICL-related glaucomatous attacks may result from improper sizing as well as from placement of a single PI. Identification of the proper mechanism is vital as treatments differ significantly. In pseudophacomorphic glaucoma, explantation is needed. In pupillary block glaucoma, treatment involves establishment of a patent PI. PMID:25485179

  13. Combined pars plana vitrectomy and Baerveldt glaucoma implant placement for refractory glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Thalmon R.; Kim, Sung Soo; Smiddy, William E.; Gedde, Steve J.; Budenz, Donald L.; Parrish, Richard K.; Palmberg, Paul F.; Feuer, William; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy and Baerveldt glaucoma implant (PPV-BGI) placement for refractory glaucoma. METHODS The medical records of 92 eyes (89 patients) that underwent PPV-BGI were retrospectively reviewed, including 43 eyes with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 49 eyes with other types of glaucoma (non-NVG). RESULTS Outcome measures were visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medical therapy, complications, and success [VA>hand motions (HM), IOP≥6 mm Hg and ≤21 mm Hg, no subsequent glaucoma surgery]. Cumulative success rates for the non-NVG group and NVG group were 79% and 40% at 1y, respectively (P=0.038). No difference in the rates of surgical success were found between pars plana and anterior chamber tube placement. Preoperative IOP (mean±SD) was 30.3±11.7 mm Hg in the Non-NVG group and 40.0±10.6 mm Hg in the NVG group, and IOP was reduced to 15±9.5 mm Hg in the non-NVG group and 15±10.5 mm Hg in the NVG at 1y. Number of glaucoma medications (mean±SD) decreased from 2.7±1.3 in the non-NVG group and 2.8±1.3 in the NVG group preoperatively to 0.76±1.18 in the non-NVG group and 0.51±1.00 in the NVG group at 1y. Improvement in VA of ≥2 Snellen lines was observed in 25 (27%) eyes, although only 33% of non-NVG eyes and 2.3% of NVG eyes maintained VA better than 20/200 at 1y. Nonclearing vitreous hemorrhage was the most common postoperative complication occurring in 16 (17%) eyes, and postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhages developed in 5 (5.4%) eyes. CONCLUSION PPV-BGI is a viable surgical option for eyes with refractory glaucoma, but visual outcomes are frequently poor because of ocular comorbidities, especially in eyes with NVG. The location of tube placement does not influence surgical outcome and should be left to the discretion of the surgeon. PMID:26558201

  14. Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the new playground for prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Gloria; Schleger, Simone; Diab, Mahmoud; Breuer, Martin; Figulla, Hans R; Eichinger, Walter B; Doenst, Torsten

    2014-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an established procedure for patients with aortic valve stenosis and significant comorbidities. One option offered by this technique is the implantation of a transcatheter valve inside a surgically implanted bioprosthesis. Many reports address the feasibility but also the pitfalls of these valve-in-valve (VIV) procedures. Review articles provide tables listing which valve sizes are appropriate based on the size of the initially implanted bioprosthesis. However, we previously argued that the hemodynamic performance of a prosthetic tissue valve is in large part a result of the dimensions of the bioprosthesis in relation to the patient's aortic outflow dimensions. Thus, the decision if a VIV TAVI procedure is likely to be associated with a favorable hemodynamic result cannot safely be made by looking at premade sizing tables that do not include patient dimensions and do not inquire about the primary cause for bioprosthetic valve stenosis. Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) may therefore be more frequent than expected after conventional aortic valve replacement. Importantly, it may be masked by a potentially flawed method assessing its relevance. Such PPM may therefore impact significantly on hemodynamic outcome after VIV TAVI. Fifteen percent of currently published VIV procedures show only a minimal reduction of pressure gradients. We will address potential pitfalls in the current determination of PPM, outline the missing links for reliable determination of PPM, and present a simplified algorithm to guide decision making for VIV TAVI. PMID:24612128

  15. In the era of the valve-in-valve: is transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in sutureless valves feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Francesco; Pellicciari, Giovanni; Phan, Kevin; Ferlito, Marinella; Dall’Ara, Gianni; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Marzocchi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Sutureless aortic valve implantation has emerged as an innovative alternative for treatment of aortic stenosis. By avoiding the placement of sutures, this approach aims to improve surgical outcomes by facilitating less traumatic minimally invasive approaches and reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass duration. However, the absence of sutures may have detrimental effects after sutureless interventions, including paravalvular leakages, valve dislocation, and stent-infolding. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation (A-ViV) is emerging as a valuable procedure in patients with dysfunctioning biological aortic valves who are deemed inoperable with conventional surgery. Here we present the first-in-man case of trans-femoral implant of a balloon expandable aortic valve in a leaking sutureless self-expandable valve. PMID:25870827

  16. In the era of the valve-in-valve: is transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in sutureless valves feasible?

    PubMed

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Saia, Francesco; Pellicciari, Giovanni; Phan, Kevin; Ferlito, Marinella; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Marzocchi, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Sutureless aortic valve implantation has emerged as an innovative alternative for treatment of aortic stenosis. By avoiding the placement of sutures, this approach aims to improve surgical outcomes by facilitating less traumatic minimally invasive approaches and reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass duration. However, the absence of sutures may have detrimental effects after sutureless interventions, including paravalvular leakages, valve dislocation, and stent-infolding. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation (A-ViV) is emerging as a valuable procedure in patients with dysfunctioning biological aortic valves who are deemed inoperable with conventional surgery. Here we present the first-in-man case of trans-femoral implant of a balloon expandable aortic valve in a leaking sutureless self-expandable valve. PMID:25870827

  17. Update on Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) and New Implants

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Lívia M.; Grieshaber, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional glaucoma surgery has been challenged by the advent of innovative techniques and new implants in the past few years. There is an increasing demand for safer glaucoma surgery offering patients a timely surgical solution in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and improving their quality of life. The new procedures and devices aim to lower IOP with a higher safety profile than fistulating surgery (trabeculectomy/drainage tubes) and are collectively termed “minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS).” The main advantage of MIGS is that they are nonpenetrating and/or bleb-independent procedures, thus avoiding the major complications of fistulating surgery related to blebs and hypotony. In this review, the clinical results of the latest techniques and devices are presented by their approach, ab interno (trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy, trabecular microbypass, suprachoroidal shunt, and intracanalicular scaffold) and ab externo (canaloplasty, Stegmann Canal Expander, suprachoroidal Gold microshunt). The drawback of MIGS is that some of these procedures produce a limited IOP reduction compared to trabeculectomy. Currently, MIGS is performed in glaucoma patients with early to moderate disease and preferably in combination with cataract surgery. PMID:24369494

  18. Percutaneous Transcatheter Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: Over the past 30 years there have been experimental efforts at catheter-based management of aortic valve regurgitation with the idea of extending treatment to nonsurgical candidates. A new catheter-based aortic valve design is described.Methods: The new catheter-delivered valve consists of a stent-based valve cage with locking mechanism and a prosthetic flexible tilting valve disc. The valve cage is delivered first followed by deployment and locking of the disc. In acute experiments, valve implantation was done in four dogs.Results: Valve implantation was successful in all four animals. The implanted valve functioned well for the duration of the experiments (up to 3 hr).Conclusion: The study showed the implantation feasibility and short-term function of the tested catheter-based aortic disc valve. Further experimental studies are warranted.

  19. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, W.; Schubert, M.; Held, A.; Pichler, A.; Chill, A.; Kiermaier, S.; Schlösser, K.; Busch, H.; Schenk, K.; Streufert, D.; Lanzl, I.

    2007-04-01

    A biodegradable, β-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the β-emitter 32P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and 32P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (1015 ions/cm2) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  20. Valve-in-Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation to Treat a Degenerated Surgical Bioprosthesis in a Subaortic Position

    PubMed Central

    Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Benitez, Luis M.; Nader, Carlos A.; Perez, Sergio; de Marchena, Eduardo J.; Dager, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis has evolved as an alternative treatment for patients who are at high or excessive surgical risk. We report the case of an 84-year-old man with a degenerated surgically implanted valve in a subaortic position (9 mm below the native annulus) who underwent “valve-in-valve” transcatheter aortic valve implantation with use of a Medtronic CoreValve system. We planned to deploy the CoreValve at a conventional depth in the left ventricular outflow tract; we realized that this might result in paravalvular regurgitation, but it would also afford a “deep” landing site for a second valve, if necessary. Ultimately, we implanted a second CoreValve deep in the left ventricular outflow tract to seal a paravalvular leak. The frame of the first valve—positioned at the conventional depth—enabled secure anchoring of the second valve in a deeper position, which in turn effected successful treatment of the failing subaortic surgical prosthesis without paravalvular regurgitation. PMID:23914032

  1. Suboptimal geometrical implantation of biological aortic valves provokes functional deficits.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, Ralf-Uwe; Wendt, Max O; Jainski, Ute; Hartrumpf, Martin; Pohl, Manfred; Albes, Johannes M

    2010-06-01

    Endovascular valves have become a valid option for patients not qualifying for conventional surgery. Biological valves mounted in a stent are currently used. After implantation, however, geometrical distortion of the valve can occur. We tested whether biological valves suitable for transcatheter implantation exhibit hemodynamic deficits after deployment in a distorted position. Two types of valves [bovine pericardium (BP) and porcine cusps], of 21 and 23 mm diameter, respectively were investigated. Mean transvalvular gradient (TVG), effective orifice area (EOA), and regurgitation fraction (REG) were measured prior to and after the 20% distortion of the original diameter. All valves exhibited an increase of TVG and reduction of EOA whereas REG increased only in BP valves after distortion. The 21 mm valves demonstrated a more pronounced alteration than the 23 mm valves. Even moderately distorted implantation of a biological valve results in a marked functional alteration. The susceptibility of pericardial valves is higher than that of porcine valves probably owing to better coaptation properties of native cusps even under deformed conditions when compared to valves constructed with pericardium. Care should therefore be taken during implantation of endovascular valves in order to avoid fixed hemodynamic deficits. Native valves may preferably be used as they demonstrate a more robust behavior regarding suboptimal implantation. PMID:20233809

  2. Recently patented and widely used valves for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Skripochnik, Edvard; Michler, Robert E

    2012-12-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is a serious condition in the aging US and European populations. Management of a stenotic valve is crucial as it can become symptomatic quickly leading to ventricular deterioration and overall poor quality of life. Considering that AS is a disease of the elderly patient population, surgical intervention may not be well tolerated by some patients. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an alternative approach for patients who are unsuitable surgical candidates. Since the first balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) was implanted by Dr. Cribier, many other valves have been introduced into clinical practice. Self-expanding valves such as the CoreValve ReValving system (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) for retrograde implantation and Symetis TX for antegrade and transapical implantation are the most frequently used self-expanding valves. The SAPIEN valve, on the other hand can be implanted both antegrade as well as retrograde. Overall, the most widely used valves are the Edwards SAPIEN and the CoreValve, which have been implanted in more than 40,000 patients worldwide. The Symetis valve has shown promising results in small series in Europe and may be introduced to the US market in the near future. This manuscript will review these 3 recently patented valves and discuss some of the clinical results that are available. PMID:23095028

  3. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Wenaweser, Peter; Praz, Fabien; Stortecky, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Western industrial countries (including Switzerland) with a prevalence of about 5% in the population aged 75 and over. If left untreated, symptomatic patients have a rate of death of more than 50% within 2 years. As a result of age and elevated surgical risk, an important proportion of elderly patients are not referred to surgery. Thus, the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in 2002 has initiated a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis. The early technical and procedural success of this minimal invasive treatment in high-risk patients has promoted further innovation and development of transcatheter heart valve (THV) systems during the last 13 years. Downsizing of the delivery catheters along with technical improvements aiming to reduce postprocedural paravalvular regurgitation have resulted in a significant reduction in mortality. As a consequence, TAVI is nowadays established as safe and effective treatment for selected inoperable and high-risk patients. Ongoing studies are investigating the outcome of intermediate risk patients allocated to either surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or TAVI. Despite these advancements, some specific areas of concern still require attention and need further investigations including conduction disturbances, valve degeneration and antithrombotic management. Although the off-label use of TAVI devices in the mitral, tricuspid or pulmonary position has recently developed, important limitations still apply and careful patient selection remains crucial. This review aims to summarise the available clinical evidence of transcatheter aortic valve treatment during the last 13 years and to provide a glimpse of future technologies. PMID:26999727

  4. Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divakar; Chen, Philip P

    2016-04-15

    Glaucoma is a set of irreversible, progressive optic neuropathies that can lead to severe visual field loss and blindness. The two most common forms of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma, affect more than 2 million Americans and are increasing in prevalence. Many patients with glaucoma are asymptomatic and do not know they have the disease. Risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma include older age, black race, Hispanic origin, family history of glaucoma, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors for primary angle-closure glaucoma include older age, Asian descent, and female sex. Advanced disease at initial presentation and treatment nonadherence put patients with glaucoma at risk of disease progression to blindness. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has concluded that the evidence is insufficient to assess the potential benefits and harms of screening for glaucoma in the primary care setting. Regular eye examinations for adults are recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology, with the interval depending on patient age and risk factors. Diagnosis of glaucoma requires careful optic nerve evaluation and functional studies assessing a patient's visual field. The goal of treatment with eye drops, laser therapy, or surgery is to slow visual field loss by lowering intraocular pressure. Family physicians can contribute to lowering morbidity from glaucoma through early identification of high-risk patients and by emphasizing treatment adherence in patients with glaucoma. PMID:27175839

  5. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision Nausea and vomiting Rainbow-like halos around lights Red eye Eye feels swollen CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA Symptoms are most ... Enlargement of 1 eye or both eyes Red eye Sensitivity to light Tearing SECONDARY GLAUCOMA Symptoms are most often related ...

  6. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve. It is a leading ... no symptoms at first. Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral, or side vision. ...

  7. Delayed migration of Sapien valve following a transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Vinayak Vinnie Nilkanth; Khaliel, Feras; Ihleberg, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of delayed migration of the Sapien XT device after a successful mitral valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation. The procedure was performed through a transapical approach. Echocardiography was used to choose the size of the Sapien XT device. Although the immediate results were satisfactory both the cases presented with severe regurgitation (1 week and 3 months). Investigations revealed atrial migration of the Sapien device in both the cases, which was confirmed at the time of reoperation. We discuss possible mechanisms, which could have resulted in the delayed migration and highlight the difference between VIV procedures in mitral position versus other positions. PMID:23784983

  8. First Melody® valve implantations in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Buys, DG; Greig, C; Brown, SC

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Congenital heart lesions involving the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are a common problem in paediatric cardiology. These patients need multiple surgical interventions in the form of valved conduits over a lifetime. Surgical re-valvulation was the standard treatment option until the introduction of percutaneous pulmonary valves over a decade ago. These valves can be used to prolong the lifespan of conduits and reduce the number of re-operations. The Melody® valve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) was introduced as the first dedicated percutaneous pulmonary valve. Percutaneous pulmonary valves can be implanted successfully and have the advantage of short hospitalisations. We describe the first three Melody® valve implantations in Africa. PMID:26407223

  9. Self-expandable CoreValve implantation without contrast media.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Paola; De Marco, Federico; Barosi, Alberto; Mauri, Silvia; Klugmann, Silvio

    2016-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been designed to treat high-risk surgical patients affected by severe aortic stenosis, many of whom are affected by chronic kidney disease. To perform transcatheter self-expandable valve implantation, multiple contrast injections are required to monitor the procedure, so these patients are at increased risk of acute kidney injury. We described self-expandable transcatheter aortic valve implantation without contrast media in an 80-year-old man affected by severe aortic stenosis and endstage chronic kidney disease. PMID:26068936

  10. Transcatheter, valve-in-valve transapical aortic and mitral valve implantation, in a high risk patient with aortic and mitral prosthetic valve stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Harish; DeValeria, Patrick A.; Sweeney, John P.; Mookaram, Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter valve implantation continues to grow worldwide and has been used principally for the nonsurgical management of native aortic valvular disease-as a potentially less invasive method of valve replacement in high-risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Given the burden of valvular heart disease in the general population and the increasing numbers of patients who have had previous valve operations, we are now seeing a growing number of high-risk patients presenting with prosthetic valve stenosis, who are not potential surgical candidates. For this high-risk subset transcatheter valve delivery may be the only option. Here, we present an inoperable patient with severe, prosthetic valve aortic and mitral stenosis who was successfully treated with a trans catheter based approach, with a valve-in-valve implantation procedure of both aortic and mitral valves. PMID:25849702

  11. Late onset endophthalmitis associated with unexposed glaucoma valved drainage device.

    PubMed

    AlHadlaq, Abdulaziz; AlMalki, Salem; AlShahwan, Sami

    2016-01-01

    We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube. PMID:27330390

  12. Transfemoral Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) in a Patient With Previous Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR).

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Neil; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Frame, Angela; Nathan, Anthony W; Ariff, Ben; Jaffer, Usman; Sutaria, Nilesh; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Mikhail, Ghada W; Malik, Iqbal S

    2016-07-01

    A 90-year-old man presented with increasing exertional breathlessness. He had previous implantation of a Perimount bioprosthetic aortic valve (Edwards Lifesciences) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Due to severe transvalvular bioprosthetic regurgitation with preserved left ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction, the heart team decided on valve-in- valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the transfemoral route in view of the patient's prohibitively high surgical and anesthetic risk. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery and was symptomatically much improved at 3-month follow-up. PMID:27342209

  13. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation versus reoperative conventional aortic valve replacement: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Zhao, Dong-Fang; Wang, Nelson; Huo, Ya Ruth; Di Eusanio, Marco; Yan, Tristan D

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation for degenerated aortic bioprostheses has emerged as a promising alternative to redo conventional aortic valve replacement (cAVR). However there are concerns surrounding the efficacy and safety of VIV. This systematic review aims to compare the outcomes and safety of transcatheter VIV implantation with redoes cAVR. Six databases were systematically searched. A total of 18 relevant studies (823 patients) were included. Pooled analysis demonstrated VIV achieved significant improvements in mean gradient (38 mmHg preoperatively to 15.2 mmHg postoperatively, P<0.001) and peak gradient (59.2 to 23.2 mmHg, P=0.0003). These improvements were similar to the outcomes achieved by cAVR. The incidence of moderate paravalvular leaks (PVL) were significantly higher for VIV compared to cAVR (3.3% vs. 0.4%, P=0.022). In terms of morbidity, VIV had a significantly lower incidence of stroke and bleeding compared to redo cAVR (1.9% vs. 8.8%, P=0.002 & 6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.014, respectively). Perioperative mortality rates were similar for VIV (7.9%) and redo cAVR (6.1%, P=0.35). In conclusion, transcatheter VIV implantation achieves similar haemodynamic outcomes, with lower risk of strokes and bleeding but higher PVL rates compared to redo cAVR. Future randomized studies and prospective registries are essential to compare the effectiveness of transcatheter VIV with cAVR, and clarify the rates of PVLs. PMID:26904259

  14. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation versus reoperative conventional aortic valve replacement: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Fang; Wang, Nelson; Huo, Ya Ruth; Di Eusanio, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation for degenerated aortic bioprostheses has emerged as a promising alternative to redo conventional aortic valve replacement (cAVR). However there are concerns surrounding the efficacy and safety of VIV. This systematic review aims to compare the outcomes and safety of transcatheter VIV implantation with redoes cAVR. Six databases were systematically searched. A total of 18 relevant studies (823 patients) were included. Pooled analysis demonstrated VIV achieved significant improvements in mean gradient (38 mmHg preoperatively to 15.2 mmHg postoperatively, P<0.001) and peak gradient (59.2 to 23.2 mmHg, P=0.0003). These improvements were similar to the outcomes achieved by cAVR. The incidence of moderate paravalvular leaks (PVL) were significantly higher for VIV compared to cAVR (3.3% vs. 0.4%, P=0.022). In terms of morbidity, VIV had a significantly lower incidence of stroke and bleeding compared to redo cAVR (1.9% vs. 8.8%, P=0.002 & 6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.014, respectively). Perioperative mortality rates were similar for VIV (7.9%) and redo cAVR (6.1%, P=0.35). In conclusion, transcatheter VIV implantation achieves similar haemodynamic outcomes, with lower risk of strokes and bleeding but higher PVL rates compared to redo cAVR. Future randomized studies and prospective registries are essential to compare the effectiveness of transcatheter VIV with cAVR, and clarify the rates of PVLs. PMID:26904259

  15. A Universal Delivery System for Percutaneous Heart Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Marco; Peters, Heiner; Spriestersbach, Hendrik; O H-Ici, Darach; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Transcatheter heart valve implantation is an emerging technology and an alternative to surgical valve replacement. Most existing systems consist of valves sewn into balloon-expandable stents with a delivery catheter functioning with the specific valve only. The aim of this study was to develop a universally applicable delivery system (DS) for plane stents, valves sewn into both balloon-expandable and self-expandable stents and feasible for use with different access routes. A DS was designed and manufactured in five different diameters. The requirements were derived from the implants, the implantation technique and the cardiovascular geometry of the experimental sheep. The combination of a self-expandable Nitinol stent and a jugular access point represented the major challenge as both flexibility and rigidity of the DS were required. To fulfill these contradicting mechanical properties the sheaths were comprised of a soft outer polymer tube with a stainless steel coiled spring inside. Tissue-engineered and pericardial pulmonary valves were implanted. Also polymeric and balloon-expandable stents were delivered to various positions in the vascular system. The initial success rate was 70.5%. After refinement of the DS, a success rate of 83.3% was achieved with the remaining failed implantations resulting from inadequate sizes of the prostheses. PMID:26864537

  16. Perceval S aortic valve implantation in an achondroplastic Dwarf.

    PubMed

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Argiriou, Michalis; Argiriou, Orestis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Despite cardiovascular disease in patients with dwarfism is not rare; there is a lack of reports referring to cardiac interventions in such patients. Dwarfism may be due to achondroplasia or hormonal growth disorders. We present a 58-year-old woman with episodes of dyspnea for several months. She underwent on transthoracic echocardiography, and she diagnosed with severe aortic valve stenosis. She referred to our department for surgical treatment of this finding. In accordance of her anthropometric characteristics and her very small aortic annulus, we had the dilemma of prosthesis selection. We decided to implant a stentless valve to optimize her effective orifice area. Our aim is to present the successful Perceval S valve implantation and the descriptions of the problems coming across in operating on these special patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case patient in which a Perceval S valve is implanted according to the international bibliography. PMID:26750695

  17. Perceval S aortic valve implantation in an achondroplastic Dwarf

    PubMed Central

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Argiriou, Michalis; Argiriou, Orestis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Despite cardiovascular disease in patients with dwarfism is not rare; there is a lack of reports referring to cardiac interventions in such patients. Dwarfism may be due to achondroplasia or hormonal growth disorders. We present a 58-year-old woman with episodes of dyspnea for several months. She underwent on transthoracic echocardiography, and she diagnosed with severe aortic valve stenosis. She referred to our department for surgical treatment of this finding. In accordance of her anthropometric characteristics and her very small aortic annulus, we had the dilemma of prosthesis selection. We decided to implant a stentless valve to optimize her effective orifice area. Our aim is to present the successful Perceval S valve implantation and the descriptions of the problems coming across in operating on these special patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case patient in which a Perceval S valve is implanted according to the international bibliography. PMID:26750695

  18. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

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  19. A planning system for transapical aortic valve implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessat, Michael; Merk, Denis R.; Falk, Volkmar; Walther, Thomas; Jacobs, Stefan; Nöttling, Alois; Burgert, Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Stenosis of the aortic valve is a common cardiac disease. It is usually corrected surgically by replacing the valve with a mechanical or biological prosthesis. Transapical aortic valve implantation is an experimental minimally invasive surgical technique that is applied to patients with high operative risk to avoid pulmonary arrest. A stented biological prosthesis is mounted on a catheter. Through small incisions in the fifth intercostal space and the apex of the heart, the catheter is positioned under flouroscopy in the aortic root. The stent is expanded and unfolds the valve which is thereby implanted into the aortic root. Exact targeting is crucial, since major complications can arise from a misplaced valve. Planning software for the perioperative use is presented that allows for selection of the best fitting implant and calculation of the safe target area for that implant. The software uses contrast enhanced perioperative DynaCT images acquired under rapid pacing. In a semiautomatic process, a surface segmentation of the aortic root is created. User selected anatomical landmarks are used to calculate the geometric constraints for the size and position of the implant. The software is integrated into a PACS network based on DICOM communication to query and receive the images and implants templates from a PACS server. The planning results can be exported to the same server and from there can be rertieved by an intraoperative catheter guidance device.

  20. Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma is characterised by progressive optic neuropathy and peripheral visual field loss. It affects 1% to 2% of white people aged over 40 years and accounts for 8% of new blind registrations in the UK. The main risk factor for glaucoma is raised intraocular pressure, but 40% of people with glaucoma have normal intraocular pressure and only 10% of people with raised intraocular pressure are at risk of optic-nerve damage. Glaucoma is more prevalent, presents earlier, and is more difficult to control in black people than in white populations. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for established primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or both? What are the effects of lowering intraocular pressure in people with normal-tension glaucoma? What are the effects of treatment for acute angle-closure glaucoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 20 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: laser trabeculoplasty (alone or plus topical medical treatment); topical medical treatments; and surgical trabeculectomy.

  1. Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma is characterised by progressive optic neuropathy and peripheral visual field loss. It affects 1% to 2% of white people aged over 40 years and accounts for 8% of new blind registrations in the UK. The main risk factor for glaucoma is raised intraocular pressure, but 40% of people with glaucoma have normal intraocular pressure and only 10% of people with raised intraocular pressure are at risk of optic-nerve damage. Glaucoma is more prevalent, presents earlier, and is more difficult to control in black people than in white populations. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for established primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or both? What are the effects of lowering intraocular pressure in people with normal-tension glaucoma? What are the effects of treatment for acute angle-closure glaucoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: laser trabeculoplasty (alone or plus topical medical treatment), topical medical treatments, and surgical trabeculectomy. PMID:21658300

  2. Transapical implantation of the SAPIEN 3 valve.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Henrique B; Doyle, Daniel; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Urena, Marina; Allende, Ricardo; De Larochellière, Robert; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Dumont, Eric

    2013-09-01

    We report two cases of high-risk aortic stenosis treated with the SAPIEN 3 valve. This is the first procedure performed with this type of valve through the transapical approach. This new balloon-expandable valve incorporates a lower profile cobalt-chromium stent and an additional outer skirt to enhance paravalvular sealing. The procedure was performed without complications and no paravalvular leak was detected in control echocardiogram at follow-up. PMID:23869469

  3. Polymeric check valve with an elevated pedestal for precise cracking pressure in a glaucoma drainage device.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Ju; Yang, Dong-Seong; Cha, Jung-Joon; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a polymeric micro check valve for a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) featuring the precise regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and effective aqueous humor turnover (AHT). The pedestal, slightly elevated by selective coating of a parylene C film, induces pre-stress in the thin valve membrane, which enhances the predictability of the cracking pressure of the GDD. The proposed GDD comprises a cannula and a normally closed polymeric micro check valve, which are made of PDMS, a biocompatible polymer, with three layers: top (cover), intermediate (thin valve membrane), and bottom (base plate). A feedback channel, located between the top and intermediate layers, prevents reverse flow by feeding the pressure of the outlet channel back to the thin valve membrane. To achieve a precise cracking pressure and sufficient drainage of humor for humans, the thicknesses of the valve membrane and parylene C film are designed to be 58 μm and 1 μm, respectively, which are confirmed using a COMSOL simulation. The experimental results show that the cracking pressure of the fabricated GDD lies within the range of normal IOP (1.33-2.67 kPa). The forward flow rate (drainage rate), 4.3 ± 0.9 μL/min at 2.5 kPa, is adequate to accommodate the rate of AHT in a normal human eye (2.4 ± 0.6 μL/min). The reverse flow was not observed when a hydrostatic pressure of up to 4 kPa was applied to the outlet and the feedback channel. PMID:26864969

  4. Replacement of a Dislocated Aortic Prosthesis After Transcatheter Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Bahieh; Roshanali, Farideh

    2016-06-01

    A 77-year-old woman who had severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and was a high risk for conventional surgery underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation by means of the transfemoral approach. The prosthesis migrated and became embolized in the left ventricle after inflation, causing interference with the mitral valve and also partial outflow tract obstruction. The patient was emergently transferred to the operating room. Vertical aortotomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass, and the calcified native leaflets were removed. The migrated Edwards SAPIEN XT valve was extracted and subsequently successfully sewn into the annulus after examination for leaflet and stent competence. The hemodynamic performance of the implanted valve was surprisingly more favorable than that of the conventional tissue prosthesis. PMID:27211978

  5. [The refractory glaucomas].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2003-10-01

    Refractory types of glaucoma continue to present a therapeutic challenge to ophthalmologists. Approaches toward the management of these difficult glaucomas are addressed in this paper. The first part devotes special attention to understand the cause(s) of the failure of previous filtering surgery(ies). The next part emphasizes filtration surgery with intraoperative application of antimetabolites: 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin C and the surgical and pharmacological management of failing filtration. In case of failure of multiple filtering surgery with application of antimetabolites, surgeons have to consider cyclodestructive procedures (transscleral diode laser or endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation) to reduce aqueous production, or fistulizing procedures with tube implants or other drainage devices (valves). PMID:14646834

  6. New styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene (SIBS) glaucoma drainage implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Marcia A.; Acosta, Ana C.; Espana, Edgar M.; Pinchuk, Leonard; Weber, Bruce; Davis, Stewart; Arrieta, Esdras; Dubovy, Sander; Fantes, Francisco; Aly, Mohamed; Zhou, Yonghua; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To design and test the Miami-InnFocus Drainage Implant (MiDi) as a glaucoma shunt that is biocompatible, flexible, and significantly smaller than existing commercial implants in order to prevent postoperative hypotony, inflammation, scarring, erosion, and extrusion. Methods: A new biomaterial composed of styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene (SIBS) was used in a novel design for a glaucoma drainage implant. The implant consists of a tube 11mm long with an inner diameter of 70, 100, and 150 μm and outer diameter of 250 μm with a 1mm2 tab located 4.5mm from the proximal tip to prevent migration. The device was implanted in 15 New Zealand White rabbits for biocompatibility and efficacy testing. A similarly designed implant made of polydimethylsiloxane was implanted in 6 other animals as a pseudo-control. Typical GDI implantation technique was modified for this device. The proximal end of the new SIBS implant was inserted 2mm into the anterior chamber and the distal end placed in a subconjunctival space created by the surgeon. Biocompatibility of the device was studied by slit-lamp follow-up and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements recorded periodically. Results: Biocompatibility of the MiDi was excellent. A low and diffuse bleb was observed with these devices. All SIBS tubes were patent 9 months after insertion. Immunostaining demonstrated non-continuous deposition of collagen with virtually no encapsulation. No macrophages or myofibroblast were visible around the SIBS polymer which was found more bioinert than the control PDMS. Conclusion: This newly designed glaucoma implant is clinically biocompatible in the rabbit model and maintained 100% patency at 9 months.

  7. Hydrophilic treatment of porous PTFE for intractable glaucoma implant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka M.; Sato, Yuji; Fernandez, Viviana; Fantes, Francisco; Nose, Izuru; Lee, William E.; Milne, Peter J.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    Intractable glaucoma results from hindrances in the eyeball aqueous humor pathways that increase the intraocular pressure above normal physiological levels (over 20 mmHg). In this study porous PTFE membranes were made hydrophilic with a photochemical method that use ethyl alcohol and water for the chemical solution.

  8. Challenging transfemoral valve-in-valve implantation in a degenerated stentless bioprosthetic aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Halapas, A; Chrissoheris, M; Spargias, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves are often preferred over mechanical valves as they may preclude the need for anticoagulation. Reoperation is the standard treatment for structural failure of bioprosthetic valves; however, it carries significant risk especially in inoperable elderly patients. Valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) seems to be an effective and promising procedure in patients with degenerated bioprosthetic aortic valves avoiding the risks associated with the use of cardioplegia and redo cardiac surgery. We report an interesting case of a high-risk 74-year-old patient with a degenerated Sorin Freedom Solo stentless valve treated successfully with ViV TAVR. PMID:25091103

  9. Results of a New Technique for Implantation of Nonrestrictive Glaucoma Devices

    PubMed Central

    Peña Valderrama, Cristina Del Pilar; Albis-Donado, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe and present results of an original technique for nonvalved glaucoma implants. Patients and methods: Thirty-five eyes of 34 patients with aggressive and/or advanced glaucomas of different causes were included. A Baerveldt implant was used in all cases, using an absorbable ligature that had been titrated to allow fow from day 1, but avoiding hypotony. Intraocular pressure (IOP) during the first 8 weeks, final IOP, visual acuity and complications were analyzed. Results: Mean preoperative IOP was 42.8 mm Hg (range: 24-64 mm Hg). IOP was 14.4, 17.2, 18.6, 19 and 16.4 mm Hg during the 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 postoperative weeks. Mean final IOP was 13.8 ± 4.25 mm Hg, a 67.8% reduction, after a mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 8-29 months). Twenty-nine eyes (82.9%) had complete success, two had qualifed success (5.7%) and four were failures (11.4%). Choroidal detachments and transient tube obstructions were the most frequent complications. Conclusion: Titrated ligature of Baerveldt tubes was effective for controlling IOP during both the early and late postoperative phases in eyes with severe glaucomas. How to cite this article: Arismendi GEO, del Pilar Peña Valderrama C, Albis-Donado O. Results of a New Technique for Implantation of Nonrestrictive Glaucoma Devices. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(3):130-135. PMID:26997797

  10. Laser sclerectomy and 5-FU controlled-drug-release biodegradable implant for glaucoma therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villain, Franck L.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kiss, Katalin; Parrish, Richard K.; Kuhne, Francois; Takesue, Yoshiko; Hostyn, Patrick

    1993-06-01

    Laser sclerectomy, a simple filtering procedure performed to alleviate high intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients, was taught to offer longer lasting effect and therefore improve the patient's outcome when compared with the standard trabeculectomy procedure. Recent clinical trials have shown that this was not the case and pharmacologic wound healing modulation is also required with this new procedure. Five-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is useful as an adjunct treatment for glaucoma filtering surgery. However, efficacy depends upon maintaining sustained drug levels, currently achieved by repeated daily injection of the drug for several weeks. To overcome this limitation, we designed a biodegradable implant for the sustained release of 5-FU. After laser sclerectomy, the implant is inserted through the same 1 mm wide conjunctival snip incision and positioned below the open channel. Implantation takes less than a minute. The implant releases the drug for over 15 days and totally biodegrades in less than 100 days. The combined laser surgery and implantation procedure show great potentials for the treatment of glaucoma.

  11. First direct aortic retrievable transcatheter aortic valve implantation in humans.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Glover, Chris; Labinaz, Marino; Ruel, Marc

    2014-11-01

    We describe 2 cases in which transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a Portico prosthesis (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) through a direct aortic approach. In 1 of the cases, prosthesis retrieval was needed during the procedure and was essential to the successful outcome. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of direct aortic Portico prosthesis implantation, and it highlights the significance of the retrievable nature of this device. PMID:25442452

  12. Pioneering transcatheter aortic valve Implant (Inovare®) via transfemoral.

    PubMed

    Pontes, José Carlos Dorsa Vieira; Duarte, João Jackson; Silva, Augusto Daige da; Dias, Amaury Mont'Serrat Ávila Souza; Benfatti, Ricardo Adala; Gardenal, Neimar; Benfatti, Amanda Ferreira Carli; Gomes, Jandir Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    We present a patient with severe aortic valvular bioprosthesis dysfunction implanted for 11 years, presenting with acute pulmonary edema due to severe valvular insufficiency with severe systolic dysfunction (EF <30%) and comorbid conditions that amounted operative risk (STS score > 10). We carried out the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (Inovare® - Braile Biomedica), which was implemented successfully by transfemoral access and good patient outcomes. PMID:23288191

  13. Secondary glaucoma in CAPN5-associated neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Abdourahman; Bansal, Mayank; Banda, Himanshu K; Kwon, Young; Tlucek, Paul S; Bassuk, Alexander G; Tsang, Stephen H; Sobol, Warren M; Folk, James C; Yeh, Steven; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to review the treatment outcomes of patients with secondary glaucoma in cases of autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV), a hereditary autoimmune uveitis due to mutations in CAPN5. Patients and methods A retrospective, observational case series was assembled from ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, use of antiglaucoma medications, ocular surgeries, and adverse outcomes. Perimetry and optic disk optical coherence tomography (OCT) were also analyzed. Results Nine eyes of five ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma were reviewed. Each received a fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implant for the management of posterior uveitis. Following implantation, no eyes developed neovascular glaucoma. Five eyes (in patients 1, 2, and 5) required Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the management of steroid-responsive glaucoma. Patient 2 also developed angle closure with iris bombe and underwent laser peripheral iridotomy. Patient 4 had both hypotony and elevated IOP that required periodic antiglaucoma medication in the FA-implanted eye. Patient 3 did not develop steroid-response glaucoma in either eye. Optic disk examinations were obscured by fibrosis and better assessed with OCT. Conclusion ADNIV patients show combined mechanism secondary glaucoma best assessed by OCT of the optic disk. The FA implants have reduced uveitic and neovascular glaucoma. Nevertheless, IOP management remains complex due to steroid-response glaucoma, angle closure glaucoma, and hypotony. PMID:27390515

  14. Transcatheter Aortic and Mitral Valve Implantation (TAMVI) in Native Rheumatic Valves.

    PubMed

    Akujuo, Adanna C; Dellis, Sophia L; Britton, Lewis W; Bennett, Edward V

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old female with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and severe mitral stenosis, deemed too high risk for surgery (STS mortality risk = 12.3%) with a porcelain aorta, was successfully treated with a transcatheter aortic and mitral valve implantation (TAMVI) via a transapical approach. A 23 mm Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) was placed in the aortic position and a 29 mm inverted Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) in the mitral position. PMID:26347492

  15. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Freidoon; MacCarthy, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is one of the most significant technological advances in cardiovascular medicine. It offers a safe alternative in high risk cardiac patients with proven durability, economical viability and survival advantage. Current trials may expand its application in intermediate or low risk groups. PMID:26961440

  16. Transatrial antegrade approach for double mitral and tricuspid "valve-in-ring" implantation.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Domenico; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Noebauer, Christian; Ruge, Hendrik; Mayr, Patrick; Opitz, Anke; Tassani-Prell, Peter; Schreiber, Christian; Piazza, Nicolo; Lange, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    Within the last 5 years, the number of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures has increased continuously and, in parallel, the indications for TAVI have expanded (eg, failing surgical valves and rings). Furthermore, alternative TAVI access routes such as transaxillary and transaortic have been applied successfully. We report on, to our knowledge, the first-in-human case of a combined off-pump antegrade transatrial implantation of a transcatheter valve within a mitral and tricuspid annuloplasty ring through an anterolateral minithoracotomy. The patient showed severe mitral valve and tricuspid valve stenosis and regurgitation 15 years after mitral valve repair and 7 years after aortic valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair. PMID:23272889

  17. Successful treatment of pure aortic insufficiency with transapical implantation of the JenaValve.

    PubMed

    Bleiziffer, Sabine; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Nöbauer, Christian; Ried, Thomas; Lange, Rüdiger

    2013-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was predominantly developed for patients with severe calcified aortic stenosis, as most devices are designed to anchor within the native valve calcium. We report on a patient with pure insufficiency of a non-calcified aortic valve, in whom an anatomically oriented catheter valve was implanted successfully. The design of the prosthesis with position feelers engaging the native aortic valve leaflets proved to be suitable for the treatment of pure aortic insufficiency. PMID:23344750

  18. Percutaneous pulmonary and tricuspid valve implantations: An update

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Robert; Daehnert, Ingo; Lurz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The field of percutaneous valvular interventions is one of the most exciting and rapidly developing within interventional cardiology. Percutaneous procedures focusing on aortic and mitral valve replacement or interventional treatment as well as techniques of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation have already reached worldwide clinical acceptance and routine interventional procedure status. Although techniques of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation have been described just a decade ago, two stent-mounted complementary devices were successfully introduced and more than 3000 of these procedures have been performed worldwide. In contrast, percutaneous treatment of tricuspid valve dysfunction is still evolving on a much earlier level and has so far not reached routine interventional procedure status. Taking into account that an “interdisciplinary challenging”, heterogeneous population of patients previously treated by corrective, semi-corrective or palliative surgical procedures is growing inexorably, there is a rapidly increasing need of treatment options besides redo-surgery. Therefore, the review intends to reflect on clinical expansion of percutaneous pulmonary and tricuspid valve procedures, to update on current devices, to discuss indications and patient selection criteria, to report on clinical results and finally to consider future directions. PMID:25914786

  19. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in the Elderly: Who to Refer?

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Matthew; Green, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation has led to improved outcomes in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who may not have previously been considered for intervention. These patients are often frail with significant comorbid conditions. As the prevalence of AS increases, there is a need for improved assessment parameters to determine the patients most likely to benefit from this novel procedure. This review discusses the diagnostic criteria for severe AS and the trials available to aid in the decision to refer for aortic valve procedures in the elderly. PMID:25216621

  20. Role of Echocardiography Before Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Badiani, Sveeta; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Lloyd, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including cardiothoracic surgeons, interventional cardiologists, anaesthetists, imaging experts and specialist nurses. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, CT and MRI plays a pivotal role in the selection and planning process; however, echocardiography remains the primary imaging modality used for patient selection, intra-procedural guidance, post-procedural assessment and long-term follow-up. The contribution that contemporary transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography make to the selection and planning of TAVI is described in this article. PMID:26960423

  1. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: from fantasy to reality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increased life expectancy has led to the presentation of more complicated patients in old age for the replacement of the aortic valve. The emergence of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) was considered as a significant breakthrough in the management of symptomatic, moribund patients suffering from aortic valve stenosis who had been rejected for surgical intervention. A novel technology often has a long journey from the point at which it is created to its every-day-use. It is now obvious that TAVI practice in multiple institutes around the world has gone beyond the evidence. Serious concerns have been raised questioning the current TAVI practice. Analysis of future TAVI use may assist clinicians and healthcare managers to understand and deploy this technology in accordance with the evidence. PMID:24602509

  2. Transcatheter ACURATE-TA Aortic Valve Implantation in a Patient With a Previous Mechanical Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Kiaii, Bob; Teefy, Patrick J; Diamantouros, Pantelis; Harle, Christopher; Goela, Aashish; Chan, Ian; Chu, Michael W A

    2015-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in the presence of a mechanical mitral valve (MMV) prosthesis is still challenging because of the rigid mitral frame within the aortomitral curtain. Moreover, low-lying coronary ostia represent a hazardous problem of coronary obstruction, especially in narrow or porcelain aortic roots. The present case demonstrates the successful management of 2 challenging anatomical issues, the rigid cage of the MMV and the low-lying left main coronary ostium (LMCO), with the implantation of the ACURATE-TA bioprosthesis (Symetis SA, Ecublens, Switzerland). It also highlights the importance of having multiple TAVI devices in order to choose the ideal transcatheter aortic bioprosthesis to fit the unique anatomical presentation of the patient. PMID:26522576

  3. Assessment of Filtration Bleb and Endplate Positioning Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Eyes Implanted with Long-Tube Glaucoma Drainage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Ichiya; Tanito, Masaki; Uchida, Koji; Katsube, Takashi; Kitagaki, Hajime; Ohira, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate ocular fluid filtration and endplate positioning in glaucomatous eyes with long-tube glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the effects of various factors on postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods This observational case series included 27 consecutive glaucomatous eyes (18 men, 7 women; mean age ± standard error, 63.0±2.0 years) who underwent GDD implantation (n = 8 Ahmed Glaucoma Valves [AGV] and n = 19 Baerveldt Glaucoma Implants [BGI]). Tubes were inserted into the pars plana in 23 eyes and anterior chamber in 4 eyes. Six months postoperatively, high-resolution orbital images were obtained using 3-Tesla MRI with head-array coils, and the filtering bleb volume, bleb height, and distances between the anterior endplate edge and corneal center or limbus or between the endplate and orbital wall were measured. Results In MR images obtained by three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) sequences, the shunt endplate was identified as low-intensity signal, and the filtering bleb was identified as high-intensity signals above and below the endplate in all eyes. The 6-month-postoperative IOP level was correlated negatively with bleb volume (r = -0.4510, P = 0.0182) and bleb height (r = -0.3954, P = 0.0412). The postoperative IOP was significantly (P = 0.0026) lower in BGI-implanted eyes (12.2±0.7 mmHg) than AGV-implanted eyes (16.7±1.2 mmHg); bleb volume was significantly (P = 0.0093) larger in BGI-implanted eyes (478.8±84.2 mm3) than AGV-implanted eyes (161.1±52.3 mm3). Other parameters did not differ. Conclusions The presence of intraorbital/periocular accumulation of ocular fluid affects postoperative IOP levels in eyes implanted with long-tube GDDs. Larger filtering blebs after BGI than AGI implantations explain lower postoperative IOP levels achieved with BGI than AGV. The findings will contribute to better understanding of IOP reducing mechanism of long

  4. First-in-human valve-in-valve implantation of a 20 mm balloon expandable transcatheter heart valve.

    PubMed

    Binder, Ronald K; Wood, David; Webb, John G; Cheung, Anson

    2013-12-01

    An 86-year-old lady with recurrent admissions for heart failure due to a severely regurgitant aortic bioprosthesis (SJM Epic 19 mm) was not a candidate for re-operation due to age and frailty. Her small ilio-femoral arteries precluded a transfemoral transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) approach. The small internal diameter of her bioprosthesis (16 mm) forbids the implantation of the smallest available transapical transcatheter heart valve (THV). We, therefore, decided to perform a first-in-human transapical aortic VIV implantation using a 20 mm balloon expandable THV and a transfemoral delivery system. The procedure was successfully performed under general anesthesia, without any contrast dye and under fluoroscopy as well as transesophageal echocardiography guidance. The post-procedural transvalvular gradient was 15 mm Hg (pre-procedural 14 mm Hg). At 30-day follow-up, the lady was living independently at home without shortness of breath during her daily activities. If redo-surgery for prosthetic regurgitation is not an option, VIV implantation in very small surgical bioprosthesis is feasible and leads to acceptable hemodynamics and clinical improvement. PMID:22821872

  5. Glaucoma Surgery in Pregnancy: A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Masoumpour, Masoumeh; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossein; Myers, Jonathan S.; Moster, Marlene R.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon’s lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus. PMID:27582594

  6. Glaucoma Surgery in Pregnancy: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Masoumpour, Masoumeh; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossein; Myers, Jonathan S; Moster, Marlene R

    2016-09-01

    Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon's lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus. PMID:27582594

  7. Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Garot, Jerome; Neylon, Antoinette; Sawaya, Fadi J.; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Progressive dyspnea and hypoxaemia in the subacute phase after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are uncommon and warrant immediate assessment of valve and prosthesis leaflet function to exclude thrombosis, as well as investigation for other causes related to the procedure, such as left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary embolism, and respiratory sepsis. In this case, we report the observation of a patient presenting two weeks after TAVI with arterial hypoxaemia in an upright position, relieved by lying flat, and coupled with an intracardiac shunt detected on echocardiography in the absence of pulmonary hypertension, raising the suspicion of Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS). Invasive intracardiac haemodynamic assessment showed a significant right-to-left shunt (Qp/Qs = 0.74), which confirmed the diagnosis, with subsequent closure of the intracardiac defect resulting in immediate relief of symptoms and hypoxaemia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an interatrial defect and shunt causing Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, resolved by percutaneous device closure. PMID:27610250

  8. Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Andrew K; Garot, Jerome; Neylon, Antoinette; Spaziano, Marco; Sawaya, Fadi J; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Progressive dyspnea and hypoxaemia in the subacute phase after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are uncommon and warrant immediate assessment of valve and prosthesis leaflet function to exclude thrombosis, as well as investigation for other causes related to the procedure, such as left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary embolism, and respiratory sepsis. In this case, we report the observation of a patient presenting two weeks after TAVI with arterial hypoxaemia in an upright position, relieved by lying flat, and coupled with an intracardiac shunt detected on echocardiography in the absence of pulmonary hypertension, raising the suspicion of Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS). Invasive intracardiac haemodynamic assessment showed a significant right-to-left shunt (Qp/Qs = 0.74), which confirmed the diagnosis, with subsequent closure of the intracardiac defect resulting in immediate relief of symptoms and hypoxaemia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an interatrial defect and shunt causing Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, resolved by percutaneous device closure. PMID:27610250

  9. First-in-Man, Mitral Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Implantation Through an Innovative Minimally Invasive Surgical Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneretto, Claudio; Ettori, Federica; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Curello, Salvatore; Chiari, Ermanna; Mastropierro, Rosy; Maffeo, Diego; Bisleri, Gianluigi

    2015-08-01

    Degeneration of a surgically implanted valve bioprosthesis may occur in elderly, frail patients with an extremely high risk to undergo redo cardiac surgery. Transapical or fully percutaneous transseptal approaches have been described in order to treat degenerated aortic and mitral bioprosthesis. We performed the first-in-man successful mitral transcatheter valve delivery with a valve-in-valve technique through an innovative route; ie, a video-assisted endoscopic direct access to the left atrium, in an 82-year-old patient who previously underwent surgical replacement of the mitral valve and with a prohibitive surgical risk. PMID:26234847

  10. [Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: An Introduction and Patient Care].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ju; Wang, Shiao-Pei

    2015-06-01

    Aortic stenosis has a high prevalence among individuals over 75 years of age. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel valve-replacement technique for patients with multiple chronic diseases who are at high risk of requiring aortic valve replacement surgery. Most of the time, the indicators of TAVI are detected during an echocardiographic exam. The femoral artery is the primary insertion site. The complications of TAVI include stroke, vascular dissection, bleeding, aortic valve regurgitation, and arrhythmia. In terms of clinical effectiveness, the mortality rate of TAVI is lower than percutaneous ballon valvuloplasty but similar to AVR. The unplanned cardiac-related re-admission rate within 30 days of discharge is lower for TAVI than for AVR. In terms of activity tolerance, TAVI is significantly better than both percutaneous ballon valvuloplasty and AVR. Comprehensive nursing care may reduce the incidence of complications associated with TAVI. Nursing care of TAVI includes explaining and providing instructions regarding TAVI prior to the procedure. After the TAVI procedure and while the patient is in the ICU, remove the endotracheal tube as soon as possible, monitor his / her neuro-cognitive status, monitor for early detection of a stroke event, record urine output to assess renal function, observe bleeding in the puncture site, and evaluate cardiac arrhythmia and pain. While in the general ward, resume early physical activities and educate the patient regarding the risks and the prevention of bleeding. This article provides references for clinical staff responsible to care for post-TAVI surgery patients. PMID:26073960

  11. Left main coronary artery occlusion after percutaneous aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Bartorelli, Antonio L; Andreini, Daniele; Sisillo, Erminio; Tamborini, Gloria; Fusari, Melissa; Biglioli, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Left main coronary artery occlusion occurred immediately after transfemoral aortic valve implantation in an 87-year-old woman, which resulted in ventricular fibrillation and hemodynamic collapse. This life-threatening complication was promptly diagnosed with transesophageal echocardiography, which showed the disappearance of diastolic left main coronary artery jet flow and was confirmed with aortic root angiography. After prompt defibrillation, hemodynamic support was obtained with intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic drugs. Functional recovery and survival were achieved with coronary stenting. This report highlights the importance of an integrated team approach of highly skilled specialists for these novel interventions. PMID:20172163

  12. The power of disruptive technological innovation: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, David B; Davidson, Michael J; Schoen, Frederick J

    2015-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the principles of disruptive innovation, defined as technology innovation that fundamentally shifts performance and utility metrics, as applied to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In particular, we considered implantation procedure, device design, cost, and patient population. Generally cheaper and lower performing, classical disruptive innovations are first commercialized in insignificant markets, promise lower margins, and often parasitize existing usage, representing unattractive investments for established market participants. However, despite presently high unit cost, TAVI is less invasive, treats a "new," generally high risk, patient population, and is generally done by a multidisciplinary integrated heart team. Moreover, at least in the short-term TAVI has not been lower-performing than open surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. We conclude that TAVI extends the paradigm of disruptive innovation and represents an attractive commercial opportunity space. Moreover, should the long-term performance and durability of TAVI approach that of conventional prostheses, TAVI will be an increasingly attractive commercial opportunity. PMID:25545639

  13. Complications associated with the implantation of peritoneo-venous valves and possibilities of prevention.

    PubMed

    Vincze, K

    1994-01-01

    The author describes the complications associated with the implantation of peritoneo-venous valves in the therapy of refractory ascites. They survey the various complications (disorders in the healing of the wound, valve occlusion, ascites induced coagulation disorders) observed during the treatment of 71 patients and give full account of their work performed while observing these complications, their prevention and avoidance. They stress the importance of haematologic examinations and postoperative haemostasis parameters of patients having undergone valve implantation. PMID:7618386

  14. Injectable Tissue-Engineered Pulmonary Heart Valve Implantation Into the Pig Model: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Franziska; Salameh, Aida; Oelmann, Katja; Halling, Michelle; Dhein, Stefan; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement is currently performed in clinical trials, but is limited by the use of glutaraldehyde-treated bioprostheses. This feasibility study was performed to evaluate delivery-related tissue distortion during implantation of tissue-engineered (TE) heart valves. Material/Methods The injectable TE heart valve was mounted on a self-expanding nitinol stent (n=7) and delivered into the pulmonary position in 7 pigs, (weight 26 to 31 kg), performing a sternotomy or limited lateral thoracotomy. Prior to implantation, the injectable TE heart valves were crimped and inserted into an applicator. Positioning of the implants was guided by fluoroscopy, and after careful deployment, angiographic examination was performed to evaluate the correct delivered position. Hemodynamic measurements were performed by epicardial echocardiography. Finally, the animals were sacrificed and the injectable TE heart valves were inspected by gross examination and histological examination. Results Orthotopic deliveries of the injectable TE heart valves were all successful performed, expect in 1 where the valve migrated due to a discrepancy between pulmonary valve annulus size and injectable TE valve size. Angiographic evaluation (n=6) showed normal valve function, supported by epicardial echocardiography in which no increased flow velocity was measured, neither trans- nor paravalvular regurgitation. Histological evaluation demonstrated absence of tissue damage from the delivery process. Conclusions Transcatheter implantation of an injectable TE heart valve seems to be possible without tissue distortion due to the delivery system. PMID:26104851

  15. A second-time percutaneous aortic-valve implantation for bioprosthetic failure

    PubMed Central

    Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin Assa, Hana; Kornowski, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a case of an 84-year-old man with a history of surgical aortic-valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) who later developed severe prosthetic valve AR. Subsequent treatment with a Corevalve® was unsuccessful with severe AR seen at 3 years after the valve-in-valve procedure. The patient was then successfully treated with a second catheter-based Corevalve® implantation. PMID:26401281

  16. Redo aortic valve surgery versus transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failing surgical bioprosthetic valves: consecutive patients in a single-center setting

    PubMed Central

    Wottke, Michael; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Krane, Markus; Piazza, Nicolo; Lange, Ruediger; Bleiziffer, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to a considerable rise in bioprosthetic as opposed to mechanical valve implantations, an increase of patients presenting with failing bioprosthetic surgical valves in need of a reoperation is to be expected. Redo surgery may pose a high-risk procedure. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is an innovative, less-invasive treatment alternative for these patients. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcome of consecutive patients after a valve-in-valve TAVI [transcatheter aortic valve-in-surgical aortic valve (TAV-in-SAV)] as compared to a standard reoperation [surgical aortic valve redo-operation (SAV-in-SAV)] has not yet been performed. The goal of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes after TAV-in-SAV and SAV-in-SAV in a single center setting. Methods All SAV-in-SAV and TAV-in-SAV patients from January 2001 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with previous mechanical or transcatheter valves, active endocarditis and concomitant cardiac procedures were excluded. Patient characteristics, preoperative data, post-procedural complications, and 30-day mortality were collected from a designated database. Mean values ± SD were calculated for all continuous variables. Counts and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. The Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared using the t-test for independent samples. A 2-sided P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 102 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 50 patients (49%) underwent a transcatheter valve-in-valve procedure, while 52 patients (51%) underwent redo-surgery. Patients in the TAV-in-SAV group were significantly older, had a higher mean logistic EuroSCORE and exhibited a lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than patients in the SAV-in-SAV group (78.1±6.7 vs. 66.2±13.1, P<0.001; 27.4±18.7 vs. 14.4±10, P<0.001; and 49.8±13

  17. [Pannus Formation Two Years after Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Implantation;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kimiyo; Kuroda, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of early deterioration of the bioprosthetic aortic valve 23 months postoperatively. A 77-year-old man who had undergone aortic valve replacement with a 23-mm Epic valve( St. Jude Medical [SJM])presented to us after a syncopal episode. Echocardiography revealed severe aortic stenosis, and redo aortic valve replacement with a 21-mm SJM mechanical valve was performed. All 3 cusps of the tissue valve were thickened by fibrous pannus overgrowth. Neither calcification nor invasion of inflammatory cells was observed. The cause of pannus formation at such an early stage after implantation remains unknown. PMID:26329714

  18. Risk factors for tube exposure as a late complication of glaucoma drainage implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chaku, Meenakshi; Netland, Peter A; Ishida, Kyoko; Rhee, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Patients and methods This was a retrospective case-controlled observational study of 64 eyes from 64 patients. Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with tube erosion requiring surgical revision were compared with 32 matched control eyes of 32 patients. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed. Results Mean age was significantly younger in the tube exposure group compared with the control group (48.2±28.1 years versus 67.3±18.0 years, respectively; P=0.003). The proportion of diabetic patients (12.5%) in the tube exposure group was significantly less (P=0.041) compared with the control group (37.5%). Comparisons of the type and position of the drainage implant were not significantly different between the two groups. The average time to tube exposure was 17.2±18.0 months after implantation of the drainage device. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, younger age (P=0.005 and P=0.027) and inflammation prior to tube exposure (P≤0.001 and P=0.004) were significant risk factors. Diabetes was a significant risk factor only in the univariate analysis (P=0.027). Conclusion Younger age and inflammation were significant risk factors for tube exposure after drainage implant surgery. PMID:27099461

  19. Evaluation of Ex-PRESS implantation combined with phacoemulsification in primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Guo, Da-Dong; Du, Xiu-Juan; Cong, Chen-Yang; Ma, Xiao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ex-PRESS (R50) implantation combined with phacoemulsification in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients with cataract.Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with unregulated PACG underwent combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. After phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, the Ex-PRESS (R-50) was inserted into the anterior chamber under a scleral flap. The intraocular pressure (IOP), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of medications, and complications were recorded preoperatively as well as postoperatively on day 7 and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.The mean follow-up was 16.4 ± 2.5 months (range 14-21 months) and the mean age of the patients was 64.7 ± 6.8 years (range 56-78 years). The mean IOP was 20.4 ± 5.4 mm Hg preoperatively and decreased to 10.2 ± 2.8, 13.1 ± 2.7, 14.9 ± 4.1, 14.3 ± 3.9, and 14.0 ± 3.6 mm Hg on day 7 and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery (all P < 0.005). At 12 months, the mean BCVA was 0.62 ± 0.33 and the number of medications was 0.3 ± 0.6. Most of complications were resolved spontaneously and conservatively.The Ex-PRESS implantation combined with phacoemulsification cataract extraction is safe and effective for reducing IOP and antiglaucoma medications in PACG patients with cataract. PMID:27603352

  20. Bevacizumab-Loaded Polyurethane Subconjunctival Implants: Effects on Experimental Glaucoma Filtration Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Vanessa Raquel Coimbra; Chahud, Fernando; Cannellini, Roberta; Monteiro, Tassia Cristina; de Lima Gomes, Elionai Cassiana; Reinach, Peter Sol; Veronese Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may contribute to the scarring process resulting from glaucoma filtration surgery, since this cytokine may stimulate fibroblast proliferation. The aim of this study was to describe a new bevacizumab-loaded polyurethane implant (BPUI) and to evaluate its effectiveness as a new drug delivery system of anti-VEGF antibody in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery. Methods An aqueous dispersion of polyurethane was obtained via the conventional process. Bevacizumab (1.5 mg) was then incorporated into the dispersion and was subsequently dried to form the polymeric films. Films with dimensions of 3×3×1 mm that either did (group BPUI, n=10) or did not contain bevacizumab (group PUI, n=10) were implanted in the subconjunctival space, at the surgical site in 1 eye of each rabbit. The in vitro bevacizumab release was evaluated using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the in vivo effects of the drug were investigated in a rabbit experimental trabeculectomy model by examining the bleb characteristics and collagen accumulation, and by performing immunohistological analyses of VEGF expression. Results HPLC showed that only 10% of the bevacizumab in the implants had been released by postoperative day 5. In vivo studies demonstrated that the drug had no adverse effects; however, no significant differences in either the bleb area score or the collagen deposit intensity between the group PUI and the group that BPUI were observed. Moreover, the group BPUI presented a significantly lower proportion of VEGF-expressing fibroblasts than group PUI (0.17±0.03 vs. 0.35±0.05 cells/field, P=0.005). Conclusions This study demonstrated that bevacizumab release from the BPUIs only occurred for a short time probably from the surface of the films. Nevertheless, they were well tolerated in rabbit eyes and reduced the number of VEGF-expressing fibroblasts. PMID:23391327

  1. Usefulness of Predilation Before Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Pagnesi, Matteo; Jabbour, Richard J; Latib, Azeem; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Akihito; Regazzoli, Damiano; Mangieri, Antonio; Montalto, Claudio; Ancona, Marco B; Giannini, Francesco; Chieffo, Alaide; Montorfano, Matteo; Monaco, Fabrizio; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Balloon predilation is historically considered a requirement before performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). As the procedure has evolved, it has been questioned whether it is actually needed, but data are lacking on mid-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of balloon predilation before TAVI. A total of 517 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI from November 2007 to October 2015 were analyzed. The devices implanted included the Medtronic CoreValve (n = 216), Medtronic Evolut R (n = 30), Edwards SAPIEN XT (n = 210), and Edwards SAPIEN 3 (n = 61). Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether pre-implantation balloon aortic valvuloplasty (pre-BAV) was performed (n = 326) or not (n = 191). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were primarily evaluated. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and potential confounders (n = 113 pairs). In the overall cohort, patients without pre-BAV had a significantly higher MACCE rate at 30 days, driven by a higher incidence of stroke (0.3% pre-BAV vs 3.7% no-pre-BAV, p <0.01). MACCE and mortality at 1 year were, however, similar in both groups. Independent predictors of MACCE at 1 year included serum creatinine, NYHA class 3 to 4, logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, and postdilation. Of note, the postdilation rate was higher in the no-pre-BAV group (21.5% pre-BAV vs 35.6% no-pre-BAV, p <0.001). After propensity score matching, there were no differences in MACCE between the 2 groups. In conclusion, this study showed that, in selected patients and with specific transcatheter valves, TAVI without pre-BAV appears to be associated with similar mid-term outcomes compared with TAVI with pre-BAV, but it may increase the need for postdilation. PMID:27184169

  2. Evaluation of an injectable thermosensitive hydrogel as drug delivery implant for ocular glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Feng; Zheng, Qiongjuan; Li, Xiaoning; Luo, Jing; Liu, Ji; Quan, Daping; Ge, Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biodegradable thermo-sensitive hydrogel from poly(trimethylene carbonate)15-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate)15 (PTMC15-F127-PTMC15) was designed and evaluated as an injectable implant during ocular glaucoma filtration surgery in vivo and in vitro. Mitomycin C (MMC) was loaded into this hydrogel for controlled released to prolong the efficacy and to reduce the long-term toxicity. The properties of the hydrogel were confirmed using 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Compared to the Pluronic F127 hydrogel, the PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 hydrogel showed a good solution-gel transition temperature at 37°C, a lower work concentration of 5% w/v and a longer mass loss time of more than 2 weeks. The in vitro study showed that the drug could be released from PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 (5% w/v) hydrogel for up to 16 days with only 57% of drug released in the first day. Moreover, the cell toxicity, which was tested via LDH and ANNEXIN V/PI, decreased within 72 h in human tenon's fibroblast cells (HTFs). The in vivo behavior in a rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery model indicated that this hydrogel loaded with 0.1 mg/ml MMC led to a better functional bleb with a prolonged mean bleb survival time (25.5±2.9 days). The scar tissue formation, new collagen deposition and myofibroblast generation appeared to be reduced upon histological and immunohistochemistry examinations, with no obvious side effects and inflammatory reactions. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that this novel hydrogel is a safe and effective drug delivery candidate in ocular glaucoma surgery. PMID:24950176

  3. Evaluation of an Injectable Thermosensitive Hydrogel As Drug Delivery Implant for Ocular Glaucoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Zheng, Qiongjuan; Li, Xiaoning; Luo, Jing; Liu, Ji; Quan, Daping; Ge, Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biodegradable thermo-sensitive hydrogel from poly(trimethylene carbonate)15-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate)15 (PTMC15-F127-PTMC15) was designed and evaluated as an injectable implant during ocular glaucoma filtration surgery in vivo and in vitro. Mitomycin C (MMC) was loaded into this hydrogel for controlled released to prolong the efficacy and to reduce the long-term toxicity. The properties of the hydrogel were confirmed using 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Compared to the Pluronic F127 hydrogel, the PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 hydrogel showed a good solution-gel transition temperature at 37°C, a lower work concentration of 5% w/v and a longer mass loss time of more than 2 weeks. The in vitro study showed that the drug could be released from PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 (5% w/v) hydrogel for up to 16 days with only 57% of drug released in the first day. Moreover, the cell toxicity, which was tested via LDH and ANNEXIN V/PI, decreased within 72 h in human tenon's fibroblast cells (HTFs). The in vivo behavior in a rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery model indicated that this hydrogel loaded with 0.1 mg/ml MMC led to a better functional bleb with a prolonged mean bleb survival time (25.5±2.9 days). The scar tissue formation, new collagen deposition and myofibroblast generation appeared to be reduced upon histological and immunohistochemistry examinations, with no obvious side effects and inflammatory reactions. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that this novel hydrogel is a safe and effective drug delivery candidate in ocular glaucoma surgery. PMID:24950176

  4. Simultaneous transapical aortic and mitral valve-in-valve implantation for double prostheses dysfunction: case report and technical insights.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Augusto; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-09-01

    Transcatheter "Valve-in-Valve" implantation (ViV) has shown promising results in high-risk patients suffering from structural valve deterioration (SVD) of a previously implanted heart valve bioprosthesis. We present a case of a 68-year-old woman with a history of three previous cardiac operations on the aortic and mitral valve. At the time of admission she was severely symptomatic due to a simultaneous SVD of a 23 mm aortic and of a 29 mm mitral St. Jude Biocor bioprosthesis. Because of the history of several cardiac operations and to her comorbidities, the patient was considered with an extremely high surgical risk profile and was therefore scheduled for double concomitant mitral and aortic ViV. Through a trans-apical approach, the patient underwent 23 and 29 mm Edwards Sapien XT implantation in the aortic and mitral bioprosthesis, respectively. The procedure was uneventful as well as the following hospital stay. At 6-months follow-up the patient is in NYHA class I. Echocardiography shows that the aortic bioprosthesis has no leak and the mean gradient is 20 mm Hg while the mitral valve has mild leak and maximum and mean gradients are 21 and 10 mm Hg, respectively. The three main technical aspects that should be carefully considered in double concomitant ViV are: sequence of valve deployment (whether to implant the mitral or the aortic valve first), choice of access and valve sizing. In conclusion, double simultaneous trans-apical mitral and aortic ViV is technically feasible. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24677811

  5. A Miniature-Implantable RF-Wireless Active Glaucoma Intraocular Pressure Monitor.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric Y; Chlebowski, Arthur L; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-12-01

    Glaucoma is a detrimental disease that causes blindness in millions of people worldwide. There are numerous treatments to slow the condition but none are totally effective and all have significant side effects. Currently, a continuous monitoring device is not available, but its development may open up new avenues for treatment. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of an active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that is fully wireless and implantable. Major benefits of an active IOP monitoring device include the potential to operate independently from an external device for extended periods of time and the possibility of developing a closed-loop monitoring and treatment system. The fully wireless operation is based off using gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor, a capacitive power storage array, an application-specific integrated circuit designed on the Texas Instruments (TI) 130 nm process, and a monopole antenna all assembled into a biocompatible liquid-crystal polymer-based tadpole-shaped package. PMID:23850751

  6. Myocardial injury associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Keun; Liebetrau, Christoph; van Linden, Arnaud; Blumenstein, Johannes; Gaede, Luise; Hamm, Christian W; Walther, Thomas; Möllmann, Helge

    2016-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an important treatment option for elderly patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis whose risk is too high or prohibitive for conventional surgery. Despite notable progress during the past decade, continuous efforts directed at further improvement of procedural safety and performance are required, especially considering expanding indications for interventional treatment options among lower-risk populations. One issue that needs to be addressed is myocardial damage, which can frequently be observed after TAVI and has been linked to worse prognosis. Yet, knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms and clinical impact remains scarce, and further investigation in this field is warranted. In this review, we provide a contemporary summary of the types of myocardial injury associated with TAVI, including access-related injury, mechanical trauma and ischemia, the role of myocardial biomarkers, and the impact on left ventricular function, with emphasis on potential mechanisms and clinical implications. PMID:26670909

  7. The Anesthetic Management of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, Fabio; Baldassarri, Rubia

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of patients with a high risk for surgery because of advanced age and associated comorbidities that significantly increase the perioperative risk successfully undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). TAVI is commonly performed under general or local anesthesia or local anesthesia plus mild sedation to achieve a conscious sedation. The anesthetic regimen generally depends on the patient's clinical profile and the procedural technical characteristics, but the center's experience and internal organization likely play an important role in anesthetic decision making. The large variation in anesthetic management among various centers and countries likely depends on the different composition of the operating team and institutional organization. Therefore, a tight interaction among the various members of the TAVI team, including the cardiac anesthetist, provides the proper anesthetic management using the chosen procedural technique. PMID:26403787

  8. Feature identification for image-guided transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Pencilla; Rajchl, Martin; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Chu, Michael W.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive alternative to open-heart surgery, and is critically dependent on imaging for accurate placement of the new valve. Augmented image-guidance for TAVI can be provided by registering together intra-operative transesophageal echo (TEE) ultrasound and a model derived from pre-operative CT. Automatic contour delineation on TEE images of the aortic root is required for real-time registration. This study develops an algorithm to automatically extract contours on simultaneous cross-plane short-axis and long-axis (XPlane) TEE views, and register these features to a 3D pre-operative model. A continuous max-flow approach is used to segment the aortic root, followed by analysis of curvature to select appropriate contours for use in registration. Results demonstrate a mean contour boundary distance error of 1.3 and 2.8mm for the short and long-axis views respectively, and a mean target registration error of 5.9mm. Real-time image guidance has the potential to increase accuracy and reduce complications in TAVI.

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for failing surgical aortic bioprosthetic valve: from concept to clinical application and evaluation (part 1).

    PubMed

    Piazza, Nicolo; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Brockmann, Gernot; Hendrick, Ruge; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Opitz, Anke; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Tassani-Prell, Peter; Schreiber, Christian; Lange, Rüdiger

    2011-07-01

    With an aging population, improvement in life expectancy, and significant increase in the use of bioprosthetic valves, structural valve deterioration will become more and more prevalent. The operative mortality for an elective redo aortic valve surgery is reported to range from 2% to 7%, but this percentage can increase to more than 30% in high-risk and nonelective patients. Because transcatheter aortic valve (TAV)-in-surgical aortic valve (SAV) implantation represents a minimally invasive alternative to conventional redo surgery, it may prove to be safer and just as effective as redo surgery. Of course, prospective comparisons with a large number of patients and long-term follow-up are required to confirm these potential advantages. It is axiomatic that knowledge of the basic construction and dimensions, radiographic identification, and potential failure modes of SAV bioprostheses is fundamental in understanding key principles involved in TAV-in-SAV implantation. The goals of this paper are: 1) to review the classification, physical characteristics, and potential failure modes of surgical bioprosthetic aortic valves; and 2) to discuss patient selection and procedural techniques relevant to TAV-in-SAV implantation. PMID:21777879

  10. New-onset atrial fibrillation after surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Troels Højsgaard; Thygesen, Julie Bjerre; Thyregod, Hans Gustav; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and, more recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have been shown to be the only treatments that can improve the natural cause of severe aortic valve stenosis. However, after SAVR and TAVI, the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is 31%-64% and 4%-32%, respectively. NOAF is independently associated with adverse events such as stroke, death, and increased length of hospital stay. Increasing the knowledge of predisposing factors, optimal postprocedural monitoring, and prophylactic antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic therapy may reduce the risk of complications secondary to NOAF. PMID:25589700

  11. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Assisted with Microcatheter: A New Method to Avoid Coronary Artery Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Chu, Guo-Jun; Wang, Fei-Yu; Zhu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Qin, Yong-Wen; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of fluoroscopic landmarks can make valve deployment more difficult in patients with absent aortic valve (AV) calcification. The goal of this article was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of transcatheter implantation of a valved stent into the AV position of a goat, assisted with a microcatheter which provides accurate positioning of coronary artery ostia to help valved stent deployment. Methods: The subjects were 10 healthy goats in this study. A microcatheter was introduced into the distal site of right coronary artery (RCA) through femoral artery sheath. A minimal thoracic surgery approach was used to access the apex of the heart. The apex of the left ventricle was punctured; a delivery catheter equipped with the valved stent was introduced over a stiff guidewire into the aorta arch. We could accurately locate the RCA ostia through the microcatheter placed in the RCA under fluoroscopy. After correct valve position was confirmed, the valved stent was implanted after rapid inflation of the balloon. The immediate outcome of the function of the valved stents was evaluated after implantation. Results: All ten devices were successfully implanted into the AV position of the goats. Immediate observation after the procedure showed that the valved stents were in the desired position after implantation by angiography, echocardiogram. No obstruction of coronary artery ostia occurred, and no moderate to severe aortic regurgitation was observed. Conclusions: When the procedure of transcatheter implantation of a balloon-expandable valved stent into the AV position of goats is assisted with microcatheter positioning coronary artery ostia, the success rate of operation can be increased in those with noncalcified AV. PMID:25758265

  12. Percutaneous Transcatheter One-Step Mechanical Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Preliminary Feasibility Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan Peregrin, Jan H.; Rocek, Miloslav; Timmermans, Hans A.; Pavcnik, Dusan; Roesch, Josef

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of one-step implantation of a new type of stent-based mechanical aortic disc valve prosthesis (MADVP) above and across the native aortic valve and its short-term function in swine with both functional and dysfunctional native valves. Methods. The MADVP consisted of a folding disc valve made of silicone elastomer attached to either a nitinol Z-stent (Z model) or a nitinol cross-braided stent (SX model). Implantation of 10 MADVPs (6 Z and 4 SX models) was attempted in 10 swine: 4 (2 Z and 2 SX models) with a functional native valve and 6 (4 Z and 2 SX models) with aortic regurgitation induced either by intentional valve injury or by MADVP placement across the native valve. MADVP function was observed for up to 3 hr after implantation. Results. MADVP implantation was successful in 9 swine. One animal died of induced massive regurgitation prior to implantation. Four MADVPs implanted above functioning native valves exhibited good function. In 5 swine with regurgitation, MADVP implantation corrected the induced native valve dysfunction and the device's continuous good function was observed in 4 animals. One MADVP (SX model) placed across native valve gradually migrated into the left ventricle. Conclusion. The tested MADVP can be implanted above and across the native valve in a one-step procedure and can replace the function of the regurgitating native valve. Further technical development and testing are warranted, preferably with a manufactured MADVP.

  13. Baseline platelet indices and bleeding after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Huczek, Zenon; Kochman, Janusz; Kowara, Michal Krzysztof; Wilimski, Radoslaw; Scislo, Piotr; Scibisz, Anna; Rymuza, Bartosz; Andrzejewska, Renata; Stanecka, Paulina; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Bleeding complications are frequent and independently predict mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). It has been demonstrated that certain platelet parameters are indicative of platelet reactivity. We sought to determine the possible correlation between simple platelet indices and bleeding complications in patients undergoing TAVI. Platelet indices--platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width and plateletcrit--were measured in 110 consecutive patients on the day preceding TAVI. In-hospital bleeding events after TAVI were assessed according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 classification as any bleeding, major and life-threatening bleeding (MLTB) and need for transfusion. By receiver-operating characteristic analysis, only MPV was able to distinguish between patients with and without any bleeding [area under the curve (AUC) 0.629, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.531-0.719, P = 0.0342], MLTB (AUC 0.730, 95% CI 0.637-0.811, P = 0.0004) and need for transfusion (AUC 0.660, 95% CI 0.563-0.747, P = 0.0045). By multivariate logistic regression, high MPV (>10.6) and low platelet distribution width (<14.8) were associated with increased risk of any bleeding [odds ratio (OR) 4.08, 95% CI 1.66-10.07, P = 0.0022; and OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.41-10.36, P = 0.0084, respectively] and MLTB (OR 10.76, 95% CI 3.05-38, P = 0.0002; and OR 8.46, 95% CI 1.69-42.17, P = 0.0092, respectively). Additionally, high MPV independently correlated with the need for transfusion (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.71-9.86, P = 0.0016). Larger and less heterogenic platelets may be associated with increased risk of short-term bleeding complications after TAVI. PMID:25811449

  14. Wireless miniature implantable devices and ASICs for monitoring, treatment, and study of glaucoma and cardiac disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Eric Y.

    Glaucoma affects about 65 million people and is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Although the condition is irreversible and incurable, early detection is vital to slowing and even stopping the progression of the disease. Our work focuses on the design, fabrication, and assembly of a continuous active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that provides clinicians with the necessary data to more accurately diagnose and treat patients. Major benefits of an active monitoring device include the potential to develop a closed-loop treatment system and to operate independently for extended periods of time. The fully wireless operation uses gigahertzfrequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a MEMS capacitive sensor, capacitive power storage array, ASIC, and monopole antenna assembled into a biocompatible liquid crystal polymer (LCP) package. We have performed in vivo trials on rabbits, both chronic and acute, to validate system functionality, fully wireless feasibility, and biocompatibility. Heart failure (HF) affects approximately 2% of the adult population in developed countries and 6-10% of people over the age of 65. Continuous monitoring of blood pressure, flow, and chemistry from a minimally invasive device can serve as a diagnostic and early-warning system for cardiac health. We developed a miniaturized system attached to the outer surface of an FDA approved stent, used as both the antenna for wireless telemetry/powering and structural support. The system comprises of a MEMS pressure sensor, ASIC for the sensor interface and wireless capabilities, LCP substrate, and FDA approved stent. In vivo studies on pigs validated functionality and fully wireless operation and demonstrate the feasibility of a stent-based wireless implant for continuous monitoring of blood pressure as well as other parameters including oxygen, flow

  15. Transcatheter Valve Implantation in Failed Surgically Inserted Bioprosthesis: Review and Practical Guide to Echocardiographic Imaging in Valve-in-Valve Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Nadira B; Khalique, Omar K; Monaghan, Mark J; Kodali, Susheel K; Dvir, Danny; Bapat, Vinayak N; Nazif, Tamim M; Vahl, Torsten; George, Isaac; Leon, Martin B; Hahn, Rebecca T

    2015-08-01

    An increased use of bioprosthetic heart valves has stimulated an interest in possible transcatheter options for bioprosthetic valve failure given the high operative risk. The encouraging results of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high-risk surgical candidates with native disease have led to the development of the transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) procedures for failed bioprostheses. VIV procedures are unique in many ways, and there is an increased need for multimodality imaging in a team-based approach. The echocardiographic approach to VIV procedures has not previously been described. In this review, we summarize key echocardiographic requirements for optimal patient selection, procedural guidance, and immediate post-procedural assessment for VIV procedures. PMID:26271092

  16. Biocompatibility and Pharmacokinetic Analysis of an Intracameral Polycaprolactone Drug Delivery Implant for Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jean; Kudisch, Max; Mudumba, Sri; Asada, Hiroyuki; Aya-Shibuya, Eri; Bhisitkul, Robert B.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We developed polycaprolactone (PCL) implants that achieve zero-order release of a proprietary ocular hypotensive agent (DE-117) over 6 months. Methods The release rates of DE-117–loaded PCL devices were tuned based on an established predictive model and confirmed by in vitro release studies. Devices containing DE-117 and empty devices were implanted intracamerally in normotensive rabbits for up to 8 weeks' duration. Devices were retrieved after rabbits were euthanized and evaluated for tissue adherence. The drug remaining in each device was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Drug distribution in ocular tissues was measured by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Results In vitro release of DE-117 showed zero-order release with a release rate of 0.5 μg/day over 6 months. Implantation in rabbit eyes demonstrated that the devices were well tolerated in the intracameral space. Quantification of DE-117 and hDE-117 (the hydrolyzed active form of DE-117) in ocular tissues (cornea, iris-ciliary body, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor) indicated sustained release of DE-117 and its conversion to hDE-117 when released from the device. Analysis of drug remaining in the device found that concentration of hDE-117 was below the limit of detection, indicating the encapsulated drug was protected from hydrolysis in the device. Conclusions Proof-of-concept PCL drug delivery devices containing DE-117 show promise as a long-term glaucoma treatment based on their zero-order drug release profile in vitro, biocompatibility in vivo, and effective distribution of released drug in relevant ocular tissues. PMID:27556217

  17. Percutaneous endoscopic transapical aortic valve implantation: three experimental transcatheter models.

    PubMed

    Chu, Michael W A; Falk, Volkmar; Mohr, Friedrich W; Walther, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of an endoscopic approach to transapical aortic valve implantation (AVI), avoiding the morbidity of a thoracotomy incision. Using an experimental pig model, we performed three different approaches to transapical AVI, using a standard minithoracotomy (n=4), a robotic approach using the da Vinci telemanipulator (n=4) and an endoscopic approach using a port and camera access (n=4). The feasibility of the different techniques, exposure of the left ventricular apex, postoperative blood loss and total operative time were evaluated. Left ventricular apical exposure, 'purse-string' suture control and 33-F introducer access were successfully performed and confirmed videoscopically, fluoroscopically and at a post mortem in all 12 animals. The haemodynamics were stable in all animals. Mean intraoperative and postoperative (two-hour) blood losses were 88 and 65 ml with minithoracotomy, and 228 and 138 ml with the robotic and 130 and 43 ml with the endoscopic technique (P=0.26, P=0.14, respectively). There was no significant change in perioperative haematocrit (P=0.53). The mean total operative times were 1.4, 3.9 and 1.1 h (P=0.06), respectively. Percutaneous endoscopic and robotic transapical AVI are both feasible and can be performed in a timely manner with reasonable perioperative blood loss. Future research will focus on identifying optimal candidates for surgery based upon preoperative thoracic imaging. PMID:21700598

  18. Acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: incidence, predictors and impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Elhmidi, Yacine; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Krane, Markus; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Lange, Rüdiger; Piazza, Nicolo

    2014-02-01

    There is a paucity of data describing acute kidney injury (AKI) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation and its impact on mortality remains unknown. We therefore evaluate the incidence, predictors and impact of AKI following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We searched MEDLINE for studies from 2008 to 2013, evaluating AKI after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. All studies were compared according to the incidence, predictors and impact of AKI following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. AKI was diagnosed according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium definition using the RIFLE criteria. Thirteen studies with more than 1900 patients were included. AKI occurred in 8.3-57% of the patients. The following factors were associated with AKI: blood transfusion; transapical access; preoperative creatinine concentration; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; and procedural bleeding events. The 30-day mortality rate in patients with AKI ranged from 13.3% to 44.4% and was 2-6-fold higher than in patients without AKI. The amount of contrast agent used was not associated with the occurrence of AKI. AKI is a common complication, with an incidence of 8.3-57% following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients with AKI had higher 30-day and late mortality rates. However, AKI was related to the amount of contrast volume used in only one study. PMID:24556191

  19. Phacoemulsification combined with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin and amniotic membrane implantation in chronic primary open angle glaucoma with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Hazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of combined phacoemulsification plus Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) and sub-flap implantation of amniotic membrane for the management of uncontrolled, chronic, primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods This prospective study included 41 patients with chronic, primary, open-angle glaucoma and cataract uncontrolled with medical treatment who underwent combined phacoemulsification augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) application and amniotic membrane implantation under the scleral flap. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, glaucoma medications, stabilization of visual field, complications, and viability of the success rate were assessed a 36-month follow-up period. Results The mean age of cases was 54.8 ± 5.3 years. Sixty-one percent of cases were males, and 39% were females. The mean IOP decreased from 23.8 ± 1.8 mmHg preoperatively to 16.8 ± 2.3 mmHg postoperatively. The overall success rate was 97.5, 95, and 92.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. The overall success rate was 90% in the first year, but that decreased to 85.3 and 78% in the second and third year, respectively. Qualified success was 7.5, 10, and 14.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. Failure was recorded as 2.5, 5, and 7.3% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. IOP reduction was sustained through the follow-up period. Visual acuity improved from 0.13 ± 0.06 to 0.9 ± 0.07 (p < 0.001). The visual field improved significantly in the first assessment, from 14.0 ± 2.7 preoperatively to 12.6 ± 2.6 at three months postoperatively (p < 0.001), after which it became stable for the remainder of the follow-up period. One hundred percent of cases were on three anti-glaucoma drugs preoperatively, while postoperatively, 12.2% were on three drugs, 4.2% were on two drugs, and 82.9% were controlled without anti-glaucoma

  20. Tissue-engineered heart valve with a tubular leaflet design for minimally invasive transcatheter implantation.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ricardo; Velz, Thaddaeus; Alves, Nuno; Gesche, Valentine N; Malischewski, Axel; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Mela, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation of (nonviable) bioprosthetic valves has been proven a valid alternative to conventional surgical implantation in patients at high or prohibitive mortality risk. In this study we present the in vitro proof-of-principle of a newly developed tissue-engineered heart valve for minimally invasive implantation, with the ultimate aim of adding the unique advantages of a living tissue with regeneration capabilities to the continuously developing transcatheter technologies. The tube-in-stent is a fibrin-based tissue-engineered valve with a tubular leaflet design. It consists of a tubular construct sewn into a self-expandable nitinol stent at three commissural attachment points and along a circumferential line so that it forms three coaptating leaflets by collapsing under diastolic back pressure. The tubular constructs were molded with fibrin and human umbilical vein cells. After 3 weeks of conditioning in a bioreactor, the valves were fully functional with unobstructed opening (systolic phase) and complete closure (diastolic phase). Tissue analysis showed a homogeneous cell distribution throughout the valve's thickness and deposition of collagen types I and III oriented along the longitudinal direction. Immunohistochemical staining against CD31 and scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent endothelial cell layer on the surface of the valves. After harvesting, the valves underwent crimping for 20 min to simulate the catheter-based delivery. This procedure did not affect the valvular functionality in terms of orifice area during systole and complete closure during diastole. No influence on the extracellular matrix organization, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, nor on the mechanical properties was observed. These results show the potential of combining tissue engineering and minimally invasive implantation technology to obtain a living heart valve with a simple and robust tubular design for transcatheter delivery. The effect

  1. Tissue-Engineered Heart Valve with a Tubular Leaflet Design for Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ricardo; Velz, Thaddaeus; Alves, Nuno; Gesche, Valentine N.; Malischewski, Axel; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation of (nonviable) bioprosthetic valves has been proven a valid alternative to conventional surgical implantation in patients at high or prohibitive mortality risk. In this study we present the in vitro proof-of-principle of a newly developed tissue-engineered heart valve for minimally invasive implantation, with the ultimate aim of adding the unique advantages of a living tissue with regeneration capabilities to the continuously developing transcatheter technologies. The tube-in-stent is a fibrin-based tissue-engineered valve with a tubular leaflet design. It consists of a tubular construct sewn into a self-expandable nitinol stent at three commissural attachment points and along a circumferential line so that it forms three coaptating leaflets by collapsing under diastolic back pressure. The tubular constructs were molded with fibrin and human umbilical vein cells. After 3 weeks of conditioning in a bioreactor, the valves were fully functional with unobstructed opening (systolic phase) and complete closure (diastolic phase). Tissue analysis showed a homogeneous cell distribution throughout the valve's thickness and deposition of collagen types I and III oriented along the longitudinal direction. Immunohistochemical staining against CD31 and scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent endothelial cell layer on the surface of the valves. After harvesting, the valves underwent crimping for 20 min to simulate the catheter-based delivery. This procedure did not affect the valvular functionality in terms of orifice area during systole and complete closure during diastole. No influence on the extracellular matrix organization, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, nor on the mechanical properties was observed. These results show the potential of combining tissue engineering and minimally invasive implantation technology to obtain a living heart valve with a simple and robust tubular design for transcatheter delivery. The effect

  2. Delirium after transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the femoral or apical route.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V; Katznelson, R; Horlick, E; Osten, M; Styra, R; Cusimano, R J; Carroll, J; Djaiani, G

    2016-08-01

    We thought that delirium might be less frequent after transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the femoral artery compared with via the cardiac apex. We reviewed 210 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation between January 2009 and October 2014. The proportion (95% CI) of patients who suffered delirium in the 3 days after valve implantation were: 10 (3-16%) in 105 patients who had transfemoral implantation; and 35 (25-45%) in 105 patients who had transapical implantation, p = 0.0001. The variables that independently associated with postoperative delirium were age, male sex and the transapical approach. The median (IQR [range]) hospital stay was 7 (5-13 [2-41]) days and 10 (7-15 [2-64]) days, respectively, p = 0.004. Future trials should focus on different peri-operative management strategies to reduce delirium rates after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, particularly in older men having implantations via the cardiac apex. PMID:27353560

  3. Platelet reactivity in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Orvin, Katia; Eisen, Alon; Perl, Leor; Zemer-Wassercug, Noa; Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Lev, Eli I; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Thromboembolic events, primarily stroke, might complicate transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) procedures in 3-5 % of cases. Thus, it is common to administer aspirin and clopidogrel pharmacotherapy for 3-6 months following TAVI in order to prevent those events. The biologic response to the dual anti platelet treatment (DAPT) is heterogeneous, e.g. low response, known as high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) may be associated with adverse thromboembolic events. Little is known about the prevalence of HTPR among patients undergoing TAVI. To assess the variability in response and rates of residual platelet reactivity in patients undergoing TAVI. We examined platelet reactivity in response to clopidogrel and aspirin in 40 consecutive patients (mean age 81.7 ± 6.5 years, 66.7 % women) who underwent successful TAVI using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay and the multiple electrode aggregometry assay (Multiplate analyzer) in response to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid respectively, at different time points before and following TAVI. Before TAVI, the majority of patients were on antiplatelet therapy (68.5 % aspirin, 12.5 % clopidogrel, 12.5 % DAPT). Following the procedure all patients were on DAPT or clopidogrel and warfarin. Among analyzed patients, 41 % had HTPR for clopidogrel and 12.5 % for aspirin at baseline, which did not significantly change 1-month following the procedure (p = 0.81 and p  = 0.33, respectively). In conclusion, patients undergoing TAVI for severe aortic stenosis and treated with DAPT have high rates of residual platelet reactivity during the peri-procedural period and up to 1-month thereafter. These findings may have clinical implications for the anti-platelet management of TAVI patients. PMID:26695072

  4. Sedation or general anesthesia for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Mayr, N Patrick; Michel, Jonathan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Tassani, Peter; Martin, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is nowadays a routine therapy for elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and high perioperative risk. With growing experience, further development of the devices, and the expansion to "intermediate-risk" patients, there is increasing interest in performing this procedure under conscious sedation (TAVI-S) rather than the previously favoured approach of general anesthesia (TAVI-GA). The proposed benefits of TAVI-S include; reduced procedure time, shorter intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, reduced need for intraprocedural vasopressor support, and the potential to perform the procedure without the direct presence of an anesthetist for cost-saving reasons. To date, no randomized trial data exists. We reviewed 13 non-randomized studies/registries reporting data from 6,718 patients undergoing TAVI (3,227 performed under sedation). Patient selection, study methods, and endpoints have differed considerably between published studies. Reported rates of in-hospital and longer-term mortality are similar for both groups. Up to 17% of patients undergoing TAVI-S require conversion to general anesthesia during the procedure, primarily due to vascular complications, and urgent intubation is frequently associated with hemodynamic instability. Procedure related factors, including hypotension, may compound preexisting age-specific renal impairment and enhance the risk of acute kidney injury. Hypotonia of the hypopharyngeal muscles in elderly patients, intraprocedural hypercarbia, and certain anesthetic drugs, may increase the aspiration risk in sedated patients. General anesthesia and conscious sedation have both been used successfully to treat patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI with similar reported short and long-term mortality outcomes. The authors believe that the significant incidence of complications and unplanned conversion to general anesthesia during TAVI-S mandates the start-to-finish presence

  5. Transcatheter valve implantation can alter fluid flow fields in aortic sinuses and ascending aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) are valve replacements used to treat aortic stenosis. Currently, these have been used in elderly patients at high-risk for open-heart procedures. Since these devices are implanted under fluoroscopic guidance, the implantation position of the valve can vary with respect to the native aortic valve annulus. The current study characterizes the altered hemodynamics in the aortic sinus and ascending aorta under different implantation (high and low) and cardiac output (2.5 and 5.0 L/min) conditions. Two commonly used TAV designs are studied using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). 200 phase locked images are obtained at every 25ms in the cardiac cycle, and the resulting vector fields are ensemble averaged. High implantation of the TAV with respect to the annulus causes weaker sinus washout and weaker sinus vortex formation. Additionally, the longer TAV leaflets can also result in a weaker sinus vortex. The level of turbulent fluctuations in the ascending aorta did not appear to be affected by axial positioning of the valve, but varied with cardiac output. The results of this study indicates that TAV positioning is important to be considered clinically, since this can affect coronary perfusion and potential flow stagnation near the valve.

  6. Percutaneous Transjugular Implantation of MELODY® Valve Into Tricuspid Bioprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Lim, D. Scott; Ragosta, Michael; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2013-01-01

    We present the technique of transcatheter balloon expandable (MELODY®) valve-in-valve deployment in a frail octogenarian with a failed previous tricuspid bioprosthesis. In patients who are not candidates for conventional surgery, transcatheter approach provides an alternative that warrants careful consideration. PMID:23772880

  7. First Human Case of Retrograde Transcatheter Implantation of an Aortic Valve Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, David; Condado, José A.; Besso, José; Vélez, Manuel; Burger, Bruno; Bibbo, Salvatore; Cedeno, Douglas; Acquatella, Harry; Mejia, Carlos; Induni, Eduardo; Fish, R. David

    2005-01-01

    The transcatheter route is an emerging approach to treating valvular disease in high-risk patients. The 1st clinical antegrade transcatheter placement of an aortic valve prosthesis was reported in 2002. We describe the first retrograde transcatheter implantation of a new aortic valve prosthesis, in a 62-year-old man with inoperable calcific aortic stenosis and multiple severe comorbidities. Via the right femoral artery, a Cook introducer was advanced into the abdominal aorta. The aortic valve was crossed with a straight wire, and a pigtail catheter was advanced into the left ventricle to obtain pressure-gradient and anatomic measurements. An 18-mm valvuloplasty balloon was then used to predilate the aortic valve. Initial attempts to position the prosthetic valve caused a transient cardiac arrest. Implantation was achieved by superimposing the right coronary angiogram onto fluoroscopic landmarks in the same radiographic plane. A balloon-expandable frame was used to deliver the valve. After device implantation, the transvalvular gradient was <5 mmHg. The cardiac output increased from 1 to 5 L/min, and urine production increased to 200 mL/h. The patient was extubated on the 2nd postimplant day. Twelve hours later, he had to be reintubated because of respiratory distress and high pulmonary pressures. His condition deteriorated, and he died of biventricular failure and refractory hypotension on day 5. Despite the severe hypotension, valve function was satisfactory on echo-Doppler evaluation. In our patient, retrograde transcatheter implantation of a prosthetic aortic valve yielded excellent hemodynamic results and paved the way for further use of this technique in selected high-risk patients. PMID:16392228

  8. Frailty Status and Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Huded, Chetan P; Huded, Jill M; Friedman, Julie L; Benck, Lillian R; Lindquist, Lee A; Holly, Thomas A; Sweis, Ranya N; Ricciardi, Mark J; Malaisrie, S Chris; Davidson, Charles J; Flaherty, James D

    2016-06-15

    Frailty is a syndrome of older adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to assess the impact of frailty status on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We reviewed all 191 patients who underwent a modified Fried frailty assessment before TAVI between February 2012 and September 2015 at a single academic medical center, and we assessed the impact of preoperative frailty status on morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization after TAVI. Frailty, pre-frailty, and nonfrailty were present in 33% (n = 64), 37% (n = 70), and 30% (n = 57) of patients, respectively. Slowness (75% vs 54%, p = 0.003) and low physical activity (55% vs 31%, p = 0.001) were more common in women than men. With increasing frailty status, the proportion of women increased (35% nonfrail, 44% pre-frail, and 66% frail, p = 0.002) and stature decreased (1.68 ± 0.11 m nonfrail, 1.66 ± 0.11 m pre-frail, 1.62 ± 0.12 m frail, p = 0.028). There was no difference in post-TAVI 30-day mortality, stroke, major vascular injury, major or life-threatening bleeding, respiratory failure, mean hospital length of stay, 30-day hospital re-admission, or overall survival between groups. The rate of discharge to a rehabilitation facility increased with increasing frailty status (14% nonfrail, 22% pre-frail, and 39% frail, p = 0.005). Frailty was independently associated with discharge to a rehabilitation facility (odds ratio 4.80, 95% confidence interval 1.66 to 13.85, p = 0.004). In conclusion, the safety of TAVI is not affected by frailty status, but patients with frailty are less likely to be discharged directly home after TAVI. PMID:27156828

  9. Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation with the New Edwards Sapien 3 Valve for Treatment of Severe Aortic Stenosis—Impact of Valve Size in a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Jochen; Gonska, Birgid; Rodewald, Christoph; Seeger, Julia; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California) system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications. Methods and Results 235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77), 26mm (N = 91) or 29mm (N = 67) valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6%) and stroke (2.1%) were low. Conclusions In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve sizes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02162069 PMID:27003573

  10. Transcatheter valve implantation: damage to the human aorta after valved stent delivery system exposure—an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Heinisch, Paul Philipp; Richter, Oliver; Schünke, Michael; Bombien Quaden, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter heart valve implantation can be performed transapically and transfemorally. The transfemoral way to the aortic valve is significantly longer than the transapical one. The aim of this study was to analyse the intima of 15 human aortas after the deployment of different conventional valved stent delivery systems. Fifteen human aortas have been analysed (77 ± 8.4 years). These aortas were preserved with formalin and explanted from the common iliac arteries to the ascending aorta. After protocolling all relevant vascular parameters, the deployment force of different conventional valved stent delivery systems was analysed. After that, the intima was closely investigated by endoscopy. The deployment force of the old catheter was not different from the actual system. The endoscopic investigation revealed significant intimal damages in all parts of the aorta after deployment of the delivery system. This study demonstrated that the passage to the aortic valve can result in significant intimal damage regardless of the used deployment catheter. Efforts are necessary to lower the profile of the deployment devices to increase their flexibility. The intima of the aorta and possible damage have to get back into the physicians' focus to avoid possible late aortic complications. PMID:22659269

  11. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a young heart transplant recipient crossing the traditional boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Terp, Kim Allan; Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Andersen, Henning Rud; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Hitherto, TAVI is not recommended in young and low-intermediate risk patients. However, TAVI may also serve as an alternative to SAVR in selected young patients, e.g., patients who have previously undergone multiple cardiac surgery procedures. We report a case of trans-femoral TAVI in a 25-year-old heart transplant (HTx) recipient with prior surgery for congenital heart disease. PMID:27621906

  12. Impact of Different Iterations of Devices and Degree of Aortic Valve Calcium on Paravalvular Regurgitation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kong, William K F; van Rosendael, Philippe J; van der Kley, Frank; de Weger, Arend; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Regeer, Madelien V; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-08-15

    The iterations of the SAPIEN prosthesis might impact the incidence and grade of paravalvular regurgitation (PVR). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of iterations of balloon-expandable valves (SAPIEN, SAPIEN XT, and SAPIEN 3) and degree of aortic valve calcification (AVC) on the severity of PVR after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Comprehensive echocardiographic examinations and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) were performed in 272 patients (127 men, 81 ± 7 years old, logistic EuroScore of 21 ± 13%) who underwent TAVI with 23- and 26-mm balloon-expandable valves. The degree of AVC was assessed with MDCT. PVR grade was assessed with echocardiography. The cover index was calculated as (prosthesis area - MDCT annulus area)/prosthesis area. SAPIEN, SAPIEN XT, and SAPIEN 3 prostheses were implanted in 103 patients (38%), 105 patients (38.5%), and 64 patients (23.5%), respectively. Significant PVR (≥moderate) occurred in 14%, 10%, and 0% of patients receiving the SAPIEN, SAPIEN XT, and SAPIEN 3, respectively (p = 0.010). Across the groups, the aortic annulus size, degree of calcification, and cover index were comparable. Larger burden of AVC was independently associated with significant PVR (odds ratio 3.48, p = 0.006) after adjusting for age, body surface area, gender, aortic annulus area, cover index, and prosthesis iteration. SAPIEN 3 was associated with lower frequency of significant PVR (odds ratio 0.31, p = 0.002). In conclusion, the incidence of significant PVR significantly decreased over time with improvement in valve design. SAPIEN 3 was associated with less significant PVR after TAVI independently of the AVC burden. PMID:27328953

  13. Standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation clinical trials: a consensus report from the Valve Academic Research Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Martin B.; Piazza, Nicolo; Nikolsky, Eugenia; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Mack, Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Miller, Craig; Morel, Marie-angèle; Petersen, John; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Takkenberg, Johanna J.M.; Vahanian, Alec; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Vranckx, Pascal; Webb, John G.; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To propose standardized consensus definitions for important clinical endpoints in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), investigations in an effort to improve the quality of clinical research and to enable meaningful comparisons between clinical trials. To make these consensus definitions accessible to all stakeholders in TAVI clinical research through a peer reviewed publication, on behalf of the public health. Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation may provide a worthwhile less invasive treatment in many patients with severe aortic stenosis and since its introduction to the medical community in 2002, there has been an explosive growth in procedures. The integration of TAVI into daily clinical practice should be guided by academic activities, which requires a harmonized and structured process for data collection, interpretation, and reporting during well-conducted clinical trials. Methods and results The Valve Academic Research Consortium established an independent collaboration between Academic Research organizations and specialty societies (cardiology and cardiac surgery) in the USA and Europe. Two meetings, in San Francisco, California (September 2009) and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (December 2009), including key physician experts, and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and device manufacturers, were focused on creating consistent endpoint definitions and consensus recommendations for implementation in TAVI clinical research programs. Important considerations in developing endpoint definitions included (i) respect for the historical legacy of surgical valve guidelines; (ii) identification of pathophysiological mechanisms associated with clinical events; (iii) emphasis on clinical relevance. Consensus criteria were developed for the following endpoints: mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, bleeding, acute kidney injury, vascular complications, and prosthetic valve performance. Composite

  14. How to perform transcaval access and closure for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Robert J; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Greenbaum, Adam B

    2015-12-01

    Transcaval, or caval-aortic, access is a promising approach for fully percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients without good conventional access options. This tutorial review provides step-by-step guidance to planning and executing the procedure, along with approaches to remedy complications. PMID:26356244

  15. How to Perform Transcaval Access and Closure for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, Robert J.; Babaliaros, Vasilis C.; Greenbaum, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    Transcaval, or caval-aortic, access is a promising approach for fully percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation in patients without good conventional access options. This tutorial review provides step-by-step guidance to planning and executing the procedure, along with approaches to remedy complications. PMID:26356244

  16. Recurrent angina from chronic coronary obstruction following transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Kabach, Mohamad; Alrifai, Abdulah; Furlan, Stefanie; Alahdab, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Severe aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease often coexist. Coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be challenging in patients with prior transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Depending on the type and position of the implanted valve, the procedure can be challenging or even unfeasible due to interference of diagnostic catheters and valve parts. The correct positioning of the TAVI prosthesis during TAVI was identified as an important factor with regard to the feasibility of subsequent CA or PCI. TAVI has been also associated with vascular, cerebrovascular and conduction complication. One is rare but life-threatening complication, coronary ostial obstruction. Coronary ostial obstruction can develop, especially if a safety check of more than 10 mm of coronary ostial height is not taken into consideration during TAVI. This complication can cause recurrent episodes of angina and can severely worsen the patient's cardiac systolic function. PMID:27390671

  17. Recurrent angina from chronic coronary obstruction following transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Kabach, Mohamad; Alrifai, Abdulah; Furlan, Stefanie; Alahdab, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Severe aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease often coexist. Coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be challenging in patients with prior transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Depending on the type and position of the implanted valve, the procedure can be challenging or even unfeasible due to interference of diagnostic catheters and valve parts. The correct positioning of the TAVI prosthesis during TAVI was identified as an important factor with regard to the feasibility of subsequent CA or PCI. TAVI has been also associated with vascular, cerebrovascular and conduction complication. One is rare but life-threatening complication, coronary ostial obstruction. Coronary ostial obstruction can develop, especially if a safety check of more than 10 mm of coronary ostial height is not taken into consideration during TAVI. This complication can cause recurrent episodes of angina and can severely worsen the patient's cardiac systolic function. PMID:27390671

  18. Consecutive transcatheter valve-in-valve implantations: the first in the aortic position, the second in the mitral position, in a patient with failing aortic and mitral bioprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alison; Davies, Simon; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Moat, Neil

    2014-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with a failing aortic valve homograft and failing mitral valve xenograft was admitted with an inability to complete full sentences and pulmonary oedema with right ventricular overload. Severe aortic and mitral regurgitation, severe biventricular impairment and pulmonary hypertension were confirmed on transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography. An urgent transfemoral valve-in-valve transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI) was performed within the aortic valve homograft with full resolution of aortic regurgitation. Three months later, a semielective trans-apical valve-in-valve procedure was performed in the mitral position, under cardiopulmonary bypass, with full resolution of mitral regurgitation. His exercise tolerance increased from 5 yards to half a mile. This case report summarises a staged double valve-in-valve procedure in a patient who had three previous sternotomies and who had severe heart failure due to failing aortic and mitral bioprostheses. We report two different delivery approaches, using two different transcatheter devices, and describe valve-in-valve techniques, including cardiopulmonary bypass, in the catheter laboratory. PMID:25053698

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infective Endocarditis Following Aortic Valve Implantation: A Note of Caution

    PubMed Central

    Dapás, Juan Ignacio; Rivero, Cynthia; Burgos, Pablo; Vila, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) in patients with prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare complication of this relatively novel procedure and current guidelines do not include specific recommendations for its treatment. We report a case of PVE due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa after TAVI that required SAVR, with successful outcome. PVE usually occurs during the first year after TAVI and entails a high mortality risk because patients eligible for this min-imally invasive procedure are fragile (i.e. advanced age and/or severe comorbidities). Additionally, clinical presentation may be atypical or subtle and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) may not be conclusive, which delays diagnosis and treatment worsening the prognosis. This case highlights that open SAVR might be ultimately indicated as part of treatment for TAVI-PVE despite a high-risk surgery score. PMID:27014375

  20. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a treatment option in the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Costopoulos, Charis; Sutaria, Nilesh; Ariff, Ben; Fertleman, Michael; Malik, Iqbal; Mikhail, Ghada W

    2015-05-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is the commonest encountered valvular pathology and a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cases of severe stenosis. Definitive treatment has traditionally been offered in the form of surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with an acceptable surgical risk and more recently with the less invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in those where surgery is not a viable option. Prior to the introduction of TAVI, inoperable patients were treated medically and where appropriate with balloon aortic valvuloplasty, a procedure which although effective only provided short-term relief and was associated with high complication rates especially during its infancy. Here we discuss whether balloon aortic valvuloplasty continues to have a role in contemporary clinical practice in an era where significant advances have been achieved in the fields of surgical aortic valve replacement, TAVI and postoperative care. PMID:25865236

  1. [10 years of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: an overview of the clinical applicability and findings].

    PubMed

    de Ronde-Tillmans, Marjo J A G; Lenzen, Mattie J; Abawi, Masieh; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M D A; Zijlstra, Felix; De Jaegere, Peter P T

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a common heart valve disorder in adults. Its prevalence increases with age and is therefore especially seen in older patients. Thirty to forty per cent of patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis are not referred for surgical valve replacement because of high age, their medical history or comorbidities. In 2002, the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was carried out in an inoperable patient. Since 2012, TAVI has been included in international guidelines for heart valve diseases as a treatment strategy in symptomatic patients at a high risk of complications and a life expectancy of more than one year. Decision-making about which treatment is preferable takes a multidisciplinary approach. Important complications of TAVI are bleeding, renal function disorder, stroke, conduction abnormalities, valve insufficiency and death. TAVI procedures are carried out in the Netherlands only in cardiac centres in which specific expertise is present in the areas of structural cardiovascular disease. Scientific research is important for further developments and improvements. PMID:25308222

  2. First-in-man full percutaneous transfemoral valve-in-valve implantations using Edwards SAPIEN 3 prostheses to treat a patient with degenerated mitral and aortic bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    Nejjari, Mohammed; Himbert, Dominique; Brochet, Eric; Attias, David

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 64-year old man presenting with pulmonary oedema due to the degeneration of mitral and aortic bioprostheses. Baseline transthoracic and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography showed severe stenotic degeneration of the mitral bioprosthesis (Carpentier-Edwards bioprosthesis n°31), severe intraprosthetic aortic regurgitation (Perimount bioprosthesis n°27), left ventricular dilatation, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction at 50% and pulmonary hypertension. Because of severe comorbidities, the patient was denied redo surgery by the Heart Team (logistic EuroSCORE 2: 23, 85%). Transcatheter transfemoral mitral valve-in-valve implantation was first performed using a 29-mm SAPIEN 3 valve. Two weeks later, aortic valve-in-valve implantation was performed with the same approach using a 26-mm SAPIEN 3 valve. Four months later, the patient remained asymptomatic with good haemodynamic results for both prostheses. This case report illustrates that valve-in-valve implantations using a full percutaneous transfemoral approach may be a valuable alternative to conventional surgery in high-risk patients presenting with concomitant mitral and aortic bioprosthesis dysfunction. PMID:27241048

  3. Posttranscatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Ventricular Septal Defect During Transfemoral Edwards SAPIEN Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Aaron; Hoaglan, Carli; Helman, James

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is gaining favor as a treatment for aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for the open surgical approach. The following is a report of a 95-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis who presented for TAVR with an Edwards SAPIEN valve. Her medical history included pacemaker-dependent complete heart block and a recent episode of congestive heart failure secondary to a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. The TAVR was performed successfully through an open left femoral artery approach, and the patient was found to have a new perimembranous ventricular septal defect identified postoperatively. PMID:27243581

  4. Biomedical Impact in Implantable Devices-The Transcatheter Aortic Valve as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, Alexandros; Saatsakis, George

    2015-09-01

    Objective: To update of the scientific community about the biomedical engineering involvement in the implantable devices chain. Moreover the transcatheter Aortic Valve (TAV) replacement, in the field of cardiac surgery, will be analyzed as an example of contemporary implantable technology. Methods: A detailed literature review regarding biomedical engineers participating in the implantable medical product chain, starting from the design of the product till the final implantation technique. Results: The scientific role of biomedical engineers has clearly been established. Certain parts of the product chain are implemented almost exclusively by experienced biomedical engineers such as the transcatheter aortic valve device. The successful professional should have a multidisciplinary knowledge, including medicine, in order to pursue the challenges for such intuitive technology. This clearly indicates that biomedical engineers are among the most appropriate scientists to accomplish such tasks. Conclusions: The biomedical engineering involvement in medical implantable devices has been widely accepted by the scientific community, worldwide. Its important contribution, starting from the design and extended to the development, clinical trials, scientific support, education of other scientists (surgeons, cardiologists, technicians etc.), and even to sales, makes biomedical engineers a valuable player in the scientific arena. Notably, the sector of implantable devices is constantly raising, as emerging technologies continuously set up new targets.

  5. Is Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation of Living Tissue-Engineered Valves Feasible? An In Vitro Evaluation Utilizing a Decellularized and Reseeded Biohybrid Valve.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Fabian; Lee, Jang-Sun; Akra, Bassil; Hollweck, Trixi; Wintermantel, Erich; Hagl, Christian; Thierfelder, Nikolaus

    2016-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a fast-growing, exciting field of invasive therapy. During the last years many innovations significantly improved this technique. However, the prostheses are still associated with drawbacks. The aim of this study was to create cell-seeded biohybrid aortic valves (BAVs) as an ideal implant by combination of assets of biological and artificial materials. Furthermore, the influence of TAVI procedure on tissue-engineered BAV was investigated. BAV (n=6) were designed with decellularized homograft cusps and polyurethane walls. They were seeded with fibroblasts and endothelial cells isolated from saphenous veins. Consecutively, BAV were conditioned under low pulsatile flow (500 mL/min) for 5 days in a specialized bioreactor. After conditioning, TAVI-simulation was performed. The procedure was concluded with re-perfusion of the BAV for 2 days at an increased pulsatile flow (1100 mL/min). Functionality was assessed by video-documentation. Samples were taken after each processing step and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemical staining (IHC), and Live/Dead-assays. The designed BAV were fully functioning and displayed physiologic behavior. After cell seeding, static cultivation and first conditioning, confluent cell layers were observed in SEM. Additionally, IHC indicated the presence of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. A significant construction of extracellular matrix was detected after the conditioning phase. However, a large number of lethal cells were observed after crimping by Live/Dead staining. Analysis revealed that the cells while still being present directly after crimping were removed in subsequent perfusion. Extensive regions of damaged cell-layers were detected by SEM-analysis substantiating these findings. Furthermore, increased ICAM expression was detected after re-perfusion as manifestation of inflammatory reaction. The approach to generate biohybrid valves is promising. However

  6. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Experience with SAPIEN 3.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Tamburino, C; Barbanti, M

    2015-06-01

    Based on randomized trials with first generation devices, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) has been included into the treatment strategy for high-risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis. Procedural complications remain a concern with TAVI, including stroke, vascular complications, paravalvular leak (PVL) and conduction disturbances. Addressing these limitations will support TAVI use in lower risk populations. This review discussed features and most recent clinical evidence of the new balloon-expandable THV (SAPIEN 3, Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, CA, USA). PMID:25900559

  7. Thrombembolic occlusion of crural arteries following transcatheter aortic valve implantation--successful endovascular recanalization using a thrombus aspiration device.

    PubMed

    Malyar, Nasser M; Kaleschke, Gerrit; Reinecke, Holger

    2012-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an increasingly used alternative to conventional surgical valve replacement in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) and high operative risk. We here describe a case of a TAVI performed in local anesthesia causing intraprocedural thromboembolic occlusion of non-stenotic crural arteries and its immediate successful therapeutic management by means of endovascular recanalization using a thrombus aspiration device. PMID:22565625

  8. Conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures – predictors and management

    PubMed Central

    Reguła, Rafał; Bujak, Kamil; Chodór, Piotr; Długaszek, Michał; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a safe and efficient alternative to cardiac surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis. In many countries the number of performed TAVI procedures equals the number of surgical implantations. Indications for TAVI are becoming more liberal, allowing a wider spectrum of patients to benefit from the advantages of transcatheter therapy. Due to its invasive nature, TAVI is associated with some complications such as conduction disturbances. Although these disturbances are usually not lethal, they have a great influence on patients’ state and long term-survival. The most relevant and common are His’ bundle branch blocks, atrioventricular blocks, and need for permanent pacemaker implantation. With the frequency at 10% to even 50%, conduction abnormalities are among the most important TAVI-related adverse events. Risk factors for conduction disturbances include age, anatomy of the heart, periprocedural factors, type of implanted valve, and comorbidities. Severity of occurring complications varies; therefore selection of a proper treatment approach is required. Considered as the most effective management, permanent pacemaker implantation turned out to negatively influence both recovery and survival. Moreover, there is no expert consensus on use of resynchronization therapy after TAVI. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive analysis of the most common conduction disturbances accompanying TAVI, factors related to their occurrence, and treatment approach. PMID:27625682

  9. Conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures - predictors and management.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Reguła, Rafał; Bujak, Kamil; Chodór, Piotr; Długaszek, Michał; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a safe and efficient alternative to cardiac surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis. In many countries the number of performed TAVI procedures equals the number of surgical implantations. Indications for TAVI are becoming more liberal, allowing a wider spectrum of patients to benefit from the advantages of transcatheter therapy. Due to its invasive nature, TAVI is associated with some complications such as conduction disturbances. Although these disturbances are usually not lethal, they have a great influence on patients' state and long term-survival. The most relevant and common are His' bundle branch blocks, atrioventricular blocks, and need for permanent pacemaker implantation. With the frequency at 10% to even 50%, conduction abnormalities are among the most important TAVI-related adverse events. Risk factors for conduction disturbances include age, anatomy of the heart, periprocedural factors, type of implanted valve, and comorbidities. Severity of occurring complications varies; therefore selection of a proper treatment approach is required. Considered as the most effective management, permanent pacemaker implantation turned out to negatively influence both recovery and survival. Moreover, there is no expert consensus on use of resynchronization therapy after TAVI. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive analysis of the most common conduction disturbances accompanying TAVI, factors related to their occurrence, and treatment approach. PMID:27625682

  10. Preferential short cut or alternative route: the transaxillary access for transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, Florian; Conradi, Lenard; Lubos, Edith; Schirmer, Johannes; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Treede, Hendrik; Schäfer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained widespread acceptance as a treatment option for patients at high risk for conventional aortic valve replacement. The most commonly used access site for TAVI is the common femoral artery. Yet, in a significant number of patients the transfemoral access is not suitable due to peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremity. In these cases the transaxillary approach can serve as an alternative implantation route. By considering the anatomical requirements and providing an adequate endovascular “safety-net” during the procedure the transaxillary TAVI approach results in excellent procedural and clinical outcome. However, whether the transaxillary access for TAVI is superior to other non-transfemoral approaches (e.g., transapical or direct aortic) needs to be studied in the future in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:26543600

  11. Premium IOLs in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Sharma, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advanced technology or premium intraocular lenses have been developed to meet the patient expectations of perfect distance and near vision without the need for spectacles. Careful patient selection is critical when implanting these implants. This brief review focusses mainly on multifocal and toric IOLs and their application and limitations in patients with glaucoma. How to cite this article: Ichhpujani P, Bhartiya S, Sharma A. Premium IOLs in Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(2): 54-57. PMID:26997783

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness and Safety of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Without Balloon Predilation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yan-Biao; Meng, Yang; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Li, Yi-Jian; Xiong, Tian-Yuan; Cao, Jia-Yu; Xu, Yuan-Ning; Feng, Yuan; Chen, Mao

    2016-05-15

    Evidence regarding the safety and feasibility of transcatheter aortic valve implantation without balloon predilation (BP) is scarce. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and major conference proceedings was performed from January 2002 to July 2015. There were 18 studies incorporating 2,443 patients included in the present study. No differences were observed in the baseline characteristics between patients without BP (no-BP) and with BP. Compared with BP, no-BP had a shorter procedure time (no-BP vs BP, 124.2 vs 138.8 minutes, p = 0.008), used less-contrast medium (no-BP vs BP, 126.3 vs 156.3 ml, p = 0.0005) and had a higher success rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% CI 1.40 to -3.58). In addition, no-BP was associated with lower incidences of permanent pacemaker implantation (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.67), grade 2 or greater paravalvular leakage (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.83), and stroke (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.0). Furthermore, no-BP was associated with a 0.6-fold decreased risk for 30-day all-cause mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92). However, the difference in the risk for permanent pacemaker implantation, grade 2, or higher aortic regurgitation, stroke was noted to be significant only in the subgroup of the CoreValve-dominating studies. In conclusion, no-BP before transcatheter aortic valve implantation was not only safe and feasible but was also associated with fewer complications and short-term mortality in selected patients especially using self-expandable valve. PMID:27026641

  13. Comparison of ExPress Mini-Device Implantation Alone or Combined with Phacoemulsification for the Treatment of Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Stawowski, Łukasz; Konopińska, Joanna; Deniziak, Marta; Saeed, Emil; Zalewska, Renata; Mariak, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    We propose comparative assessment of the effectiveness of two surgical methods for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma: (1) ExPress mini-device implantation combined with phacoemulsification and (2) ExPress mini-device implantation alone. In this prospective study, 81 patients (88 phakic eyes) with uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma enrolled for surgery. They were assigned two groups, those with coexisting cataracts (46 eyes; P-ExPress group) and those with glaucoma alone (42 eyes; ExPress group). The follow-up period was 12.9 ± 0.4 months in P-ExPress and 12.2 ± 0.6 months in ExPress group. In both groups the following parameters were measured: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), number of complications and necessary postoperative interventions, and number of glaucoma medications. The IOP at the end of follow-up was similar in both groups (18.8 ± 5.9 versus 18.1 ± 4.8 mmHg; P = 0.814). There were no statistical differences in the average number of glaucoma medications between ExPress and P-ExPress groups (0.9 ± 1.65 versus 1.3 ± 1.7; P = 0.419) as well as in the number of postoperative complications (26 versus 21%; P = 0.179 in the P-ExPress and ExPress groups, resp.). Both methods are safe and effective for the surgical treatment of open-angle glaucoma. Coexistence of cataracts does not constitute a compelling contraindication for combined surgery. PMID:26576293

  14. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  15. Periprocedural considerations of transcatheter aortic valve implantation for anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Ata Hassani; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is rapidly gaining popularity as a viable option in the management of patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) and high risk for open surgical intervention. TAVR soon expanding its indications from "high-risk" group of patients to those with "intermediate-risk". As an anesthesiologist; understanding the procedure and the challenges inherent to it is of utmost importance, in order to implement optimal care for this generally frail population undergoing a rather novel procedure. Cardiac anesthesiologists generally play a pivotal role in the perioperative care of the patients, and therefore they should be fully familiar with the circumstances occurring surrounding the procedure. Along with increasing experience and technical developments for TAVR, the procedure time becomes shorter. Due to this improvement in the procedure time, more and more anesthesiologists feel comfortable in using monitored anesthesia care with moderate sedation for patients undergoing TAVR. A number of complications could arise during the procedure needing rapid diagnoses and occasionally conversion to general anesthesia. This review focuses on the periprocedural anesthetic considerations for TAVR. PMID:27489596

  16. Comparison between the EX-PRESS P-50 implant and trabeculectomy in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Mendieta, María Elena; López-Venegas, Ana Paola; Valdés-Casas, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the EX-PRESS P-50 implant compared to standard trabeculectomy (TBC). Methods Single-center prospective randomized study; 20 eyes of 20 patients were treated with the EX-PRESS P-50 implant, and 20 eyes of 20 patients with TBC, over a 19-month period. Records of all patients were reviewed and compared. Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 and >5 mmHg or a decrease of 30% of IOP. Failure was defined as >21 mmHg or decline in visual acuity. Statistical analysis was made with Student’s t-test and χ2 test analyzed with SPSS version 13.0. Results The average follow-up was 8.6 months (±4.9 months) for the EX-PRESS P-50 group and 9.6 months (±5.3 months) for the TBC group. The postoperative visual acuity and IOP were not significantly different. We report more complications in the EX-PRESS P-50 group. At 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up, the control group was found to be free of complications, whereas multiple complications were observed in the EX-PRESS P-50 group at 3 and 6 months follow-up. We found no differences in either group with respect to success. Conclusion Both procedures are equally effective for the treatment of glaucoma, with 80% success in the EX-PRESS P-50 group and 72.7% in the control group. PMID:26893540

  17. Micro-Bypass Implantation for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Combined with Phacoemulsification: 4-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Consolandi, Giulia; Zola, Marta; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola; Lavia, Carlo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the long-term follow-up results in patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) randomly assigned to cataract surgery combined with micro-bypass stent implantation or phacoemulsification alone. Methods. 36 subjects with cataract and POAG were randomized in a 1 : 2 ratio to either iStent implantation and cataract surgery (combined group) or cataract surgery alone (control group). 24 subjects agreed to be evaluated again 48 months after surgery. Patients returned one month later for unmedicated washout assessment. Results. At the long-term follow-up visit we reported a mean IOP of 15,9 ± 2,3 mmHg in the iStent group and 17 ± 2,5 mmHg in the control group (p = NS). After washout, a 14,2% between group difference in favour of the combined group was statistically significant (p = 0,02) for mean IOP reduction. A significant reduction in the mean number of medications was observed in both groups compared to baseline values (p = 0,005 in the combined group and p = 0,01 in the control group). Conclusion. Patients in the combined group maintained low IOP levels after long-term follow-up. Cataract surgery alone showed a loss of efficacy in controlling IOP over time. Both treatments reduced the number of ocular hypotensive medications prescribed. This trial is registered with: NCT00847158. PMID:26587282

  18. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a patient-specific finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, F; Conti, M; Morganti, S; Reali, A

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, heart valve failure has been treated adopting open-heart surgical techniques and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have been developed to avoid high risks associated with conventional open-chest valve replacement techniques. Such a recent and innovative procedure represents an optimal field for conducting investigations through virtual computer-based simulations: in fact, nowadays, computational engineering is widely used to unravel many problems in the biomedical field of cardiovascular mechanics and specifically, minimally invasive procedures. In this study, we investigate a balloon-expandable valve and we propose a novel simulation strategy to reproduce its implantation using computational tools. Focusing on the Edwards SAPIEN valve in particular, we simulate both stent crimping and deployment through balloon inflation. The developed procedure enabled us to obtain the entire prosthetic device virtually implanted in a patient-specific aortic root created by processing medical images; hence, it allows evaluation of postoperative prosthesis performance depending on different factors (e.g. device size and prosthesis placement site). Notably, prosthesis positioning in two different cases (distal and proximal) has been examined in terms of coaptation area, average stress on valve leaflets as well as impact on the aortic root wall. The coaptation area is significantly affected by the positioning strategy (- 24%, moving from the proximal to distal) as well as the stress distribution on both the leaflets (+13.5%, from proximal to distal) and the aortic wall (- 22%, from proximal to distal). No remarkable variations of the stress state on the stent struts have been obtained in the two investigated cases. PMID:23402555

  19. Structural valve deterioration of a mitral Carpentier-Edwards pericardial bioprosthesis in an 87-year-old woman 16 years after its implantation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Haruki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yurio

    2011-01-01

    The second-generation pericardial valve, the Carpentier-Edwards perimount bioprosthetic (CEP) valve, shows dramatically improved durability as compared to the first-generation pericardial valve, and excellent performance has been obtained, in both the aortic and mitral positions. Especially in elderly patients with an implanted CEP valve, reoperation due to structural valve deterioration (SVD) is rarely required. Here, we report the case of an 87-year-old woman with an explanted CEP valve in the mitral position due to SVD, 16 years after its implantation. PMID:21729285

  20. Combined elective percutaneous coronary intervention and transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pasic, Miralem; Dreysse, Stephan; Unbehaun, Axel; Buz, Semih; Drews, Thorsten; Klein, Christoph; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Hetzer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    There is no established strategy of how and when to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Simultaneous, single-stage treatment of both pathologies is a possible solution. We report our initial results of simultaneously performed transapical TAVI and elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Between April 2008 and July 2011, a total of 419 patients underwent transapical TAVI. Combined elective PCI and TAVI were performed in 46 (11%) patients. Only the most significant coronary lesion or lesions were treated. Technical success of the combined approach was 100%. The mean count of implanted stents per patient was 1.6 ± 1.0 (range, 1–5 stents). The 30-day mortality rates in the PCI and TAVI group was 4.3%. Survival at 12, 24 and 36 months of the PCI and TAVI group 87.1 ± 5.5, 69.7 ± 10.3 and 69.7 ± 10.3%, respectively. The results showed that the single-stage approach with combined elective PCI and TAVI is feasible and safe. It has become our primary choice for treatment of high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and CAD. PMID:22232234

  1. Replacement of the aortic valve with a bioprosthesis at the time of continuous flow ventricular assist device implantation for preexisting aortic valve dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles; Mountis, Maria; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has become a mainstay of therapy for advanced heart failure patients who are either ineligible for, or awaiting, cardiac transplantation. Controversy remains over the optimal therapeutic strategy for preexisting aortic valvular dysfunction in these patients at the time of LVAD implant. In patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, surgical approaches are center specific and range from variable leaflet closure techniques to concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a bioprosthesis. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed our outcomes in patients who underwent simultaneous AVR and LVAD implantation secondary to antecedent aortic valve pathology. Between January 2004 and June 2010, 144 patients underwent LVAD implantation at a single institution. Of these, 7 patients (4.8%) required concomitant AVR. Five of the 7 patients (71%) survived to hospital discharge and suffered no adverse events in the perioperative period. One-year survival for the discharged patients was 80%, and no prosthetic valve-related adverse events were observed in long-term follow-up. Given our experience, we conclude that bioprosthetic AVR is a plausible alternative for end-stage heart failure patients at the time of LVAD implantation. PMID:26424939

  2. Markov model for selection of aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation (without replacement) in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Gada, Hemal; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Svensson, Lars G; Marwick, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Comparisons between transcatheter aortic valve implantation without replacement (TAVI) and tissue aortic valve replacement (AVR) in clinical trials might not reflect the outcomes in standard clinical practice. This could have important implications for the relative cost-effectiveness of these alternatives for management of severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients for whom surgery is an option. The mean and variance of risks, transition probabilities, utilities, and cost of TAVI, AVR, and medical management derived from observational studies were entered into a Markov model that examined the progression of patients between relevant health states. The outcomes and cost were derived from 10,000 simulations. Sensitivity analyses were based on variations in the likelihood of mortality, stroke, and other commonly observed outcomes. Both TAVI and AVR were cost-effective compared to medical management. In the reference case (age 80 years, the perioperative TAVI and AVR mortality was 6.9% vs 9.8%, and annual mortality was 21% vs 24%), the utility of TAVI was greater than that of AVR (1.78 vs 1.72 quality-adjusted life years) and the lifetime cost of TAVI exceeded that of AVR ($59,503 vs $56,339). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $52,773/quality-adjusted life years. Threshold analyses showed that variation in the probabilities of perioperative and annual mortality after AVR and after TAVI and annual stroke after TAVI were important determinants of the favored strategy. Sensitivity analyses defined the thresholds at which TAVI or AVR was the preferred strategy with regard to health outcomes and cost. In conclusion, TAVI satisfies current metrics of cost-effectiveness relative to AVR and might provide net health benefits at acceptable cost for selected high-risk patients among whom AVR is the current procedure of choice. PMID:22335853

  3. Drivers of healthcare costs associated with the episode of care for surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Li, Lindsay; Braga, Vevien; Pazhaniappan, Nandhaa; Pardhan, Anar M; Lian, Dana; Leeksma, Aric; Peterson, Ben; Cohen, Eric A; Forsey, Anne; Kingsbury, Kori J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is generally more expensive than surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) due to the high cost of the device. Our objective was to understand the patient and procedural drivers of cumulative healthcare costs during the index hospitalisation for these procedures. Design All patients undergoing TAVI, isolated SAVR or combined SAVR+coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at 7 hospitals in Ontario, Canada were identified during the fiscal year 2012–2013. Data were obtained from a prospective registry. Cumulative healthcare costs during the episode of care were determined using microcosting. To identify drivers of healthcare costs, multivariable hierarchical generalised linear models with a logarithmic link and γ distribution were developed for TAVI, SAVR and SAVR+CABG separately. Results Our cohort consisted of 1310 patients with aortic stenosis, of whom 585 underwent isolated SAVR, 518 had SAVR+CABG and 207 underwent TAVI. The median costs for the index hospitalisation for isolated SAVR were $21 811 (IQR $18 148–$30 498), while those for SAVR+CABG were $27 256 (IQR $21 741–$39 000), compared with $42 742 (IQR $37 295–$56 196) for TAVI. For SAVR, the major patient-level drivers of costs were age >75 years, renal dysfunction and active endocarditis. For TAVI, chronic lung disease was a major patient-level driver. Procedural drivers of cost for TAVI included a non-transfemoral approach. A prolonged intensive care unit stay was associated with increased costs for all procedures. Conclusions We found wide variation in healthcare costs for SAVR compared with TAVI, with different patient-level drivers as well as potentially modifiable procedural factors. These highlight areas of further study to optimise healthcare delivery. PMID:27621832

  4. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: First Applications and Short Term Outcomes in Our Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Mehmet; Ince, Ilker; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Dogan, Nazim; Colak, Abdurrahim; Sevimli, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the first applications and short term outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in our clinic, which is a new technology for the patients with high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2012, twenty five patients (16 males, 9 females; mean age 74.04±8.86 years) diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis, who were at high risk for surgery (EuroSCORE II: 5.58±4.20) and underwent TAVI in our clinic, were evaluated. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, anaesthetic management, complications during pre- and post-operative periods and the mortality rate in the first 30 days and six months were recorded. Results: Edwards SAPIEN Valve prostheses were implanted by transfemoral approach (percutaneously in 10 patients and surgically in 15 patients) in all patients. The TAVI procedure was performed under general anaesthesia. The success rate of the TAVI procedure was 100%. Three patients had limited dissection of the femoral artery; however, intervention was not needed due to good distal perfusion rate. Permanent pacemaker was implanted to four patients because of long-term atrioventricular blockage. After the procedure, all patients were transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and all patients were extubated in the ICU. The mean mechanical ventilation duration (minutes) was 166.20±39.32, the mean critical care unit stay (day) was 5.64±2.99 and the mean hospital stay (day) was 11.92±5.54. Acute renal failure was observed in one patient and stroke was observed in two patients on the first postoperative day. The mortality rate in the first 30 days and 6 months was found to be 4% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a great option for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for SAVR. In our institute, procedural success and short term outcomes for patients

  5. Nursing leadership of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation Heart Team: Supporting innovation, excellence, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lauck, Sandra B; McGladrey, Janis; Lawlor, Cindy; Webb, John G

    2016-05-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is an innovative and resource-intensive treatment of valvular heart disease. Growing evidence and excellent outcomes are contributing to increased patient demand. The Heart Team is foundational to TAVI programs to manage the complexities of case selection and other aspects of care. The competencies and expertise of nurses are well suited to provide administrative and clinical leadership within the TAVI Heart Team to promote efficient, effective, and sustainable program development. The contributions of nursing administrative and clinical leaders exemplify the leadership roles that nurses can assume in healthcare innovation. PMID:27060802

  6. Conjunctival inclusion cyst following repair of tube erosion in a child with aphakic glaucoma, leading to endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Avik Kumar; Senthil, Sirisha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Glaucoma in aphakia is a major long term complication following congenital cataract surgery. Implantation of glaucoma drainage device provides an effective approach to manage refractory paediatric glaucoma. However implant surgery in young individuals is not free of complications. The prompt detection and management of tube erosion is of utmost importance to prevent devastating sequel of endophthalmitis. Implantation cyst following repair of tube erosion has not been reported so far. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of inclusion cyst following repair of tube erosion, the possible causes and its consequences. Case description: A 2-year-old child with aphakia developed intractable glaucoma. Following a failed glaucoma filtering surgery he underwent sequential Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in both the eyes. Six weeks following right eye surgery, the child presented with conjunctival erosion overlying the tube, which was treated with scleral patch graft and conjunctival advancement. One month after the repair of tube erosion, the child presented with implantation cyst under the scleral patch graft, which was treated by drainage with a 29G needle. The child presented with endophthalmitis of his right eye following an episode of bilateral conjunctivitis. This was managed by an emergency pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular antibiotics and tube excision. At the last follow up visit, the IOP was 20 mmHg with 2 topical antiglaucoma medications in the right eye following a trans scleral photocoagulation. Discussion: Lifelong careful follow-up of paediatric eyes with implant surgery is mandatory to look for complication such as tube erosion. It is important to place additional sutures to secure the patch graft during implantation of glaucoma drainage devices in children to prevent graft displacement and consequent tube erosion. During repair of tube erosion, it is crucial to remove all the conjunctival epithelium around the tube, thus not to

  7. In-Graft Endovascular Stenting Repair for Supravalvular Stenosis From Aortic Rupture After Balloon-Expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Scholtz, Werner; Haas, Nikolaus; Ensminger, Stephan; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    An 81-year-old man with high-grade aortic valve stenosis and status post-coronary artery bypass grafting and supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta was referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. He was in New York Heart Association class III and had dyspnea. After appropriate screening, we implanted a 29-mm SAPIEN XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA USA) through a transapical approach because of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Postinterventional aortography revealed correct positioning and function of the valve and free coronary ostia but contrast extravasation in the vicinity of the interposed vascular prosthesis, resulting in severe luminal narrowing. We chose to manage the stenosis with an endovascular stent. After stenting, extravascular compression was markedly reduced, and the pressure gradient disappeared. The patient was discharged home on the 20th postoperative day. Three months later, computed tomography depicted correct positioning of both grafts. The patient's general health is good, and he is now in New York Heart Association class II. This case illustrates a complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation specific for patients with an ascending aortic graft. Although stenting may be a good solution, as depicted by this case, self-expanding transcatheter aortic valves should be preferred in patients with ascending aortic grafts to avoid the described complication. PMID:26355692

  8. New-Onset Left Bundle Branch Block Induced by Transcutaneous Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Massoullié, Grégoire; Bordachar, Pierre; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Souteyrand, Géraud; Jean, Frédéric; Combaret, Nicolas; Vorilhon, Charles; Clerfond, Guillaume; Farhat, Mehdi; Ritter, Philippe; Citron, Bernard; Lusson, Jean-R; Motreff, Pascal; Ploux, Sylvain; Eschalier, Romain

    2016-03-01

    New-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a specific concern of transcutaneous aortic valve implantation (TAVI) given its estimated incidence ranging from 5% to 65%. This high rate of occurrence is dependent on the type of device used (size and shape), implantation methods, and patient co-morbidities. The appearance of an LBBB after TAVI reflects a very proximal lesion of the left bundle branch as it exits the bundle of His. At times transient, its persistence can lead to permanent pacemaker implantation in 15% to 20% of cases, most often for high-degree atrioventricular block. The management of LBBB after TAVI is currently not defined by international societies resulting in individual centers developing their own management strategy. The potential consequences of LBBB are dysrhythmias (atrioventricular block, syncope, and sudden death) and functional (heart failure) complications. Prompt postprocedural recognition and management (permanent pacemaker implantation) of patients prevents the occurrence of potential complications and may constitute the preferred approach in this frail and elderly population despite additional costs and complications of cardiac pacing. Moreover, the expansion of future indications for TAVI necessitates better identification of the predictive factors for the development of LBBB. Indeed, long-term right ventricular pacing may potentially increase the risk of developing heart failure in this population. In conclusion, it is thus imperative to not only develop new aortic prostheses with a less-deleterious impact on the conduction system but also to prescribe appropriate pacing modes in this frail population. PMID:26742470

  9. The effect of implantation orientation of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve on kinematics and hemodynamics in an anatomic aorta.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2010-11-01

    We carry out three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve under physiologic pulsatile flow conditions implanted at different orientations in an anatomic aorta obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a volunteer. We use the extensively validated for heart valve flow curvilinear-immersed boundary (CURVIB) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver in which the empty aorta is discretized with a curvilinear, aorta-conforming grid while the valve is handled as an immersed boundary. The motion of the valve leaflets are calculated through a strongly coupled FSI algorithm implemented in conjunction with the Aitken convergence acceleration technique. We perform simulations for three valve orientations, which differ from each other by 45 deg and compare the results in terms of leaflet motion and flow field. We show that the valve implanted symmetrically relative to the symmetry plane of the ascending aorta curvature exhibits the smallest overall asymmetry in the motion of its two leaflets and lowest rebound during closure. Consequently, we hypothesize that this orientation is beneficial to reduce the chance of intermittent regurgitation. Furthermore, we find that the valve orientation does not significantly affect the shear stress distribution in the aortic lumen, which is in agreement with previous studies. PMID:21034146

  10. The Effect of Implantation Orientation of a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve on Kinematics and Hemodynamics in an Anatomic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2011-01-01

    We carry out three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve under physiologic pulsatile flow conditions implanted at different orientations in an anatomic aorta obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a volunteer. We use the extensively validated for heart valve flow curvilinear-immersed boundary (CURVIB) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver in which the empty aorta is discretized with a curvilinear, aorta-conforming grid while the valve is handled as an immersed boundary. The motion of the valve leaflets are calculated through a strongly coupled FSI algorithm implemented in conjunction with the Aitken convergence acceleration technique. We perform simulations for three valve orientations, which differ from each other by 45 deg and compare the results in terms of leaflet motion and flow field. We show that the valve implanted symmetrically relative to the symmetry plane of the ascending aorta curvature exhibits the smallest overall asymmetry in the motion of its two leaflets and lowest rebound during closure. Consequently, we hypothesize that this orientation is beneficial to reduce the chance of intermittent regurgitation. Furthermore, we find that the valve orientation does not significantly affect the shear stress distribution in the aortic lumen, which is in agreement with previous studies. PMID:21034146

  11. Numerical characterization of hemodynamics conditions near aortic valve after implantation of Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Quaini, Annalisa; Canić, Suncica; Paniagua, David

    2011-07-01

    Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) are implantable mechanical pumps that temporarily aid the function of the left ventricle. The use of LVADs has been associated with thrombus formation next to the aortic valve and close to the anastomosis region, especially in patients in which the native cardiac function is negligible and the aortic valve remains closed. Stagnation points and recirculation zones have been implicated as the main fluid dynamics factors contributing to thrombus formation. The purpose of the present study was to develop and use computer simulations based on a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver to study flow conditions corresponding to different strategies in LVAD ascending aortic anastomosis providing a scenario with the lowest likelihood of thrombus formation. A novel FSI algorithm was developed to deal with the presence of multiple structures corresponding to different elastic properties of the native aorta and of the LVAD cannula. A sensitivity analysis of different variables was performed to assess their impact of flow conditions potentially leading to thrombus formation. It was found that the location of the anastomosis closest to the aortic valve (within 4 cm away from the valve) and at the angle of 30 minimizes the likelihood of thrombus formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the rigidity of the dacron anastomosis cannula plays almost no role in generating pathological conditions downstream from the anastomosis. Additionally, the flow analysis presented in this manuscript indicates that compliance of the cardiovascular tissue acts as a natural inhibitor of pathological flow conditions conducive to thrombus formation and should not be neglected in computer simulations. PMID:21675811

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the assessment of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Before trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), assessment of cardiac function and accurate measurement of the aortic root are key to determine the correct size and type of the prosthesis. The aim of this study was to compare cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the assessment of aortic valve measurements and left ventricular function in high-risk elderly patients submitted to TAVI. Methods Consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis and contraindications for surgical aortic valve replacement were screened from April 2009 to January 2011 and imaged with TTE and CMR. Results Patients who underwent both TTE and CMR (n = 49) had a mean age of 80.8 ± 4.8 years and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 14.9 ± 9.3%. There was a good correlation between TTE and CMR in terms of annulus size (R2 = 0.48, p < 0.001), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) diameter (R2 = 0.62, p < 0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001) and a moderate correlation in terms of aortic valve area (AVA) (R2 = 0.24, p < 0.001). CMR generally tended to report larger values than TTE for all measurements. The Bland-Altman test indicated that the 95% limits of agreement between TTE and CMR ranged from -5.6 mm to + 1.0 mm for annulus size, from -0.45 mm to + 0.25 mm for LVOT, from -0.45 mm2 to + 0.25 mm2 for AVA and from -29.2% to 13.2% for LVEF. Conclusions In elderly patients candidates to TAVI, CMR represents a viable complement to transthoracic echocardiography. PMID:22202669

  13. Clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: from learning curve to proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Mattia; Pesarini, Gabriele; Zivelonghi, Carlo; Piccoli, Anna; Geremia, Giulia; Ariotti, Sara; Rossi, Andrea; Gambaro, Alessia; Gottin, Leonardo; Faggian, Giuseppe; Vassanelli, Corrado; Ribichini, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Objective The use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is growing rapidly in countries with a predominantly elderly population, posing a huge challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. The increment of human and economic resource consumption imposes a careful monitoring of clinical outcomes and cost-benefit balance, and this article is aimed at analysing clinical outcomes related to the TAVI learning curve. Methods Outcomes of 177 consecutive transfemoral TAVI procedures performed in 5 years by a single team were analysed by the Cumulative Sum of failures method (CUSUM) according to the clinical events comprised in the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2) safety end point and the VARC-2 definition of device success. Margins for events acceptance were extrapolated from landmark trials that tested both balloon or self-expandable percutaneous valves. Results 30-day and 1-year survival rates were 97.2% and 89.9%, respectively. Achievement of the primary end point (number of cases needed to provide the acceptable margin of the composite end point of any death, stroke, myocardial infarction, life-threatening bleeding, major vascular complications, stage 2–3 acute kidney injury and valve-related dysfunction requiring a repeat procedure) required the performance of 54 cases, while the learning curve to achieve ‘device success’ identified 32 cases to reach the expected proficiency. In this experience, the baseline clinical risk as assessed by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score determined the long-term survival rather than the adverse events related to the learning curve. Conclusions A relatively large number of cases are required to achieve clinical outcomes comparable to those reported in high-volume centres and controlled trials. According to our national workload standards, this represents more than 2 years of continuous activity. PMID:27621826

  14. Determinants of image quality of rotational angiography for on-line assessment of frame geometry after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Olivares, Ramón; El Faquir, Nahid; Rahhab, Zouhair; Maugenest, Anne-Marie; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Schultz, Carl; Lauritsch, Guenter; de Jaegere, Peter P T

    2016-07-01

    To study the determinants of image quality of rotational angiography using dedicated research prototype software for motion compensation without rapid ventricular pacing after the implantation of four commercially available catheter-based valves. Prospective observational study including 179 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with either the Medtronic CoreValve (MCS), Edward-SAPIEN Valve (ESV), Boston Sadra Lotus (BSL) or Saint-Jude Portico Valve (SJP) in whom rotational angiography (R-angio) with motion compensation 3D image reconstruction was performed. Image quality was evaluated from grade 1 (excellent image quality) to grade 5 (strongly degraded). Distinction was made between good (grades 1, 2) and poor image quality (grades 3-5). Clinical (gender, body mass index, Agatston score, heart rate and rhythm, artifacts), procedural (valve type) and technical variables (isocentricity) were related with the image quality assessment. Image quality was good in 128 (72 %) and poor in 51 (28 %) patients. By univariable analysis only valve type (BSL) and the presence of an artefact negatively affected image quality. By multivariate analysis (in which BMI was forced into the model) BSL valve (Odds 3.5, 95 % CI [1.3-9.6], p = 0.02), presence of an artifact (Odds 2.5, 95 % CI [1.2-5.4], p = 0.02) and BMI (Odds 1.1, 95 % CI [1.0-1.2], p = 0.04) were independent predictors of poor image quality. Rotational angiography with motion compensation 3D image reconstruction using a dedicated research prototype software offers good image quality for the evaluation of frame geometry after TAVI in the majority of patients. Valve type, presence of artifacts and higher BMI negatively affect image quality. PMID:27139459

  15. Percutaneous transfemoral closure of a pseudoaneurysm at the left ventricular apical access site for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ashkan; Beaver, Thomas M; Fudge, James C

    2015-02-01

    This case report illustrates a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm that developed at the transapical access site for transcatheter aortic valve implantation and was successfully excluded percutaneously through a femoral approach using an Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (St. Jude Medical). We also discuss various currently available devices and technical pearls for percutaneous closure of left ventricular pseudoaneurysms. PMID:25661768

  16. Valve-in-valve implantation with a 23-mm balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve for the treatment of a 19-mm stentless bioprosthesis severe aortic regurgitation using a strategy of "extreme" underfilling.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Florent; Leipsic, Jonathon; Généreux, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of valve-in-valve (ViV) implantation by transfemoral approach with a 23-mm balloon-expandable prosthesis inside a stentless 19-mm acutely degenerated bioprosthesis, using a strategy of "extreme" underfilling. A 74-year-old patient presented to our institution in cardiogenic shock. An initial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed severe central aortic regurgitation (AR) due to a torn leaflet. She was deemed inoperable and considered for urgent transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Given the fairly small true internal diameter, a strategy of 3-cc underfilling of a 23-mm transcatheter heart valve (THV) was planned. However, the final implantation was performed with 5-cc underfilling due to the incapacity to deliver the entire amount of fluid contained in the inflation syringe. TEE guidance confirmed the successful positioning and deployment of the prosthesis, with no AR and a mean gradient of 25 mm Hg. While implantation of a smaller prosthesis (20 mm) was debated during the Heart Team discussion, the risk of valve embolization due to inadequate anchoring inside the stentless prosthesis led to the selection of a 23-mm THV. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was in NYHA class I, with no AR and a mean gradient of 28 mm Hg. We report for the first time the use of in vivo THV with 5-cc underfilling with no acute or short-term structural failure, and the first ViV implantation by transfemoral approach with a 23-mm balloon-expandable prosthesis inside a stentless 19-mm bioprosthesis. The current report presents the challenges related to ViV implantation inside a small stentless bioprosthesis and offers practical ways to overcome them. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24402706

  17. Feasibility and Safety of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Performed Without Intensive Care Unit Admission.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Florence; Iemmi, Anais; Lattuca, Benoit; Macia, Jean-Christophe; Gervasoni, Richard; Roubille, Francois; Gandet, Thomas; Schmutz, Laurent; Akodad, Mariama; Agullo, Audrey; Verges, Marine; Nogue, Erika; Marin, Gregory; Nagot, Nicolas; Rivalland, Francois; Durrleman, Nicolas; Robert, Gabriel; Delseny, Delphine; Albat, Bernard; Cayla, Guillaume

    2016-07-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a standard of care after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI); however, the improvement of the procedure and the need to minimize the unnecessary use of medical resources call into question this strategy. We evaluated prospectively 177 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI. Low-risk patients, admitted to conventional cardiology units, had stable clinical state, transfemoral access, no right bundle branch block, permanent pacing with a self-expandable valve, and no complication occurring during the procedure. High-risk patients included all the others transferred to ICU. In-hospital events were the primary end point (Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 criteria). The mean age of patients was 83.5 ± 6.5 years, and the mean logistic EuroSCORE was 14.6 ± 9.7%. The balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 valve was mainly used (n = 148; 83.6%), mostly with transfemoral access (n = 167; 94.4%). Among the 61 patients (34.5%) included in the low-risk group, only 1 (1.6%) had a minor complication (negative predictive value 98.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 0.99). Conversely, 31 patients (26.7%) from the high-risk group had clinical events (positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.35), mainly conductive disorders requiring pacemaker (n = 26; 14.7%). In multivariate analysis, right bundle branch block (odds ratio [OR] 14.1, 95% CI 3.5 to 56.3), use of the self-expandable valve without a pacemaker (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2 to 16.3), vitamin K antagonist treatment (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6), and female gender (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.003 to 6.9) were preprocedural predictive factors of adverse events. In conclusion, our results suggested that TAVI can be performed safely without ICU admission in selected patients. This strategy may optimize efficiency and cost-effectiveness of procedures. PMID:27184173

  18. Valve

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A positive acting valve suitable for operation in a corrosive environment is provided. The valve includes a hollow valve body defining an open-ended bore for receiving two, axially aligned, spaced-apart, cylindrical inserts. One insert, designated the seat insert, terminates inside the valve body in an annular face which lies within plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elastomeric O-ring seal is disposed in a groove extending about the annular face. The other insert, designated the wedge insert, terminates inside the valve body in at least two surfaces oppositely inclined with respect to each other and with respect to a plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elongated reciprocable gate, movable between the two inserts along a path normal to the axis of the two inserts, has a first flat face portion disposed adjacent and parallel to the annular face of the seat insert. The gate has a second face portion opposite to the first face portion provided with at least two oppositely inclined surfaces for mating with respective inclined surfaces of the wedge insert. An opening is provided through the gate which registers with a flow passage through the two inserts when the valve is open. Interaction of the respective inclined surfaces of the gate and wedge insert act to force the first flat face portion of the gate against the O-ring seal in the seat insert at the limits of gate displacement where it reaches its respective fully open and fully closed positions.

  19. Catheter tracking via online learning for dynamic motion compensation in transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zheng, Yefeng; John, Matthias; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic overlay of 3D models onto 2D X-ray images has important applications in image guided interventions. In this paper, we present a novel catheter tracking for motion compensation in the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI). To address such challenges as catheter shape and appearance changes, occlusions, and distractions from cluttered backgrounds, we present an adaptive linear discriminant learning method to build a measurement model online to distinguish catheters from background. An analytic solution is developed to effectively and efficiently update the discriminant model and to minimize the classification errors between the tracking object and backgrounds. The online learned discriminant model is further combined with an offline learned detector and robust template matching in a Bayesian tracking framework. Quantitative evaluations demonstrate the advantages of this method over current state-of-the-art tracking methods in tracking catheters for clinical applications. PMID:23286027

  20. Recent Advances in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Novel Devices and Potential Shortcomings

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, J.; Liebetrau, C.; Linden, A. Van; Moellmann, H.; Walther, T.; Kempfert, J.

    2013-01-01

    During the past years transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved to a standard technique for the treatment of high risk patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis. Worldwide the number of TAVI procedures is increasing exponentially. In this context both the transapical antegrade (TA) and the transfemoral retrograde (TF) approach are predominantly used and can be considered as safe and reproducible access sites for TAVI interventions. As a new technology TAVI is in a constant progress regarding the development of new devices. While in the first years only the Edwards SAPIEN™ and the Medtronic CoreValve™ prostheses were commercial available, recently additional devices obtained CE-mark approval and others have entered initial clinical trials. In addition to enhance the treatment options in general, the main driving factor to further develop new device iterations is to solve the drawbacks of the current TAVI systems: paravalvular leaks, occurrence of AV-blocks and the lack of full repositionability. PMID:24313644

  1. Red cell distribution width in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Verde, Pablo E; Veulemanns, Verena; Kahlstadt, Lisa; Wolff, Georg; Erkens, Ralf; Westenfeld, Ralf; Navarese, Eliano P; Merx, Marc W; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of red blood cell distribution width on outcome in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: In a retrospective single center cohort study we determined the impact of baseline red cell distribution width (RDW) and anemia on outcome in 376 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI. All patients were discussed in the institutional heart team and declined for surgical aortic valve replacement due to high operative risk. Collected data included patient characteristics, imaging findings, periprocedural in hospital data, laboratory results and follow up data. Blood samples for hematology and biochemistry analysis were taken from every patient before and at fixed intervals up to 72 h after TAVI including blood count and creatinine. Descriptive statistics were used for patient’s characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for time to event outcomes. A recursive partitioning regression and classification was used to investigate the association between potential risk factors and outcome variables. RESULTS: Mean age in our study population was 81 ± 6.1 years. Anemia was prevalent in 63.6% (n = 239) of our patients. Age and creatinine were identified as risk factors for anemia. In our study population, anemia per se did influence 30-d mortality but did not predict longterm mortality. In contrast, a RDW > 14% showed to be highly predictable for a reduced short- and longterm survival in patients with aortic valve disease after TAVI procedure. CONCLUSION: Age and kidney function determine the degree of anemia. The anisocytosis of red blood cells in anemic patients supplements prognostic information in addition to that derived from the WHO-based definition of anemia. PMID:26981217

  2. Changing strategy for aortic stenosis with coronary artery disease by transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2013-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is combined with aortic stenosis (AS) in 40-50 % of patients with typical angina. Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has changed the guideline for AS in patients with high comorbidity. At the same time more than 60 % of isolated CABG has been performed without cardiopulmonary bypass in Japan. CABG is recommended and should be considered in patients with primary indication for AVR and luminal stenosis >70 % in major coronary arteries and the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) by guidelines. AVR is indicated for severe AS undergoing CABG. It is generally accepted to perform AVR for moderate AS at the time of CABG by valve guidelines. However, prophylactic AVR for moderate AS associated with CABG may increase the early operative risk and expose the patients to postoperative long-term valve related complications. AVR after previous CABG poses potential risk for mortality and morbidity. The presence of patent ITA is a significant risk of its injury and difficulty of myocardial protection during aortic cross-clamping. Therefore, at present, for severe AS previous CABG with patent ITA should be one of the definite indications of TAVI. Rationale of TAVI in patients with severe AS and CAD has not been clearly delineated. The safety of TAVI irrespective of the extent and anatomy of CAD is still controversial. PCI is not appropriate before TAVI in high-risk patients with CAD. In the near future hybrid TAVI will be realistic considering least operative mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients. PMID:23546769

  3. TAVI or No TAVI: identifying patients unlikely to benefit from transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rishi; Iung, Bernard; Cohen, David J; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2016-07-21

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has spawned the evolution of novel catheter-based therapies for a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Newer device iterations are delivering lower peri- and early post-procedural complication rates in patients with aortic stenosis, who were otherwise deemed too high risk for conventional surgical valve replacement. Yet beyond the post-procedural period, a considerable portion of current TAVI recipients fail to derive a benefit from TAVI, either dying or displaying a lack of clinical and functional improvement. Considerable interest now lies in better identifying factors likely to predict futility post-TAVI. Implicit in this are the critical roles of frailty, disability, and a multimorbidity patient assessment. In this review, we outline the roles that a variety of medical comorbidities play in determining futile post-TAVI outcomes, including the critical role of frailty underlying the identification of patients unlikely to benefit from TAVI. We discuss various TAVI risk scores, and further propose that by combining such scores along with frailty parameters and the presence of specific organ failure, a more accurate and holistic assessment of potential TAVI-related futility could be achieved. PMID:26819226

  4. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation and Morbidity and Mortality-Related Factors: a 5-Year Experience in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, André Luiz Silveira; Salgado, Constantino González; Mourilhe-Rocha, Ricardo; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Lima, Luciana Cristina Lima Correia; de Mattos, Nelson Durval Ferreira Gomes; Rabischoffsky, Arnaldo; Fagundes, Francisco Eduardo Sampaio; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Carvalho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an option for high-surgical-risk patients with aortic valve disease. Objective To evaluate the in-hospital and one-year follow-up outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods Prospective cohort study of transcatheter aortic valve implantation cases from July 2009 to February 2015. Analysis of clinical and procedural variables, correlating them with in-hospital and one-year mortality. Results A total of 136 patients with a mean age of 83 years (80-87) underwent heart valve implantation; of these, 49% were women, 131 (96.3%) had aortic stenosis, one (0.7%) had aortic regurgitation and four (2.9%) had prosthetic valve dysfunction. NYHA functional class was III or IV in 129 cases (94.8%). The baseline orifice area was 0.67 ± 0.17 cm2 and the mean left ventricular-aortic pressure gradient was 47.3±18.2 mmHg, with an STS score of 9.3% (4.8%-22.3%). The prostheses implanted were self-expanding in 97% of cases. Perioperative mortality was 1.5%; 30-day mortality, 5.9%; in-hospital mortality, 8.1%; and one-year mortality, 15.5%. Blood transfusion (relative risk of 54; p = 0.0003) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (relative risk of 5.3; p = 0.036) were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Peak C-reactive protein (relative risk of 1.8; p = 0.013) and blood transfusion (relative risk of 8.3; p = 0.0009) were predictive of 1-year mortality. At 30 days, 97% of patients were in NYHA functional class I/II; at one year, this figure reached 96%. Conclusion Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a high success rate and low mortality. Blood transfusion was associated with higher in-hospital and one-year mortality. Peak C-reactive protein was associated with one-year mortality. PMID:27192383

  5. Limitations and difficulties of echocardiographic short-axis assessment of paravalvular leakage after corevalve transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Geleijnse, Marcel L; Di Martino, Luigi F M; Vletter, Wim B; Ren, Ben; Galema, Tjebbe W; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Soliman, Osama I I

    2016-01-01

    To make assessment of paravalvular aortic leakage (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) more uniform the second Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) recently updated the echocardiographic criteria for mild, moderate and severe PVL. In the VARC recommendation the assessment of the circumferential extent of PVL in the short-axis view is considered critical. In this paper we will discuss our observational data on the limitations and difficulties of this particular view, that may potentially result in overestimation or underestimation of PVL severity. PMID:27600600

  6. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  7. Evaluation of the Ex-PRESS® P-50 implant under scleral flap in combined cataract and glaucoma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Huerva, Valentín; Soldevila, Jordi; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Lavilla, Laura; Muniesa, M. Jesús; Sánchez, M. Carmen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glaucoma drainage device Ex-PRESS® P-50 for combined cataract surgery and glaucoma. METHODS Patients having cataract and open angle glaucoma or patients with open advanced glaucoma which needed two or more antiglaucoma medications were included. Combined cataract surgery and glaucoma with Ex-PRESS® P-50 model placed under scleral flap was performed. RESULTS Out of 40 eyes of 40 patients (55% male and 45% female) completed the study during one-year follow-up. The mean of age was 76.6±11.02y. The intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased significantly during the 12-month follow-up from 23.5 mm Hg to 16.8 mm Hg (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, P<0.001). A 59.5% of patients did not need any topical treatment, 10.8% of them needed one active principle, 27% needed two active principles, and 2.7% of them needed three active principles for successful IOP control (<21 mm Hg). CONCLUSION Combined surgery of phacoemulsification with ExPRESS® P-50 lowers IOP from the preoperative baseline and reduces significantly the number of antiglaucoma active principles for IOP control after the operation. PMID:27162726

  8. Combined venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of acute aortic prosthesis dysfunction in a high-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Pontillo, Daniele; Musumeci, Francesco; Luzi, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with acute bioprosthesis dysfunction in cardiogenic shock, in whom hemodynamic support was provided by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and successfully treated by transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:27402446

  9. Glaucoma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Glaucoma is a condition of increased fluid pressure inside the eye. The increased pressure causes compression of ... nerve which can eventually lead to nerve damage. Glaucoma can cause partial vision loss, with blindness as ...

  10. Hyper-Response to Clopidogrel in Japanese Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Kozuma, Ken; Ishikawa, Shuichi; Hosogoe, Naoyoshi; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2016-03-22

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is empirically recommended following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aims of the present study were to analyze the effect of clopidogrel on platelet function and to determine the relative contribution of each CYP2C19 loss-of-function genotype undergoing TAVI.Thirty-two patients undergoing TAVI and with clopidogrel treatment were studied. All patients were treated with an Edwards SapienXT valve. Platelet reactivity was measured by the VerifyNow P2Y12 point-of-care assay at 7 days and 30 days after the procedure and a cutoff value of 95 PRU was used to identify a hyper-response of platelet reactivity. The Spartan RX(TM) sample-to-result point-of-care DNA testing system was used to identify CYP2C19 loss-of-function genotypes. Hyper-response of platelet reactivity was identified in 11 (34.3%) patients, although 24 (80%) were carriers of at least one CYP2C19 reduced-function allele. The PRU values did not change significantly from 7 days to 30 days after TAVI (136.7 ± 73.4 versus 150.4 ± 83.2, P = 0.13). The incidences of life-threatening bleeding, minor bleeding, and transfusion were significantly higher among the hyper-response of platelet reactivity group (27.3% versus 0%, P = 0.03, 36.4% versus 4.8%, P = 0.04, 81.8% versus 42.9%, P = 0.04, respectively).A hyper-response to clopidogrel was observed in one-third of patients undergoing TAVI and was related to bleeding events, even though 80% of the patients were carriers of the CYP2C19 reduced-function allele. PMID:26973266

  11. Left ventricular reverse remodeling after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with increased myocardial stiffness and dysfunction linked to cardiac morbidity and mortality. We aimed at systematically investigating the degree of left ventricular mass regression and changes in left ventricular function six months after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMi), end diastolic volume indexed to body surface area (LVEDVi), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and stroke volume (SV) were investigated by CMR before and six months after TAVI in patients with severe aortic stenosis and contraindications for surgical aortic valve replacement. Results Twenty-sevent patients had paired CMR at baseline and at 6-month follow-up (N=27), with a mean age of 80.7±5.2 years. LVMi decreased from 84.5±25.2 g/m2 at baseline to 69.4±18.4 g/m2 at six months follow-up (P<0.001). LVEDVi (87.2±30.1 ml /m2vs 86.4±22.3 ml/m2; P=0.84), LVEF (61.5±14.5% vs 65.1±7.2%, P=0.08) and SV (89.2±22 ml vs 94.7±26.5 ml; P=0.25) did not change significantly. Conclusions Based on CMR, significant left ventricular reverse remodeling occurs six months after TAVI. PMID:23692630

  12. Candida and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: a case of lead and native aortic valve endocarditis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Vasher, Scott; Marmor, Meghan; Fine, Antonella B; Chan, Philip A; Tashima, Karen T; Lonks, John R; Kojic, Erna M

    2015-11-01

    Use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED), including permanent pacemakers (PPM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Most CIED infections are caused by staphylococci. Fungal causes are rare and their prognosis is poor. To our knowledge, there has not been a previously reported case of multifocal Candida endocarditis involving both a native left-sided heart valve and a CIED lead. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old patient who presented with nausea, vomiting, and generalised fatigue, and was found to have Candida glabrata endocarditis involving both a native aortic valve and right atrial ICD lead. We review the literature and summarise four additional cases of CIED-associated Candida endocarditis published from 2009 to 2014, updating a previously published review of cases prior to 2009. We additionally review treatment guidelines and discuss management of CIED-associated Candida endocarditis. PMID:26403965

  13. In vitro hydrodynamic evaluation of a biovalve with stent (tubular leaflet type) for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Sumikura, Hirohito; Nakayama, Yasuhide; Ohnuma, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Satoru; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-12-01

    We have been developing an autologous heart valve-shaped tissue with a stent (stent-biovalve) for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) using "in-body tissue architecture" technology. In this study, the hydrodynamic performance of a stent-biovalve with tubular leaflets was evaluated by changing its leaflet height in an in vitro test in order to determine the appropriate stent-biovalve form for the pulmonary valve. A specially designed, self-expandable, stent-mounted, cylindrical acrylic mold was placed in a dorsal subcutaneous pouch of goat, and the implant was extracted 2 months later. Only the cylindrical acrylic mold was removed from the implant, and a tubular hollow structure of membranous connective tissue impregnated with the stent strut was obtained. Half of tubular tissue was completely folded in half inwards, and 3 commissure parts were connected to form 3 leaflets, resulting in the preparation of a stent-biovalve with tubular leaflets (25-mm ID). The stent-biovalve with adjusting leaflet height (13, 14, 15, 17, 20, and 25 mm) was fixed to a specially designed pulsatile mock circulation circuit under pulmonary valve conditions using 37 °C saline. The mean pressure difference and effective orifice area were better than those of the biological valve. The lowest and highest leaflet heights had a high regurgitation rate due to lack of coaptation or prevention of leaflet movement, respectively. The lowest regurgitation (ca. 11%) was observed at a height of 15 mm. The leaflet height was found to significantly affect the hydrodynamics of stent-biovalves, and the existence of an appropriate leaflet height became clear. PMID:26141924

  14. Impact of clinical and procedural factors upon C reactive protein dynamics following transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Neil; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Frame, Angela; Ariff, Ben; Sutaria, Nilesh; Fertleman, Michael; Cousins, Jonathan; Anderson, Jon; Bicknell, Colin; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Sen, Sayan; Malik, Iqbal S; Colombo, Antonio; Mikhail, Ghada W

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of procedural and clinical factors upon C reactive protein (CRP) dynamics following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: Two hundred and eight consecutive patients that underwent transfemoral TAVI at two hospitals (Imperial, College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom and San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy) were included. Daily venous plasma CRP levels were measured for up to 7 d following the procedure (or up to discharge). Procedural factors and 30-d safety outcomes according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition were collected. RESULTS: Following TAVI, CRP significantly increased reaching a peak on day 3 of 87.6 ± 5.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001. Patients who developed clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis had significantly increased levels of CRP (P < 0.001). The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with a significantly higher peak CRP level at day 3 (78.4 ± 3.2 vs 92.2 ± 4.4, P < 0.001). There was no difference in peak CRP release following balloon-expandable or self-expandable TAVI implantation (94.8 ± 9.1 vs 81.9 ± 6.9, P = 0.34) or if post-dilatation was required (86.9 ± 6.3 vs 96.6 ± 5.3, P = 0.42), however, when pre-TAVI balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed this resulted in a significant increase in the peak CRP (110.1 ± 8.9 vs 51.6 ± 3.7, P < 0.001). The development of a major vascular complication did result in a significantly increased maximal CRP release (153.7 ± 11.9 vs 83.3 ± 7.4, P = 0.02) and there was a trend toward a higher peak CRP following major/life-threatening bleeding (113.2 ± 9.3 vs 82.7 ± 7.5, P = 0.12) although this did not reach statistical significance. CRP was not found to be a predictor of 30-d mortality on univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Careful attention should be paid to baseline clinical characteristics and procedural factors when interpreting CRP following TAVI to determine their future management. PMID

  15. Amyloid deposits in bioprosthetic cardiac valves after long-term implantation in man. A new localization of amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Y. A.; Gruys, E.; Sorenson, G. D.; Wellens, F.

    1984-01-01

    Congo red staining with microscopic examination under polarized light was performed in 30 porcine bioprosthetic cardiac valves and one autologous fascia lata valve explanted from 31 patients in order to detect the presence of amyloid. Microdeposits of amyloid were present in the sewing ring of the fascia lata valve and in 10 porcine bioprostheses, and this finding was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy in 3 porcine bioprostheses. All amyloid-laden porcine valves had been implanted for at least 33 months before removal, and all except two showed dysfunction and/or severe degeneration of cuspal tissue. Statistical analyses failed to establish any correlation between the presence of amyloid and patient-related factors. In a majority of porcine bioprostheses amyloid was permanganate-sensitive and tryptophan-positive. The pathogenesis of this new form of heart valve amyloidosis might consist in penetration of human macrophages in deteriorated bioprosthetic cusps and their interaction with blood-borne amyloid precursors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6421168

  16. Transition to palliative care when transcatheter aortic valve implantation is not an option: opportunities and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Sandra B.; Gibson, Jennifer A.; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Carroll, Sandra L.; Achtem, Leslie; Kimel, Gil; Nordquist, Cindy; Cheung, Anson; Boone, Robert H.; Ye, Jian; Wood, David A.; Webb, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the recommended treatment for most patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis at high surgical risk. However, TAVI may be clinically futile for patients who have multiple comorbidities and excessive frailty. This group benefits from transition to palliative care to maximize quality of life, improve symptoms, and ensure continuity of health services. We discuss the clinical determination of utility and futility, explore the current evidence guiding the integration of palliative care in procedure-focused cardiac programs, and outline recommendations for TAVI programs. Recent findings The determination of futility of treatment in elderly patients with aortic stenosis is challenging. There is a paucity of research available to guide best practices when TAVI is not an option. Opportunities exist to build on the evidence gained in the management of end of life and heart failure. TAVI programs and primary care providers can facilitate improved communication and processes of care to provide decision support and transition to palliative care. Summary The increased availability of transcatheter options for the management of valvular heart disease will increase the assessment of people with life-limiting conditions for whom treatment may not be an option. It is pivotal to bridge cardiac innovation and palliation to optimize patient outcomes. PMID:26716394

  17. Quality of Care for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Development of Canadian Cardiovascular Society Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Asgar, Anita W; Lauck, Sandra; Ko, Dennis; Alqoofi, Faisal; Cohen, Eric; Forsey, Anne; Lambert, Laurie J; Oakes, Garth H; Pelletier, Marc; Webb, John G

    2016-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a relatively new procedure to treat aortic stenosis in patients at high surgical risk, and it is becoming increasingly available in Canada. Variation exists in the clinical care, program coordination, evaluation, and funding across provinces and centres. As a part of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) quality initiative, the TAVI Quality Indicator (QI) Working Group was established in 2014 to develop a set of indicators to measure quality of care for Canadians undergoing TAVI for aortic stenosis. The TAVI QI Working Group is composed of expert clinical and government agency representatives. The group developed consensus agreements for the selection of the first iteration of measurable structure, process, and outcome indicators reflective of the quality of care for patients undergoing TAVI. The objectives of the project are to develop quality indicators with the eventual goal of standardizing TAVI quality reports across Canada and to support local and national quality assurance, as well as engage multiple stakeholders to build a national strategy for the evaluation of quality of care. PMID:26948037

  18. MRI evaluation prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): When to acquire and how to interpret.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Hobbs, Susan K; Ling, Fred S; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Knight, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is increasingly being used in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not candidates for surgery. ECG-gated CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in the preoperative planning for these devices. As the number of patients undergoing these procedures increases, a subset of patients is being recognized who have contraindications to iodinated contrast medium, either due to a prior severe allergic type reaction or poor renal function. Another subgroup of patients with low flow and low gradient aortic stenosis is being recognized that are usually assessed for severity of aortic stenosis by stress echocardiography. There are contraindications to stress echocardiography and some of these patients may not be able to undergo this test. Non-contrast MRI can be a useful emerging modality for evaluating these patients. In this article, we discuss the emerging indications of non-contrast MRI in preoperative assessment for TAVI and describe the commonly used MRI sequences. A comparison of the most important measurements obtained for TAVI assessment on CTA and MRI from same subjects is included. Teaching Points • MRI can be used for preoperative assessment of aortic annulus. • MRI is an alternate to CTA when iodinated contrast is contraindicated. • Measurements obtained by non-contrast MRI are similar to contrast enhanced CTA. • MRI can be used to assess severity of aortic stenosis. PMID:26911969

  19. Three-Year Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Varying Levels of Surgical Risk (from the CoreValve ADVANCE Study).

    PubMed

    Barbanti, Marco; Schiltgen, Molly; Verdoliva, Sarah; Bosmans, Johan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Gerckens, Ulrich; Wenaweser, Peter; Brecker, Stephen; Gulino, Simona; Tamburino, Corrado; Linke, Axel

    2016-03-01

    This study compared 3-year clinical outcomes of patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score ≤7% to those of patients with a score >7%. Data were drawn from the ADVANCE study, a multinational post-market clinical trial that enrolled real-world patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with the CoreValve bioprosthesis. Events were independently adjudicated using Valve Academic Research Consortium-1 definitions. A total of 996 patients were implanted: STS ≤7% (n = 697, median STS 4.3%, interquartile range 3.1% to 5.4%) and STS >7% (n = 298, median STS 9.7%, interquartile range 8.0% to 12.4%). At 3 years, the STS ≤7% group had lower rates of all-cause mortality (28.6 vs 45.9, p <0.01) and cardiovascular mortality (19.0 vs 30.2, p <0.01) than the STS >7% group. No differences were observed in cerebrovascular accidents, vascular complications, bleeding, or myocardial infarction. In patients with STS ≤7%, mortality at 3 years was higher in those with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) at discharge than in those with mild or less AR (39.9% vs 22.9%; hazard ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 2.86; p <0.01). Conversely, the severity of AR at discharge did not affect 3-year mortality in patients with STS >7% (42.9% vs 44.6%, moderate/severe vs mild/less; hazard ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 1.75; p = 0.861; p for interaction = 0.047). In conclusion, patients with STS ≤7% had lower rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality at 3 years after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Complication rates were low and stable in both groups, demonstrating the safety of this procedure for patients at various levels of surgical risk. PMID:26762727

  20. A gender based analysis of predictors of all cause death after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, Federico; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Salizzoni, Stefano; Presbitero, Patrizia; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Tamburino, Corrado; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Bedogni, Francesco; Nijhoff, Freek; Gasparetto, Valeria; Napodano, Massimo; Ferrante, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marco Luciano; Stella, Pieter; Brambilla, Nedy; Barbanti, Marco; Giordana, Francesca; Grasso, Costanza; Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Moretti, Claudio; D'Amico, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Marra, Sebastiano

    2014-10-15

    The impact of gender-related pathophysiologic features of severe aortic stenosis on transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes remains to be determined, as does the consistency of predictors of mortality between the genders. All consecutive patients who underwent TAVI at 6 institutions were enrolled in this study and stratified according to gender. Midterm all-cause mortality was the primary end point, with events at 30 days and at midterm as secondary end points. All events were adjudicated according to Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. Eight hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled, 464 (55.5%) of whom were female. At midterm follow-up (median 365 days, interquartile range 100 to 516) women had similar rates of all-cause mortality compared with men (18.1% vs 22.6%, p = 0.11) and similar incidence of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. Gender did not affect mortality also on multivariate analysis. Among clinical and procedural features, glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36 to 4.79) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >50 mm Hg (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.26 to 4.02) independently predicted mortality in women, while insulin-treated diabetes (HR 3.45, 95% CI 1.47 to 8.09), previous stroke (HR 3.42, 95% CI 1.43 to 8.18), and an ejection fraction <30% (HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.41 to 10.37) were related to mortality in men. Postprocedural aortic regurgitation was independently related to midterm mortality in the 2 groups (HR 11.19, 95% CI 3.3 to 37.9). In conclusion, women and men had the same life expectancy after TAVI, but different predictors of adverse events stratified by gender were demonstrated. These findings underline the importance of a gender-tailored clinical risk assessment in TAVI patients. PMID:25159239

  1. Puncture Versus Surgical Cutdown Complications of Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation (from the Spanish TAVI Registry).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Enriquez, Marco; Andrea, Rut; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Hernández-García, José María; Trillo, Ramiro; Larman, Mariano; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Vázquez-González, Nicolás; Iñiguez, Andrés; Zueco, Javier; Ruiz-Salmerón, Rafael; Del Valle, Raquel; Molina, Eduardo; García Del Blanco, Bruno; Berenguer, Alberto; Valdés, Mariano; Moreno, Raúl; Urbano-Carrillo, Cristóbal; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Gimeno, Federico; Cequier, Ángel; Cruz, Ignacio; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Aramendi, José Ignacio; Sánchez, Ángel; Goicolea, Javier; Albarrán, Agustín; Díaz, José Francisco; Navarro, Felipe; Moreu, José; Morist, Andrés; Fernández-Nofrerías, Eduard; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe; Ten, Francisco; Mainar, Vicente; Mari, Belén; Saenz, Alberto; Alfonso, Fernando; Diarte, José Antonio; Sancho, Manuel; Lezáun, Román; Arzamendi, Dabit; Sabaté, Manel

    2016-08-15

    Vascular complications in transcatheter aortic valve implantation using transfemoral approach are related to higher mortality. Complete percutaneous approach is currently the preferred technique for vascular access. However, some centers still perform surgical cutdown. Our purpose was to determine complications related to vascular access technique in the population of the Spanish TAVI National Registry. From January 2010 to July 2015, 3,046 patients were included in this Registry. Of them, 2,465 underwent transfemoral approach and were treated with either surgical cutdown and closure (cutdown group, n = 632) or percutaneous approach (puncture group, n = 1,833). Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions were used to assess vascular and bleeding complications. Propensity matching resulted in 615 matched pairs. Overall, 30-day vascular complications were significantly higher in the puncture group (109 [18%] vs 42 [6.9%]; relative risk [RR] 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85 to 3.64, p <0.001) due mostly by minor vascular events (89 [15%] vs 25 [4.1%], RR 3.56, 95% CI 2.32 to 5.47, p <0.001). Bleeding rates were lower in the puncture group (18 [3%] vs 40 [6.6%], RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.78, p = 0.003) mainly driven by major bleeding (9 [1.5%] vs 21 [3.4%], RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.93, p = 0.03). At a mean follow-up of 323 days, complication rates remained significantly different between groups (minor vascular complications 90 [15%] vs 31 [5.1%], hazard ratio 2.99, 95% CI 1.99 to 4.50, p <0.001 and major bleeding 10 [1.6%] vs 21 [3.4%], hazard ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.0, p = 0.04, puncture versus cutdown group, respectively). In conclusion, percutaneous approach yielded higher rates of minor vascular complications but lower rates of major bleeding compared with the surgical cutdown, both at 30-day and at mid-term follow-up in our population. PMID:27378142

  2. Performance of Surgical Risk Scores to Predict Mortality after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Leonardo Sinnott; Caramori, Paulo Ricardo Avancini; Nunes Filho, Antonio Carlos Bacelar; Katz, Marcelo; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; Lemos, Pedro; Lima, Valter; Abizaid, Alexandre; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; de Brito Jr, Fabio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains a challenge. Objectives To evaluate the performance of 5 risk scores for cardiac surgery in predicting the 30-day mortality among patients of the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Methods The Brazilian Multicenter Registry prospectively enrolled 418 patients undergoing TAVI in 18 centers between 2008 and 2013. The 30-day mortality risk was calculated using the following surgical scores: the logistic EuroSCORE I (ESI), EuroSCORE II (ESII), Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score, Ambler score (AS) and Guaragna score (GS). The performance of the risk scores was evaluated in terms of their calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow test) and discrimination [area under the receiver–operating characteristic curve (AUC)]. Results The mean age was 81.5 ± 7.7 years. The CoreValve (Medtronic) was used in 86.1% of the cohort, and the transfemoral approach was used in 96.2%. The observed 30-day mortality was 9.1%. The 30-day mortality predicted by the scores was as follows: ESI, 20.2 ± 13.8%; ESII, 6.5 ± 13.8%; STS score, 14.7 ± 4.4%; AS, 7.0 ± 3.8%; GS, 17.3 ± 10.8%. Using AUC, none of the tested scores could accurately predict the 30-day mortality. AUC for the scores was as follows: 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49 to 0.68, p = 0.09] for ESI; 0.54 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.64, p = 0.42) for ESII; 0.57 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.67, p = 0.16) for AS; 0.48 (95% IC: 0.38 to 0.57, p = 0.68) for STS score; and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.62, p = 0.64) for GS. The Hosmer–Lemeshow test indicated acceptable calibration for all scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In this real world Brazilian registry, the surgical risk scores were inaccurate in predicting mortality after TAVI. Risk models specifically developed for TAVI are required. PMID:26247244

  3. Pre-emptive positioning of a coronary stent in the left anterior descending artery for left main protection: a prerequisite for transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation for failing stentless bioprostheses?

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Nakamura, Mamoo; Kashif, Mohammad; Kar, Saibal; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj

    2013-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation in high-risk patients with degenerative surgical bioprosthetic aortic valves is a novel application of transcatheter aortic valve replacement technology. Although transcatheter aortic VIV procedure is clinically effective in most patients, it is a more demanding procedure in terms of the technical aspects of procedural planning. VIV carries a higher risk of coronary occlusion which is associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality. We hereby report a technique of pre-emptive left main (LM) protection, by positioning a coronary stent in the proximal left anterior descending artery prior to VIV implantation. The patient treated was considered to be at an increased risk of LM occlusion as a result of the procedure. The technique was performed in anticipation of emergent bailout stenting of the LM. As predicted, the LM occluded during the procedure and LM protection facilitated the safe and effective treatment of an otherwise life-threatening procedure. PMID:23729203

  4. Concomitant Aortic Valve Procedures in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Continuous-Flow LVADs: An INTERMACS Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jason O.; Naftel, David C.; Myers, Susan L.; Prasad, Sunil; Mertz, Gail D.; Itoh, Akinobu; Pagani, Francis D.; Kirklin, James K.; Silvestry, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of existing aortic insufficiency (AI) and mechanical aortic valves in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation remains controversial. Surgical options to address these issues include closure, repair or replacement of the valve. Methods Continuous flow LVAD/BiVAD patients entered into the INTERMACS database between June 2006 to December 2012 were included (n=5,344). Outcomes were compared between patients who underwent aortic valve (AV) closure (n=125), repair (n=95) and replacement (n=85). Results Among patients that underwent an aortic valve procedure, actuarial survival was significantly reduced for AV closures (63.2%) compared to AV repairs (76.8%) and replacements (71.8%, p=0.0003). Differences were greater between groups when only INTERMACS level 1-2 patients were analyzed (p=0.003). After multivariate adjustment, aortic valve closure remained a significant risk factor for mortality (HR=1.87, 95% CI=1.39-2.53, p<0.0001). At six to twelve months postoperatively, moderate to severe AI developed in 19%, 5%, 9% and 10% of patients with available echocardiography who underwent repair, closure, replacement and no intervention, respectively (p<0.0001). Competing outcomes demonstrate that at 1-year fewer patients with aortic valve closures were transplanted compared to patients with repairs/replacements (14% vs. 19%). No differences were observed between groups with respect to cause of death, re-hospitalization, right heart failure or stroke. Conclusions AV closure was associated with increased mortality when compared to repair or replacement in patients with AI that underwent LVAD insertion. The reasons for this association require further investigation. This is the largest study to date to examine concomitant AV procedures in patients undergoing LVAD insertion. PMID:25511747

  5. Treatment of distal occlusion of Krupin eye valve with disk using cannular flush.

    PubMed

    Krawitz, P L

    1994-02-01

    A 64-year-old man with neovascular glaucoma underwent implantation of a Krupin valve with disk. On the fifth postoperative day, the patient reported pain in the operative eye; examination revealed a hyphema, an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 52 mm Hg, and no visible bleb. A bleb was reestablished and the IOP markedly decreased following irrigation of the shunt using a 30-gauge cannula through a paracentesis site. PMID:8183504

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in very elderly patients: immediate results and medium term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Isaac; Muñoz-García, Antonio J; López-Otero, Diego; Avanzas, Pablo; Jimenez-Navarro, Manuel F; Cid-Alvarez, Belén; del Valle, Raquel; Alonso-Briales, Juan H; Ocaranza-Sanchez, Raimundo; Hernández, José M; Trillo-Nouche, Ramiro; Morís, César

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate immediate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) results and medium-term follow-up in very elderly patients with severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Methods This multicenter, observational and prospective study was carried out in three hospitals. We included consecutive very elderly (> 85 years) patients with severe AS treated by TAVI. The primary endpoint was to evaluate death rates from any cause at two years. Results The study included 160 consecutive patients with a mean age of 87 ± 2.1 years (range from 85 to 94 years) and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 18.8% ± 11.2% with 57 (35.6%) patients scoring ≥ 20%. Procedural success rate was 97.5%, with 25 (15.6%) patients experiencing acute complications with major bleeding (the most frequent). Global mortality rate during hospitalization was 8.8% (n = 14) and 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 16). Median follow up period was 252.24 ± 232.17 days. During the follow-up period, 28 (17.5%) patients died (17 of them due to cardiac causes). The estimated two year overall and cardiac survival rates using the Kaplan-Meier method were 71% and 86.4%, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the variable EuroSCORE ≥ 20 was the unique variable associated with overall mortality. Conclusions TAVI is safe and effective in a selected population of very elderly patients. Our findings support the adoption of this new procedure in this complex group of patients. PMID:26345138

  7. Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Yigal; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Chakravarty, Tarun; Mangat, Geeteshwar; Maeno, Yoshio; Kazuno, Yoshio; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawamori, Hiroyuki; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj R

    2016-05-15

    Several clinical variables have been identified as predictors of clinical outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Nonetheless, there is limited and contradictive data on the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the prognosis of patients who undergo TAVI. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and the early and midterm outcomes after TAVI according to DM status. From 802 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI, we compared 548 patients with no DM to 254 patients with diabetes (177 orally treated and 77 insulin treated). Patients with DM were younger had higher body mass index and incidence of coronary artery disease and lower incidence of frailty. Device success, 30-day mortality and major complications rates were similar between groups. One-year mortality was 12.1% for patient with DM and 12.2% for patients without DM (p = 0.91). In a multivariable regression analysis including age, body mass index, coronary artery disease and frailty, DM was associated with decreased overall survival. This was driven by increased overall mortality of the insulin-treated DM subgroup (hazard ratio 2.40, 95% CI 1.32 to 4.37; p <0.01). In conclusion, DM does not affect short-term mortality or rates of complications after TAVI. Insulin-treated DM, but not orally treated DM, is independently associated with death at midterm follow-up and therefore aggressive cardiovascular risk factor modification as well as intense glycemic control should be considered for patients with insulin-treated DM with severe aortic stenosis who undergo TAVI. PMID:27015888

  8. Comparison of Results of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Versus Without Active Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Kozuma, Ken; Hioki, Hirofumi; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Nara, Yugo; Kataoka, Akihisa; Shirai, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Araki, Motoharu; Takagi, Kensuke; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Masanori; Hayashida, Kentaro

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postprocedural and midterm outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with aortic stenosis and active cancer. From October 2013 to August 2015, a total of 749 patients undergoing TAVI using the Edwards Sapien XT prosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) were prospectively included in the OCEAN-TAVI registry from 8 Japanese centers. A total of 47 patients (44.7% men; median age 83 years) had active cancer. The transfemoral approach was implemented in 85.1% of patients in the cancer group and 78.1% in the noncancer group (p = 0.22). The occurrence of major vascular complication (4.3% vs 7.5%, p = 0.24), life-threatening bleeding (2.1% vs 7.1%, p = 0.15), and major bleeding (8.5% vs 13%, p = 0.38) was similar between the cancer and noncancer groups. No significant differences were observed regarding device success (100% vs 96.2%, p = 0.17) or 30-day survival (95.7% vs 97.3%, p = 0.38). No difference in midterm survival was found between the patients with cancer and without cancer (log-rank, p = 0.42), regardless of advanced or limited cancer (log-rank, p = 0.68). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, cancer metastasis was one of the most significant predictors of late mortality (hazard ratio 4.73, 95% CI 1.12 to 20.0; p = 0.035). In conclusion, patients with cancer with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI had similar acute outcomes and midterm survival rates compared with patients without cancer. Cancer metastasis was associated with increased mortality after TAVI. PMID:27324159

  9. Incidence, Causes, and Impact of In-Hospital Infections After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Conte, Gabriela; Freitas-Ferraz, Afonso B; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Biagioni, Corina; Cuadrado, Ana; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan; Salinas, Pablo; Gonzalo, Nieves; Ferrera, Carlos; Vivas, David; Higueras, Javier; Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Perez-Vizcayno, Maria Jose; Vilacosta, Isidre; Escaned, Javier; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    In-hospital infections (IHI) are one of the most common and serious problems after invasive procedures. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an increasingly used alternative to surgery in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, origin, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of IHI after TAVI. A total of 303 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI were included and followed during a median time of 21 months. We examined the occurrence, types, origin, and timing of infections during hospital stay as well as short- and long-term clinical outcomes according to the occurrence of IHI. A total of 51 patients (17%; 62 infectious episodes) experienced IHI after TAVI. Respiratory and urinary tract infections were the most frequent type of infections (44% and 34%, respectively), followed by surgical site infection (8%) and bloodstream infection (5%). Positive cultures were obtained in 74% of the samples, of which 65% were gram-negative bacilli. Modifiable factors such as bleeding (p = 0.005) and length of coronary care unit stay (p <0.001) were independently associated with an increased infection risk. Patients with IHI had a longer hospital stay (14 vs 6 days, p <0.001), an increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.48, 95% CI 1.45 to 4.23) and readmission rate (hazard ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.14) during the follow-up. In conclusion, IHI is a frequent complication after TAVI with a significant impact on short- and long-term clinical outcomes. The most important risk factors associated with the development of this complication were modifiable periprocedural aspects. These results underline the importance to implement specific preventive strategies to reduce in-hospital-acquired infections after TAVI. PMID:27296559

  10. Dynamic device properties of pulse contour cardiac output during transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Martin; Riedel, Carsten; Braeunig, Jan; Haas, Sebastian; Goepfert, Matthias S; Treede, Hendrik; Baldus, Stephan; Goetz, Alwin E; Reuter, Daniel A

    2015-06-01

    This prospective single-center study aimed to determine the responsiveness and diagnostic performance of continuous cardiac output (CCO) monitors based on pulse contour analysis compared with invasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) during predefined periods of acute circulatory deterioration in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The ability of calibrated (CCO(CAL)) and self-calibrated (CCO(AUTOCAL)) pulse contour analysis to detect the hemodynamic response to 37 episodes of balloon aortic valvuloplasty enabled by rapid ventricular pacing was quantified in 13 patients undergoing TAVI. A "low" and a "high" cut-off limit were predefined as a 15 or 25 % decrease from baseline respectively. We found no significant differences between CCO(CAL) and MAP regarding mean response time [low cut-off: 8.6 (7.1-10.5) vs. 8.9 (7.3-10.8) s, p = 0.76; high cut-off: 11.4 (9.7-13.5) vs. 12.6 (10.7-14.9) s, p = 0.32] or diagnostic performance [area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC): 0.99 (0.98-1.0) vs. 1.0 (0.99-1.0), p = 0.46]. But CCOCAL had a significantly higher amplitude response [95.0 (88.7-98.8) % decrease from baseline] than MAP [41.2 (30.0-52.9) %, p < 0.001]. CCOAUTOCAL had a significantly lower AUC [0.83 (0.73-0.93), p < 0.001] than MAP. Moreover, CCO(CAL) detected hemodynamic recovery significantly earlier than MAP. In conclusion, CCO(CAL) and MAP provided equivalent responsiveness and diagnostic performance to detect acute circulatory depression, whereas CCO(AUTOCAL) appeared to be less appropriate. In contrast to CCO(CAL) the amplitude response of MAP was poor. Consequently even small response amplitudes of MAP could indicate severe decreases in CO. PMID:25355556

  11. Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation for degenerated surgical bioprostheses: the first case series in Asia with one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Paul Toon Lim; Ewe, See Hooi; Soon, Jia Lin; Ho, Kay Woon; Sin, Yong Koong; Tan, Swee Yaw; Lim, Soo Teik; Koh, Tian Hai; Chua, Yeow Leng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an established therapy for inoperable and high-surgical-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Although TAVI in patients with degenerated surgical aortic bioprostheses (i.e. valve-in-valve TAVI) is increasingly reported in Western studies, such data is lacking in Asian patients. We describe the initial experience of valve-in-valve TAVI in Asia. METHODS Eight patients who underwent valve-in-valve TAVI due to degenerated aortic bioprostheses were enrolled. The mechanism of bioprosthetic valve failure was stenotic, regurgitation or mixed. All procedures were performed via transfemoral arterial access, using the self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis or balloon-expandable SAPIEN XT prosthesis. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 71.6 ± 13.2 years and five were male. Mean duration to surgical bioprosthesis degeneration was 10.2 ± 4.1 years. Valve-in-valve TAVI was successfully performed in all patients. CoreValve and SAPIEN XT prostheses were used in six and two patients, respectively. There were no deaths, strokes or permanent pacemaker requirement at 30 days, with one noncardiac mortality at one year. All patients experienced New York Heart Association functional class improvement. Post-procedure mean pressure gradients were 20 ± 11 mmHg and 22 ± 8 mmHg at 30 days and one year, respectively. Residual aortic regurgitation (AR) of more than mild severity occurred in one patient at 30 days. At one year, only one patient had mild residual AR. CONCLUSION In our experience of valve-in-valve TAVI, procedural success was achieved in all patients without adverse events at 30 days. Good clinical and haemodynamic outcomes were sustained at one year. PMID:27193081

  12. Endophthalmitis associated with Glaucoma Shunt Intraluminal Stent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Nathan M; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Ang, Ghee Soon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endophthalmitis post glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery is rare, often associated with tube or plate exposure. We report a case of endophthalmitis following glaucoma shunt intraluminal stent exposure in a patient who underwent Baerveldt glaucoma implant surgery. Endophthalmitis following manipulation of intraluminal stents is a rare complication of GDIs but potentially vision threatening condition that needs to be carefully screened for and treated immediately. How to cite this article: Kwon HJ, Kerr NM, Ruddle JB, Ang GS. Endophthalmitis associated with Glaucoma Shunt Intraluminal Stent Exposure. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(1):36-37. PMID:27231417

  13. Perceived health after percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: in-depth interviews of patients and next-of-kin

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Brith; Andersen, Marit Helen; Lindberg, Harald; Døhlen, Gaute; Fosse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is an alternative to open heart surgery in selected patients with pulmonary outflow tract disorder. The technique may reduce the number of open-chest surgeries in these patients. This study was conducted to understand how the patients and their next-of-kin experienced this new treatment option. Design Qualitative explorative design with individual in-depth interviews. Setting Oslo University Hospital, the only cardiac centre in Norway offering advanced surgical and interventional treatment to patient with congenital heart defects, serving the whole Norwegian population. Participants During a 2-year period a total of 10 patients, median age 17 (7–30) and 18 next-of-kin were consecutively selected for individual in-depth interviews 3–6 months after the pulmonary valve implantation. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological methodology. Results Patients emphasised the importance of regaining independence and taking control of daily life shortly after the new interventional treatment. Renewed hope towards treatment options was described as ‘a light in the tunnel’. Next-of-kin emphasised the importance both for the patient and their family of resuming normal life quickly after the procedure. The physical burden was experienced as minor after the minimally invasive intervention, compared to their previous experience with surgical procedures. Main outcome measure The importance of maintaining normality in everyday life for a good family function. Conclusions The repeated surgeries during infancy and adolescence of patients with congenital heart disease represent a heavy burden both for the patient and their family. All families especially emphasised the importance of resuming normal life quickly after each procedure. The novel technique of pulmonary valve implantation is thus a favourable approach because of minor interference in daily life. PMID:25079930

  14. Molecular Genetics in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of diseases whose pathology is defined by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. Clinically, glaucoma presents as a distinctive optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), chronic angle closure glaucoma (ACG), and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) are the most prevalent forms of glaucoma globally and are the most common causes of glaucoma-related blindness worldwide. A host of genetic and environmental factors contribute to glaucoma phenotypes. This review examines the current status of genetic investigations of POAG, ACG, XFG, including the less common forms of glaucoma primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), the developmental glaucomas, and pigment dispersion glaucoma. PMID:21871452

  15. Inflammatory glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Sonam A.; Kumar, Vasu; Raina, Usha K.; Ghosh, B.; Thakar, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is seen in about 20% of the patients with uveitis. Anterior uveitis may be acute, subacute, or chronic. The mechanisms by which iridocyclitis leads to obstruction of aqueous outflow include acute, usually reversible forms (e.g., accumulation of inflammatory elements in the intertrabecular spaces, edema of the trabecular lamellae, or angle closure due to ciliary body swelling) and chronic forms (e.g., scar formation or membrane overgrowth in the anterior chamber angle). Careful history and follow-up helps distinguish steroid-induced glaucoma from uveitic glaucoma. Treatment of combined iridocyclitis and glaucoma involves steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and antiglaucoma drugs. However, glaucoma drugs can often have an unpredictable effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) in the setting of uveitis. Surgical intervention is required in case of medical failure. Method of Literature Search: Literature on the Medline database was searched using the PubMed interface. PMID:21713239

  16. [The Codman Medos programmable shunt valve. Evaluation of 53 implantations in 50 patients].

    PubMed

    Belliard, H; Roux, F X; Turak, B; Nataf, F; Devaux, B; Cioloca, C

    1996-01-01

    Fifty three Codman Medos programmable valves were implanted in 50 patients (28 men and 22 women) aged 5 to 77 years, from April 1992 to February 1994. They presented with a hydrocephalus 43 times, an arachnoid cyst three times and a CSF leakage four times. The aims of this study were: a) to test the reliability of this equipment, in current use as well as its eventual advantages, inconveniences and restraints, b) to determine its best indications. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 36 months (average = 22 months). Five patients were lost for follow-up. One patient died from a post-operative sepsis. Four died from their disease. Infectious complications concerned 6 patients (11%). A radio-clinical overdrainage syndrome appeared in 9 patients with slit-ventricles, 5 of them associated with sub-dural collections. All these cases were treated with shunt reprogrammings. While 43 pressure settings over 53 were satisfactory in the immediate post-operative period, it appeared that only 38% of shunts had required one only setting when the study period was over. A certain number of pressure adjustments malfunctioned: 6 times, post-operative X-ray controls showed pressures significantly different from the figures which had been selected (difference from -30 mm H2O to + 70 mm H2O); pressure readjustments were effective and accurate for five of them, but one shunt had to be changed; 15 deprogrammings were detected during long term follow-up, 9 of them after MR1. Pressure programming was readjusted only on patients presenting with clinical signs, i-e mainly for those having a pressure difference > +/-30 mm H2O. As a conclusion, the authors consider that such a shunt can be very useful in some precise indications as: NPH, multioperated hydrocephalus, arachnoid and porencephalic cysts, some spontaneous or iatrogenic CSF leakages, temporary shunts necessitating a progressive withdrawal. Because of a) the cost of this equipment, b) the specific restraints (X-rays controls, programmer), and

  17. Percutaneous Implantation of the self-expanding valve Prosthesis a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia severe aortic stenosis and porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Levent; Asil, Serkan; Kaya, Ergün Baris; Ozer, Necla; Aytemir, Kudret

    2016-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or inappropriate for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have porcelain aorta and familial hypercholesterolemia, due to the potential complications of aortic root and aortic annulus. In this case report, we present a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia, symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, previous coronary artery bypass grafting and porcelain aorta, who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve. PMID:27393846

  18. Prevalence of De Novo Aortic Valve Insufficiency in Patients After HeartWare VAD Implantation with an Intermittent Low-Speed Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Diyar; Westenfeld, Ralf; Maxhera, Bujar; Keymel, Stefanie; Sherif, Ahmed; Sadat, Najla; Petrov, GeorGI; Albert, Alexander; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-01-01

    De novo aortic valve insufficiency (AI) is a frequent occurrence in patients supported with left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The European version of the HeartWare LVAD has intermittent low-speed software (lavare cycle) to facilitate intermittent aortic valve opening. We examined aortic valve opening status and prevalence of AI in patients supported with HeartWare LVAD and activated lavare cycle. HeartWare LVAD patients were prospectively monitored using serial echocardiograms at different time points after the LVAD implantation. Inclusion criteria were patients with no > mild AI and/or no aortic valve surgery at the time of LVAD implantation and at least 60 days of support. Three of 37 patients had aortic valve surgery and were excluded from the analysis. A total of 34 patients with mean age of 57 ± 12 years met the inclusion criteria. After median support duration of 408 days (77-1250 days), eight patients had trace/mild AI (24%) and one patient developed moderate AI (3%). An average pump flow, speed, and mean arterial pressure of 4.4 ± 0.6 L/min, 2,585 ± 147 rpm, and 88 ± 11 mmHg were documented, respectively. Aortic valve opening was persistently seen in 22 patients (65%). Aortic valve opening is frequent, and the development of > mild AI seems to be rare in patients supported with HeartWare LVAD. PMID:27195744

  19. Failing left ventricle to ascending aorta conduit-Hybrid implantation of a melody valve and NuMed covered stent.

    PubMed

    Gössl, Mario; Johnson, Jonathan N; Hagler, Donald J

    2014-04-01

    We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with increasing shortness of breath, a new 3/4 diastolic murmur, and a complex history of LV outflow tract obstruction. She has undergone multiple surgeries including the replacement of her old LV apex to ascending aorta conduit with a 20-mm Gore-Tex tube graft, addition of a 24-mm homograft sutured between the conduit and the LV apex, and insertion of a 21-mm Freestyle porcine valve conduit between the Gore-Tex tube graft and allograft at age 23. The current assessment showed a failing Freestyle conduit prosthesis leading to left heart decompensation. Due to substantial surgical risk, the patient underwent successful implantation of a Melody valve into the Gore-Tex tube and exclusion of the failing Freestyle bioprosthesis with a NuMed CP stent in a hybrid procedure. The case nicely illustrates the collaborative potential of cardiovascular surgeons and interventional cardiologists in the new arena of a hybrid operating room. Complex hybrid procedures like the current one, especially those including percutaneous placements of valves, offer therapeutic options for patients that are otherwise too high risk for conventional open heart surgery. PMID:23784974

  20. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with bicuspid aortic stenosis and a borderline-sized annulus.

    PubMed

    Colkesen, Yucel; Baykan, Oytun; Dagdelen, Sinan; Cayli, Murat

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is currently considered an exclusion criterion for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The risk of adverse aortic events such as incomplete sealing, severe paravalvular regurgitation or dislocation due to elliptic shape and asymmetric calcifications in annulus are higher in TAVI. In this case report, we detailed a case of successful trans-femoral TAVI in a 51-year old male with BAV and its management without in-hospital and 30-day complications. The challenge in this case was the patient's anatomy with a 27-mm annulus for balloon expandable device. The applied strategy was balloon sizing and overdilating the 29-mm stented valve with additional volume that obviated re-ballooning. Trans-femoral TAVI was performed uneventfully under fluoroscopic and transoesophageal echocardiography guidance. A multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) evaluation at 1 month did not show device dislodgement or any other complications. Evidence for evaluation post-TAVI is not sufficient in BAV. We believe patients with BAV should undergo a comprehensive assessment after TAVI including MDCT evaluation. PMID:26265070

  1. Early- and mid-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Data from a single-center registry

    PubMed Central

    Bagienski, Maciej; Dziewierz, Artur; Rzeszutko, Lukasz; Sorysz, Danuta; Trebacz, Jaroslaw; Sobczynski, Robert; Tomala, Marek; Stapor, Maciej; Gackowski, Andrzej; Dudek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive treatment option for elderly, high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) than aortic valve replacement. More importantly, TAVI improves survival and quality of life as compared to medical treatment in inoperable patients. Aim To assess early- and mid-term clinical outcomes after TAVI. Material and methods All consecutive high-risk patients with severe symptomatic AS undergoing TAVI from November 2008 to August 2014 were enrolled. The clinical and procedural characteristics, as well as clinical outcomes including mortality during 12-month follow-up, were assessed. Results A total of 101 consecutive patients underwent TAVI for native aortic valve stenosis (100%). Patients were elderly, with a median age of 81.0 (76.0–84.0) years, 60.4% were female and 83.2% presented with NYHA III/IV. Median baseline EuroSCORE I and STS scores were 14.0 (10.0–22.5)% and 12.0 (5.0–24.0)%, respectively. The main periprocedural and in-hospital complications were minor vascular complications, bleeding requiring blood transfusions, and the need for a permanent pacemaker. In-hospital, 30-day, 6-month and 12-month mortality rates were 6.9%, 10.9%, 15.8% and 17.8%, respectively. Conclusions A mortality rate of < 20% after 12 months seems acceptable given the high-risk population enrolled. PMID:27279871

  2. [Surgical indications in coexisting cataracts and glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Collignon-Brach, J D; Ravet, O; Robe-Collignon, N

    2000-01-01

    Cataract surgery in glaucoma patients remains a controversial subjects. Indication of surgery depends on a lot of clinical parameters: diagnosis, state, evolution of glaucoma as well as compliance with medical treatment--surgical procedures of cataract and glaucoma--sites of the surgery--use of antifibrosis agents and surgeon's experience. As cataract extraction alone decreases the intraocular pressure in open angle glaucoma and mainly in uncomplicated closed angle glaucoma and trabeculectomy alone reduces the intraocular pressure more than combined surgery with less complications we recommended the following surgical options: Cataract extraction alone in patients with controlled open angle glaucoma and in patients with closed angle glaucoma. A two step procedure: filtering surgery followed by cataract extraction in patients with poorly controlled open angle glaucoma or mixed closed angle glaucoma. Ambulatory surgery and topical anesthesia permit a two stages surgery with less inconveniences. A combined procedure in patients with a chronic closed angle glaucoma where filtering procedure alone is associated with important complications. Actually, the best surgical cataract procedure is phacoemulsification with a small supero-corneal incision and implantation of a foldable intraocular lens. The best filtering procedure remains trabeculectomy, or the new non penetrating trabecular surgery for experimented surgeons, in the superior quadrant. In the future new surgical procedures and new safe and non toxic pharmacologic drugs which modulate wound healing could be found in order to increase the efficacity and indications of combined surgery. PMID:11262885

  3. Comparison of Inhospital Outcomes of Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Hospitals With and Without Availability of a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Program (from a Nationally Representative Database).

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas; Badheka, Apurva O; Patel, Samir V; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Thakkar, Badal; Patel, Nilay; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nish; Patel, Achint; Savani, Chirag; Ghatak, Abhijit; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Jhamnani, Sunny; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Chothani, Ankit; Sonani, Rajesh; Patel, Aashay; Bhatt, Parth; Dave, Abhishek; Bhimani, Ronak; Mohamad, Tamam; Grines, Cindy; Cleman, Michael; Forrest, John K; Mangi, Abeel

    2015-10-15

    We hypothesized that the availability of a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) program in hospitals impacts the overall management of patients with aortic valve disease and hence may also improve postprocedural outcomes of conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The aim of the present study was to compare the inhospital outcomes of SAVR in centers with versus without availability of a TAVI program in an unrestricted large nationwide patient population >50 years of age. SAVRs performed on patients aged >50 years were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2011 and 2012 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes. SAVR cases were divided into 2 categories: those performed at hospitals with a TAVI program (SAVR-TAVI) and those without (SAVR-non-TAVI). A total of 9,674 SAVR procedures were identified: 4,526 (46.79%) in the SAVR-TAVI group and 5,148 (53.21%) in SAVR-non-TAVI group. The mean age of the study population was 70.2 ± 0.1 years with majority (53%) of the patients aged >70 years. The mean Charlson's co-morbidity score for patients in SAVR-TAVI group was greater (greater percentage of patients were aged >80 years, had hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease) than that of patients in SAVR-non-TAVI group (1.6 vs 1.4, p <0.001). The propensity score matching analysis showed a statistically significant lower inhospital mortality (1.25% vs 1.72%, p = 0.001) and complications rate (35.6% vs 37.3%, p = 0.004) in SAVR-TAVI group compared to SAVR-non-TAVI group. The mean length of hospital stay was similar in the 2 groups the cost of hospitalization was higher in the SAVR-TAVI group ($43,894 ± 483 vs $41,032 ± 473, p <0.0001). Having a TAVI program was a significant predictor of reduced mortality and complications rate after SAVR in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, this largest direct

  4. Glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates. PMID:23505792

  5. [Catheter-based mitral valve repair by MitraClip implantation : Development, studies, and use in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Puls, M; Schillinger, W

    2016-04-01

    The percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip® is evolving as a potential alternative to conventional surgery in high-risk patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR). The randomized controlled EVEREST II-trial which compared percutaneous repair versus surgery in operable patients with symptomatic severe MR demonstrated superior safety of MitraClip® implantation but better MR reduction after surgery at 12 months. However, large registries on MitraClip® therapy showed that real-world MitraClip® patients differ significantly from the EVEREST II-cohort: they are older, in more advanced stages of heart failure, present predominantly with secondary MR, and exhibit a higher burden of comorbidities. For these patients, registry data confirm a low incidence of peri-interventional complications and a significant improvement of heart failure symptoms and quality of life measures after MitraClip® implantation. The ongoing RESHAPE trial with randomization of MitraClip® implantation against optimal medical therapy investigates a possible survival benefit after MitraClip® in patients with secondary MR. PMID:26968857

  6. Selectively bonded polymeric glaucoma drainage device for reliable regulation of intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seunghwan; Im, Seongmin; An, Jaeyong; Park, Chang Ju; Kim, Hwang Gyun; Park, Sang Woo; Kim, Hyoung Ihl; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2012-04-01

    A novel glaucoma drainage device (GDD) using a polymeric micro check valve with no reverse flow is presented for the effective regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP). A significant functional improvement was achieved by reducing the possible incidence of hypotony, as the proposed GDD only drains aqueous humor at a certain cracking pressure or higher. The device consists of three biocompatible polymer layers: a top layer (cover), an intermediate layer (membrane), and a bottom layer (base plate with a cannula). All three layers, made of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), were bonded together to realize the thin GDDs. The bottom layer was selectively coated with chromium (Cr)/gold (Au) to prevent stiction between the valve seat and the valve orifice so that the device could show enhanced reliability in operation and high yield in production. Two types of polymeric devices were fabricated; one was a glaucoma drainage device for humans (GDDH) and the other was a glaucoma drainage device for animals (GDDA). From subsequent in vitro tests, the cracking pressures were 18.33 ± 0.66 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation) for GDDH and 12.42 mmHg for GDDA, both of which were very close to the corresponding normal IOPs. From in vivo tests of GDDA, the IOP of all implanted devices was properly regulated within the target pressure (10-15 mmHg). The experimental results showed that the proposed polymeric GDD has high potential for use in the treatment of glaucoma disease in terms of its repeatability of the cracking pressure and patients' relief from post-operative discomfort. PMID:22094823

  7. One-year results of health-related quality of life among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Krane, Markus; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Piazza, Nicolo; Muhtarova, Teodora; Elhmidi, Yacine; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Voss, Bernhard; Ruge, Hendrik; Badiu, Catalin C; Kornek, Matthias; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Lange, Rüdiger

    2012-06-15

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can result in significant improvement in patients' quality of life (QOL) in the short term. At present, however, little is known about the long-term improvements in QOL after TAVI. Thus, our aim was to prospectively assess the 1-year QOL outcome of patients undergoing TAVI. We performed a prospective analysis of 186 patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis ineligible for conventional aortic valve replacement, who underwent TAVI with either the Medtronic CoreValve or Edwards Sapien device. A total of 106 patients completed the 1-year follow-up protocol. The QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months and 1 year of follow-up. At 1 year of follow-up, significant improvements in the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire scores for physical functioning (baseline 34.6 ± 2.3 vs 1 year of follow-up 45.6 ± 2.7; p <0.001), role physical (20 ± 3.0 vs 34.2 ± 4.4; p <0.001), bodily pain (59.9 ± 3 vs 70 ± 2.7; p <0.01), general health (47.3 ± 1.5 vs 55.2 ± 2.1, p <0.001), vitality (35.9 ± 2 vs 48.5 ± 2; p <0.001), and mental health (62.2 ± 2.2 vs 67.3 ± 1.8; p <0.05) were observed compared to baseline. No significant improvement could be detected for social functioning (75.4 ± 2.5 vs 76.5 ± 2.6; p = 0.79) and role emotional (61.1 ± 4.3 vs 66.5 ± 4.7; p = 0.29). At 1 year of follow-up, the various physical and mental scores were comparable to an age-matched standard population. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that TAVI can improve the QOL status of high-surgical risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis that can be maintained for ≤1 year postproceduraly in survivors. Although the mental subscales improved slightly, the mental component summary score failed to reach statistical significance in our study population. PMID:22520622

  8. Guide to prosthetic cardiac valves

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, D.; Steiner, R.M.; Fernandez, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The development of artificial heart valves: Introduction and historical perspective; The radiology of prosthetic heart valves; The evaluation of patients for prosthetic valve implantation; Pathology of cardiac valve replacement; and Bioengineering of mechanical and biological heart valve substitutes.

  9. Commissural detachment and Valsalva sinus dilatation after implantation of Prima Plus stentless valve with full root technique.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Suguru; Doi, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Kazunari; Yaku, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    The stentless aortic bioprosthesis has been used because of its excellent hemodynamics and few valve-related complications. We report a case of redo aortic root replacement for severe aortic regurgitation and dilatation of the Valsalva sinus 7 years after the implantation of a Prima Plus aortic root bioprosthesis (Edwards LifeScience, Irvine, CA, USA) using a full root technique. Intraoperative findings showed the complete detachment of the commissure between the left and non-coronary cusps, and Valsalva sinus dilatation of the porcine aortic root bioprosthesis. Redo aortic root replacement with a 23-mm porcine bioprosthesis and 28-mm straight graft was performed. There were no findings of intimal tear, suture dehiscence, degeneration, and perforation of the bioprosthesis. Such complications associated with the Edwards Prima Plus aortic root bioprosthesis were rarely reported. Commissural detachment of a porcine stentless aortic bioprosthesis can occur; thus, careful follow-up involving echocardiography and computed tomography is necessary. PMID:25341962

  10. Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty and Intracardiac Adrenaline in Electromechanical Dissociation as Bridge to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaara, Jawad; Meier, Pascal; Ellenberger, Christophe; Gasche, Yvan; Bendjelid, Karim; Noble, Stephane; Roffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This report describes an emergent balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) procedure performed under cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a 79-year-old man with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (mean gradient 78 mm Hg, valve area 0.71 cm2, and left ventricular ejection fraction 40%) awaiting surgery and who was admitted for heart failure rapidly evolving to cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure. Decision was made to perform emergent BAV. After crossing the valve with a 6 French catheter, the patient developed an electromechanical dissociation confirmed at transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac arrest. Manual chest compressions were initiated along with the application of high doses of intravenous adrenaline, and BAV was performed under ongoing resuscitation. Despite BAV, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no cardiac activity. At this point, it was decided to advance a pigtail catheter over the wire already in place in the left ventricle and to inject intracardiac adrenaline (1 mg, followed by 5 mg). Left ventricular contraction progressively resumed and, in the absence of aortic regurgitation, an intraaortic balloon pump was inserted. The patient could be weaned from intraaortic balloon pump and vasopressors on day 1, extubated on day 6, and recovered from multiorgan failure. In the absence of neurologic deficits, he underwent uneventful transcatheter aortic valve implantation on day 12 and was discharged to a cardiac rehabilitation program on day 30. At 3-month follow-up, he reported dyspnea NYHA class II as the only symptom. This case shows that severe aortic stenosis leading to electromechanical dissociation may be treated by emergent BAV and intracardiac administration of high-dose adrenaline. Intracardiac adrenaline may be considered in case of refractory electromechanical dissociation occurring in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. PMID:26131825

  11. Pulmonary annulus preservation lowers the risk of late postoperative pulmonary valve implantation after the repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwan Sic; Han, Seungbong; Yun, Tae-Jin

    2015-02-01

    The long-term benefits of pulmonary annulus preservation in tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) repair in patients with a marginally small pulmonary annulus are controversial. We sought to determine whether pulmonary annulus preservation (AP) is superior to transannular patching (TAP) in lowering the risk of pulmonary valve implantation (PVI) long after the repair of ToF. Of the 255 patients who underwent total correction of ToF during infancy between January 1989 and December 2005, 114 patients (AP group = 57, TAP group = 57) were selected by propensity score matching for various preoperative variables, such as age and body weight at operation, sex, pulmonary artery size, pre-repair palliation, anatomical types of ventricular septal defect, and Z-score of pulmonary valve annulus diameter (PVA-Z). The PVA-Z of the AP and TAP groups were -2.3 ± 1.3 and -2.1 ± 1.3, respectively (p = 0.547). The time to PVI was compared between the two groups. The median follow-up duration was 146 months (AP group: 141 months, TAP group: 147 months; p = 0.191). During the follow-up periods, there were 12 reoperations for the relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), eight PVIs, and three late deaths. While freedom from reoperation for RVOTO was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.182), freedom from PVI at postoperative 15 years was significantly lower in the TAP group than in the AP group (74 and 100 %, p = 0.015). In repairing ToF with marginally small pulmonary valve annulus, AP is associated with a lower risk of late postoperative PVI. PMID:25185961

  12. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. PMID:26366105

  13. An augmented reality environment for image-guidance of off-pump mitral valve implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Christian; Wiles, Andrew D.; Hill, Nick; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Guiraudon, Gerard; Jones, Doug; Bainbridge, Daniel; Peters, Terry M.

    2007-03-01

    Clinical research has been rapidly evolving towards the development of less invasive surgical procedures. We recently embarked on a project to improve intracardiac beating heart interventions. Our novel approach employs new surgical technologies and support from image-guidance via pre-operative and intra-operative imaging (i.e. two-dimensional echocardiography) to substitute for direct vision. Our goal was to develop a versatile system that allowed for safe cardiac port access, and provide sufficient image-guidance with the aid of a virtual reality environment to substitute for the absence of direct vision, while delivering quality therapy to the target. Specific targets included the repair and replacement of heart valves and the repair of septal defects. The ultimate objective was to duplicate the success rate of conventional open-heart surgery, but to do so via a small incision, and to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure as it is performed. This paper describes the software and hardware components, along with the methodology for performing mitral valve replacement as one example of this approach, using ultrasound and virtual tool models to position and fasten the valve in place.

  14. Efficacy and economic analysis of Ex-PRESS implantation versus trabeculectomy in uncontrolled glaucoma: a systematic review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Sha, Fang; Guo, Da-Dong; Bi, Hong-Sheng; Si, Jun-Kang; Du, Yu-Xiang; Tang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    AIM To systematically review the current evidence based on the efficacy and cost of Ex-PRESS implantation and trabeculectomy (Trab) for uncontrolled glaucoma. METHODS Clinical trials were identified by electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of science and Cochrane library), and data, such as intraocular pressure (IOP), the complete and qualified success rate, the postoperative complications and the cost, were exacted from these relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS Eleven relevant publications and two abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The efficacy of Ex-PRESS was similar to that of Trab in the percentage of IOP reduction (IOPR %) at 1, 2y (WMD: -2.01; 95% CI: -7.92-3.90; P=0.50 and WMD: 2.89; 95% CI: -8.05-13.83; P=0.60, respectively). Ex-PRESS possessed a significant higher complete and qualified success rate (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.07-2.35; P=0.02 and OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.86; P=0.03, respectively). Moreover, Ex-PRESS exerted a significantly lower frequency of hypotony and hyphema than Trab (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72; P=0.003 and OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.69; P=0.003, respectively). However, there was no consistent result on the cost between the two groups according to the previous three studies. CONCLUSION Both Trab and Ex-PRESS have equivalent efficacy in lowering IOP, yet Ex-PRESS had a lower risk of hypotony and hyphema than Trab. Nevertheless, whether the cost of Ex-PRESS was less than that of Trab should be further investigated to ensure evidence-based conclusion in the long run. PMID:26949622

  15. Towards real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance-guided transarterial aortic valve implantation: In vitro evaluation and modification of existing devices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered an attractive alternative for guiding transarterial aortic valve implantation (TAVI) featuring unlimited scan plane orientation and unsurpassed soft-tissue contrast with simultaneous device visualization. We sought to evaluate the CMR characteristics of both currently commercially available transcatheter heart valves (Edwards SAPIEN™, Medtronic CoreValve®) including their dedicated delivery devices and of a custom-built, CMR-compatible delivery device for the Medtronic CoreValve® prosthesis as an initial step towards real-time CMR-guided TAVI. Methods The devices were systematically examined in phantom models on a 1.5-Tesla scanner using high-resolution T1-weighted 3D FLASH, real-time TrueFISP and flow-sensitive phase-contrast sequences. Images were analyzed for device visualization quality, device-related susceptibility artifacts, and radiofrequency signal shielding. Results CMR revealed major susceptibility artifacts for the two commercial delivery devices caused by considerable metal braiding and precluding in vivo application. The stainless steel-based Edwards SAPIEN™ prosthesis was also regarded not suitable for CMR-guided TAVI due to susceptibility artifacts exceeding the valve's dimensions and hindering an exact placement. In contrast, the nitinol-based Medtronic CoreValve® prosthesis was excellently visualized with delineation even of small details and, thus, regarded suitable for CMR-guided TAVI, particularly since reengineering of its delivery device toward CMR-compatibility resulted in artifact elimination and excellent visualization during catheter movement and valve deployment on real-time TrueFISP imaging. Reliable flow measurements could be performed for both stent-valves after deployment using phase-contrast sequences. Conclusions The present study shows that the Medtronic CoreValve® prosthesis is potentially suited for real-time CMR-guided placement in vivo after suggested

  16. Pseudophakic pupillary-block glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, D.; Kaback, M.

    1977-01-01

    Four cases of iris-supported pseudophakic pupillary-block glaucoma were presented. Pupillary-block glaucoma is the first postoperative complication seen following the implantation of an intraocular lens, and in our series occurred at an incidence of 3-8%. A short review was made of pupillary-block glaucoma with all types of intraocular lenses, with emphasis on the iris-supported lens. The role of inflammation, haemorrhage, and vitreous and lens material in obstructing aqueous flow at the pupil and peripheral iridectomy site was emphasised. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this condition were reviewed. Methods of prevention and treatment were reviewed with emphasis on early mydriasis, along with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and hyperosmotic agents as a primary medical treatment. Iridectomy, laser iridotomy, or transfixation of the iris was mentioned as a surgical treatment. PMID:871462

  17. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevalent Cases of Glaucoma (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Because of their longer life ... Prevalent Cases of Glaucoma (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Glaucoma (2010-2030- ...

  18. Get Tested for Glaucoma!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Get Tested for Glaucoma! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Taylor ... aoa.org/ When were you finally diagnosed with glaucoma? Not until 1969, after a game of basketball. ...

  19. Mitral valve implantation using off-pump closed beating intracardiac surgery: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Guiraudon, Gerard M; Jones, Douglas L; Bainbridge, Daniel; Peters, Terry M

    2007-10-01

    We have developed the Universal Cardiac Introducer (UCI) with the aim of modernizing the off-pump, closed, beating, intracardiac approach. This paper reports our ongoing experience with positioning of a prosthetic MV, under image-guidance, substituting for direct vision. The UCI is comprised of two detachable parts: an attachment-cuff and an airlock-introductory chamber for bulky tools. A prosthetic MV was introduced into the left atrium in 12 pigs via the UCI (LA appendage). Transesophageal and 4D epicardial ultrasound were used for guidance. Limitations of ultrasound imaging prompted the development of a multimodality virtual reality (VR) system introduced in the last three animals. There were no complications associated with cardiac access, while achieving proper valve positioning. TEE contributed to navigating, while 4D epicardial ultrasound was adequate for positioning the prosthesis into the MV orifice. VR provided a 3D context for real-time US imaging with precise navigation and positioning using augmented reality representation of the valve. We demonstrated the feasibility of positioning MV prostheses via the UCI. These results suggest the tremendous potential of virtual reality in making access safe and effective for many intracardiac targets, with the ultimate goal of a safe, versatile, clinical application. PMID:17670733

  20. T Cell Response in Patients with Implanted Biological and Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valves

    PubMed Central

    Barbarash, L.; Kudryavtsev, I.; Rutkovskaya, N.; Golovkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing T cell subsets of peripheral blood from recipients of long-term functioning (more than 60 months) biological and mechanical heart valve prostheses. The absolute and relative number of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets was analyzed: naïve (N, CD45RA+CD62L+), central memory (CM, CD45RA−CD62L+), effector memory (EM, CD45RA−CD62L−), and terminally differentiated CD45RA-positive effector memory (TEMRA, CD45RA+CD62L−) in 25 persons with biological and 7 with mechanical prosthesis compared with 48 apparently healthy volunteers. The relative and absolute number of central memory and naïve CD3+CD8+ in patients with biological prosthesis was decreased (p < 0.001). Meanwhile the number of CD45RA+CD62L−CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ was increased (p < 0.001). Patients with mechanical prosthesis had increased absolute and relative number of CD45RA+CD62L−CD3+CD8+ cells (p = 0.006). Also the relative number of CD3+CD4+ cells was reduced (p = 0.04). We assume that altered composition of T cell subsets points at development of xenograft rejection reaction against both mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses. PMID:26989331

  1. Comparison of Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients ≥90 Years Versus <90 Years.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Yigal; Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Kashif, Mohammad; Zadikany, Ronit; Lee, Chin; Matar, George; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj R

    2015-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) is increasingly performed in nonagenarians. There is scarce evidence on the feasibility and safety of balloon-expandable TAVI in this patient population. A total of 734 patients who underwent balloon-expandable TAVI at our institute were included in the study. We compared 136 patients who were aged at least 90 years at the time of TAVI (mean age 92.4 ± 2.4 years) with the remaining 598 younger patients (mean age 79.7 ± 7.8 years). Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 end points were compared between the 2 groups. Diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and chronic lung disease were significantly less prevalent in patients aged ≥90 years. In contrast, the prevalence of frailty, chronic renal failure, and atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in these patients. Device success was 96% in both groups. All-cause mortality at 30 days and 1 year was 2.9% and 12.5% versus 2.8% and 12.3% in patients aged ≥90 and <90, respectively (p = 0.95 for both). All major complication rates were similar between groups. Nonagenarians had higher rates of minor vascular complications (13.2% vs 7.7%; p = 0.04). In conclusion, performing balloon-expandable TAVI in carefully selected group of nonagenarians is feasible and offers clinical benefit comparable to patients aged <90 years. Advanced age, in the absence of significant co-morbidities, should not deter clinicians from evaluating patients for TAVI for severe AS. PMID:26235927

  2. Effect of B-type natriuretic peptides on long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Koskinas, Konstantinos C; O'Sullivan, Crochan J; Heg, Dik; Praz, Fabien; Stortecky, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter

    2015-11-15

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are elevated in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and decrease acutely after replacement of the stenotic valve. The long-term prognostic value of BNP after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and the relative prognostic utility of single versus serial peri-interventional measurements of BNP and N-terminal prohormone BNP (NT-pro-BNP) are unknown. This study sought to determine the impact of BNP levels on long-term outcomes after TAVI and to compare the utility of BNP versus NT-pro-BNP measured before and after intervention. We analyzed 340 patients with severe AS and baseline pre-TAVI assessment of BNP. In 219 patients, BNP and NT-pro-BNP were measured serially before and after intervention. Clinical outcomes over 2 years were recorded. Patients with high baseline BNP (higher tertile ≥591 pg/ml) had increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 3.16, 95% confidence interval 1.84 to 5.42; p <0.001) and cardiovascular death at 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio 3.37, 95% confidence interval 1.78 to 6.39; p <0.001). Outcomes were most unfavorable in patients with persistently high BNP before and after intervention. Comparing the 2 biomarkers, NT-pro-BNP levels measured after TAVI showed the highest prognostic discrimination for 2-year mortality (area under the curve 0.75; p <0.01). Baseline-to-discharge reduction, but not baseline levels of BNP, was related to New York Heart Association functional improvement. In conclusion, high preintervention BNP independently predicts 2-year outcomes after TAVI, particularly when elevated levels persist after the intervention. BNP and NT-pro-BNP and their serial periprocedural changes provide complementary prognostic information for symptomatic improvement and survival. PMID:26428025

  3. Long-Term Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation from a Single High-Volume Center (The Milan Experience).

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Neil; Latib, Azeem; Buzzatti, Nicola; Giannini, Francesco; Figini, Filippo; Mangieri, Antonio; Regazzoli, Damiano; Stella, Stefano; Sticchi, Alessandro; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Akihito; Agricola, Eustachio; Monaco, Fabrizio; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Ancona, Marco; Cioni, Micaela; Spagnolo, Pietro; Chieffo, Alaide; Montorfano, Matteo; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now the treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis who are inoperable or with high surgical risk. Data with regards to contemporary clinical practice and long-term outcomes are sparse. To evaluate temporal changes in TAVI practice and explore procedural and long-term clinical outcomes of patients in a contemporary "real-world" population, outcomes of 829 patients treated from November 2007 to May 2015, at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, were retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up was 568 days, with the longest follow-up of 2,677 days. Overall inhospital mortality was 3.5%. During the study period, there was a trend toward treating younger, lower risk patients. Overall mortality rates were 3.5% (30 days), 14% (1 year), 22% (2 years), 29% (3 years), 37% (4 years), 47% (5 years), 53% (6 years), and 72% (7 years). The survival probability at 5 years was significantly higher in patients treated through the transfemoral (TF) route compared to other vascular access sites (log rank p <0.001). Non-TF vascular access and residual paravalvular leak ≥2 (after TAVI) were identified as independent predictors for both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. No patient required further aortic valve intervention for TAVI prosthesis degeneration. In conclusion, there is a trend toward treating younger, lower-risk patients. Non-TF vascular access approach and ≥2 PVL after TAVI were identified as independent predictors for both overall and cardiovascular mortality with no cases of prosthesis degeneration suggesting acceptable durability. PMID:26742477

  4. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation options for treating severe aortic stenosis in the elderly: the nurse's role in postoperative monitoring and treatment.

    PubMed

    Panos, Angela M; George, Elisabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is a progressive cardiac disease that predominantly affects elderly adults. The hallmark symptoms of AS include exertional dyspnea, angina, and syncope. Adults of advanced age do not usually seek treatment for symptoms until their quality of life is greatly diminished. The 2 standard treatments for severe AS are open aortic valve replacement and percutaneous valvuloplasty. As adults age, their comorbid medical conditions often make them too high of a surgical risk for traditional aortic valve replacement, and percutaneous valvuloplasty, although less invasive, often produces only temporary relief of AS symptoms. To provide severe AS patients with alternative less risky treatment options in their later years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices were developed. Through this overview of the disease progression of AS and the different TAVI devices and the insertion procedures, a better understanding of the initial postoperative nursing care associated with postoperative TAVI patient management will be achieved. PMID:24496250

  5. Lethal Aorto-Right Ventricular Defect After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in a Patient With Radiation-Induced Porcelain Aorta: Notes of Caution.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Lionel; Dijos, Marina; Peltan, Julien; Casassus, Frederic; Seguy, Benjamin; Natsumeda, Makoto; Lafitte, Stephane; Labrousse, Louis; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with severe radiation-induced aortic stenosis was rejected for cardiac surgery because of porcelain aorta. We successfully implanted an Edwards SAPIEN valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA), but the patient was readmitted 3 weeks later for heart failure with a continuous murmur on auscultation. Echocardiography showed a small defect between the aorta and the infundibulum of the right ventricle, which was also confirmed with aortography and computed tomography. Medical therapy was optimized; however, he died unexpectedly a few weeks later. We concluded that irradiated tissues are particularly fragile and require specific attention during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Furthermore, this case suggests that a more aggressive closure should have been applied. PMID:26342846

  6. Impact of severe left ventricular dysfunction on mid-term mortality in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Giuseppe; Presbitero, Patrizia; Pagnotta, Paolo; Sonia Petronio, Anna; Brambilla, Nedy; De Marco, Federico; Fiorina, Claudia; Giannini, Cristina; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Klugmann, Silvio; Rossi, Marco L; Ettori, Federica; Bedogni, Francesco; Testa, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether patients with reduced left ventricular function present worse outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of baseline severe impairment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on mortality after TAVI. Methods Six-hundred-forty-nine patients with aortic stenosis underwent TAVI with the CoreValve system (92.8%) or the Edwards SAPIEN valve system (7.2%). Baseline LVEF was measured by the echocardiographic Simpson method. The impact of LVEF ≤ 30% on mortality was assessed by Cox regression. Results Patients with LVEF ≤ 30% (n = 63), as compared to those with LVEF > 30% (n = 586), had a higher prevalence of NHYA class > 2 (P < 0.001) and presented with a higher Euroscore (P < 0.001). Procedural success was similar in both groups (98.4% vs. 97.2%, P = 1). After a median follow-up of 436 days (25th–75th percentile, 357–737 days), all-cause mortality [23.8% vs. 23.7%, P = 0.87, hazard ratios (HR): 0.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.56–1.63] and cardiac mortality (19.1% vs. 17.6%, P = 0.89, HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.57–1.90) were similar in patients with LVEF ≤ 30% as compared to those with LVEF > 30%. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was not significantly different between the two groups (11.1% vs. 6.3%, P = 0.14, HR: 1.81, 95% CI: 0.81–4.06). Patients with LVEF ≤ 30% had a trend toward higher risk of 30-day cardiac mortality (11.1% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.06, HR: 2.16, 95% CI: 0.95–4.90), which disappeared after multivariable adjustment (P = 0.22). Conclusions Baseline severe impairment of LVEF is not a predictor of increased short-term and mid-term mortality after TAVI. Selected patients with severe impairment of left ventricular function should not be denied TAVI. PMID:27403137

  7. Phantom study of an ultrasound guidance system for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    McLeod, A Jonathan; Currie, Maria E; Moore, John T; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob B; Chu, Michael W A; Peters, Terry M

    2016-06-01

    A guidance system using transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic tracking is presented which avoids the use of nephrotoxic contrast agents and ionizing radiation required for traditional fluoroscopically guided procedures. The aortic valve is identified in tracked biplane transesophageal echocardiography and used to guide stent deployment in a mixed reality environment. Additionally, a transapical delivery tool with intracardiac echocardiography capable of monitoring stent deployment was created. This system resulted in a deployment depth error of 3.4mm in a phantom. This was further improved to 2.3mm with the custom-made delivery tool. In comparison, the variability in deployment depth for traditional fluoroscopic guidance was estimated at 3.4mm. PMID:25595049

  8. Short-term and medium-term outcomes of transapical aortic valve implantation as a single-strategy approach: one center's experience

    PubMed Central

    Mokráček, Aleš; Pešl, Ladislav; Kurfirst, Vojtěch; Šulda, Mirek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been developed as an alternative option for surgical high-risk or inoperable patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing transapical aortic valve replacement as a single-strategy option by a single-center multidisciplinary heart team. Material and methods Between June 2009 and December 2014, 41 patients underwent transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI) at our institution. All patients received Edwards SAPIEN balloon expandable pericardial valves (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA). Our center followed a “clear transapical strategy” for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 79.6 years, and the mean logistic EuroSCORE was 21.06 ± 12.82%. Fifteen patients (36.6%) underwent redo operations. Complications included stroke (n = 1), re-exploration for bleeding or cardiac tamponade (n = 4), renal failure requiring temporary hemodialysis (n = 4) and permanent pacemaker implantation (n = 3). There were no myocardial infarctions or coronary obstruction. The total 30-day mortality rate was 17.1% (7 patients). Postoperative intensive care unit stay was 4.6 ± 5.7 days, and mean hospitalization was 11.6 ± 7.2 days. Conclusions The TA-TAVI approach provides good results in terms of early and midterm outcomes. This approach is feasible and safe for patients who have high surgical risk. PMID:26336490

  9. A Pilot Study on Feasibility and Effectiveness of Intraoperative Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh S.; Jariwala, Manan U.; V, Sathidevi A.; Venugopal, Jayasree P.; Puttaiah, Narendra K.; Balu, Ramgopal; Rao A. S, Dhanaraj; Shetty, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the use of a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) integrated surgical microscope in glaucoma surgery. Methods An SDOCT system was used to interface directly with an ophthalmic surgical microscope, to allow real-time intraoperative SDOCT (iOCT) imaging during glaucoma procedures like phaco-trabeculectomy, Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation, gonio-synechiolysis, and bleb needling. The various surgical steps during glaucoma surgeries where iOCT can be of potential help in guiding the surgeon were recorded. Results High-resolution, cross-sectional images of the relevant structures were achieved with the iOCT system in all procedures. The surgeon could determine the depth of the scleral dissection, the intrastomal bed, the path of the AGV tube in the eye, the release of peripheral anterior synechiae and the efficacy of needling with respect to breakage of loculations; most of these are technically ‘blind' procedures, where the outcomes are determined postoperatively. Metallic instruments cast a shadow on tissues below, thereby restricting the use of the device in its current state. Conclusions The iOCT system provided high quality, intraoperative, real-time imaging, which could possibly improve the safety and efficacy of the surgical procedures in glaucoma. Further studies and modifications to the iOCT are required to better understand and increase the uptake of this technology in daily practice. Translational Relevance The iOCT, with further advancements in its technology, could potentially provide the surgeon both quantitative and qualitative, real-time depth and tissue proximity details, thus improving the safety and accuracy of glaucoma surgery. PMID:25767745

  10. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Minckler, Don; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Li, Tianjing; Mathew, Milan; Ayyala, Ramesh; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Aqueous shunts are employed for intraocular pressure (IOP) control in primary and secondary glaucomas that fail medical, laser, and other surgical therapies. Objectives This review compares aqueous shunts for IOP control and safety. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, NRR in January 2006, LILACS to February 2004 and reference lists of included trials. Selection criteria We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials in which one arm of the study involved shunts. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data for included studies and a third adjudicated discrepancies. We contacted investigators for missing information. We used fixed-effect models and summarized continuous outcomes using mean differences. Main results We included fifteen trials with a total of 1153 participants with mixed diagnoses. Five studies reported details sufficient to verify the method of randomization but only two had adequate allocation concealment. Data collection and follow-up times were variable. Meta-analysis of two trials comparing Ahmed implant with trabeculectomy found trabeculectomy resulted in lower mean IOPs 11 to 13 months later (mean difference 3.81 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.69 mm Hg). Meta-analysis of two trials comparing double-plate Molteno implant with the Schocket shunt was not done due to substantial heterogeneity. One study comparing ridged with standard double-plate Molteno implants found no clinically significant differences in outcome. Two trials investigating the effectiveness of adjunctive mitomycin (MMC) with the Molteno and Ahmed implants found no evidence of benefit with MMC. Two trials that investigated surgical technique variations with the Ahmed found no benefit with partial tube ligation or excision of Tenon's capsule. One study concluded there were outcome advantages with a double versus a single-plate Molteno implant and one trial comparing the 350 mm2 and 500 mm2 Baerveldt shunts found no