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1

Scientists in Sport, the 2012-Inspired GlaxoSmithKline Schools Outreach Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The GlaxoSmithKline Scientists in Sport team have worked with 4science to provide resources and offer activities for use by schools to show the relevance of science in sport. Much of the content looks at anti-doping and the science involved with detecting the misuse of banned substances. Through the development of a website, this work can continue…

Gadd, Mark

2012-01-01

2

GlaxoSmithKline's experience of incurred sample reanalysis for dried blood spot samples.  

PubMed

Dried blood spots are becoming a popular alternative to plasma for many different applications. This has been driven by animal ethics but also by ease of use and cost savings. Recent regulatory guidance now has a requirement for incurred sample reanalysis. This article details three examples of incurred sample reanalysis using dried blood spot samples. PMID:21545350

Barfield, Matthew; Ahmad, Sheelan; Busz, Maria

2011-05-01

3

78 FR 63226 - GlaxoSmithKline LLC; Withdrawal of Approval of the Indication for Treatment of Patients With...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rituximab, for BEXXAR (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection held by...indication for BEXXAR (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection because...indication for BEXXAR (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection from...

2013-10-23

4

Feasibility Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' GSK2202083A Vaccine in Healthy Infants at 3, 5 and 11 Months of Age.  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Haemophilus Influenzae Type b; Poliomyelitis; Hepatitis B; Serogroup C Meningococcal Diseases; Diphtheria; Pertussis; Diphtheria-Tetanus-aPertussis-Hepatitis B-Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b-Neisseria Meningitidis Vaccines; Tetanus

2012-11-16

5

Zanamivir (Glaxo Wellcome).  

PubMed

Zanamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor under license from Biota, has been developed and launched by Glaxo Wellcome for the treatment of influenza virus infection [277127]. While registered as drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors are technically vaccines as they are believed to work by provoking an immune response, thus preventing the spread of infection from one cell to another within the respiratory tract [314356]. It is administered, using an inhaler, directly to where the virus replicates, minimizing the potential for side effects. Zanamivir has been launched, under the name Relenza, for the treatment of influenza in Australia [325148], New Zealand [335591] and the UK [341871]. It is registered in Mexico and Armenia [346474], and approved in Japan [351580]. In October 1999, it was launched in the US [352392] and Glaxo confirmed in January 2000, that zanamivir has been launched all over Europe, with the exception of Greece and Spain, where launch is imminent [352513]. In October 1999, the British Pharma Group (BPG) wrote to the UK Prime Minister to seek a discussion on the implications for the British-based pharmaceutical industry of the recommendation from NICE's Raised Appraisal Committee that Relenza should be banned from the NHS [342597]. An FDA submission was made in October 1998 [302732,304779]; the FDA advisory committee met on February 24 1999 to discuss the application [313583]. The Antivirals Drugs Advisory Committee voted against recommending zanamivir for FDA approval [316196]. Members suggested that additional studies using a different endpoint or targeting specific high-risk populations would be more likely to garner support [317454]. Following a discussion with Glaxo Wellcome in April 1999, the FDA indicated that it would continue to review the NDA for zanamivir [320565]. In July 1999, the company received final FDA approval for the drug for the treatment of both influenza A and B [334127], and aimed to initiate a phase IV trial program for the detection of consumer problems with the product, following launch of the product in time for the 1999-2000 flu season [352392,335048]. In September 1998, Glaxo applied to the Canadian Health Protection Branch (HPB) for approval to market zanamivir for the treatment and prevention of influenza. A separate application for Fast Track approval was also made with the HPB [299375,299472]. In November 1999, zanamivir received approval in Canada [346474]. Glaxo expects to make MAA and NDA filings for the use of zanamivir as a prophylactic in 1999 [333494]. In July 1998, Merrill Lynch predicted that as zanamivir offered only modest benefits gained from a narrow treatment window, potential would be limited and forecast annual sales of US dollar 30 million [302048]. In January 1999, Paribas predicted sales of pounds 75 million in 1999, rising to pounds 280 million in 2003 [317650]. In April 1999, ABN Amro predicted sales of pounds 23 million in 1999, rising to pounds 326 million in 2003 [328676]. In August 1999, Lehman Brothers estimated that sales of zanamivir will reach US dollar 400 million by 2003, and that it is an obvious candidate for an OTC switch, although this is not likely until 5 years after launch [336356]. PMID:16100701

Oxford, J S

2000-04-01

6

Better Neutralization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Than HSV-2 by Antibody From Recipients of GlaxoSmithKline HSV-2 Glycoprotein D2 Subunit Vaccine.  

PubMed

The Herpevac Trial evaluated a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit vaccine to prevent genital herpes. Unexpectedly, the vaccine protected against genital HSV-1 infection but not genital HSV-2 infection. We evaluated sera from 30 women seronegative for HSV-1 and HSV-2 who were immunized with gD2 in the Herpevac Trial. Neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-1 were 3.5-fold higher than those to HSV-2 (P < .001). HSV-2 gC2 and gE2 on the virus blocked neutralization by gD2 antibody, while HSV-1 gC1 and gE1 did not block neutralization by gD2 antibody. The higher neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-1 offer an explanation for the Herpevac results, and shielding neutralizing domains provides a potential mechanism. PMID:24652496

Awasthi, Sita; Belshe, Robert B; Friedman, Harvey M

2014-08-15

7

77 FR 32125 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...GlaxoSmithKline. The proposed indication (use) for this product is in combination with trastuzumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer whose tumors overexpress HER2 and who have received prior trastuzumab therapy(s). During...

2012-05-31

8

Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Among Adolescents: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 55, No. RR-3, March 24, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During spring 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) products formulated for use in adolescents (and, for one product, use in adults) were licensed in the United States (BOOSTRIX, GlaxoSmithKline Biologi...

2006-01-01

9

Complete List of Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distributed in the U.S.  

MedlinePLUS

... Name Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Tripedia Sanofi Pasteur, Inc (not available) Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Infanrix GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & ...

10

77 FR 74486 - Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting. Agenda: On March 7, 2013, the committee will discuss the new drug application (NDA) 204275, for fluticasone furoate and vilanterol dry powder inhaler (proposed tradename BREO ELLIPTA), sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, for...

2012-12-14

11

76 FR 14972 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline plc; Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. 02/22/2011...20110563 G Liberty Mutual Holding Company Inc.; Sunshine Silver Mines Corporation; Liberty Mutual Holding Company Inc. 20110564...

2011-03-18

12

Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y and W glycoconjugate vaccine, ACWY-TT.  

PubMed

A quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY), utilising tetanus toxoid (TT) as its carrier protein (ACWY-TT; Nimenrix™, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium) has been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic when administered to young children from 12 months of age, older children, adolescents, and adults. Administration of a single dose of ACWY-TT induces protective serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups as well as good antibody persistence. Coadministration studies have demonstrated that ACWY-TT can be administered with diphtheria, tetanus, three-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP3-IPV-HBV/Hib, Infanrix™ hexa; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine (Priorix-Tetra™; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Synflorix(®); GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix(®); GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); and seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix™; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium). Studies in young infants from 2 months of age have now commenced but immunisation with a single dose of ACWY-TT from 12 months of age is a safe and immunogenic option in the prevention of meningococcal disease. PMID:23712402

Findlow, Helen; Borrow, Ray

2013-05-01

13

William Smith  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

William Smith(1769-1839) is Considered by many people to be the "Father of English Geology". He began his work as an engineer for a company digging canals. While he was working he made some observations about the way that the Earth was arranged in layers around him. This lead to him creating a profi...

2009-07-22

14

Fred Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fred Smith is the Chairman, President, and CEO of FedEx, a 33 billion-dollar global transportation, business services, and\\u000a logistics company, and the largest overnight express delivery company in the United States. FedEx was the first service enterprise\\u000a to win the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1990, and FedEx has consistently ranked on Fortune’s industry lists,\\u000a including World’s Most Admired

Roland Berger; David Grusky; Tobias Raffel; Geoffrey Samuels; Christopher Wimer

15

Joseph Smith the Prophet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just a quick look at the Prophet Joseph Smith\\'s life and all that he accomplished. As you go to the site below think of the following questions: What do you think was the greatest contribution the Prophet Joseph Smith made? What can you do today to show him your appreciation and to keep the work moving forward? Key Events in the Life of Joseph Smith While looking through the church sites ask yourself the following question: Which ...

Carter, Mr. S.

2006-10-23

16

ERP Modulation during Observation of Abstract Paintings by Franz Kline  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test the involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of the static consequences of hand gestures devoid of any meaning.In order to verify this hypothesis we performed an EEG experiment presenting to participants images of abstract works of art with marked traces of brushstrokes. The EEG data were analyzed by using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). We aimed to demonstrate a direct involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of these selected works of abstract art. The stimuli consisted of three different abstract black and white paintings by Franz Kline. Results verified our experimental hypothesis showing the activation of premotor and motor cortical areas during stimuli observation. In addition, abstract works of art observation elicited the activation of reward-related orbitofrontal areas, and cognitive categorization-related prefrontal areas. The cortical sensorimotor activation is a fundamental neurophysiological demonstration of the direct involvement of the cortical motor system in perception of static meaningless images belonging to abstract art. These results support the role of embodied simulation of artist’s gestures in the perception of works of art.

Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Berchio, Cristina; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Umilta, Maria Alessandra

2013-01-01

17

Stephen Jay Kline on systems, or physics, complex systems, and the gap between.  

SciTech Connect

At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), but the topic of the book is systems. Kline first establishes certain limits that are characteristic of our conscious minds. Kline then establishes a complexity measure for systems and uses that complexity measure to develop a hierarchy of systems. Kline then argues that our minds, due to their characteristic limitations, are unable to model the complex systems in that hierarchy. Computers are of no help to us here. Our attempts at modeling these complex systems are based on the way we successfully model some simple systems, in particular, 'inert, naturally-occurring' objects and processes, such as what is the focus of physics. But complex systems overwhelm such attempts. As a result, the best we can do in working with these complex systems is to use a heuristic, what Kline calls the 'Guideline for Complex Systems.' Kline documents the problems that have developed due to 'oversimple' system models and from the inappropriate application of a system model from one domain to another. One prominent such problem is the Procrustean attempt to make the disciplines that deal with complex systems be 'physics-like.' Physics deals with simple systems, not complex ones, using Kline's complexity measure. The models that physics has developed are inappropriate for complex systems. Kline documents a number of the wasteful and dangerous fallacies of this type.

Campbell, Philip LaRoche

2011-06-01

18

Making British cortisone: Glaxo and the development of corticosteroids in Britain in the 1950s-1960s.  

PubMed

Following the announcement in 1949 in the USA that cortisone offered rheumatoid arthritis sufferers effective treatment for their crippling disease, the Ministry of Health came under considerable pressure from the medical profession and the public to make cortisone available in Britain. The Ministry, therefore, urged British companies to start manufacturing cortisone. Among the several pharmaceutical firms responding to the Ministry's request, Glaxo's expertise in the field of vitamins gave them a head start. This paper describes the varied and flexible strategy that enabled Glaxo to maintain this head start, and the scientific and technical capabilities which the company subsequently built up, enabling them to dominate the market for corticosteroids in Britain. Among the drugs to emerge out of the Glaxo project to manufacture cortisone, which began in 1950 and later became a wider R&D programme on steroids, was the topical steroid Betnovate, launched in 1963, which remains a best-seller today. However, although it led to successful new products, Glaxo's programme had limitations. The paper identifies a missed opportunity, in the shape of the biosynthetic route to steroid drugs, often considered as a milestone in the development of the new biotechnology. Whether or not this missed opportunity proved costly to the company is uncertain. However, it illustrates the role of technological path-dependence, and the importance of the integration between different scientific disciplines, in this case chemistry and biology, in pharmaceutical innovation. PMID:16337555

Quirke, Viviane

2005-12-01

19

The Adam Smith Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edward J. Harpham, Associate Professor of Government and Political Economy at the University of Texas at Dallas, developed this new site to promote the study of the moral, political, and economic ideas of Adam Smith. Anyone with an interest in Smith's ideas will find numerous resources of interest. Perhaps the most useful are Harpham's updated lists of new and forthcoming scholarly articles and books on Smith. Students will also benefit from the comprehensive bibliography of secondary works, brief commentaries on Smith's works, and the collection of related links.

Harpham, Edward J.

1998-01-01

20

Natural product source material use in the pharmaceutical industry: the Glaxo experience.  

PubMed

Glaxo PLC has had a significant involvement with Natural Product Source Materials for all of its commercial history and, most recently, has pursued this interest by use of such materials as templates for new lead discovery. Through the expertise and facilities in its Natural Products Discovery Department, Glaxo extracts relatively small quantities of plant material (typically 200-250 g dry weight) and cultures microorganisms from environmental samples (typically 10-50 g). Extracts and fermentation broths are screened in order to detect bioactive principles (BPs). If the potency, selectivity and specificity of the BP is acceptable, isolation, purification and structural elucidation follows. It is most unlikely, in our experience, that the BP itself will become a drug; it is much more likely that we shall need to initiate a medicinal chemistry synthesis program in order to try to produce a molecule that has both the essential biological and desirable chemical properties to become a drug development candidate. This synthetic process is often a long one and our confidence that such a process is worth undertaking is greatly improved if the BP is novel. An essential component of any medicinal chemistry strategy is that it allows us to obtain secure intellectual property rights through patents. Acquisition of product claim protection, the strongest form of patent protection, is of great importance. Safety testing and clinical development of the candidate drug can take 7-10 years, and often more, during which patent protection is constantly eroding. Recognizing that acquisition of Natural Products Source Materials is an issue of growing concern, Glaxo Research and Development Ltd. (GRD), in the early part of 1992, implemented a policy for plant supply. This policy was subsequently modified to embrace source materials such as environmental, soil and marine samples from which fungi, micro- and microorganisms may be obtained. As a direct consequence of this policy, Natural Product Source Materials supply agreements are only concluded with national and international organizations who possess the expertise to identify and collect the samples. It is equally important that our suppliers have the authority, which must be provided to GRD in writing, to collect such materials and to provide them to GRD for extraction and screening purposes. Such materials must be from sustainable and accessible sources. We will not seek to collect any endangered species. Though ethnomedical information can be helpful, it is not essential. Plants must be taxonomically classified. We reimburse the supplying institute for their efforts and their expertise, and recognize an obligation to offer a royalty to the institute in the event that drug discovery, with subsequent commercialization, owes its origin, however indirectly, to a material that it provided. In discussions with the institute, we insist that "a fair proportion' (>40%) of that royalty be used for the direct benefit of the people in the collection source area. In this context, GRD recognizes the importance of local training and education. PMID:9213629

Turner, D M

1996-04-01

21

Smith Tackles Oakland Unified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a 20-something, Anthony "Tony" Smith had fulfilled one dream: playing professional football for the Green Bay Packers and the San Francisco 49ers. Next up, he thought, was law school, but a former mentor reminded him that he is a teacher. Smith never became a classroom teacher, but his background in sports--where he learned the power of…

Mellon, Ericka

2011-01-01

22

Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adam Smith is the best known among economists for his book, The Wealth of Nations, often viewed as the keystone of modern economic thought. For many he has become associated with a quasi-libertarian laissez-faire philosophy. Others, often heterodox economists and social philosophers, on the contrary, focus on Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, and explore his moral theory. There has been

Jerry Evensky

23

A possible edge effect in enhanced network. [solar K-line observations by multichannel spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

K-line observations of enhanced network taken with the NASA/SPO Multichannel Spectrometer on September 28, 1975, in support of OSO-8 are discussed. The data show a correlation between core brightness and asymmetry for spatial scans which cross enhanced network boundaries. The implications of this result concerning mass flow in and near supergranule boundaries are discussed.

Jones, H. P.; Brown, D. R.

1977-01-01

24

Stephen Jay Kline on Systems, or Physics, Complex Systems, and the Gap Between.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), bu...

P. L. Campbell

2011-01-01

25

PowerPoint Presentation  

Cancer.gov

• Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ePub January 7, 2013; print: February, 2013 (issue 3) Disclosure • I am an inventor of NIH vaccine technology that has been licensed to Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, the two companies that manufacture the

26

The Affordable Care Act and the Triple Solution for a Healthier America.  

PubMed

GlaxoSmithKline promotes improvement in the health of Americans through the Triple Solution for a Healthier America, which focuses on prevention, intervention, and innovation. The Affordable Care Act includes provisions that embody the Triple Solution and provides unprecedented funding to further develop comparative effectiveness research, health information technology, and quality standards. PMID:21678698

Hartsfield, J Andrew; Hetherington, Jean

2011-01-01

27

Field Testing of Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle Technology for In-Situ Groundwater Treatment of a Fractured Rock DNAPL Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out as part of the Corrective Measure Study (CMS) at a property owned by GlaxoSmithKline in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. The study area is located in the Durham subbasin of the Deep River Triassic Basin and is underlain by interbedded siltstone and sandstone sequences. Groundwater underlying portions of the site has been impacted

W. Zhang; L. Walata; R. Nash; F. Gheorghiu; R. Glazier; R. Venkatakrishnan

2003-01-01

28

Disconnected Youth in the Research Triangle Region: An Ominous Problem Hidden in Plain Sight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 2006, the North Carolina GlaxoSmithKline Foundation commissioned MDC, Inc. of Chapel Hill to analyze the problem of "disconnected youth" in the Research Triangle region, determine the current state of the region's responses to the challenge, and recommend steps to deepen and accelerate action on the issue. The research process was…

Dodson, David; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Raper, Noah; Rausch, Christina

2008-01-01

29

The Relevance of Adam Smith  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond explores the relevance of eighteenth-century economist Adam Smith in today's world. Quoting heavily from Smith's famous work The Wealth of Nations, this article summarizes many of Smith's main themes and ideas, and attempts to prove that Smith's "ideas have become so thoroughly absorbed into our intellectual heritage that they are no longer identifiable as having originated with Adam Smith."

30

Adam Smith and dependency.  

PubMed

The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing. PMID:22712591

Ozler, Sule

2012-06-01

31

Simplified Katsevich algorithm motivated by the distribution properties of k-lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Katsevich algorithm is a breakthrough in the theoretically exact algorithms for helical cone beam computed tomography (CT). For future application in medical and industrial CT, determining how to implement it efficiently and accurately is the main task. We analyzed the slope law and intersection law of the k-lines, finding that the k-lines are not intersecting if the half-maximal fan angle (HMFA) is <21 deg (numerical solution, so it is approximate) and that the helical pitch and HMFA determine the depth of parallelism of k-lines. Using an appropriate pitch and an HMFA that is <21 deg, one can use a simplified Katsevich algorithm, whose filtration process can be done on the rows of the detector panel so that the preweighting, pre-rebinning, post-rebinning, and postweighting steps are all canceled. Simulation experiments show that the simplified algorithm can obtain highly precise images at a faster speed. Our results are intended to be valuable to those who are working on efficient implementations of the Katsevich-type algorithms.

Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Halpern, Howard

2013-10-01

32

Ashley Wilder Smith's biography  

Cancer.gov

Ashley Wilder Smith, PhD, MPH is a Behavioral Scientist and Program Director in the Outcomes Research Branch of the Applied Research Program. Her program of research focuses on developing, advancing and promoting investigations related to improving current understanding of patient reported outcomes and quality care for cancer patients, survivors and families. In particular, Dr.

33

Portrait of Waldo Smith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1944, Waldo Smith was looking for a place where he could make a difference. He had taught in universities in the United States and Turkey, and he had worked as an engineer in the field of hydrology in the United States. Somehow, a chance meeting with John Adam Fleming, AGU's long-time General Secretary, led to Waldo's becoming the first executive officer employed by the Union. That, in turn, brought him the opportunity to make a difference.

Spilhaus, Fred

2009-01-01

34

Smith–Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene on chromosome 17p11.2. Diagnostic strategies include molecular identification of a 17p11.2 microdeletion encompassing RAI1 or a mutation in RAI1. G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are the classical methods used to detect the SMS deletions, while multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)

Sarah H Elsea; Santhosh Girirajan

2008-01-01

35

Sophia Smith Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Five College Archives Digital Access Project (mentioned in the September 25, 1998 Scout Report), Smith College has digitized some of its archival holdings relating to women's history. The Website of the Sophia Smith Collection presents still more of the Smith College holdingsof "manuscripts, photographs, periodicals and other primary sources in women's history." The site includes brief descriptions of over 300 manuscript collections, lesson plans for using primary source materials, links to additional women's history resources, and selected digital images. A permanent exhibition, Agents of Social Change, showcases some materials online. The exhibit contains pictures and digitized documents on eight 20th-century women and organizations working for women's rights. Visitors will find items such as a brochure about the National Congress of Neighborhood Women (NCNW), a grassroots feminist organization; a 1980 photo of an NCNW march on New York City Hall; Gloria Steinem photographed at the Ms. office in 1983; and fan mail to Steinem after a TV appearance.

1997-01-01

36

Rotation of CaII K-line Faculae in Solar Cycles 22 and 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the temporal behavior of CaII K-line faculae for parts of solar cycles 22 and 23. The data are from photometric images obtained at the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) using the Cartesian Full Disk Telescope no. 1 (CFDT1). The images are 512 by 512 pixels, each pixel being 5.12 arc-sec square. The bandpass of the K-line filter is 1 nm. For the interval mid-1988 to mid-1996 (most of cycle 22) we find an autocorrelation very much like that published in Chapman, Cookson and Dobias (1997). At a lag of 150 to 160 days, the 27-day rotational modulation disappears, reappearing later but at a different phase. For the second interval, from mid-1996 to the end of 1999, the autocorrelation shows the 27-day rotational modulation persisting out to a lag of nearly one year. Lomb periodograms will be shown for these data for several intervals and the results will be discussed. This research has been partially supported by NSF Grant ATM-9912132 and NASA Grant NAG5-7191. Reference: Chapman, G.A., Cookson, A.M. and Dobias, J.J. 1997, Ap.J. 482, 541.

Chapman, G. A.; Lawrence, J. K.; Walton, S. R.

2001-05-01

37

Getting to know Joseph Smith  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these simple modules you will commit to memory 6 important dates in the life of Joseph Smith. Attempt to remember the date before clicking on the link directly under the picture. Write the dates in your journal and present the journal to Bro. Davidson for credit Joseph Smith was born in Sharon, Windsor county, Vermont in _____? Cute baby boy Birth date The first vision occurred in _____? first vision First vision date Moroni then visits the prophet in ____? Moroni Moroni visitations Joseph marries Emma ____? Emma Smith Marriage The church is officially reorganized in ____? Church restored Restoration Joseph and Hyrum martyred in ____? Martyrdom of Joseph Smith Martyrdom ...

Davidson, Bro.

2010-06-09

38

Genetics Home Reference: Smith-Magenis syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Smith-Magenis syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2013 What is Smith-Magenis syndrome? Smith-Magenis syndrome is a developmental ...

39

Solar Cycle Fine Structure and Surface Rotation from Ca II K-Line Time Series Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of three and a half decades of data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program yields evidence for four components to the variation: (a) the solar cycle, with considerable fine structure and a quasi-periodicity of 122.4 days; (b) a stochastic process, faster than (a) and largely independent of it, (c) a quasi-periodic signal due to rotational modulation, and of course (d) observational errors (shown to be quite small). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis is especially useful for extracting information about differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the connection between its behavior and fine structure of the solar cycle on approximately one-year time scales. These results further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced at NASA's Kepler observatory.

Scargle, Jeff; Keil, Steve; Worden, Pete

2011-01-01

40

Sophia Smith Collection: Women's History Archives at Smith College  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College was made possible under the guidance of its first director, Margaret Storrs Grierson. In 1946, it was named in honor of the founder of Smith College and it has grown to include over 650 different thematic collections. On this page, visitors can browse through their online image collections, oral histories, and exhibits. The oral histories are quite a treat, as they include 50 in-depth interviews which document the persistence and diversity of organizing for women in the United States. Additionally, this area contains interviews on population and reproductive health and conversations with student activists at Smith College. The Online Exhibits area includes nine thematic collections. One of the most interesting among them is the Girl Zines collection, which features independent magazines that address "third wave" feminism and sexuality. Finally, visitors can use the Finding Images section to look over 300 items that include political buttons, handicrafts, and cartoons.

2012-07-13

41

Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a mental retardation syndrome with distinctive behavioral characteristics, dysmorphic features, and congenital anomalies ascribed to an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Severe sleep disturbances and maladaptive daytime behavior have been linked to an abnormal circadian rhythm of melatonin with a diurnal instead of nocturnal secretion of this hormone. SMS provides a demonstration of a biological basis for sleep disorder in a genetic disease. Considering that clock genes mediate the generation of circadian rhythm, haploinsufficiency for a circadian system gene, mapping to chromosome 17p11.2, may cause the inversion of the melatonin circadian rhythm in SMS. The disorder of circadian timing in SMS may also affect entrainment pathway (retinohypothalamic tract), pacemaker functions (suprachiasmatic nuclei), or synthesis and release of melatonin by the pineal gland. Elucidating pathophysiological mechanisms of behavioral phenotypes in genetic disease can provide an original therapeutic approach in SMS: blockade of endogenous melatonin production during the day combined with exogenous melatonin administration in the evening. PMID:23622179

De Leersnyder, H

2013-01-01

42

GPU Accelerated Smith-Waterman.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a novel hardware implementation of the double affine Smith-Waterman (DASW) algorithm, which uses dynamic programming to compare and align genomic sequences such as DNA and proteins. We implement DASW on a commodity graphics card, taking advanta...

J. Johnson S. Vaidya W. Huang Y. Liu

2006-01-01

43

An Atlas of K-Line Spectra for Cool Magnetic CP Stars: The Wing-Nib Anomaly (WNA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a short atlas illustrating the unusual Ca II K-line profiles in upper main-sequence stars with anomalous abundances. Slopes of the profiles for 10 cool, magnetic chemically peculiar (CP) stars change abruptly at the very core, forming a deep ``nib.'' The nibs show the same or nearly the same radial velocity as the other atomic lines. The near wings are generally more shallow than in normal stars. In three magnetic CP stars, the K lines are too weak to show this shape, although the nibs themselves are arguably present. The Ca II H lines also show deep nibs, but the profiles are complicated by the nearby, strong H? absorption. The K-line structure is nearly unchanged with phase in ? CrB and ? Cir. Calculations, including NLTE, show that other possibilities in addition to chemical stratification may yield niblike cores.

Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.; Kamp, I.

2006-04-01

44

Cowboy Photographer: Erwin E. Smith  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many are familiar with the romantic notion of the American cowboy as crafted by Frederic Remington and Charles M. Russell, few share intimate knowledge of a lesser known artist, Erwin E. Smith. This online exhibit, created by the Amon Carter Museum in Texas, seeks to rectify that situation through this extensive archive of photographs by Smith that capture the world of the cowboy around the turn of the 20th century. Smith grew up in Texas collecting prints of paintings by artists like George Catlin and Frederic Remington. He later ended up studying art with Lorado Taft at the Art Institute of Chicago, and then at the School of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Smith later moved back West, and between 1905 and 1912, he took thousands of photographs on ranches throughout Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The photographs available online here are divided into several main sections for convenient browsing, including Cowhand clothing, Rodeo, and Ranches. Along with a biography of Smith, the site also includes a glossary of terms used by cowboys and ranchers, as well as several teaching resources for educators.

45

In-House Growth-Promoting Transport System for Neisseria gonorrhoeae?  

PubMed Central

Eno powder (GlaxoSmithKline), an antacid preparation readily available over the counter, was used instead of a CO2 generator for the growth of 15 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae obtained from men with urethritis. Due to its easy accessibility and low cost, Eno powder can be useful in developing countries for transporting clinical specimens from resource-poor peripheral labs to reference laboratories.

Sharma, Dharmendra; Sethi, Sunil; Mehta, Swami Das; Sharma, Meera

2007-01-01

46

Ezogabine (retigabine).  

PubMed

Ezogabine (Potiga; Valeant Pharmaceuticals/GlaxoSmithKline), a potassium channel opener, was approved in June 2011 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.) for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adult patients. The same drug was granted marketing authorization for this indication in the European Union in March 2011, where it is known as retigabine (Trobalt). PMID:21959281

Stafstrom, Carl E; Grippon, Seden; Kirkpatrick, Peter

2011-10-01

47

Dabrafenib: first global approval.  

PubMed

Dabrafenib (Tafinlar®), a mutant-BRAF kinase inhibitor, emerged from GlaxoSmithKline's research programme for the discovery of selective inhibitors of mutant BRAF kinase activity, for the treatment of solid tumours; mutations in the BRAF gene are associated with increased growth and proliferation of cancer cells. GlaxoSmithKline has focused the development of dabrafenib on the treatment of malignant melanoma, as BRAF mutations are present in 50 % of these cancers. Dabrafenib is approved in the US as a single agent treatment for unresectable or metastatic melanoma in patients with the BRAF V600E mutation, and has received a positive opinion in the EU in this indication. Submissions have also been made in the US and the EU for the use of dabrafenib in combination with trametinib for the treatment of metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E/K mutation. Global phase III development of dabrafenib as a monotherapy and as a combination therapy is ongoing in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Phase II development is ongoing for the treatment of malignant melanoma that has metastasised to the brain, and for colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers. Dabrafenib is intended to treat the patient population with a BRAF V600E/K mutation. GlaxoSmithKline's dabrafenib application in the US included the treatment of this population as detected by a US FDA-approved test. GlaxoSmithKline, in collaboration with bioMérieux and Response Genetics, has developed a molecular theranostic test to identify BRAF V600E/K mutations. Pre-Market approval of the test has been granted by the FDA. This article summarises the milestones in the development of dabrafenib leading to this first approval as a single agent treatment for unresectable or metastatic melanoma in patients with the BRAF V600E mutation. PMID:23881668

Ballantyne, Anita D; Garnock-Jones, Karly P

2013-08-01

48

Safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of live attenuated varicella vaccine in children between 1 and 9 years of age with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is known to facilitate secondary bacterial infection, which is cause for particular concern in children with atopic dermatitis. This 2-year study assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Oka strain varicella vaccine (Varilrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) in 160 children aged 1–9 years with atopic dermatitis randomized to vaccination at the start of either the

Hans Wolfgang Kreth; Peter Hans Hoeger

2006-01-01

49

Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n 140,000). We identified three loci

YunJung Kim; Jennifer Dackor; Eric Boerwinkle; Nora Franceschini; Diego Ardissino; Luisa Bernardinelli; Pier M Mannucci; Francesco Mauri; Piera A Merlini; Devin Absher; Themistocles L Assimes; Stephen P Fortmann; Carlos Iribarren; Joshua W Knowles; Thomas Quertermous; Luigi Ferrucci; Toshiko Tanaka; Joshua C Bis; Curt D Furberg; Talin Haritunians; Barbara McKnight; Bruce M Psaty; Kent D Taylor; Evan L Thacker; Peter Almgren; Leif Groop; Claes Ladenvall; Michael Boehnke; Anne U Jackson; Karen L Mohlke; Heather M Stringham; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Emelia J Benjamin; Shih-Jen Hwang; Daniel Levy; Sarah Rosner Preis; Ramachandran S Vasan; Jubao Duan; Pablo V Gejman; Douglas F Levinson; Alan R Sanders; Jianxin Shi; Esther H Lips; James D McKay; Antonio Agudo; Luigi Barzan; Vladimir Bencko; Simone Benhamou; Xavier Castellsagué; Cristina Canova; David I Conway; Eleonora Fabianova; Lenka Foretova; Vladimir Janout; Claire M Healy; Ivana Holcátová; Kristina Kjaerheim; Pagona Lagiou; Jolanta Lissowska; Ray Lowry; Tatiana V Macfarlane; Dana Mates; Lorenzo Richiardi; Peter Rudnai; Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska; David Zaridze; Ariana Znaor; Mark Lathrop; Paul Brennan; Stefania Bandinelli; Timothy M Frayling; Jack M Guralnik; Yuri Milaneschi; John R B Perry; David Altshuler; Roberto Elosua; Sek Kathiresan; Gavin Lucas; Olle Melander; Christopher J O'Donnell; Veikko Salomaa; Stephen M Schwartz; Benjamin F Voight; Brenda W Penninx; Johannes H Smit; Nicole Vogelzangs; Dorret I Boomsma; Eco J C de Geus; Jacqueline M Vink; Gonneke Willemsen; Stephen J Chanock; Fangyi Gu; Susan E Hankinson; David J Hunter; Albert Hofman; Henning Tiemeier; Andre G Uitterlinden; Cornelia M van Duijn; Stefan Walter; Daniel I Chasman; Brendan M Everett; Guillaume Paré; Paul M Ridker; Ming D Li; Hermine H Maes; Janet Audrain-McGovern; Danielle Posthuma; Laura M Thornton; Caryn Lerman; Jaakko Kaprio; Jed E Rose; John P A Ioannidis; Dan-Yu Lin; Helena Furberg; Patrick F Sullivan

2010-01-01

50

Early presentation following overdose of modified-release paracetamol (Panadol Osteo) with biphasic and prolonged paracetamol absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Panadol Osteo ®(GlaxoSmithKline) is a modified-release paracetamol formulation marketed in Australia and New Zealand, comprising 33% immediate and 66% sustained-release fractions. In overdose, absorption may be delayed and the paracetamol treatment nomogram can miss potentially toxic paracetamol concentrations if only one serum estimate is taken. We report a massive ingestion of Panadol Osteo ® with biphasic, prolonged absorption requiring

Andis Graudins; Hanh Ngoc Pham; Chris Salonikas; Daya Naidoo; Betty Chan

51

Drug development: assessment of pharmacogenetic studies by Spanish research ethics committees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision taken by research ethics committees (RECs) while assessing pharmacogenetic (PGx) substudies as part of international clinical trials is almost unknown. A total of 255 applications of 36 PGx substudies embedded in clinical trials (12 phase 2, 24 phase 3) were submitted to 72 RECs in 2006–2007 by GlaxoSmithKline in Spain. These were trials of 17 different compounds, aimed

R Dal-Ré; I Luque; R Torres; J Lahuerta

2009-01-01

52

1on1health  

Microsoft Academic Search

1on1health is the free consumer health Web site of GlaxoSmithKline that provides information on 17 health topics in English and 11 in Spanish. Booklets are available in English, Spanish, and Chinese. Users can watch videos, hear people talk about living with the various conditions, and take quizzes or do activities to learn more about the topic. Although limited to a

Sandra M. Howe; Lynda M. Baker

2007-01-01

53

Solar Cycle Variability and Surface Differential Rotation from Ca II K-line Time Series Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period ~ 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods ~ 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range ~0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak_mon/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Keil, Stephen L.; Worden, Simon P.

2013-07-01

54

SOLAR CYCLE VARIABILITY AND SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION FROM Ca II K-LINE TIME SERIES DATA  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period {approx} 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods {approx} 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range {approx}0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak{sub m}on/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Worden, Simon P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Keil, Stephen L. [National Solar Observatory, P.O. Box 57, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

2013-07-01

55

Susan Krebs-Smith's biography  

Cancer.gov

Susan Krebs-Smith, PhD, is the Chief of the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch of the Applied Research Program. In that capacity, she oversees a program of research on the surveillance of risk factors related to cancer, methodological issues to improve the assessment of those factors, and issues related to guidance and food policy.

56

Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed information about…

Heaton, Moss, Ed.

1985-01-01

57

Smith Mammal Body Mass Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data compiled on body mass information for 5731 mammalian species. Felisa A. Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, S. K. Morgan Ernest, Kate E. Jones, Dawn M. Kaufman, Tamar Dayan, Pablo A. Marquet, James H. Brown, and John P. Haskell. 2003. Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2009-01-10

58

Econophysical visualization of Adam Smith’s invisible hand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider a complex system whose macrostate is statistically observable, but yet whose operating mechanism is an unknown black-box. In this paper we address the problem of inferring, from the system’s macrostate statistics, the system’s intrinsic force yielding the observed statistics. The inference is established via two diametrically opposite approaches which result in the very same intrinsic force: a top-down approach based on the notion of entropy, and a bottom-up approach based on the notion of Langevin dynamics. The general results established are applied to the problem of visualizing the intrinsic socioeconomic force-Adam Smith’s invisible hand-shaping the distribution of wealth in human societies. Our analysis yields quantitative econophysical representations of figurative socioeconomic forces, quantitative definitions of “poor” and “rich”, and a quantitative characterization of the “poor-get-poorer” and the “rich-get-richer” phenomena.

Cohen, Morrel H.; Eliazar, Iddo I.

2013-02-01

59

Fukushima to receive Smith Medal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1990 Waldo E. Smith Medal for extraordinary service to geophysics will be given to Naoshi Fukushima, who earned an international reputation for his pioneering work in geomagnetic disturbance and ionospheric electric currents. Now retired from the University of Tokyo, Japan, Fukushima is being cited for his public service to international geophysics, and, in particular, his contributions to the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, of which he was Secretary General from September 1975 to August 1983.The Smith Medal will be presented as part of the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Night festivities, Wednesday, December 5, in San Francisco, Calif. Three James B. Macelwane Medals, the John Adam Fleming Medal, and the Maurice Ewing Medal will also be presented (see Eos, February 20, 1990, p. 294).

60

Street & Smith's Preservation Access Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For thousands of Americans throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, dime novels and pulp magazines were their first experiences with the emerging world of mass-produced material culture. One such purveyor was the Street & Smith publishing house, which began in 1855 and published a wide variety of popular literature (such as homemaking magazines, comics, and dime novels) for over 100 years. These products didn't often have a great deal of originality, as the company viewed fiction as a commodity, and editors dictated plots and characters to writers, a list that included Horatio Alger, Upton Sinclair, and Jack London. This Web site, an online exhibit presented by the Syracuse University Library, pays homage to this publishing house with a number of scanned digitized images of the Street & Smith dime novels, a cover art gallery, and a collection of images immortalizing that most famous comic strip character, the Yellow Kid.

61

William Smith (1769-1839)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief history of William Smith, who initiated the Principle of Faunal Succession, covers his early education, his employment as an assistant surveyor to Edward White, and his time as construction supervisor of the Somerset Canal in southwestern England. The text explains his production of a geological map of England and final recognition in 1831, when he received the Wollaston Medal, the highest honor awarded each year for outstanding achievement in geology by the Geological Society of London.

62

On the Line with Ray Smith.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with Ray Smith, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Bell Atlantic Corporation. As a member of several advisory boards (Business Roundtable, Library of Congress, Committee on Arts and Humanities, and National Information Infrastructure), Smith offers his view on the future of the telecommunications industry,…

Educom Review, 1996

1996-01-01

63

Task Force Smith the Lesson Never Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph explores the often-used phrase 'No more Task Force Smiths'. This catchphrase is used to express a desire to avoid the perceived mistakes that lead to the defeat of Task Force Smith during the Korean War, July 1950. It deployed and was decim...

J. Garrett

2000-01-01

64

The Treatment of Smith's Invisible Hand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adam Smith used the metaphor of an invisible hand to represent the instincts of human nature that direct behavior. Moderated by self-control and guided by proper institutional incentives, actions grounded in instincts can be shown to generate a beneficial social order even if not intended. Smith's concept, however, has been diluted and distorted…

Wight, Jonathan B.

2007-01-01

65

Bringing Sally Smith's Vision to Manayunk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author narrates her application of what she learned from her internship at Sally Smith's Lab School of Washington to her new school and shares the favorable impact it had brought on her teaching career. The author shares her first exposure to the powerful effects of Smith's "Live It, Learn It" methodology as she encountered a…

Ford, Jackie

2010-01-01

66

Jeff Smiths Parlor Museum Historic Structure Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Jeff. Smiths Parlor Museum building was the headquarters for Jefferson Randolph Soapy Smith during his tenure as self-anointed king of Skagway, Alaska, during the Klondike Gold Rush. From there he controlled a gang of con men, thieves and cutthroats. ...

2010-01-01

67

33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133 Bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

68

33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133 Bridge, mile...

2009-07-01

69

Genetics Home Reference: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2007 What is Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome? Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is ...

70

Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

Not Available

1986-05-01

71

Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.  

PubMed

Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 ?g (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature. PMID:23955305

Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

2013-11-01

72

Uridine modulates neuronal activity and inhibits spike-wave discharges of absence epileptic Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats.  

PubMed

Pharmacological and functional data suggest the existence of uridine (Urd) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, simultaneous extracellular single unit recording and microiontophoretic injection of the pyrimidine nucleoside Urd was used to provide evidence for the presence of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex of Long Evans rats. Twenty-two neurons in the thalamus (24% of recorded neurons) and 17 neurons in the cortex (55%) responded to the direct iontophoresis of Urd. The majority of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and cortex (82% and 59%, respectively) increased their firing rate in response to Urd. In contrary, adenosine (Ado) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) decreased the firing rate of all responding neurons in the thalamus, and the majority of responding neurons in the cortex (83% and 87%, respectively). Functional relevance of Urd-sensitive neurons was investigated in spontaneously epileptic freely moving Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 500mg/kg Urd decreased epileptic activity (210-270min after injection) in both rat strains. Intraperitoneal administration of 1000mg/kg Urd decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) between 150-270min and 90-270min in Long Evans and WAG/Rij rats, respectively. The effect of Urd was long-lasting in both rat strains as the higher dose significantly decreased the number of SWDs even 24h after Urd injection. The present results suggest that Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex may play a role in the antiepileptic action of Urd possibly via modulation of thalamocortical neuronal circuits. PMID:23707857

Kovács, Zsolt; Slézia, Andrea; Bali, Zsolt Kristóf; Kovács, Péter; Dobolyi, Arpád; Szikra, Tamás; Hernádi, István; Juhász, Gábor

2013-08-01

73

STS-110 Crew Interviews: Steve Smith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-110 Mission Specialist Steve Smith is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Smith outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Smith discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

2002-01-01

74

STS-103 Crew Interviews: Steven Smith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Brown became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is an explanation of the why this required mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope must take place at such an early date, replacement of the gyroscopes, transistors, and computers. Also discussed is Smith's responsibility during any of the planned space walks scheduled for this mission.

1999-01-01

75

SMITH FARM FROM EBEY ROAD, LOOKING NORTH. (At the right, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SMITH FARM FROM EBEY ROAD, LOOKING NORTH. (At the right, this image shows the addition added to the granary in 1998 in order to adapt it to a family home.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

76

Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

Alexander, Kern

1983-01-01

77

On Smith's ambiguities on value and wealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricardo’s criticisms of Adam Smith on value and wealth have been sometimes rejected and sometimes accepted in the period following the publication of his Principles. By contrast, they have been mostly ignored in the recent revivals of Ricardian economics both in the branch concerned with value and distribution and in the branch devoted to wealth and equilibrium growth. This paper

Ferdinando Meacci

2010-01-01

78

Northern Smith Sound Oceanography - Summer 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An oceanograpic research program was conducted in northern Smith Sound during the middle July 1977 using USCGC WESTWIND (W-AGB 281) as the data collection platform. One aspect of the program was to investigate the water mass interactions at the narrowest ...

S. G. Tooma

1978-01-01

79

Another Perspective: An Interview with David Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide another perspective on evaluation within nonformal settings, "New Directions for Evaluation" recently interviewed David Smith, the coordinator of the Professional Learning to Close the Achievement Gap program for the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools, who has extensive background in education and educational research. He formerly held…

Bowman, Ruth A.; Johnson, Kelli

2005-01-01

80

Smith's Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Smith's blue butterfly may be tiny, but it's endangered in a big way. It spends its whole life within a few hundred yards of two native plants, sea cliff buckwheat and coast buckwheat - and is completely dependent on them. But central California's coa...

1984-01-01

81

SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows the Smith Farm in the center of Ebey?s Prairie. Ebey?s Landing and the Puget Sound can be seen on the right. Farmers from the Sherman-Bishop Dairy are visible at the bottom left, cutting hay.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

82

Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine co-administered with a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in healthy children aged 12–23 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the co-administration of an experimental measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV,\\u000a GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (DTPa-HBV-IPV\\/Hib) vaccine in healthy children. Healthy children aged 12–23 months (N?=?451) were randomised to one of three parallel groups to receive one dose of MMRV vaccine co-administered with a booster\\u000a dose of DTPa-HBV-IPV\\/Hib vaccine

Fred Zepp; Ulrich Behre; Klaus Kindler; Karl-Heinz Laakmann; Heidemarie Pankow-Culot; Wilma Mannhardt-Laakmann; François Beckers; Dominique Descamps; Paul Willems

2007-01-01

83

Plasmepsin inhibitory activity and structure-guided optimization of a potent hydroxyethylamine-based antimalarial hit.  

PubMed

Antimalarial hit 1 SR (TCMDC-134674) identified in a GlaxoSmithKline cell based screening campaign was evaluated for inhibitory activity against the digestive vacuole plasmepsins (Plm I, II, and IV). It was found to be a potent Plm IV inhibitor with no selectivity over Cathepsin D. A cocrystal structure of 1 SR bound to Plm II was solved, providing structural insight for the design of more potent and selective analogues. Structure-guided optimization led to the identification of structurally simplified analogues 17 and 18 as low nanomolar inhibitors of both, plasmepsin Plm IV activity and P. falciparum growth in erythrocytes. PMID:24900843

Jaudzems, Kristaps; Tars, Kaspars; Maurops, Gundars; Ivdra, Natalija; Otikovs, Martins; Leitans, Janis; Kanepe-Lapsa, Iveta; Domraceva, Ilona; Mutule, Ilze; Trapencieris, Peteris; Blackman, Michael J; Jirgensons, Aigars

2014-04-10

84

Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines and their impact on revenue: Pediarix® or Pentacel®?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes pricing strategies for pediatric combination vaccines and their impact on the United States pediatric\\u000a vaccine market. Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise with each other over the sale of vaccines containing two or\\u000a three antigens per injection. Specific emphasis is placed on examining the competition between two pentavalent vaccines: GlaxoSmithKline’s\\u000a Pediarix® (DTaP-HepB-IPV) and Sanofi Pasteur’s Pentacel® (DTaP-IPV\\/Hib). The

Matthew J. Robbins; Sheldon H. Jacobson; Edward C. Sewell

2010-01-01

85

Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory and assessment of pharmaceutical compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Goal and Scope  The research presented here represents one part of GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK) efforts to identify and improve the life cycle\\u000a impact profile of pharmaceutical products. The main goal of this work was to identify and analyze the cradle-to-gate environmental\\u000a impacts in the synthesis of a typical Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). A cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a\\u000a commercial pharmaceutical

Alan D. Curzons; David J. C. Constable; Virginia L. Cunningham

2004-01-01

86

Gabapentin encarbil (Horizant) for restless leg syndrome.  

PubMed

Gabapentin enacarbil (Horizant-GlaxoSmithKline), a new extended-release (ER) tablet formulation of gabapentin, has been approved by the FDA for treatment of moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome (RLS). The immediate-release (IR) formulation of gabapentin (Neurontin,and others), which is approved for treatment of epilepsy and postherpetic neuralgia, has been used for many years to treat RLS. Another ER tablet formulation of gabapentin (Gralise) has been approved by the FDA for treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. PMID:21897349

2011-09-01

87

The genetics of a pharma merger.  

PubMed

The 1990s and early years of this century have seen a series of large-scale mergers and acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical and Biotech arena. These activities each required integration at multiple levels. One of the most important activities is the integration of the R&D pipelines of the participants. We outline the combined portfolio and bioinformatic strategy that was used, and detail the lessons learned for the longer term, from the GlaxoWellcome-SmithKline-Beecham merger in 2000. To date, this has been the largest merger of two equally sized Pharma R&D organisations. PMID:19121408

Sanseau, Philippe; Chabot-Fletcher, Marie; Browne, Michael J

2009-04-01

88

International team finds a bioactive protein from ancient medicinal plant may help combat melanoma and other cancers  

Cancer.gov

An international team led by scientists from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Osteopathic Medicine, has found that a protein from the seeds of a plant used for centuries in traditional medicines may be able to halt the spread of melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer. The study included collaborators from Nagoya University, the University of Michigan and GlaxoSmithKline. The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey is an academic affiliate of the Cancer Institute of New Jersey.

89

Mepolizumab in eosinophilic disorders  

PubMed Central

Mepolizumab (Bosatria®, GlaxoSmithKline) is a biologic agent developed to treat asthma. It represents a humanized monoclonal antibody of IgG1 ? type, which targets human IL-5 and thus prevents its interaction with the ?-chain of the IL-5 receptor. To date, it has not been approved for use in any eosinophil-related disorder; however, several studies have suggested some therapeutic benefit across a spectrum of eosinophil-related disorders. This article evaluates the currently available preclinical and clinical studies, and the impact of mepolizumab against a variety of eosinophilic disorders.

Abonia, J Pablo; Putnam, Philip E

2011-01-01

90

Magnetic Fields in the Smith Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smith Cloud is a high velocity cloud (HVC) with a cometary morphology indicating an ongoing interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. Although it is among the best-studied HVCs and the only large HVC mapped in both H I and Halpha, its origin remains unknown. Most formation scenarios have difficulty explaining its coherence after passage through the Galactic halo, but magnetic fields may help to stabilize HVCs against disruption. We present measurements of Faraday rotation of extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud derived from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey as well as new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of Faraday rotation. The data show evidence of Faraday rotation due to the cloud; the Faraday rotation is better correlated with the Halpha emission than with the H I emission.

Hill, Alex S.; Benjamin, R. A.; Mao, S.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Lockman, F. J.; Gaensler, B. M.

2013-01-01

91

Otorhinolaringologic manifestation of Smith–Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly\\/mental retardation (MCA\\/MR) syndrome link to a contiguous-gene deletion syndrome, involving chromosome 1 7p 11.2,whose incidence is estimated to be 1:25?000 livebirth. SMS is characterised by a specific physical, behavioural and developmental pattern. The main clinical features consist of a broad flat midface with brachycefaly, broad nasal bridge, brachydactily, speech delay, hoarse deep

M Di Cicco; R Padoan; G Felisati; D Dilani; E Moretti; S Guerneri; A Selicorni

2001-01-01

92

Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to reduce nest predators, especially gulls and foxes, likely will have the greatest immediate benefit for island breeding black ducks.

Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

2002-01-01

93

Computation of heterogenous agent models: Krusell\\/Smith vs. backwardinduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the efficient computation of general equilibrium models with a continuum of heterogenous agents. It compares an improved version of the Krusell-Smith algorithm to a backward-induction algorithm. The Krusell-Smith algorithm I use in the paper modifies the original algorithm in Krusell\\/Smith (1998) in two ways. First, I do not simulate the cross-sectional distribution over time, but use

Michael Reiter

2006-01-01

94

18. Photocopy of print (Original in Smith's History of Delaware ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of print (Original in Smith's History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania) MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS - Caleb Pusey House, 15 Race Street (Landingford Plantation), Upland, Delaware County, PA

95

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

96

Oscar F. Smith Middle School: One Extra Degree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Oscar F. Smith Middle School, a challenging school in Chesapeake, Virginia. When Principal Linda Scott exclaims, "Oscar F. Smith Middle School is "hot"!" to visitors, she is not referring to the inside temperature of the bustling school of grades 6-8 located in the historic South Norfolk borough of Chesapeake. She is…

Principal Leadership, 2012

2012-01-01

97

(Mis)Representing Underachievement: A Rejoinder to Gorard and Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief rejoinder to Gorard and Smith's reply to an article I published in a previous issue of British Journal of Sociology of Education. In that original article I provided a critical review of their quantitative research on gender and education in the United Kingdom. In their reply to this article, Gorard and Smith seem to…

Connolly, Paul

2008-01-01

98

Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

99

78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The...

2013-04-23

100

40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control...

2010-07-01

101

40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control...

2009-07-01

102

76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The...

2011-09-30

103

Marshall-Smith syndrome: the expanding phenotype.  

PubMed Central

We report a child of 3 years 9 months with the Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS), characterised by the typical facial features, developmental delay, and advanced bone age. After the diagnosis was made at 5 months of age, careful observation for respiratory complications and failure to thrive was initiated. By 3 1/2 years of age, although our patient had no life threatening respiratory complications, investigation showed significant upper airway obstruction, which has been successfully treated. Aggressive treatment for failure to thrive has also allowed her to maintain a weight on the 50th centile. The purpose of this report is to suggest that early diagnosis and aggressive management may improve the ultimate prognosis with respect to the respiratory and feeding difficulties seen in this rare syndrome. Images

Williams, D K; Carlton, D R; Green, S H; Pearman, K; Cole, T R

1997-01-01

104

Sophia Smith Collection: Voices of Feminism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Smith College, the Voices of Feminism Oral History Project "documents the persistence and diversity of organizing for women in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century." The women interviewed here include labor, peace, and anti-racism activists, along with anti-poverty organizers and lesbian rights advocates. The project was funded by the Ford Foundation from 2002 to 2008, and visitors will find that they can also read transcripts of the interviews as well. The "Narrators" page features biographical profiles of each interviewee, along with links to the transcript of each interview. As a bonus feature, there are video excerpts for six of the women interviewed as part of the project.

105

Chemical constituents of Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith.  

PubMed

Five known compounds, 6'-methylglucuronide-5-hydroxy-chromone (1), ethyl ?-d-glactopyranoside (2), neoechinulin A (3), 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10(E),15(Z)-dienoic acid (4) and phellopterin (5), were isolated from water extract of Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith. Compounds 1-5 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and all the compounds were evaluated in vitro against a panel of human cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities, with IC50 values of 15.2 and 18.3 ?g/mL on MGC-803 cells, respectively. PMID:23962117

Yang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Ming-Chuan; Liang, Na; Xiang, Hong-Mei; Yang, Song

2013-01-01

106

The rise of China: Marx's solution or Adam Smith's? On China's rise in Adam Smith in Beijing by Giovanni Arrighi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adam Smith in Beijing offers a subversive analysis of China's rise, an analysis which has provoked a strong reaction in the academic world outside China. Based on Adam Smith's economic principles and world systems analysis, the book comprehensively explores China's reform and opening up and its market economy, as well as the role they have played in China's rise. In

Wu Yuanhua

2011-01-01

107

Trinucleotide repeat expansion and DRPLA (Smith`s disease): Molecular characterization of atrophin-1  

SciTech Connect

Smith`s disease (also known as dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy or DRPLA) is a rare, progressive, fatal neuropsychiatric disorder similar to Huntington`s disease (HD). Smith`s disease is characterized by ataxia, choreoathetosis, myoclonic epilepsy, dementia, and genetic anticipation. Neuropathological findings include prominent cell loss in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, the globus pallidus, the red nucleus, and the subthalamic nucleus. An expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding polyglutamine in a gene originally identified in our laboratory as part of a program to clone candidate genes for disorders with anticipation has recently been found to cause this disorder. We have identified two families that demonstrate the pathological and genetic features (expanded CAG repeat and anticipation) of this disease. Northern analysis indicates that the gene, which we have termed atrophin-1, is widely expressed as a 5 kb mRNA in normal human brain and peripheral tissues. Brain expression is highest in the cerebellum. The developmental expression of the rat homologues of IT-15 (the gene in which a CAG expansion causes HD) and atrophin-1 were compared. Atrophin-1 was most highly expressed in early rat embryo brain (E16), whereas the greatest expression of IT-15 was in the adult rat brain. Cloning and sequencing of the open reading frame from inserts contained in brain cDNA libraries is in progress. In addition to the CAG repeat, the ORF contains an unusual region of alternating acidic and basic amino acids. Further characterization of atrophin-1, and comparison of it to other genes in which trinucleotide repeat expansion leads to neuropsychiatric disorders, should lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology by which CAG repeat expansion causes human disease.

Margolis, R.L.; Li, S.H.; Li, X.J.; Ross, C.A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Balitmore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

108

S-0139 (Shionogi).  

PubMed

Shionogi and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), as the joint venture company Shionogi-GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals LLC, are developing S-0139 (SB-737004), an endothelin-A (ETA) antagonist, for the potential treatment of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke [223386], [252007], [426822], [426830]. By 1999, the compound was in phase II trials in Japan for stroke [348554]; phase II trials were ongoing in March 2002 [446957]. As of May 2000, Shionogi was preparing to develop the drug in the US and Europe [370602]. As of May 2001, a phase I European trial was in preparation [410912]; which was underway by November 2001 [429990]. In July 2001, Shionogi and GSK signed a letter of intent to create a joint venture that was initially to have exclusive rights to develop and commercialize four compounds contributed by Shionogi and one by GSK, including S-0139 14167621. The agreement wasfinalized in October 2001 [426569], [426822]. In August 1999, Lehman Brothers gave S-0139 a 10% probability of reaching the market with an expected launch in 2005. Sales were expected to peak at US $50 million in 2012 [349228]. PMID:12186266

Wu-Wong, J Ruth

2002-07-01

109

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith Suit Up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gives a ''';thumbs up'''; while donning his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A suit technician stands ready to assist with final adjustments. This is Smith''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

1997-01-01

110

Processing Semblances Induced through Inter-Postsynaptic Functional LINKs, Presumed Biological Parallels of K-Lines Proposed for Building Artificial Intelligence.  

PubMed

The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of internal sensation - namely, the semblion. In neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization re-activation of functional LINKs is expected to induce semblions, enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI). This paper also explains suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky's K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system. PMID:21845180

Vadakkan, Kunjumon I

2011-01-01

111

Processing Semblances Induced through Inter-Postsynaptic Functional LINKs, Presumed Biological Parallels of K-Lines Proposed for Building Artificial Intelligence  

PubMed Central

The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of internal sensation – namely, the semblion. In neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization re-activation of functional LINKs is expected to induce semblions, enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI). This paper also explains suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system.

Vadakkan, Kunjumon I.

2011-01-01

112

Edwin Smith Papyrus Case 8: a reappraisal.  

PubMed

There are 3 translations of the Edwin Smith Papyrus: Breasted's (1930), Allen's (2005), and Sanchez and Meltzer's (2012). Case 8 is similarly presented in all 3 translations, although with increasing detail in the later works. The patient in Case 8 had a comminuted skull fracture under intact skin. There were palpable pulsations at the fracture site. There was deviation of the eye on the side of the injury and an ipsilateral spastic hemiparesis in an ambulant patient with bleeding from the nose and ear. Explanations of the paralysis have included a contrecoup lesion and compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial incisura. Brainstem compression due to herniation is accompanied by loss of consciousness. Extensive contrecoup lesions consistent with the extent of the described paresis would also be associated with probable coma. The paralysis was spastic, but spasticity takes weeks to develop after trauma. Yet this patient's trauma was fresh, as there was still bleeding from the nose and the ear. It is suggested the paresis antedated the trauma, which was not its cause. The reasons for this suggestion are presented in this paper. PMID:24484229

Ganz, Jeremy C

2014-05-01

113

MORTALITY ESTIMATES FROM SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS: A CRITIQUE OF SMITH'S MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Smith (1972) described a method of computing mortality rates from growth and size-frequency data for a population which meets several assumptions. (Copyright (c) 1977 by The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.)...

114

STS-82 M.S. Steven Smith in White Room  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew members Dave Law, in front; Carlous Gillis, at left; and James Davis.

1997-01-01

115

DETAIL OF WESTINGHOUSE AND B. MORGAN SMITH NAMEPLATES ON ELECTRIC ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF WESTINGHOUSE AND B. MORGAN SMITH NAMEPLATES ON ELECTRIC GENERATOR IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

116

Fred Spilhaus receives 2010 Waldo E. Smith Medal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fred Spilhaus was awarded the 2010 Waldo E. Smith Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for ``extraordinary service to geophysics.''

Christopher Harrison; James Burch; Fred Spilhaus

2011-01-01

117

48. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection From ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection From California Historical Society Original: About 1905 Re-photo: 1940 - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

118

39. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection California ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection California Historical Society Original: About 1900 Re-photo: 1940 SOUTH FACADE OF CONVENTO - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

119

37. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection From ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection From California Historical Society Original: About 1890 Re-photo: 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

120

5. Historic American Buildings Survey, From J. Smith Futhey and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic American Buildings Survey, From J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope, History of Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1881, page 234, EXTERIOR SKETCH, 1881. - Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse, Birmingham & Meetinghouse Roads, Birmingham, Chester County, PA

121

6. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 FIRST FLOOR, LAST THREE BAYS OF LOBBY FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

122

7. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF LOBBY FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

123

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF LAST THREE-AND-ONE-HALF BAYS OF LOBBY FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

124

4. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 PENTHOUSE, NORTHWEST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

125

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 PENTHOUSE, NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

126

5. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF LOBBY FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

127

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Thurman C. Smith, Photographer September 1978 SOUTHWEST AND PORTION OF NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

128

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith adjusts the glove of his launch and entry space suit during a practice countdown at KSC. Smith and the other six STS-82 crew members are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. STS-82 will be the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted for February 11.

1997-01-01

129

Kiki Smith: Prints, Books & Things at MoMA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a similar interface to that of Artists of Brücke (German Expressionist prints, reviewed in the December 5, 2003 and Nov.2, 2001 Scout Reports), the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) presents this major retrospective of the work of Kiki Smith, born in 1954 in Nuremberg, Germany. Smith is the daughter of American sculptor Tony Smith, and her first experience with art was helping her father make cardboard models for his geometric sculptures. She is thought of as a sculptor and builder of installations, but since the 1980s, has created an extensive body of printed works, 135 of which are gathered in this web exhibition. Like the Expressionist show, the Smith show features a virtual light table of images that can be arranged dynamically by Themes -- early screen prints, anatomy, self-portraits, nature, feminine contexts -- or Mediums. In recent years, Smith has worked on etchings pulled from plates of monumental size, roughly 4 feet by 6 feet, such as a series based on Lewis Carroll, including Pool of Tears 2 (2000) and Come Away from Her (2003). The site also includes a chronology of Smith's life and a 35-page essay by Wendy Weitman, MoMA's Curator of Prints and illustrated Books.

130

[Comparison and the repeatability of Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol and Kline's walking test for maximal oxygen uptake prediction].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare and investigate the repeatability of two tests for predicting the maximal oxygen uptake: the Kline's walking test and the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol. Both tests were performed twice on separate days by 15 female students aged 20-25. Medium value of VO2max (ml/min/kg) in the walking test was in first trial 59.46 +/- 3.16, and in second 59.99 +/- 3.36, and in Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol in first trial 41.75 +/- 6.91, and in second 42.18 +/- 6.09. The coefficient of variation was 5.31 and 5.6 in first and second trials of walking test, and 16.54 and 14.43 in first and second trial of Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol. Blind-Altman diagram showed that both tests are acceptable for maximal oxygen uptake prediction. There was no correlation between both tests, and in Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol there was correlation between VO2max and BMI. The results showed that both tests could be used for prediction of VO2max; however the repeatability and precision was better in the walking test, which could be recommended for VO2max prediction, especially in the situation when submaximal tests are preferable. It is not recommended to apply various tests in the same person to detect the changes in VO2max. PMID:19140383

Milczarczyk, Sylwia; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena

2008-01-01

131

Magnetized Gas in the Smith High Velocity Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of H? from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ?100 rad m-2 which are generally well correlated with decelerated H? emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ?8 ?G along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or H? at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth H? morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (?1 Rayleigh) H? intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas.

Hill, Alex S.; Mao, S. A.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Lockman, Felix J.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.

2013-11-01

132

SR-71 Pilot Rogers E. Smith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research pilot Rogers E. Smith is shown here in front of the SR-71 Blackbird he flew for NASA. Rogers was one of the two original NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Smith has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1982. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. The SR-71 is capable of flying more than 2200 mph (Mach 3+) and at altitudes of over 80,000 feet. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden ha

1992-01-01

133

78 FR 31988 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board; In the Matter of Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License...2013, Order granting Ms. Charlissa Smith's demand for hearing. LBP-13-03...2013). This hearing will consider Ms. Smith's arguments related to her...

2013-05-28

134

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Mary A. Smith, Ph.D., M.S.  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Smith’s research projects focus on bioinformatics analysis of nuclear hormone receptors, with specific emphasis on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and retinoid X receptor proteins, regulation, mechanisms of action and implications for obesity and related diseases.

135

X-29 Research Pilot Rogers Smith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rogers Smith, a NASA research pilot, is seen here at the cockpit of the X-29 forward-swept-wing technology demonstrator at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1988. The X-29 explored the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable camber wing surfaces; the unique forward-swept-wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strake flaps; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system that overcame the aircraft's instability. Grumman Aircraft Corporation built two X-29s. They were flight tested at Dryden from 1984 to 1992 in a joint NASA, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and U.S. Air Force program. Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, flew at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) from 1984 to 1992. The fighter-sized X-29 technology demonstrators explored several concepts and technologies including: the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable-camber wing surfaces; a unique forward- swept wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strakes; close-coupled canards; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system used to maintain control of the otherwise unstable aircraft. Research results showed that the configuration of forward-swept wings, coupled with movable canards, gave pilots excellent control response at angles of attack of up to 45 degrees. During its flight history, the X-29 aircraft flew 422 research missions and a total of 436 missions. Sixty of the research flights were part of the X-29 follow-on 'vortex control' phase. The forward-swept wing of the X-29 resulted in reverse airflow, toward the fuselage rather than away from it, as occurs on the usual aft-swept wing. Consequently, on the forward-swept wing, the ailerons remained unstalled at high angles of attack. This provided better airflow over the ailerons and prevented stalling (loss of lift) at high angles of attack. Introduction of composite materials in the 1970s opened a new field of aircraft construction. It also made possible the construction of the X-29's thin supercritical wing. State-of-the-art composites allowed aeroelastic tailoring which, in turn, allowed the wing some bending but limited twisting and eliminated structural divergence within the flight envelope (i.e. deformation of the wing or the wing breaking off in flight). Additionally, composite materials allowed the wing to be sufficiently rigid for safe flight without adding an unacceptable weight penalty. The X-29 project consisted of two phases plus the follow-on vortex-control phase. Phase 1 demonstrated that the forward sweep of the X-29 wings kept the wing tips unstalled at the moderate angles of attack flown in that phase (a maximum of 21 degrees). Phase I also demonstrated that the aeroelastic tailored wing prevented structural divergence of the wing within the flight envelope, and that the control laws and control-surface effectiveness were adequate to provide artificial stability for an otherwise unstable aircraft. Phase 1 further demonstrated that the X-29 configuration could fly safely and reliably, even in tight turns. During Phase 2 of the project, the X-29, flying at an angle of attack of up to 67 degrees, demonstrated much better control and maneuvering qualities than computational methods and simulation models had predicted . During 120 research flights in this phase, NASA, Air Force, and Grumman project pilots reported the X-29 aircraft had excellent control response to an angle of attack of 45 degrees and still had limited controllability at a 67-degree angle of attack. This controllability at high angles of attack can be attributed to the aircraft's unique forward-swept wing- canard design. The NASA/Air Force-designed high-gain flight control laws also contributed to the good flying qualities. During the Air Force-initiated vortex-control phase, the X-29 successfully demonstrated vortex flow control (VFC). This VFC was more effective t

1988-01-01

136

Adam Smith and the Moral Economy of the Classroom System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development of mass schooling to its origins in 19th-century Glasgow. Its importance as an intellectual and economic center enabled Glasgow to invent a solution to the problem of urban schooling, while the association of scholars like Adam Smith with Glasgow University made Scottish educational theories acceptable around the world. (DB)

Hamilton, D.

1980-01-01

137

Adam Smith and the Teaching of English Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adam Smith used selections from English literature in his classroom during the eighteenth century because he believed that vernacular literature could provide a ready context for the teaching of ideological, social, and moral lessons. He believed that higher education should prepare students for the real business of the real world. (RM)

Court, Franklin E.

1985-01-01

138

Smith and Valley-Gray to Lead NASP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2011 elections are complete and Amy Smith has been elected to lead NASP in 2012. Amy has a long history of serving her state and national professional organizations, most recently as NASP program manager for advocacy and before that as the Pennsylvania delegate and Northeast Region delegate representative. She served the Association of School…

Deupree, Charles

2011-01-01

139

Stability properties of Smith dead-time compensator controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special stability properties of SISO systems incorporating Smith dead-time compensator controllers are investigated. It is shown that the conventional approach to the design of such systems may lead to practical instabilities. Necessary conditions for practical stability and sufficient conditions guaranteeing certain sensitivity and relative stability properties are stated and proven. The inaccuracies in the models are measured by means

Z. PALMOR

1980-01-01

140

Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007.

Carol Lonsdale; Tom Soifer

2009-01-01

141

Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Genetic Basis and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with deletions and mutations of the "RAI1" gene on chromosome 17p11.2. Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, sleep disturbance, craniofacial differences, and a distinctive profile of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors. Although the functional…

Finucane, Brenda; Haas-Givler, Barbara

2009-01-01

142

Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers: Comment on Smith and Farah (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith and Farah (2011) provided a thought-provoking and perhaps deliberately provocative literature review of the use of stimulants to improve cognitive functioning in humans. They addressed the apparently increasing willingness of individuals mostly in the United States to use stimulants for this purpose and then summarized published literature…

Elliott, Glen R.; Elliott, Mark D.

2011-01-01

143

TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF STRIPED BASS IN SMITH MOUNTAIN LAKE, VIRGINIA  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the adequacy of the forage base to meet demand of striped bass in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia. In regards to prey supply, mean alewife biomass from 1993-1998 was 37 kg/ha and mean gizzard shad biomass from 1990-1997 was 112 kg/ha. Mean annual alewife surplus produ...

144

Karen Smith: Language Arts Educator of the Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article honors Karen Smith, who has been given NCTE's Outstanding Educator in the English Language Arts award for 2009. Through the voices of many colleagues and former students, the article celebrates Karen as a teacher, learner, mentor, collaborator, scholar, storyteller, and visionary thinker and doer.

Hudelson, Sarah

2009-01-01

145

The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…

Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.

2010-01-01

146

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF REAR ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

147

16. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF BASEMENT PLAN From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

148

17. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF FIRST FLOOR PLAN From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

149

13. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF WEST (SIDE) ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

150

14. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF CROSS SECTION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

151

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF LOBBY DETAILS From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

152

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF SECOND FLOOR PLAN From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

153

15. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF LONGITUDINAL SECTION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

154

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF MAILING PLATFORM From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

155

11. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF EAST (SIDE) ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

156

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF EXTERIOR DETAILS From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

157

"The Faithfull Herdsmans Art": A Tribute to Philip E. Smith.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how Phil Smith has given much thought in his own department, and in the national deliberations, to the staffing crisis in English departments, and he has done so with attention to the highest values and to the needs of all, from undergraduate students in the general education courses to part-timers to tenure-track and tenured faculty…

Bialostosky, Don

2001-01-01

158

Performing Personal Narrative: Anna Deveare Smith's "Fires in the Mirror."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Anna Deveare Smith's "Fires in the Mirror" can be adapted for the secondary level language arts classroom. Describes a storytelling exercise, and then describes the six stages of the project as students adapted personal narrative for performance: theme; obtaining the interview; the peer-editing workshop; preparing for the…

Myers, Elizabeth M.

1998-01-01

159

Edmund Smith House: A History, Colonial National Historical Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Edmund Smith House on Lot 53 in Yorktown was a part of the late colonial and 1781 Yorktown scene, having been standing since 1751. The Federal government acquired it as part of the Blow property in October 1968 and made it a part of Colonial National ...

C. E. Hatch

1969-01-01

160

77 FR 13593 - PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL12-37-000; QF86-36-006] PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Request for...18 CFR 292.205(c), PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP (PowerSmith) filed a...Regulations for the topping- cycle cogeneration facility owned and operated by...

2012-03-07

161

76 FR 4648 - PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL11-15-000; QF86-36-005] PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Filing January...that on January 13, 2011, PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP (PowerSmith), pursuant...Regulations for the topping-cycle cogeneration facility owned and operated by...

2011-01-26

162

77 FR 71636 - Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...workers of Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, Arkansas...production of expanded polystyrene shape molded parts...workers of Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, Arkansas...production of expanded polystyrene shape molded parts...workers of Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith,...

2012-12-03

163

78 FR 2295 - Charlissa C. Smith; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-925-01-SP-BD01] Charlissa C. Smith; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing...the following proceeding: Charlissa C. Smith, (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License...concerns a hearing request from Charlissa C. Smith, dated December 5, 2012,...

2013-01-10

164

Robust Smith Predictor Design via Uncertainty Quantification: Application to a Reclaimer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smith predictor is a type of compensator that eliminates a time-delay occurred in industrial processes. Recently, the robustness in of the Smith predictor has been great issue. In this paper, a robust Smith predictor design is investigated, in this paper, the system identification method is used to find out a nominal model and its uncertainty bound of the nominal

Keum-Shik Hong; Dong-Hunn Kang; Jeom-Goo Kim

165

Empathy's purity, sympathy's complexities; De Waal, Darwin and Adam Smith.  

PubMed

Frans de Waal's view that empathy is at the basis of morality directly seems to build on Darwin, who considered sympathy as the crucial instinct. Yet when we look closer, their understanding of the central social instinct differs considerably. De Waal sees our deeply ingrained tendency to sympathize (or rather: empathize) with others as the good side of our morally dualistic nature. For Darwin, sympathizing was not the whole story of the "workings of sympathy"; the (selfish) need to receive sympathy played just as central a role in the complex roads from sympathy to morality. Darwin's understanding of sympathy stems from Adam Smith, who argued that the presence of morally impure motives should not be a reason for cynicism about morality. I suggest that De Waal's approach could benefit from a more thorough alignment with the analysis of the workings of sympathy in the work of Darwin and Adam Smith. PMID:21765569

van der Weele, Cor

2011-07-01

166

Fenimore Art Museum: The Smith and Telfer Photographic Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fenimore Art Museum in New York has a wide-ranging collection that includes significant pieces of American Indian art, folk art, and thousands of photographs and negatives. Working together with other institutions, including the New York State Historical Association, they have digitized over 300 images from the Smith and Telfer Photographic Collection. The firm of Smith and Telfer documented the town of Cooperstown, NY for well over a century, and they took photos of circus animals, civic monuments, and prominent individuals. Visitors can browse through the images at their leisure, and they can also search the entire collection by keyword. A couple of images of note include the shot of a man holding a dog in his lap while sitting on a tractor ("Ainslie Cornfield") and the photo entitled "Balloon Ascension".

167

Definition of the critical interval for Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) comprises a complex physical and behavioral phenotype that is associated with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. The deletions observed in patients can range from <2 to >9 megabases of DNA and may include more than 100 genes. In order to determine the critical deletion interval responsible for the syndrome phenotype, we have examined several patients with

S. H. Elsea; S. M. Purandare; R. A. Adell; R. C. Juyal; J. G. Davis; B. Finucane; R. E. Magenis; P. I. Patel

1997-01-01

168

Smith-Magenis syndrome and growth hormone deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly\\/mental retardation syndrome including physical and neurobehavioural features. The disease is commonly associated with a ca. 3.7 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2, while a 1.1 Mb critical region has been identified, containing about 20 genes expressed in multiple tissues. Haploinsufficiency of one of them, RAI1, seems to be responsible for the neurobehavioural, craniofacial and

Emanuela Spadoni; Patrizia Colapietro; Mauro Bozzola; Gian L. Marseglia; Luciana Repossi; Cesare Danesino; Lidia Larizza; Paola Maraschio

2004-01-01

169

Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Genetic Basis and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with deletions and mutations of the RAI1 gene on chromosome 17p11.2. Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, sleep disturbance, craniofacial differences, and a distinctive profile of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors. Although the functional role of RAI1 and neighboring genes is not completely understood, disruption of these genes is thought to

Brenda Finucane; Barbara Haas-Givler

2009-01-01

170

Gray predictive adaptive Smith-PID control and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superheated steam temperature system has the characteristics of high inertia, large delay and time-varying parameters. In this paper, adaptive Smith-PID based on gray prediction was used to deal with these problems. Adaline neural network was used to identify the objectpsilas gain and delay in order to overcome the defectiveness of time-varying parameters. Gray prediction module in the feedback loop,

Dong-Na Shi; Guo Peng; Teng-Fei Li

2008-01-01

171

Case report: Adult phenotype of Mulvihill-Smith syndrome.  

PubMed

Mulvihill-Smith syndrome (MSS) is characterized by premature aging, multiple pigmented nevi, decreased facial subcutaneous fat, microcephaly, short stature, mental retardation and recurrent infections, however the adult phenotype of MSS has yet to be delineated. We report a 28-year-old woman with Mulvihill-Smith syndrome, who had a solid pseudopapillary cystic tumor of her pancreas at age 17 years. Her distinctive sleep pattern includes severe insomnia with disappearance of sleep spindles and K-complexes, persisting muscle tone, and loss of slow wave sleep. The clinical and neurophysiological studies are compatible with agrypnia excitata, a sleep disorder attributable to a dysfunction of the thalamo-limbic system. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computed tomography revealed structural and functional deficits in the dorsomedial region of the thalamus and indicated that an alteration in the thalamo-limbic system may underlie the sleep disturbances in MSS. Furthermore, the rapid and severe decline in acquired cognitive function showed the distinct cognitive impairments resembling dementia, including intellectual deficits, memory disorder and executive dysfunction. We posit that an early onset tumor, sleep disorder and cognitive decline are adult manifestations of Mulvihill-Smith syndrome. PMID:19213035

Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kato, Motoichiro; Izumi, Kosuke; Kosaki, Rika; Yago, Kaori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Sato, Yuji; Okubo, Minoru; Watanabe, Goro; Takahashi, Takao; Kosaki, Kenjiro

2009-03-01

172

[Development of an HPV vaccine--remaining issues and perspective].  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, the second most frequent gynecological malignancy in the world, is caused by infection with one of the 15 types of high-risk HPVs. Vaccines protecting women from infection with high-risk HPVs can reduce prevalence of cervical cancer. At present, two prophylactic vaccines (GlaxoSmithKline "Cervarix" and Merck "Gardasil") have been approved by several countries. These vaccines can almost completely protect HPV16 and 18 infections which account for approximately 50% and 20% of cervical cancer, respectively. However, cervical cancer screening should continue in all vaccinated women due to exposure of the other oncogenic HPV types. There are also unanswered remaining questions about overall vaccine effectiveness, duration of protection, and adverse effect. PMID:19177753

Kondo, Kazunari

2009-01-01

173

American Chemical Society - 240th national meeting - chemistry for preventing and combating disease: part 1.  

PubMed

The 240th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, held in Boston, included topics covering new therapeutic research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, BACE1 inhibitors and ?-secretase inhibitors for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, opioid modulators for the treatment of reward disorders, SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes, backup compounds to the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin (Januvia) for type 2 diabetes, and MCH R1 inhibitors for the treatment of obesity. Investigational drugs discussed include SCH-1359113 and SCH-1682496 (both Merck & Co), NGP-555 (NeuroGenetic Pharmaceuticals), ALKS-33 (Alkermes), dapagliflozin (Bristol-Myers Squibb/AstraZeneca) and GSK-882380 (GlaxoSmithKline). PMID:20878582

Burt, Jessica

2010-10-01

174

A Divergent SAR Study Allows Optimization of a Potent 5-HT2c Inhibitor to a Promising Antimalarial Scaffold  

PubMed Central

From the 13?533 chemical structures published by GlaxoSmithKline in 2010, we identified 47 quality starting points for lead optimization. One of the most promising hits was the TCMDC-139046, a molecule presenting an indoline core, which is well-known for its anxiolytic properties by interacting with serotonin antagonist receptors 5-HT2. The inhibition of this target will complicate the clinical development of these compounds as antimalarials. Herein, we present the antimalarial profile of this series and our efforts to avoid interaction with this receptor, while maintaining a good antiparasitic potency. By using a double-divergent structure–activity relationship analysis, we have obtained a novel lead compound harboring an indoline core.

2012-01-01

175

Genvir (Flamel Technologies).  

PubMed

Flamel Technologies is developing Genvir (formerly known as Viropump), a twice-daily controlled-release formulation of aciclovir, for potential use in the treatment of herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections. Genvir utilizes Flamel's proprietary Micropump technology, a microparticle-based drug delivery system designed to extend the time of absorption of drugs in the small intestine. The drug shows a comparable therapeutic efficacy to valaciclovir and famciclovir (both GlaxoSmithKline) [313393]. Phase III trials have been completed [302829]. In August 2000, Flamel filed for regulatory approval for the treatment of herpes in France, as a prelude to a pan-European approval [378641] and is preparing an IND application to begin clinical trials for genital herpes in the US [245970]. PMID:11569934

Barnard, D L

2001-05-01

176

Albiglutide: first global approval.  

PubMed

Albiglutide (Eperzan® [EU]; Tanzeum™ [US]), a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Albiglutide has received its first global approval in this indication in the EU, for use in combination with other antihyperglycaemic agents, including basal insulin, when these drugs and diet and exercise do not provide adequate glycaemic control, and as monotherapy in patients unable to take metformin due to contraindications or intolerance when diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control. Albiglutide has subsequently been approved for the second-line or later treatment of T2DM as an adjunct to diet and exercise in the US. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of albiglutide leading to this first approval for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:24861909

Poole, Raewyn M; Nowlan, Mary L

2014-06-01

177

Implementation of BacMam virus gene delivery technology in a drug discovery setting.  

PubMed

Membrane protein targets constitute a key segment of drug discovery portfolios and significant effort has gone into increasing the speed and efficiency of pursuing these targets. However, issues still exist in routine gene expression and stable cell-based assay development for membrane proteins, which are often multimeric or toxic to host cells. To enhance cell-based assay capabilities, modified baculovirus (BacMam virus) gene delivery technology has been successfully applied to the transient expression of target proteins in mammalian cells. Here, we review the development, full implementation and benefits of this platform-based gene expression technology in support of SAR and HTS assays across GlaxoSmithKline. PMID:17467576

Kost, Thomas A; Condreay, J Patrick; Ames, Robert S; Rees, Stephen; Romanos, Michael A

2007-05-01

178

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-3% of all adult malignancies worldwide, and around 30% of patients with the condition present with advanced or metastatic disease.1,2 Until recently, cytokine therapy (e.g. interleukin-2 or interferon-alfa) was the standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma but provided only a small survival advantage (e.g. extending life by a median of 2.5 months).3 A key development has been the introduction of drugs known as receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which include ?sunitinib (Sutent-Pfizer), ?sorafenib (Nexavar-Bayer) and ?pazopanib (Votrient-GlaxoSmithKline). Here we review the evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of these treatments in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:22074946

2011-11-01

179

STS-110 M.S. Smith suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith relaxes during suit fit, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide flight crews an opportunity to participate in simulated launch countdown activities. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

180

Understanding the output of a Smith-Root GPP electrofisher  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is confusion among biologists about the use of the percent of range control in the GPP series of Smith-Root electrofishers. We evaluated the output of a GPP 7.5 electrofisher to examine how adjustments to the percent of range control affect voltage, pulse width, duty cycle, and waveform. We found that contrary to how most users interpret the labels on the GPP unit, adjustments to the percent of range control are linked only indirectly to changes in peak voltage. Suggestions for dealing with the restrictions of the GPP units are offered. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Miranda, L. E.; Spencer, A. B.

2005-01-01

181

Boundaries and interfaces in materials: The David A. Smith symposium  

SciTech Connect

Just over a year ago David Smith died. Then the loss of a distinguished scientist and dedicated teacher was mourned. Now it is time to celebrate his accomplishments both as a scientist and teacher and this book serves as a reminder of his many contributions to the field of boundaries and interfaces. Researchers from ten countries contributed their work to the symposium, many of whom were former students of David from his years in Oxford. This emphasizes David's tremendous effect on the career of many established scientists through his role as both a teacher and an advisor. Separate abstracts were prepared for 38 papers in this book.

Pond, R.C. (ed.) (Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Clark, W.A.T. (ed.) (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); King, A.H. (ed.) (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Williams, D.B. (ed.) (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States

1998-01-01

182

Trametinib: first global approval.  

PubMed

Trametinib is an orally bioavailable mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. The compound specifically binds to MEK1 and MEK2, resulting in inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signalling and cellular proliferation in various cancers. Originally developed by Japan Tobacco, GlaxoSmithKline has licensed exclusive worldwide rights to the compound and conducted development in a number of different cancer types. Trametinib, as a monotherapy, has been approved in the US for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic malignant melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations, as detected by an FDA-approved test. The compound, as a monotherapy, has also been submitted for regulatory review in the EU for BRAF mutation-positive malignant melanoma, and is in phase III development in Europe, Argentina, Canada and Oceania. Phase II development is underway for pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and relapsed or refractory leukaemias. GlaxoSmithKline is also developing trametinib for use in combination with dabrafenib in BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic cutaneous melanoma; the combination is at the preregistration stage in the EU and a phase III clinical programme is underway worldwide. Phase II development for this combination is also underway in colorectal cancer. Several phase I trials have also been initiated to evaluate trametinib in combination with other drugs for the treatment of various solid tumours and haematological malignancies. A paediatric oral solution formulation has been assessed against the oral tablet formulation in a phase I trial. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of trametinib leading to this first approval for unresectable or metastatic BRAF mutation-positive malignant melanoma. PMID:23846731

Wright, Cameron J M; McCormack, Paul L

2013-07-01

183

Bioavailability of inhaled fluticasone propionate via chambers/masks in young children  

PubMed Central

We determined lung bioavailability of a fluticasone propionate (FP) pressurised metred-dose inhaler (Flovent® HFA; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) administered via AeroChamber Plus® (Monaghan Medical, Plattsburgh, NY, USA) with Facemask and Babyhaler® (GlaxoSmithKline) valved holding chambers (VHCs) using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Children from 1 to <4 yrs of age with stable asthma but a clinical need for inhaled corticosteroid therapy were administered 88 µg FP hydrofluoroalkane (2 × 44 µg) twice daily delivered through the two devices in an open-label, randomised crossover manner for 8 days each. Patients were randomised to one of three sparse sampling schedules for blood collection throughout the 12-h dosing interval on the 8th day of each treatment for pharmacokinetic analysis. The area under the FP plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) was determined for each regimen. 17 children completed the study. The population mean AUC following FP with AeroChamber Plus® with Facemask was 97.45 pg·h·mL?1 (95% CI 85.49–113.32 pg·h·mL?1) and with Babyhaler® was 51.55 pg·h·mL?1 (95% CI 34.45–64.46 pg·h·mL?1). The relative bioavailability (Babyhaler®/AeroChamber Plus®) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.30–0.75). Clinically significant differences in lung bioavailability were observed between the devices. VHCs are not interchangeable, as differences in drug delivery to the lung may occur. A population pharmacokinetic approach can be used to determine lung bioavailability of FP.

Blake, K.; Mehta, R.; Spencer, T.; Kunka, R.L.; Hendeles, L.

2013-01-01

184

Efficacy and Safety of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol Compared With Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol Combination in Adult and Adolescent Patients With Persistent Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: The combination of fluticasone furoate (FF), a novel inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and vilanterol (VI), a long-acting ?2 agonist, is under development as a once-daily treatment of asthma and COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of FF/VI with fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) in patients with persistent asthma uncontrolled on a medium dose of ICS. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study, 806 patients received FF/VI (100/25 ?g, n = 403) once daily in the evening delivered through ELLIPTA (GlaxoSmithKline) dry powder inhaler, or FP/SAL (250/50 ?g, n = 403) bid through DISKUS/ACCUHALER (GlaxoSmithKline). The primary efficacy measure was 0- to 24-h serial weighted mean (wm) FEV1 after 24 weeks of treatment. Results: Improvements from baseline in 0- to 24-h wmFEV1 were observed with both FF/VI (341 mL) and FP/SAL (377 mL); the adjusted mean treatment difference was not statistically significant (?37 mL; 95% CI, ?88 to 15, P = 0.162). There were no differences between 0- to 4-h serial wmFEV1, trough FEV1, and asthma control and quality-of-life questionnaire scores. There was no difference in reported exacerbations between treatments. Both treatments were well tolerated, with no clinically relevant effect on urinary cortisol excretion or vital signs and no treatment-related serious adverse events. Conclusions: The efficacy of once-daily FF/VI was similar to bid FP/SAL in improving lung function in patients with persistent asthma. No safety issues were identified. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01147848; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov

Bleecker, Eugene R.; Lotvall, Jan; O'Byrne, Paul M.; Bateman, Eric D.; Medley, Hilary; Ellsworth, Anna; Jacques, Loretta; Busse, William W.

2013-01-01

185

The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic theorizing is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics I show the following. A utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrable dynamics when production/investment are accounted for, resolving Mirowski's thesis. Price as a function of demand does not exist mathematically either. All equilibria are unstable. I then explain how deterministic chaos can be distinguished from random noise at short times. In the generalization to liquid markets and finance theory described by stochastic excess demand dynamics, I also show the following. Market price distributions cannot be rescaled to describe price movements as ‘equilibrium’ fluctuations about a systematic drift in price. Utility maximization does not describe equilibrium. Maximization of the Gibbs entropy of the observed price distribution of an asset would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real, liquid markets (stocks, bonds, foreign exchange). There are three inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct. Prices in unregulated free markets are unstable against both noise and rising or falling expectations: Adam Smith's stabilizing invisible hand does not exist, either in mathematical models of liquid market data, or in real market data.

McCauley, Joseph L.

2000-10-01

186

STS-103 Mission Specialist Smith suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After donning his launch and entry suit, sts-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith shows a positive attitude over the second launch attempt for Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Smith and other crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

187

Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32,000 resulted in blown fuses. In a final letter of that summer back to Drew he wrote: "My summer is now complete. I have achieved the highest pinnacle in my quest for fulfillment. Striking a blow for humanity I just blew the whole Kitt Peak CDC3200 computer system. Those fuses were nothing compared to this!" Gene's graduate work, on the metal abundances in HII regions of nearby galaxies, was done at Berkeley, where Hyron Spinrad was his thesis advisor. He loved observing and spent numerous fun nights at Lick, Kitt Peak, Cerro Tololo, Keck, and many other observatories. He joined Margaret Burbidge at UCSD for a postdoctoral fellowship, and joined the teaching faculty there in 1978. Gene spent his entire professional career at UCSD. His research ranged from the study of quasar absorptions lines to the astrophysics of Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies. He was a key participant in UC-wide astronomy support, including being the chair of the science-advisory committee for the Ten Meter Telescope project, which later "morphed" into the Keck Observatory. His contributions to enabling that project were both essential and unheralded. Gene was a dedicated and enthusiastic teacher. One of his favorite undergraduate classes gave him the opportunity to dress up in Renaissance garb and pretend to be Galileo, while the experiment most loved by his students was when they got to attempt to drop an egg on his head from several stories high. Gene was also an outstanding advisor and mentor, and both his first post-doc, Rick Puetter, and his last graduate student, Brian Siana, were able to attend his memorial service and provide some special memories of their experiences with him. Rick recalled a memorable trip to Cerro Tololo when they packed up two infrared spectrometers for the trip, and everything conceivable went wrong, from inspections at the airport to spectrometer parts broken on the plane and instrument failures at the observatory, to finally being completely clouded out. Brian recounted: "I spent countless cloudy nights listening to Gene's stories

Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

2009-01-01

188

How To Survive in Postindustrial Environments: Adam Smith's Advice for Today's Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adam Smith's discussion of the payment modes of teachers and resulting consequences for the quality of teaching and process of curricular innovation are reviewed through the conceptual lens of modern agency theory. Smith's analysis of higher education in his day (eighteenth century) sheds light on faculty incentive and assessment problems that…

Ortmann, Andreas

1997-01-01

189

Rhetorical Studies: A Reassessment of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a dissenting interpretation of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres and a more conservative perspective on Smith's significance to the history of rhetorical theory. Views the lectures as an historical commentary on literature and rhetoric from the perspective of an eighteenth-century lecturer. (JD)

Purcell, William M.

1986-01-01

190

Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

Winch, Christopher

1998-01-01

191

The nature of social preference and interactions in Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

This natural observation study was designed to evaluate hypothesized elevated 'attention-seeking' and preference for adult attention in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Ten children with Smith-Magenis syndrome were observed across one school day, together with an age matched sample of 10 children with Down syndrome. Levels of attention given to, and vigilance for, adults and peers were recorded and compared. Sequences of behaviour were analyzed to evaluate the temporal relationships between giving and receiving attention during adult-child interactions. Compared to children with Down syndrome, children with Smith-Magenis syndrome gave preferential attention to adults and looked towards adults significantly more than they looked towards peers. Sequential analyses revealed that while children with Smith-Magenis syndrome did not initiate interactions with adults more than children with Down syndrome did, reciprocity between child and adult social behaviours in Smith-Magenis syndrome within interactions was compromised. This less synchronous sequence of child and adult interactions in Smith-Magenis syndrome may be the result of children with Smith-Magenis syndrome attempting to initiate interaction at times when it is unavailable. The marked preference for interacting with adults over peers in Smith-Magenis syndrome indicates atypicality of social interaction in this syndrome. PMID:24120292

Wilde, Lucy; Silva, Daniel; Oliver, Chris

2013-12-01

192

77 FR 64411 - Safety Zone; Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event; Mobile River; Mobile, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0869] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event; Mobile River...River, Mobile, AL in the vicinity of Cooper Riverside Park. This action is necessary...vessels on navigable waters during the Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event. Entry...

2012-10-22

193

An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

2010-01-01

194

Unconscious Odour Conditioning 25 Years Later: Revisiting and Extending "Kirk-Smith, Van Toller and Dodd"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pioneering work by Kirk-Smith, Van Toller, and Dodd [Kirk-Smith, M. D., Van Toller, C., & Dodd, G. H. (1983). "Unconscious odour conditioning in human subjects." "Biological Psychology," 17, 221-231], established that an unnoticed odorant paired with an emotionally meaningful task can influence mood and attitudes when the odorant alone is…

Zucco, Gesualdo M.; Paolini, Michela; Schaal, Benoist

2009-01-01

195

The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

2008-01-01

196

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

197

Speech/Language Pathologists Reflect on Sally Smith and the Lab School of Washington  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sally L. Smith had a clear vision of how she thought speech and language services should be integrated into her school, The Lab School of Washington. It was Smith's idea that language therapists should work individually with students to help them make gains in their particular areas of need, as well as to work collaboratively with the teachers,…

Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2010

2010-01-01

198

78 FR 16286 - Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant...Refuge, P.O. Box 399, 9981 Pacific Street, Prairie City, IA 50228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christy Smith,...

2013-03-14

199

Charlotte Smith and “Mr Monstroso”: an eighteenth-century marriage in life and fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charlotte Smith's 41-year marriage to Benjamin Smith was a textbook case of the atrocities a man could legally inflict upon his family in the 1700s. Her 430 unpublished letters give new facts about his financial greed and fecklessness, his second family, and his flirtation with bigamy, suggesting him as her source for several antagonists in her novels. In her quest

Judith Stanton

2000-01-01

200

78 FR 15747 - Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...55-23694-SP; ASLBP No. 13-925-01-SP-BD01] Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License) Notice of Atomic...Licensing Board (Board) in the above-captioned Charlissa C. Smith case is hereby reconstituted because Administrative Judge...

2013-03-12

201

Reconsidering the Teacher Education Reform Debate: A Commentary on Cochran-Smith and Fries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the November 2001 issue of Educational Researcher, Marilyn Cochran-Smith and Mary Kim Fries provided a penetrating analysis of the discourse that comprises the debate between those who advocate highly professionalized teacher preparation and those who seek simpler and more abundant routes to teacher training and certification. This commentary extends the Cochran-Smith and Fries analysis in several directions, inquiring into

Gary D Fenstermacher

2002-01-01

202

FIFTY YEARS OF MARINE FISH SYSTEMATICS AT THE J.L.B. SMITH INSTITUTE OF ICHTHYOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1946 Rhodes University created the Department of Ichthyology with J.L.B. Smith at the helm. Smith's research centred on the fishes of South Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. In his 22 years at the Department he produced the Sea Fishes of Southern Africa (SFSA) and revised numerous taxa based on material collected during his frequent trips to various parts

Ofer Gon

1996-01-01

203

Modelling the joint torques and loadings during squatting at the Smith machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical biomechanical model was developed to establish the relevant properties of the Smith squat exercise, and the main differences from the free barbell squat. The Smith squat may be largely patterned to modulate the distributions of muscle activities and joint loadings. For a given value of the included knee angle (?knee), bending the trunk forward, moving the feet forward

Andrea Biscarini; Paolo Benvenuti; Fabio Botti; Francesco Mastrandrea; Silvano Zanuso

2011-01-01

204

Circadian rhythm abnormalities of melatonin in Smith-Magenis syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome associated with a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 17, band p11.2. Characteristic features include neurobehavioural abnormalities such as aggressive and self-injurious behaviour and significant sleep disturbances. The majority of patients have a common deletion characterised at the molecular level. Physical mapping studies indicate that all patients with the common deletion are haploinsufficient for subunit 3 of the COP9 signalosome (COPS3), which is conserved from plants to humans, and in the plant Arabidopis thaliana regulates gene transcription in response to light. Haploinsufficiency of this gene is hypothesised to be potentially involved in the sleep disturbances seen in these patients. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. SMS patients are reported to have fewer sleep disturbances when given a night time dose of this sleep inducing hormone.?METHODS—Urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the major hepatic metabolite of melatonin, in 19 SMS patients were measured in conjunction with 24 hour sleep studies in 28 SMS patients. Five of the 28 patients did not have the common SMS deletion. To investigate a potential correlation of COPS3 haploinsufficiency and disturbed melatonin excretion, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using two BACs containing coding exons of COPS3.?RESULTS—All SMS patients show significant sleep disturbances when assessed by objective criteria. Abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of aMT6s were observed in all but one SMS patient. Interestingly this patient did not have the common deletion. All patients studied, including the one patient with a normal melatonin rhythm, were haploinsufficient for COPS3.?CONCLUSIONS—Our data indicate a disturbed circadian rhythm in melatonin and document the disturbed sleep pattern in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Our findings suggest that the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of melatonin and altered sleep patterns could be secondary to aberrations in the production, secretion, distribution, or metabolism of melatonin; however, a direct role for COPS3 could not be established.???Keywords: melatonin; circadian rhythms; Smith-Magenis syndrome; COPS3

Potocki, L.; Glaze, D.; Tan, D.; Park, S.; Kashork, C.; Shaffer, L.; Reiter, R.; Lupski, J.

2000-01-01

205

78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35652] Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund...petition filed on August 1, 2012, by Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew...

2013-01-29

206

Analysis of Smith-Purcell BWO with end reflections.  

SciTech Connect

We present a one-dimensional time-dependent analysis and simulation of Smith-Purcell (SP) backward wave oscillator (BWO) taking end reflections and attenuation into account. In the linear regime, we obtain an analytic solution and calculate the start current. The dependence of start current on end reflections is studied taking the attenuation due to finite conductivity into account. In this paper, we have set up Maxwell-Lorentz equations for the one-dimensional time-dependent analysis of SP-BWO including end reflection and attenuation due to finite conductivity. We have obtained a solution in the linear regime and extended the analysis to the nonlinear regime by solving the Maxwell-Lorentz equations numerically. Our analysis can be used for detailed optimization of outcoupled power and start current in SP-BWO taking end reflection and attenuation into account.

Kumar, V.; Kim, K.-J.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS); RRCAT

2006-01-01

207

Pharmacological cognitive enhancers: comment on Smith and Farah (2011).  

PubMed

Smith and Farah (2011) provided a thought-provoking and perhaps deliberately provocative literature review of the use of stimulants to improve cognitive functioning in humans. They addressed the apparently increasing willingness of individuals mostly in the United States to use stimulants for this purpose and then summarized published literature that explores whether stimulants actually improve specific aspects of neurocognitive function. Although calling for more research, they tentatively concluded that stimulants indeed may be "smart pills" for some people under certain circumstances. This comment emphasizes that they never actually defined the desired qualities of a smart pill, seemed to accept the unproven axiom that slight improvements in specific tests constitute meaningful enhancement of intelligence, and failed to consider the possible costs to individuals and to society of promoting the use of this class of medications for such a purpose. PMID:21859176

Elliott, Glen R; Elliott, Mark D

2011-09-01

208

Sophia Smith Collection: Population and Reproductive Health Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Population and Reproductive Health Oral History Project includes accounts of individuals throughout the world who have made valued contributions to the field. The materials here are part of the Women's History Archives at Smith College and the series includes the voices and perspectives of advocates, communication specialists, lawyers, managers, physicians, researchers, and social workers from the period 1965 to 2005. First-time visitors should read the Project History essay and then take a closer look at the several dozen interviews offered here. Those profiled here include the "mother of Asian demography," Mercedes Concepcion, and Lee Minto, the president of Planned Parenthood of Seattle-King County from 1967 to 1993. Other people interviewed here include Daniel E. Pellegrom, Nafis Sadik, and Sara Seims. It's a wonderful archive for persons interested in public health, women's studies, and a range of other crucial areas of academic study.

2013-05-16

209

Mission Specialist Smith is suited and ready for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith signals he is suited up and ready for launch. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

210

Primate polemic: Commentary on Smith, Couchman, and Beran (2014).  

PubMed

Smith, Couchman, and Beran (2014, pp. 115-131) take issue with recent attempts to account for so-called metacognitive behavior in nonhuman animals in terms of simple processes of associative reinforcement learning. Their arguments rely on appeals to unconvincing and equivocal empirical evidence, and a misrepresentation of the nature of associative learning. Although the existing data do not rule out the possibility that animals possess "true" metacognitive abilities, neither do they currently mandate this conclusion. The suggestion that simple mechanisms might give rise to complex behaviors ties in with recent attempts in cognitive and social psychology, and behavioral neuroscience, to explain human behavior in terms of similar, simple mechanisms. As such this perspective should be seen as an opportunity for comparative psychology, not a threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24866001

Le Pelley, Mike E

2014-05-01

211

Special Smith–Purcell radiation from an open resonator array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting new physical phenomenon is uncovered—an open resonator array excited by an electron beam and able to generate a special kind of Smith–Purcell radiation (SPR). Although the frequency and direction satisfy the SPR relation, this is a single frequency radiation in a specific direction that is essentially different from ordinary SPR. The spectral density of this special radiation is also much higher than that of ordinary SPR. By means of theoretical analysis and digital simulations, the radiation mechanism together with its requirements are explored. This radiation may have great influence in modern physics and optics as it offers new ways to carry out coherent radiation generation and beam diagnostics.

Liu, Weihao; Xu, Zhengyuan

2014-07-01

212

ULTRA-SHARP solution of the Smith-Hutton problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly convective scalar transport involving near-discontinuities and strong streamline curvature was addressed in a paper by Smith and Hutton in 1982, comparing several different convection schemes applied to a specially devised test problem. First order methods showed significant artificial diffusion, whereas higher order methods gave less smearing but had a tendency to overshoot and oscillate. Perhaps because unphysical oscillations are more obvious than unphysical smearing, the intervening period has seen a rise in popularity of low order artificially diffusive schemes, especially in the numerical heat transfer industry. The present paper describes an alternate strategy of using non-artificially diffusive high order methods, while maintaining strictly monotonic transitions through the use of simple flux limited constraints. Limited third order upwinding is usually found to be the most cost effective basic convection scheme. Tighter resolution of discontinuities can be obtained at little additional cost by using automatic adaptive stencil expansion to higher order in local regions, as needed.

Leonard, B. P.; Mokhtari, Simin

1992-01-01

213

The analysis of convolutional codes via the extended Smith algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional codes have been the central part of most error-control systems in deep-space communication for many years. Almost all such applications, however, have used the restricted class of (n,1), also known as 'rate 1/n,' convolutional codes. The more general class of (n,k) convolutional codes contains many potentially useful codes, but their algebraic theory is difficult and has proved to be a stumbling block in the evolution of convolutional coding systems. In this article, the situation is improved by describing a set of practical algorithms for computing certain basic things about a convolutional code (among them the degree, the Forney indices, a minimal generator matrix, and a parity-check matrix), which are usually needed before a system using the code can be built. The approach is based on the classic Forney theory for convolutional codes, together with the extended Smith algorithm for polynomial matrices, which is introduced in this article.

Mceliece, R. J.; Onyszchuk, I.

1993-01-01

214

Abnormal bile acids in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.  

PubMed

The urinary bile acids from four patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome were analyzed by continuous flow fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Two types of abnormalities were noted: (1) a deficiency of normal bile acids (cholenoates) and (2) the presence of abnormal species postulated to be cholenoates and cholestenoates. The finding of abnormal urinary bile acids in children with SLO syndrome led to further investigation of the cholesterol metabolic pathway and to the delineation of a new inborn error of metabolism, deficient conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol [Irons et al., 1993]. The abnormalities of urinary bile acids, if confirmed by further structural analyses and studies of additional patients, provide an explanation for various aspects of the gastro-intestinal abnormalities and growth retardation noted in SLO syndrome and suggest that exogenous bile acid replacement may play an important role in the therapy of patients with this syndrome. PMID:8209917

Natowicz, M R; Evans, J E

1994-05-01

215

Analysis of Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers.  

PubMed

We present an analysis of the beam dynamics in a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser (FEL). In this system, an electron beam interacts resonantly with a copropagating surface electromagnetic mode near the grating surface. The surface mode arises as a singularity in the frequency dependence of the reflection matrix. Since the surface mode is confined very close to the grating surface, the interaction is significant only if the electrons are moving very close to the grating surface. The group velocity of the surface mode resonantly interacting with a low-energy electron beam is in the direction opposite to the electron beam. The Smith-Purcell FEL is therefore a backward wave oscillator in which, if the beam current exceeds a certain threshold known as start current, the optical intensity grows to saturation even if no mirrors are employed for feedback. We derive the coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations for describing the interaction between the surface mode and the electron beam, starting from the slowly varying approximation and the singularity in the reflection matrix. In the linear regime, we derive an analytic expression for the start current and calculate the growth rate of optical power in time. The analysis is extended to the nonlinear regime by performing a one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulation. Results of our numerical calculation compare well with the analytic calculation in the linear regime and show saturation behavior in the nonlinear regime. We find that a significant amount of power grows in the surface mode due to this interaction. Several ways to outcouple this power to freely propagating modes are discussed. PMID:16605464

Kumar, Vinit; Kim, Kwang-Je

2006-02-01

216

77 FR 30047 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field, Beaufort, NC AGENCY: Federal...airport property, located at the Michael J Smith Field, be used for aeronautical purposes...acres of airport property at the Michael J Smith Field. The property consists of one...

2012-05-21

217

A local construction of the Smith normal form of a matrix polynomial  

SciTech Connect

We present an algorithm for computing a Smith form with multipliers of a regular matrix polynomial over a field. This algorithm differs from previous ones in that it computes a local Smith form for each irreducible factor in the determinant separately and then combines them into a global Smith form, whereas other algorithms apply a sequence of unimodular operations to the original matrix row by row (or column by column). The performance of the algorithm in exact arithmetic is reported for several test cases.

Wilkening, Jon; Yu, Jia

2008-09-01

218

Smith-Magenis syndrome: clinical evaluation in seven Brazilian patients.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by craniofacial anomalies, neurological and behavioral disorders. SMS is caused by a deletion in region 17p11.2, which includes the RAI1 gene (90% of cases), or by point mutation in the RAI1 gene (10% of cases). Laboratory diagnosis is through cytogenetic analysis by GTG banding and molecular cytogenetic analysis by FISH. We carried out an active search for patients in Associations of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) of São Paulo and genetic centers in Brazil. Forty-eight patients were screened for mental retardation, craniofacial abnormalities and stereotyped behavior with a diagnosis of SMS. In seven of them, chromosome banding at high resolution demonstrated chromosome 17p11.2 deletions, confirmed by FISH. We also made a meta-analysis of 165 cases reported between 1982 and 2010 to compare with the clinical data of our sample. We demonstrated differences between the frequencies of clinical signs among the cases reported and seven Brazilian cases of this study, such as dental anomalies, strabismus, ear infections, deep hoarse voice, hearing loss, and cardiac defects. Although the gold standard for diagnosis of SMS is FISH, we found that the GTG banding technique developed to evaluate chromosome 17 can be used for the SMS diagnosis in areas where the FISH technique is not available. PMID:22057962

Gamba, B F; Vieira, G H; Souza, D H; Monteiro, F F; Lorenzini, J J; Carvalho, D R; Morreti-Ferreira, D

2011-01-01

219

Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief. PMID:20981776

Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

2010-11-15

220

Autism spectrum features in Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a well-defined pattern of anomalies. The majority of cases are due to a common deletion in chromosome 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. In children with SMS, autistic-like behaviors and symptoms start to emerge around 18 months of age. This study included 26 individuals (15 females and 11 males), with a confirmed deletion (del 17p11.2). Parents/caregivers were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) both current and lifetime versions. The results suggest that 90% of the sample had SRS scores consistent with autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, females showed more impairment in total T-scores (P?=?0.02), in the social cognition (P?=?0.01) and autistic mannerisms (P?=?0.002) subscales. The SCQ scores are consistent to show that a majority of individuals may meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders at some point in their lifetime. These results suggest that SMS needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders but also that therapeutic interventions for autism are likely to benefit individuals with SMS. The mechanisms by which the deletion of RAI1 and contiguous genes cause psychopathology remain unknown but they provide a solid starting point for further studies of gene-brain-behavior interactions in SMS and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20981775

Laje, Gonzalo; Morse, Rebecca; Richter, William; Ball, Jonathan; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

2010-11-15

221

STS-103 M.S. Steven Smith during TCDT activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gets ready to practice driving a small armored personnel carrier that is part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who are with the European Space Agency. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

222

1988 Waldo E. Smith Medal to Philip Hauge Abelson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The award of the Waldo E. Smith Medal to Philip H. Abelson honors two men who have devoted their lives to science and particularly to geophysics. Phil Abelson's contributions to science, including his personal research, his remarkable career as editor of Science, and his past presidency of the American Geophysical Union, are well known to all. Perhaps not as well recognized was his role in establishing the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) as the flagship journal of the American Geophysical Union and as the world's premier geophysical chronicle.Having grown accustomed to the some 15,000 page per year volumes of JGR now bending our shelves, if not endangering our buildings, we tend to forget that 30 years ago the situation was far different. During the mid-1950s, as the International Geophysical Year approached, members of AGU could publish either in one of the several specialized journals of organizations, such as the Seismological Society, the American Meteorological Society, and the Society of Exploration Geophysics, or in the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Transactions attempted to serve many functions, including those now provided by Eos. The Journal of Geophysical Research had been maintained as a publication committed largely, but not exclusively, to geomagnetism by the devoted efforts of Merle Tuve.

MacDonald, Gordon J.; Abelson, Philip H.

223

Cognitive and behavioral aspects of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.  

PubMed

The brain's high concentrations of cholesterol make it especially vulnerable to the cholesterol biosynthetic defect that characterizes Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). An attempt to characterize the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of SLOS has identified increased rates of intellectual disability, language and motor developmental delay, repeated self-injury behaviors, sensory hyperreactivity, hyperactivity, affect dysregulation, and sleep disturbances. Some research has suggested that carriers of the gene mutation that results in SLOS display increased risk of suicidal behavior. Cholesterol dysregulation impairs neuroplasticity, which may be a mechanism underlying some of the mentioned abnormalities. Discrete positive effects have been reported with the use of cholesterol supplementation in the treatment of SLOS. Research has been limited by the small number of subjects available, and a limited understanding of lipid metabolism in the brain. Hopefully future research will help clarify the role that cholesterol plays in cognitive and behavioral abnormalities like the ones associated with SLOS. This would accelerate the development of treatments for SLOS, and perhaps also further understanding of non-syndromic psychiatric disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:23042585

Diaz-Stransky, Andrea; Tierney, Elaine

2012-11-15

224

Craniofacial and dental phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess and characterize dental and craniofacial findings in individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Extraoral and intraoral examination including dental and craniofacial radiographs and three-dimensional facial photoimaging were performed for 15 cases between ages 4 and 19 years old. Tooth agenesis (13/15 cases) affecting primarily the mandibular second premolars and taurodontism (13/15 cases) were common findings. Dilaceration of the tooth roots was present in one-third of the cases. At least one dental anomaly was present in each case. These findings occur with greater frequency than in the general population (P < 0.001). An age-related increase in decayed and restored teeth was found. Poorer oral hygiene, increased dental plaque, and increased gingival inflammation progressed from childhood to teenage years. Radiographic findings suggest the prognathic appearance is not caused by excessive mandibular growth. Other findings including protrusion of the mandibular anterior teeth, increased bony chin size, and macroglossia were noted, which may contribute to the prognathic appearance. The high prevalence of dental anomalies (>90%) further expands the phenotype and indicates that dental evaluation may aid in the diagnosis of SMS. PMID:17001665

Tomona, Natalia; Smith, Ann C M; Guadagnini, Jean Pierre; Hart, Thomas C

2006-12-01

225

Cognitive and adaptive behavior profiles in Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. The incidence of this microdeletion syndrome is estimated to be 1 in 25,000 individuals. Persons with SMS have a distinctive neurobehavioral phenotype that is characterized by aggressive and self-injurious behaviors and significant sleep disturbances. From December 1990 through September 1999, 58 persons with SMS were enrolled in a 5-day multidisciplinary clinical protocol. Developmental assessments consisting of cognitive level and adaptive behavior were completed in 57 persons. Most patients functioned in the mild-to-moderate range of mental retardation. In addition, we report that patients with SMS have low adaptive functioning with relative strengths in socialization and relative weakness in daily living skills. These data were analyzed in light of the molecular extent of the microdeletion within 17p11.2. We found that the level of cognitive and adaptive functioning does depend on deletion size, and that a small percentage of SMS patients have cognitive function in the borderline range. PMID:16775514

Madduri, Niru; Peters, Sarika U; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Lupski, James R; Potocki, Lorraine

2006-06-01

226

Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of a National Cemetery, Fort Smith, Arkansas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action is the transfer of land from the National Cemetery Acquisition Commission (NCAC), a local, grassroots, non-profit organization dedicated to the continued operation of the Fort Smith National Cemetery, to the Department of Veterans Affa...

2007-01-01

227

Transmittal of Report of Investigation -- David Smith, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Fish, Wildlife and Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum transmits the results of the Office of Inspector General(OIG) investigation into an allegation that David Smith, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Fish, Wildlife and Parks, inappropriately designated Houston as a port of entry under the Endanger...

2006-01-01

228

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED THREE-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

229

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

230

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

231

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, FOUR-BEDROOM, SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 10, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

232

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

233

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPES 8 AND 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

234

George E. KidderSmith, April 1945, Photograph #1338. VIEW OF BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

George E. Kidder-Smith, April 1945, Photograph #133-8. VIEW OF BUILDING 23, FRONT SIDE FROM ACROSS COURTYARD, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

235

George E. KidderSmith, photographer, April 1945, Photograph #1101. VIEW OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

George E. Kidder-Smith, photographer, April 1945, Photograph #110-1. VIEW OF BUILDING 23, SOUTH SIDE WITH ARCADE, FACING NORTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

236

MORPHOPALYNOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON FAN FERN SCHIZAEA DICHOTOMA (L.) SMITH FROM NEELUM VALLEY, AZAD KASHMIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specimens of Schizaea dichotoma (L.) Smith were collected from Neelum Valley to investigate its morphology, anatomy and spore morphology. The rachis was observed as triangular and dichotomized stele was protostele and \\

GHULAM MURTAZA; REHANA ASGHAR; SYED ABDUL MAJID; ZAHID HUSSAIN MALIK

2008-01-01

237

An optimal control approach to pilot/vehicle analysis and Neal-Smith criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach of Neal and Smith was merged with the advances in pilot modeling by means of optimal control techniques. While confirming the findings of Neal and Smith, a methodology that explicitly includes the pilot's objective in attitude tracking was developed. More importantly, the method yields the required system bandwidth along with a better pilot model directly applicable to closed-loop analysis of systems in any order.

Bacon, B. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

1984-01-01

238

Prenatal Diagnosis of Smith-Magenis Syndrome (del 17p11.2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith-Magenis syndrome is associated with a microdeletion of the short arm of chromosome 17 with phenotypic abnormalities including dysmorphic facies, self-injurious behavior, mental and neurologic disturbances, and congenital cardiac defects. The majority of patients present in mid-childhood or adulthood. We describe a fetus in which the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome was made at 16 weeks of gestation following amniocentesis for

Dafydd G. Thomas; Suzanne M. Jacques; Leigh Anne Flore; Baruch Feldman; Mark I. Evans; Faisal Qureshi

2000-01-01

239

[Sleep disturbances in Smith-Magenis syndrome: treatment with melatonin and beta-adrenergic antagonists].  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome is a generic disorder, characterised by physical, neurological and behavioural features and caused by a 17p11.2 deletion. Patients with this syndrome typically display an inversion of the sleep-wake cycle. In this article we describe clinical developments in a two-year-old girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome whose sleep problems were successfully treated with melatonin and beta-adrenergic blockers. We also mention relevant data obtained in our literature search. PMID:20931486

Van Thillo, A; Devriendt, K; Willekens, D

2010-01-01

240

Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1) using Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling has been investigated. Neither fungi had been examined previously for steroid biotransformation. One novel metabolic product of DHEA (1) transformed with P. griseopurpureum Smith, 15?-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), was reported for the first time. The steroid products were assigned by interpretation of their spectral data such as

Li-Hua Huang; Juan Li; Gong Xu; Xiang-Hua Zhang; Yang-Guang Wang; Ye-Lin Yin; Hong-Min Liu

2010-01-01

241

Experimental Investigation of Smith-Purcell Radiation Focusing by Using the Parabolic Gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smith-Purcell radiation generated by relativistic electrons has been studied experimentally. To investigate the posibility of radiation focusing in the pre-wave zone two types of concave gratings focusing radiation in azimuthal and polar planes have been used. Comparison of radiation characteristics of such gratings with the flat grating ones in the same conditions has showed that application of concave gratings may significantly increase coherent Smith-Purcell radiation spatial density.

Naumenko, G. A.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Sukhikh, L. G.; Popov, Yu. A.

242

Experimental Investigation of Smith-Purcell Radiation Focusing by Using the Parabolic Gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smith-Purcell radiation generated by relativistic electrons has been studied experimentally. To investigate the posibility of radiation focusing in the pre-wave zone two types of concave gratings focusing radiation in azimuthal and polar planes have been used. Comparison of radiation characteristics of such gratings with the flat grating ones in the same conditions has showed that application of concave gratings may significantly increase coherent Smith-Purcell radiation spatial density.

Naumenko, G. A.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Sukhikh, L. G.; Popov, Yu. A.

2010-04-01

243

CUDASW++: optimizing Smith-Waterman sequence database searches for CUDA-enabled graphics processing units  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Smith-Waterman algorithm is one of the most widely used tools for searching biological sequence databases due to its high sensitivity. Unfortunately, the Smith-Waterman algorithm is computationally demanding, which is further compounded by the exponential growth of sequence databases. The recent emergence of many-core architectures, and their associated programming interfaces, provides an opportunity to accelerate sequence database searches using

Yongchao Liu; Douglas L Maskell; Bertil Schmidt

2009-01-01

244

The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries\\u000a of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures\\u000a in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and

Joost J. van MiddendorpGonzalo; Gonzalo M. Sanchez; Alwyn L. Burridge

2010-01-01

245

Immunohistochemical and Microarray Analyses of a Mouse Model for the Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a mental retardation\\/malformation syndrome with behavioral components of autism. It is caused by a deficiency in 3?-hydroxysteroid-?7-reductase (DHCR7), the enzyme required for the terminal enzymatic step of cholesterol biosynthesis. The availability of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome mouse models has made it possible to investigate the genesis of the malformations associated with this syndrome. Dhcr7 gene modification (Dhcr7–\\/–) results

H. Waage-Baudet; W. C. Dunty Jr.; D. B. Dehart; S. Hiller; K. K. Sulik

2005-01-01

246

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

247

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.

1999-03-30

248

Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-velocity Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use ?-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant ?-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (~ 3 × 10–26 cm3 s–1) for dark matter masses <~ 30 GeV annihilating via the b \\bar{b} or ?+?– channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

2014-07-01

249

Building a foundation for suicide prevention: the contributions of Jack C. Smith.  

PubMed

Among his many other accomplishments, Jack C. Smith nurtured the early development of efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address suicide as a public health problem. Smith's vision was to achieve suicide prevention through epidemiology, and his vision shaped the emergence of suicide as a public health issue. With his typical enthusiasm and inherent ability to insinuate himself into critical social networks, Smith spearheaded CDC's initial suicide surveillance activities and established strong partnerships between CDC and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the American Association of Suicidology (AAS). These surveillance activities and relationships were the foundation on which subsequent research and programmatic activities addressing suicide as a public health problem were built at CDC. In this paper we document Smith's role in the development of the public health approach to suicide prevention. We also articulate the conceptual basis for a public health approach to suicide and discuss future directions for public health in the prevention of suicide and suicidal behavior. While Smith also made important contributions to development of CDC efforts to address homicide, his special interest was suicide; therefore, this article will emphasize his contributions to this area. PMID:10863127

Mercy, J A; Rosenberg, M L

2000-07-01

250

Geology, paleoclimatology and the evolution of the kidney: some explorations into the legacy of Homer Smith.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to perform an overview of the relation between kidney development in different species and new developments in plate tectonics and paleoclimatology, which likely had a remarkable effect on evolution. The review follows the ideas of Homer Smith, but adds new data on the subjects which were unknown in Homer Smith's time. The structure and function of the kidney are a result of hundreds of millions of years of evolution, in which adaptations had to be made in response to environmental demands while maintaining the kidney's integrated function. The ideas of Homer Smith have greatly contributed to our understanding of this process, and continue to be of relevance both for researchers as well as physicians working in the field of kidney disease. PMID:22572704

Kooman, Jeroen P

2012-01-01

251

A self-tuning Smith predictor applied to the control of blood pressure: simulation studies.  

PubMed

Significant time-delays occur in the response of blood pressure to drug therapy. The classical Smith predictor algorithm used to eliminate such delays is extended here to the principle of self-tuning under mis-match conditions. Two delay-free controller algorithms are investigated, being a self-tuning pole-placement and a self-tuning PID structure. Extensive simulation studies using the well-known Slate model have demonstrated the good transient performance obtained with this self-tuning Smith principle in various combinations, and under realistic variability of patient dynamics. PMID:2714076

Mansour, N E; Linkens, D A

1989-05-01

252

Reduce the start current of Smith-Purcell backward wave oscillator by sidewall grating  

SciTech Connect

A sidewall grating for the Smith-Purcell device is proposed to enhance the coupling of the optical mode with the electron beam and, consequently, relax the stringent requirements to the electron beam. With the help of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, it has been shown that, comparing with the general grating, the usage of a sidewall grating improves the growth rate and dramatically shortens the time for the device to reach saturation. It is also found that the sidewall grating holds the potential to reduce the start current for the operation of a Smith-Purcell backward wave oscillator.

Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Gao, X.; Yang, Z.; Park, Gun-Sik [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Institute of High-Energy Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-11-26

253

A compound matrix algorithm for the computation of the Smith form of a polynomial matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper is presented a numerical method for the exact reduction of a singlevariable polynomial matrix to its Smith form without finding roots and without applying unimodular transformations. Using the notion of compound matrices, the Smith canonical form of a polynomial matrixM(s)inRnxn[s] is calculated directly from its definition, requiring only the construction of all thep-compound matricesCp(M(s)) ofM(s), 1p?nE This technique produces a stable and accurate numerical algorithm working satisfactorily for any polynomial matrix of any degree.

Mitrouli, M.; Kalogeropoulos, G.

1994-09-01

254

The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries  

PubMed Central

Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice.

Sanchez, Gonzalo M.; Burridge, Alwyn L.

2010-01-01

255

Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

Reynolds, Meredith

2010-01-01

256

76 FR 72675 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A Smith Corona Corporation, Cortland County, New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1799] Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A Smith Corona Corporation, Cortland County, New York Pursuant to...authorizing the establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A at the Smith Corona Corporation plant in Cortland County, New York...

2011-11-25

257

78 FR 16182 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America...the changes in the first inventor to file provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) (First Inventor to File Final Rule). Due to a technical...

2013-03-14

258

37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents... Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents...The effective filing date for a claimed invention in a patent or application for...

2013-07-01

259

Comparing Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations to James Madison's Federalist #10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson which calls upon students to compare Adam Smith's WEALTH OF NATIONS to James Madison's FEDERALIST #10 to see how the ancient concept of individual rights and liberties was used to describe both economic and governmental systems. Presents questions to provide the basis for comparison. (GEA)

Mundell, Jean

1987-01-01

260

Inhibitory effects of Cyrtomium fortunei J. Smith root extract on melanogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the use of crude extracts from natural products for cosmetic applications. Thus, we performed a series of experiments to investigate skin depigmenting properties of a crude extract that was derived from a traditional Korean medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: In this study, the depigmentational potency of Cyrtomium fortunei J. Smith was investigated. The inhibitory effects of the root of Cyrtomium fortunei J. Smith extract on melanin production were evaluated by assessing its tyrosinase inhibitory effects, melanin production-inhibitory properties in melan-a cells and depigmenting ability in brown guinea pig skin. Results: The methanolic extract of the root of Cyrtomium fortunei J. Smith appeared to inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin production in melan-a cells. In addition, this extract exhibited depigmenting ability on Ultra violet-induced hyper pigmentation in brown guinea pig skin. Conclusion: These results suggested that root of Cyrtomium fortunei J. Smith might prove useful in treating skin hyperpigmentation associated with excess sun-exposure.

Choi, Sang Yoon

2013-01-01

261

A new Smith predictor for controlling a process with an integrator and long dead-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Smith predictor for control of a process with an integrator and long dead-time is proposed in this note. The controller decouples the setpoint response from the load response. This simplifies both design and tuning. Simulation results obtained by controlling a typical process show that the new controller has superior performance compared to previous algorithms

K. J. Astrom; C. C. Hang; B. C. Lim

1994-01-01

262

DEVLOPMENT OF A LOW EMITTANCE DC GUN FOR SMITH-PURCELL BWO FEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electron DC gun capable for producing very low emittance beam is now under evaluation of beam qualities at Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University. The DC gun employs a high voltage of 50 kV to extract electrons, which is suitable to drive Smith-Purcell backward wave oscillator free electron laser (BWO FEL) (1). From a result of numerical simulation using

K. Kasamsook; K. Akiyama; K. Nanbu; M. Kawai; F. Hinode; T. Muto; T. Tanaka; M. Yasuda

263

77 FR 51064 - Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-81,475] Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, AR; Notice...the production of expandable polystyrene. The initial investigation...did not shift production of polystyrene to a foreign country, nor...directly competitive with polystyrene. The State has asserted...

2012-08-23

264

A Case Study of Early Development in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to provide an in-depth description of early development in a young child With Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). SMS is a multisystem, neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated With mental retardation that predisposes individuals to a distinct pattern of maladaptive behaviors and other neuropsychological impairments. While there is some research describing outcomes for individuals With SMS in middle

Deborah J. Fidler; Amy D. Philofsky; Susan L. Hepburn

2006-01-01

265

Inversion of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in the Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to determine the circadian rhythm of mela- tonin in the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which causes behavioral problems and sleep disturbance. Study design: Questionnaires, sleep consultations, and sleep diaries were obtained in 20 children with SMS (9 girls, 11 boys aged 4 to 17 years). Actigraphy, electroencephalography, and the circadian variations of plasma melatonin, cortisol, and growth

Marie-Christine de Blois; Bruno Claustrat; Serge Romana; Urs Albrecht; Bruno Delobel; Géraldine Viot; Stanislas Lyonnet; Michel Vekemans; Arnold Munnich

266

Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

2012-01-01

267

Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

2006-01-01

268

Stress in Families of Young Children with Down Syndrome, Williams Syndrome, and Smith-Magenis Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared stress levels in families of children with Down syndrome (DS), Williams syndrome (WS), or Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Found that DS families experienced less Pessimism than others and less Parent and Family Problems than SMS families. Strongest predictors of Parent and Family Problems were maladaptive behavior in SMS, younger age in DS,…

Fidler, Deborah J.; Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elizabeth M.

2000-01-01

269

Physical mapping of microdeletions of the chromosome 17 short arm associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used probes from the juxtacentromeric region of the chromosome 17 short arm to map three microdeletions in patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome. The commonclinical findings were: speech delay with behavioural problems associated with broad flat midface, brachycephaly, broad nasal bridge and brachydactyly. We demonstrated, using Southern blot analysis (loss of heterozygosity and gene dosage), that all patients were deleted for

Anne Moncla; Luciana Piras; Oswaldo Fernando Arbex; Françoise Muscatelli; Marie-Geneviève Mattei; Jean-François Mattei; Michel Fontes

1993-01-01

270

A Case Study of Early Development in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to provide an in-depth description of early development in a young child with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). SMS is a multisystem, neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with mental retardation that predisposes individuals to a distinct pattern of maladaptive behaviors and other neuropsychological impairments.…

Fidler, Deborah J.; Philofsky, Amy D.; Hepburn, Susan L.

2006-01-01

271

Characterization of Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adults with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence and severity of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in 29 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome, a genetic disorder usually involving moderate mental retardation. Findings confirmed the near universal presence of SIB in this population. The overall prevalence of SIB increased with age. Number of types of SIB…

Finucane, Brenda; Dirrigl, Karen Haines; Simon, Elliot W.

2001-01-01

272

Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below

Staci C. Martin; Pamela L. Wolters; Ann C. M. Smith

2006-01-01

273

Brief Report: Cognitive and Behavioral Profiles in Persons with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the cognitive and behavioral profiles in 10 individuals (ages 14-51) with Smith-Magenis syndrome. Results found the individuals showed significant relative weaknesses in sequential processing and strengths in naming a partially completed drawing, identifying things, and in reading/decoding. Behavioral findings indicated…

Dykens, Elisabeth M.; And Others

1997-01-01

274

Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

1998-01-01

275

Inversion of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in the Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to determine the circadian rhythm of melatonin in the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which causes behavioral problems and sleep disturbance. Study design: Questionnaires, sleep consultations, and sleep diaries were obtained in 20 children with SMS (9 girls, 11 boys aged 4 to 17 years). Actigraphy, electroencephalography, and the circadian variations of plasma melatonin, cortisol, and growth hormone

Hélène De Leersnyder; Marie-Christine de Blois; Bruno Claustrat; Serge Romana; Urs Albrecht; Jürgen-Christoph von Kleist-Retzow; Bruno Delobel; Géraldine Viot; Stanislas Lyonnet; Michel Vekemans; Arnold Munnich

2001-01-01

276

Gain Adaptive Smith Predictor for Congestion Control in Robust Active Queue Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active queue management (AQM) policies provide an early indication of incipient congestion to the source. In this paper, in terms of Lyapunov asymptotic stability principle, a robust AQM algorithm based on the gain adaptive Smith predictor and PI controller (GAS-PI algorithm) is designed by using the linearized TCP model with time delays. With the simple structure, good robustness and better

Shaohua Xiang; Bugong Xu; Sai Wu; Dazhou Peng

2006-01-01

277

Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1) using Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling has been investigated. Neither fungi had been examined previously for steroid biotransformation. One novel metabolic product of DHEA (1) transformed with P. griseopurpureum Smith, 15?-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), was reported for the first time. The steroid products were assigned by interpretation of their spectral data such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and HR-MS spectroscopy. P. griseopurpureum Smith was proven to be remarkably efficient in oxidation of the DHEA (1) into androst-4-en-3,17-dione (2). The strain was also observed to yield different monooxygenases to introduce hydroxyl groups at C-7?, -14?, and -15? positions of steroids. Preference for Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to lactonize D ring and oxidation of the 3?-alcohol to the 3-ketone were observed in both incubations. The strain of P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling catalyzed the steroid 1 to generate both testololactone 3, and d-lactone product with 3?-hydroxy-5-en moiety 8. In addition, the strain promoted hydrogenation of the C-5 and C-6 positions, leading to the formation of 3?-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-5?-androstan-3,17-dione (9). The biotransformation pathways of DHEA (1) with P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling and P. griseopurpureum Smith have been investigated, respectively. Possible metabolic pathways of DHEA (1) were proposed. PMID:20600202

Huang, Li-Hua; Li, Juan; Xu, Gong; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Yang-Guang; Yin, Ye-Lin; Liu, Hong-Min

2010-12-12

278

Another Look at the Glass and Smith Study on Class Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most influential studies affecting educational policy is Glass and Smith's 1978 study, "Meta-Analysis of Research on the Relationship of Class-Size and Achievement." Since its publication, educational policymakers have referenced it frequently as the justification for reducing class size. While teachers and the public had long believed…

Phelps, James L.

2011-01-01

279

Celebrating the Past, Ensuring the Future--A Profile of President Glenn Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I had no idea how to convince someone to hire me," recalls APPA President, Glen Smith. His first interview was with Bryn Mawr College, a small, prestigious private college with Quaker roots, located 12 miles west of Philadelphia. That was in 1997, after 24 years in the Naval Civil Engineer Corps, and he still remembers a certain…

Blumenthal, Anita

2013-01-01

280

ESTIMATION OF SURPLUS BIOMASS OF CLUPEIDS IN SMITH MOUNTAIN LAKE, VIRGINIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Mean annual estimates of surplus biomass of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia, were calculated using data on the biomass, growth, and mortality of each clupeid species. Surplus biomass, defined as production over a...

281

EFFECTS OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS ON THE BLOOD OF KUWAIT MULLETS 'LIZA MACROLEPS' (SMITH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Haemopathological changes attributed to heavy metal poisoning observed in blood smears of Liza macrolepis (Smith) taken after exposures of 96 h to graded doses (mg/l) of copper (0.11-1.80), lead (1.15-18.36), and mercury (0.04-0.59), in a flow-through marine bioassay system. In g...

282

Sally L. Smith: A Genius at Seeing the Potential in People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What this author admired most about Sally Smith was the fact that she was a visionary about people and what they could accomplish. She saw more potential in a person--young or old--than anybody or even they themselves, frankly, had ever even considered possible. She was a genius at seeing the potential in people, expecting them to find it in…

Edgerton, Mary Allen

2010-01-01

283

Sally Smith's Arts-Based and Integrated Curricular Approach to Educating Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1967, The Lab School of Washington (LSW) has been educating students with learning disabilities using an arts-based curriculum for over 50 years. Sally Smith originally started the school out of frustration with the inability of traditional educational environments to reach her intelligent, but learning disabled, young son and others…

Durham, Jennifer

2010-01-01

284

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

285

Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

2011-01-01

286

Historic Structure Report, Commissary Building, Architectural Data Section Fort Smith National Historic Site, Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report deals with the commissary building at Fort Smith, Arkansas. Erected in 1846, it had a variety of uses until 1910, when the structure was converted to a museum featuring relics related to local history. The purpose of this study was to make recomm...

N. M. Souder

1973-01-01

287

Navigation Conditions in Fort Smith Reach, Arkansas River. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fort Smith reach of the Arkansas River, located in the Lock and Dam No. 13 pool, includes the mouth of the Poteau River and is crossed by two bridges 850 ft apart. An undistorted 1:120-scale, semifixed-bed model reproducing approximately 4 miles of th...

J. J. Franco L. J. Shows

1968-01-01

288

OCLC Looks to an Online Future: An Interview with K. Wayne Smith.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an interview with K. Wayne Smith, chief executive officer of OCLC, that focuses on OCLC's online reference services. Topics include the ratio between technical and online reference services, how OCLC fits into the online industry, telecommunications, electronic publishing, pricing, database tape leases, and CD-ROM. (EAM)

Arnold, Stephen

1993-01-01

289

CUDA compatible GPU cards as efficient hardware accelerators for Smith-Waterman sequence alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Searching for similarities in protein and DNA databases has become a routine procedure in Molecular Biology. The Smith-Waterman algorithm has been available for more than 25 years. It is based on a dynamic programming approach that explores all the possible alignments between two sequences; as a result it returns the optimal local alignment. Unfortunately, the computational cost is very

Svetlin A Manavski; Giorgio Valle

2008-01-01

290

CENTER DIRECTOR RICHARD SMITH AND OTHER PERSONNEL OBSERVE SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET HO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CENTER DIRECTOR RICHARD SMITH AND OTHER PERSONNEL OBSERVE SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET HO KSC-383C-2860.02 P-16225,ARCHIVE-03951 Spacelab 1 module and its attached pallet are hoisted out of the payload canister, over the work stands and into the cargo bay of the Columbia.

1983-01-01

291

Difference in Muscle Activation between the Flat Barbell Bench and the Smith Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in muscle activation between the flat barbell bench and the Smith Machine bench. This study will be done at Valparaiso University on the campus at the fitness center. The participants will consist of two freshmen males who were active in high school activities but are now inactive with respect to weight

Alex Cikanek

2011-01-01

292

Smith College School for Social Work and Combat?Related Trauma: Allegiance, Scholarship, and Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smith College School for Social Work (SCSSW) was founded for the purpose of treating soldiers returning from World War I who suffered from shell shock, conditions that are now described as combat?related trauma. As history evolved, America found itself embroiled in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and contemporary conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. With each

Jamie L. Loveland

2009-01-01

293

A unified Smith predictor approach for power system damping control design using remote signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief illustrates a control design procedure for handling time delays encountered in transmitting the remote signals in power systems. A unified Smith predictor (USP) approach is used to formulate the control design problem in the standard mixed sensitivity framework. The solution to the problem is sought numerically using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) with additional pole-placement constraints. The predictor based

Rajat Majumder; Balarko Chaudhuri; Bikash C. Pal; Qing-Chang Zhong

2005-01-01

294

3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of the Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 1870 SHOWS CHURCH WITH SESSIONS HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church Session House, State Route 10 & Octoraro Road (Sadsbury Township), Parkesburg, Chester County, PA

295

Operation regimes of Cerenkov-Smith-Purcell free electron lasers and T.W. amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified linear analysis which describes free electron lasers based on Cerenkov and Smith-Purcell effects and T.W. amplifiers. In the single electron interaction regime the analysis reproduces the exponential and non exponential (interferential) gain expressions. It is shown that the first expression is dominant and that considerable increase in the gain can be attained by using electron beams

Avraham Gover; Zohar Livni

1978-01-01

296

Discovery and antitumor activities of constituents from Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith rhizomes  

PubMed Central

Background Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith is an important Chinese herbal medicine because of its biological functions. However, systematic and comprehensive studies on the phytochemicals from Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith and their bioactivity are limited. Results Using the bioassay-guided technique, the ethyl acetate and n-BuOH extracts of the rhizomes of Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith were shown to exhibit good antitumor activities, consequently leading to the isolation of 23 compounds. All compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated on tumor cells MGC-803, PC3, and A375 in vitro by MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay, and the results showed that pimpinellin (3) had potent cytotoxic activities against the three cell lines, with the IC50 values of 14.4?±?0.3??M, 20.4?±?0.5??M, and 29.2?±?0.6??M, respectively. The mechanism of the antitumor action indicated that pimpinellin inhibited the growth of MGC-803 cells via the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, with apoptosis ratio of 27.44% after 72?h of treatment at 20??M. Conclusions This study suggests that most of the compounds from the roots of Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith could inhibit the growth of human carcinoma cells. Moreover, pimpinellin inhibited the growth of tumor cells via the induction of tumor cell apoptosis.

2013-01-01

297

Behavior of Smith predictor in teleoperation systems with modeling and delay time errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, behavior of teleoperation systems with modeling error and error of delay time in Smith predictor is discussed. In teleoperation systems usually there is a large distance between master system and slave system. In this case, there is always an error in modeling of system. The condition for stability of teleoperation systems with modeling error is derived by

S. Ganjefar; H. Momeni; F. Janabi Sharifi; M. T. Hamidi Beheshti

2003-01-01

298

Pathways: Possibilities for Reform and Social Justi ce A Reaction Paper to Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

From Smith's paper, I understand him to be raising a number of points. First, that the pathways that students take through mathematics should be meaningful and lead to productive lives in the new labour markets. He sug gests that the old forms of mathematics teaching are not as effective as they s hould be and that there is a need

Robyn Zevenbergen

299

Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

Furlong, John

2002-01-01

300

Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries’ (2001) recent analysis of the ways in which two competing ideologies are currently being employed in the United States in support of teacher education reform. In England over the last 15 years, teacher education has been fundamentally reformed and the arguments of both the “deregulators” and the “professionalizers” have been

John Furlong

2002-01-01

301

Headed in the Right Direction: A Commentary on Yoshida and Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yoshida and Smith (this issue) provide one of the first attempts to overcome the most serious impediment to the use of head-mounted eye trackers with infants: Except in rare cases they are not light enough to be worn on an infant's head, or the infant does not tolerate looking through a half-silvered mirror that is hanging on a rigid stalk…

Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

302

OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTH CORNER CAMP H.M. SMITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTH CORNER - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

303

BEDROOM 2. VIEW FACING EAST CAMP H.M. SMITH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEDROOM 2. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

304

BATH. VIEW FACING NORTH CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BATH. VIEW FACING NORTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

305

UTILITY ROOM. VIEW FACING WEST CAMP H.M. SMITH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UTILITY ROOM. VIEW FACING WEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

306

BEDROOM 2. VIEW FACING EAST CAMP H.M. SMITH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEDROOM 2. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

307

OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTH CAMP H.M. SMITH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

308

BEDROOM 3. VIEW FACING EAST CAMP H.M. SMITH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEDROOM 3. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

309

Asymptotics of the Hilbert-Smith norm of curve operators in TQFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying standard techniques from Toeplitz operator theory, we analyze the asymptotics of the Hilbert-Smith norms of the TQFT operators coming from isotopy classes of one dimensional oriented submanifolds on a closed oriented surface. We thereby obtain a Toeplitz operator interpretation and generalization of the asymptotic formula obtained recently by Marche and Narimannejad.

Jorgen Ellegaard Andersen

2006-01-01

310

Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors show that evanescent tunneling transmission of effective surface plasmon polaritons between two counterstreaming electron beams noticeably increases Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) intensity by about two orders of magnitude as well as lower its transition threshold from a spontaneous emission to a stimulated one. An emission mechanism of the superradiant SPR is theoretically analyzed by the dielectric conversion of the

Young-Min Shin; Jin-Kyu So; Kyu-Ha Jang; Jong-Hyo Won; Anurag Srivastava; Gun-Sik Park

2007-01-01

311

Temperature effects on bruise darkness of ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Jonathan’ apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruise darkness of apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and’ Jonathan') was examined in relation to fruit temperature (0, 10, and 20°C) at time of injury, and following 4?day storage at 0, 10, or 20°C. The temperature of ‘Golden Delicious’ at bruising had no effect on bruise darkness but for the other cultivars, colder fruit temperatures

G. E. Thomson; D. F. Cotter; P. A. Daly

1996-01-01

312

VARIATIONS ON A THEME: THE THREE DIRECTORS OF THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE J.L.B. SMITH INSTITUTE OF ICHTHYOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author, having known the first three Directors, Professors J.L.B. Smith, M.M. Smith and M.N. Bruton personally, was asked for a account of his recollections and impressions. This account is therefore anecdotal rather than historical. He first knew Professor J.L.B. Smith when an undergraduate, at Rhodes University 194–1948. though he was never Professor Smith's student. In 1972 during Professor M.M.

P. B. N. Jackson

1996-01-01

313

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2011-12-05

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2012-08-01

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2013-07-02

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2013-08-02

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2011-06-02

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2013-09-06

319

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2010-06-10

320

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2013-12-03

321

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2010-01-04

322

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2010-11-03

323

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2011-04-05

324

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2010-09-14

325

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2012-01-03

326

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2012-05-02

327

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2011-09-01

328

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2013-04-01

329

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2012-09-05

330

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2013-11-04

331

76 FR 24501 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...  

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2011-05-02

332

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2013-05-01

333

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2010-03-01

334

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2013-02-04

335

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2010-08-02

336

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2013-09-30

337

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2010-02-01

338

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2012-03-02

339

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2012-12-03

340

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2010-05-14

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2012-06-01

342

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2012-04-06

343

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2012-11-20

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2011-07-12

345

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2011-01-03

346

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2012-07-03

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2012-10-03

348

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2013-03-04

349

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2013-06-04

350

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2010-04-02

351

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2012-02-01

352

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2011-08-02

353

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2010-07-07

354

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2011-02-03

355

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2011-11-03

356

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2013-01-03

357

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2010-12-03

358

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2010-10-13

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2011-10-03

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2011-03-03

361

Observation of copious emission at the fundamental frequency by a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with sidewalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment at microwave frequencies confirms the recent prediction that a Smith-Purcell [S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953)] free-electron laser equipped with sidewalls can emit radiation at the frequency of the surface wave. The power output is considerably greater than for the previously observed emission at the second harmonic, in agreement with three-dimensional simulations. The dependence of frequency on beam energy and emission angle is in good agreement with three-dimensional theory and simulations. Provided that a reduction in scale can be achieved, a path is open to coherent Smith-Purcell radiation at terahertz frequency.

Gardelle, J.; Modin, P.; Donohue, J. T.

2012-03-01

362

Analysis of augmented aircraft flying qualities through application of the Neal-Smith criterion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neal-Smith criterion is examined for possible applications in the evaluation of augmented fighter aircraft flying qualities. Longitudinal and lateral flying qualities are addressed. Based on the application of several longitudinal flying qualities data bases, revisions are proposed to the original criterion. Examples are given which show the revised criterion to be a good discriminator of pitch flying qualities. Initial results of lateral flying qualities evaluation through application of the Neal-Smith criterion are poor. Lateral aircraft configurations whose flying qualities are degraded by roll ratcheting effects map into the Level 1 region of the criterion. A third dimension of the criterion for flying qualities specification is evident. Additional criteria are proposed to incorporate this dimension into the criterion structure for flying qualities analysis.

Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.

1981-01-01

363

?1-adrenergic antagonists improve sleep and behavioural disturbances in a circadian disorder, Smith-Magenis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognisable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. Patients have a phase shift of their circadian rhythm of melatonin with a paradoxical diurnal secretion of the hormone. Serum melatonin levels and day-night behaviour were studied in nine SMS children (aged 4 to 17 years) given acebutolol, a selective ?1-adrenergic antagonist (10 mg/kg early in the morning). Cardiac examination, serum melatonin, motor activity recordings, and sleep diaries were monitored before and after drug administration. The present study shows that a single morning dose of acebutolol suppressed the inappropriate secretion of melatonin in SMS. A significant improvement of inappropriate behaviour with increased concentration, delayed sleep onset, increased hours of sleep, and delayed waking were also noted. These results suggest that ?1-adrenergic antagonists help to manage hyperactivity, enhance cognitive performance, and reduce sleep disorders in SMS.???Keywords: Smith-Magenis syndrome; circadian rhythms; melatonin

De Leersnyder, H.; de Blois, M.-C.; Vekemans, M.; Sidi, D.; Villain, E.; Kindermans, C.; Munnich, A.

2001-01-01

364

Smith Institute: New and Emerging Themes in Industrial and Applied Mathematics (NETIAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New and Emerging Themes in Industrial and Applied Mathematics (NETIAM) is a project of the Smith Institute and supported by the European Commission's programme in New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST). Starting in March 2004 and lasting for 15 months, the project brings together researchers from the Smith Institute, Fraunhofer-ITWM in Germany, the Technical University of Eindhoven in The Netherlands, the University of Firenze in Italy and Ventspils University College in Latvia. Using mathematical frameworks, they will identify ground-breaking research directions in four themes: modelling the business environment; modelling criminality in the social environment; visualization and simulation of materials; and complexity at the molecular level. Thematic Workshops "will exploit the brainstorming capabilities of the participants in a facilitated think-tank environment" and a final plenary workshop will report the results of their work. The website provides additional information on the project and invites researchers to join in the Thematic Workshops.

2006-01-06

365

Estimation of Smith-Purcell radiation in laser-plasmas interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an estimation of Smith-Purcell Radiation by electrons generated in laser-plasmas interaction, passing near a metallic grating surface. The radiation wavelengths change with different grating periods and emission angles. The output photon numbers are also estimated. This effect could be developed into a new kind of tuneable table-top radiation source and also a diagnostics for the electron transport in

Z. Jin; Z. L. Chen; R. Kodama

2008-01-01

366

A modified Smith predictor for controlling a process with an integrator and long dead-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the Smith predictor for controlling higher-order processes with integral action and long dead-time is proposed. The controller has a quite simple structure which is obtained based on the model consisting of an ideal integrator and dead-time and which includes only three tuning parameters: the dead-time, velocity gain of the model, and the desired time constant of the

M. R. Matausek; Aleksandar D. Micic

1996-01-01

367

Point and interval estimations of circadian melatonin ecphasia in Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inferential statistical quantification of chronomes (time structures) in the range of everyday physiology has earlier revealed changes affecting the circadian amplitude of melatonin in the absence of changes in the chronome-adjusted mean value (MESOR) or in the acrophase. A chrono-meta-analysis of published data on patients with the Smith–Magenis syndrome herein quantifies the average extent of shift in the acrophase

Germaine Cornélissen; Franz Halberg; Roberto Tarquini; Federico Perfetto; Roberto Salti; Giacomo Laffi; Kuniaki Otsuka

2003-01-01

368

Systemic growth hormone corrects sleep disturbance in Smith–Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Sleep problems such as nocturnal awakening and abnormality in the percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are frequently observed in patients with SMS, and several medications have been administered to improve the sleep disorders. Here we present a female case of SMS

Masahiro Itoh; Masaharu Hayashi; Takeshi Hasegawa; Masayuki Shimohira; Jun Kohyama

2004-01-01

369

?1-adrenergic antagonists improve sleep and behavioural disturbances in a circadian disorder, Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognisable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. Patients have a phase shift of their circadian rhythm of melatonin with a paradoxical diurnal secretion of the hormone. Serum melatonin levels and day-night behaviour were studied in nine SMS children (aged 4 to 17 years) given acebutolol, a selective ?1-adrenergic antagonist (10

Hélène De Leersnyder; Marie-Christine de Blois; Michel Vekemans; Daniel Sidi; Elisabeth Villain; Catherine Kindermans; Arnold Munnich

2001-01-01

370

Anatomical and functional brain imaging evidence of lenticulo-insular anomalies in Smith Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. The neurobehavioral phenotype of SMS includes mental retardation, speech delay, hyperactivity, attention deficit, decreased sensitivity to pain, self-injury, aggressive behavior and sleep disturbance. Therefore, we performed anatomical and functional brain imaging studies in five SMS boys. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

N Boddaert; H De Leersnyder; M Bourgeois; A Munnich; F Brunelle; M Zilbovicius

2004-01-01

371

Circadian rhythm disorder in a rare disease: Smith–Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome, caused by interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. The SMS phenotype include distinctive facial features, developmental delay and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The patients present major sleep disturbances ascribed to a phase shift of their circadian rhythm of melatonin with a paradoxical diurnal secretion of the hormone. Treatment with morning beta-blockers and evening

Hélène De Leersnyder; Bruno Claustrat; Arnold Munnich; Alain Verloes

2006-01-01

372

Quantification by flow cytometry of chromosome-17 deletions in Smith-Magenis syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used bivariate flow karyotyping to quantify the deletions involving chromosome 17 in sixteen patients with Smith-Magenis\\u000a syndrome (SMS). The fluorescence intensities of mitotic chromosomes stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin were quantified\\u000a in a dual-beam flow cytometer. For each patient, the position of the peak representing the deleted chromosome 17 was compared\\u000a to those of the normal homologs

Barbara J. Trask; Heather Mefford; Ger van den Engh; Hillary F. Massa; Ramesh C. Juyal; Lorraine Potocki; Brenda Finucane; Dianne N. Abuelo; David R. Witt; Ellen Magenis; Antonio Baldini; Frank Greenberg; James R. Lupski; Pragna I. Patel

1996-01-01

373

Single-phase operation of a three-phase induction generator with the Smith connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-phase operation of a three-phase induction generator with the Smith connection (SMIG) is analyzed using the method of symmetrical components. It is shown that, despite the asymmetrical nature of the winding connection, balanced currents can be made to flow in the three-phase stator winding. The conditions for achieving perfect phase balance are carefully deduced. With the aid of a phasor

T. F. Chan; Loi Lei Lai

2002-01-01

374

Modelling the biological variance of the yellow aspect of Granny smith apple colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The yellow aspect of colour is usually not considered for produce with a green-to-red or a green-to-yellow transition upon ripening. The magnitude of change is simply too small and, additionally, masked by a large variation. The colour of Granny Smith apples, harvested from three orchards at two stages of maturity, was measured individually using the CIE L*a*b* system during

L. M. M. Tijskens; Rob E Schouten; Pawel J Konopacki; Janez Hribar; M. Simcic

2010-01-01

375

Water-quality data for Smith and Bybee Lakes, Portland, Oregon, June to November, 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality monitoring at Smith and Bybee Lakes included measurement of water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and percent saturation, pH, specific conductance, lake depth, alkalinity, dissolved carbon, total dissolved solids, secchi disk light transparency, nutrients, and chlorophyll a and b. In addition, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrate populations were identified and enumerated. Lakebed sediment was analyzed for particle size, volatile solids, immediate oxygen demand, trace metals, total organic carbon, nutrients, and organic constituents. (USGS)

Clifton, Daphne G.

1983-01-01

376

Cholesterol storage defect in RSH\\/Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RSH\\/Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation\\/mental retardation syndrome caused by an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis. Mutations in the 3?-hydroxysteroid ?7-reductase gene result in impaired enzymatic reduction of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol. Cells obtain cholesterol by either de novo synthesis or from exogenous sources by the binding and uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Because de novo

Christopher A. Wassif; Donna Vied; Maria Tsokos; William E. Connor; Robert D. Steiner; Forbes D. Porter

2002-01-01

377

Effect of the impregnated solute on air drying and rehydration of apple slices ( cv. Granny Smith)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple (cv. Granny Smith) slices (8mm thickness, 20mm internal diameter, 64mm external diameter) were vacuum impregnated with solutions of glucose, sucrose and trehalose. These were hot air dried and rehydrated in solutions of the same solutes. For impregnating solutions, aw was 0.96 whereas for rehydration aw was 0.99. Throughout dehydration (45°C) the water effective diffusion coefficient in the product’s liquid

L. Atarés; A. Chiralt; C. González-Martínez

2009-01-01

378

Anti-hypersensitive and anti-inflammatory activities of water extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts from traditional herbs have long been used in the treatment of a variety of acute and\\/or chronic diseases in many countries. Zingiber zerumbet Smith extract has been reported to have anti-inflammatory potential, especially in asthmatic patients. The aim of this study is to examine the capacity of water extract of Zingiber zerumbet (CC-ZWE) in protecting the lungs by

Hso-Chi Chaung; Chi-Tang Ho; Tzou-Chi Huang

2008-01-01

379

Design and implementation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm on the CUDA-compatible GPU  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a design and implementation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm accelerated on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Our method is implemented using compute unified device architecture (CUDA), which is available on the nVIDIA GPU. The method efficiently uses on-chip shared memory to reduce the data amount being transferred between off-chip memory and processing elements in the GPU. Furthermore, it

Yuma Munekawa; Fumihiko Ino; Kenichi Hagihara

2008-01-01

380

Congestion control in high-speed communication networks using the Smith principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed communication networks are characterized by large bandwidth-delay products. This may have an adverse impact on the stability of closed-loop congestion control algorithms. In this paper, classical control theory and Smith's principle are proposed as key tools for designing an e!ective and simple congestion control law for high-speed data networks. Mathematical analysis shows that the proposed control law guarantees stability

Saverio Mascolo

1999-01-01

381

[Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum].  

PubMed

Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Pará State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. PMID:19488521

Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

2009-01-01

382

Residual Gray Predictive Adaptive Smith-PID Control and Its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superheated steam temperature system has the characteristics of high inertia, large delay and time-varying parameters. In this paper, adaptive Smith-PID based on residual gray prediction is used to deal with these problems. Adaline neural network is used to identify the object's gain and delay in order to overcome the defectiveness of time-varying parameters. Residual gray prediction module in the

Guo Peng

2008-01-01

383

BLAZETM: An Implementation of the Smith-Waterman Sequence Comparison Algorithm on a Massively Parallel Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented the Smith and Waterman dynamic programming algorithm on the massively parallel MP1104 computer from MasPar and compared its ability to detect remote protein sequence homologies with that of other commonly used database search algorithms. Dynamic programming algorithms are normally too computer intensive to permit full databases search, however on the MP1104 a search of the Swiss-Prot database

Douglas L. Brutlag; Jean-pierre Dautricourt; Ron Diaz; Jeff Fier; Bruce Moxon; Richard Stamm

1993-01-01

384

Additional dates of Sir Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa.  

PubMed

We update the collation of the dates of publication of Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa provided by Waterhouse (1880) and Barnard (1950, 1952). In the case of nine parts, we are able to provide more accurate dates of publication (including day-dates for seven of these parts). For workers of invertebrate taxonomy, we provide an accurate date of publication for W. S. Macleay's volume on Annulosa.  PMID:24870491

Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

2014-01-01

385

77 FR 442 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1...Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce....

2012-01-05

386

76 FR 59115 - Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No. PTO-P-2011-0049] Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce....

2011-09-23

387

William Peirce and E.A. Cappelen Smith and their amazing copper converting machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the story of how technology advances allowed the copper industry to realize its full potential. The Peirce-Smith Converting Centennial symposium, to be held at the TMS 2009 Annual Meeting, will celebrate the contributions of two men, William Peirce and E.A.C. Smith, in these advances. However, theirs is representative of a larger story: New, simpler technology releasing the stranglehold of older, more complicated technology, new developments in vessel configuration and design finding alternate routes around dead ends in operability, advances in technique and concepts removing roadblocks of cycle time and capacity, and overall innovation opening up vast new reserves around the world to those companies willing to embrace those improvements. Our story is also one of personalities, stubborn smeltermen versus the innovators, those inside the industry versus those from outside. It is a story of an initial borrowing from the steel industry, but also Peirce and Smith, from the refining end of the copper business, taking the ideas of Baggaley from Pittsburgh’s steel and air-brake industry, who built on what Hollway, Manhès and David, Douglas, and others had done in smelter tests, further to compete with the previous primacy and closely held expertise of the copper smeltermen in Wales. The photos presented illustrate these innovations.

Southwick, Larry M.

2008-10-01

388

Acceleration of the Smith-Waterman algorithm using single and multiple graphics processors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding regions of similarity between two very long data streams is a computationally intensive problem referred to as sequence alignment. Alignment algorithms must allow for imperfect sequence matching with different starting locations and some gaps and errors between the two data sequences. Perhaps the most well known application of sequence matching is the testing of DNA or protein sequences against genome databases. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is a method for precisely characterizing how well two sequences can be aligned and for determining the optimal alignment of those two sequences. Like many applications in computational science, the Smith-Waterman algorithm is constrained by the memory access speed and can be accelerated significantly by using graphics processors (GPUs) as the compute engine. In this work we show that effective use of the GPU requires a novel reformulation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm. The performance of this new version of the algorithm is demonstrated using the SSCA#1 (Bioinformatics) benchmark running on one GPU and on up to four GPUs executing in parallel. The results indicate that for large problems a single GPU is up to 45 times faster than a CPU for this application, and the parallel implementation shows linear speed up on up to 4 GPUs.

Khajeh-Saeed, Ali; Poole, Stephen; Blair Perot, J.

2010-06-01

389

Smith degradation, an efficient method for the preparation of cycloastragenol from astragaloside IV.  

PubMed

Cycloastragenol (CA) is the genuine sapogenin of astragaloside IV (ASI). This study focuses on the preparation of CA from ASI. Five hydrolysis methods were compared including H2SO4 hydrolysis, HCl hydrolysis, two-phase acid hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis, and Smith degradation. Seven hydrolysis products were purified, and five of them were identified as new compounds. The results indicated that Smith degradation was the most effective approach to prepare CA. In contrast, mild acid hydrolysis produced CA at a low yield, accompanied with the artificial sapogenin astragenol. The other three acid hydrolysis methods mainly produced astragenol. Furthermore, the reaction conditions for Smith degradation were optimized as follows: ASI was dissolved in 60% MeOH-H2O solution, oxidized with 5 equiv. NaIO4 for 12h, followed by reduction with 3 equiv. NaBH4 for 4h, and finally acidified with 1M H2SO4 at pH2 for 24h. Under the optimal conditions, CA could be prepared from ASI at a yield of 84.4%. PMID:24613799

Feng, Lin-Min; Lin, Xiong-Hao; Huang, Fei-Xia; Cao, Jing; Qiao, Xue; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

2014-06-01

390

The Smith Cloud and its dark matter halo: survival of a Galactic disc passage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under conservative assumptions about the Galaxy, the derived velocity of the Smith Cloud indicates that it will have undergone at least one passage of the Galactic disc. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we examine the present-day structure of the Smith Cloud and find that a dark matter supported cloud is able to reproduce the observed present-day neutral hydrogen mass, column density distribution and morphology. In this case, the dark matter halo becomes elongated owing to the tidal interaction with the Galactic disc. Clouds in models neglecting dark matter confinement are destroyed upon disc passage, unless the initial cloud mass is well in excess of what is observed today. We then determine integrated flux upper limits to the gamma-ray emission around such a hypothesized dark matter core in the Smith Cloud. No statistically significant core or extended gamma-ray emission are detected down to a 95 per cent confidence level upper limit of 1.4 × 10-10 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 1-300 GeV energy range. For the derived distance of 12.4 kpc, the Fermi upper limits set the first tentative constraints on the dark matter cross-sections annihilating into ?+?- and bbar{b} for a high-velocity cloud.

Nichols, Matthew; Mirabal, Nestor; Agertz, Oscar; Lockman, Felix J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

2014-08-01

391

RAI1 is a novel polyglutamine encoding gene that is deleted in Smith–Magenis syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human chromosomal band 17p11.2 is a genetically unstable interval. It has been shown to be deleted in patients suffering from Smith–Magenis syndrome. Previous efforts of physical and transcriptional mapping in 17p11.2 and subsequent genomic sequencing of the candidate interval allowed the identification of new genes that might be responsible for the Smith–Magenis syndrome. In this report, one of these

Peter Seranski; Céline Hoff; Uwe Radelof; Steffen Hennig; Richard Reinhardt; Charles E Schwartz; Nina S Heiss; Annemarie Poustka

2001-01-01

392

SWPS3 – fast multi-threaded vectorized Smith-Waterman for IBM Cell\\/B.E. and ×86\\/SSE2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We present swps3, a vectorized implementation of the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm optimized for both the Cell\\/BE and ×86 architectures. The paper describes swps3 and compares its performances with several other implementations. FINDINGS: Our benchmarking results show that swps3 is currently the fastest implementation of a vectorized Smith-Waterman on the Cell\\/BE, outperforming the only other known implementation by a

Adam Szalkowski; Christian Ledergerber; Philipp Krähenbühl; Christophe Dessimoz

2008-01-01

393

Study on Smith-fuzzy Self-tuning PID control algorithm of temperature for Regenerative Magnesium Reduction Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at large time-delay and time-varying characteristics of regenerative magnesium reduction furnace, Smith-fuzzy self-tuning PID (SF-PID) control algorithm is proposed. The algorithm takes the advantage of Smith predictive control for overcoming a large time-delay and fuzzy self-tuning PID control algorithm for achieving perfect control effect on time-varying, noise disturbance characteristics of the parameters. Simulation result shows that the algorithm has

Hui Wu; Jun-Qi Yu

2009-01-01

394

The Edwin Smith Papyrus: the birth of analytical thinking in medicine and otolaryngology.  

PubMed

The Edwin Smith Papyrus, discovered in 1862 outside of Luxor, Egypt, is the oldest known surgical text in the history of civilization. The surviving scroll, a copy of an earlier text from around 3,000 B.C., gives us remarkable insight into the medical practice of ancient Egyptians in the Nile River bed during the dawn of civilization. The Papyrus is divided into 48 cases, most of which describe traumatic injuries. The text instructs the physician to examine the patient and look for revealing physical signs that may indicate the outcome of the injury. Although in modern medicine we take for granted that the use of physical examination and rational thinking lead to an accurate conclusion, 5,000 years ago, this was extraordinary. The Edwin Smith Papyrus cast aside the prevailing magic and mysticism of that time in favor of logic and deductive reasoning. As Egyptian civilization declined during the next millennium, the teachings of the Papyrus would be lost. It would not be until 300 B.C. when Hippocrates and his disciples in ancient Greece would once again revive logic in medical thinking and teaching. It is believed that the ancient Greeks had knowledge of the contents of the Edwin Smith Papyrus and its teachings and used them as the basis for their writings. As Europe entered the Dark Ages, so did medicine yet again, reverting to spells and prayers instead of judgment and reason. Although Hippocrates teachings were recognized by some scholars during the Middle Ages, they did not make up the basis for mainstream medical knowledge. With the dawn of the Renaissance, medicine would finally purge itself of its past supernatural foundation. Hippocratic teachings were used to form the basis of modern medicine, and medical pioneers in the 17 century studied the ancient Greek texts as the origin for their ideas. Many of the concepts physicians and patients today take as common knowledge originated in the Edwin Smith Papyrus. The authors attempt to uncover some of these fundamental ideas and trace them through time until their incorporation in our modern medical knowledge base. It is the rational, logical, and advanced thinking exhibited in the Edwin Smith Papyrus that mandates its respect from modern otolaryngologists and all physicians alike. PMID:16467701

Stiefel, Marc; Shaner, Arlene; Schaefer, Steven D

2006-02-01

395

Dose response of umeclidinium administered once or twice daily in patients with COPD: a randomised cross-over study  

PubMed Central

Background Umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over, incomplete block study to evaluate UMEC 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, and 125 ?g administered once daily (QD), and UMEC 15.6 ?g and 31.25 ?g administered twice daily (BID), over 7 days in patients with COPD. Tiotropium was included as an open-label treatment arm. The primary efficacy endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) on Day 8. Secondary efficacy endpoints included weighted mean FEV1 over 0–24 hours after morning dosing on Day 7, and serial FEV1 at each time point over 24 hours after morning dosing on Day 7. Safety and pharmacokinetics were also examined. Results One hundred and sixty-three patients (mean age 59.5 years, 52% female) were randomised. Based on the population dose–response model of trough FEV1 data, the geometric mean potency (ED50) of UMEC was 37 ?g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18, 57) with a predicted maximum intrinsic efficacy (Emax) at trough of 0.185 L (95% CI: 0.153, 0.218) after QD dosing. UMEC 125 ?g QD demonstrated the greatest improvements in measure of lung function compared with doses of 62.5 ?g and below. UMEC 125 ?g QD exhibited more consistent increases in FEV1 from baseline across serial time points over 24 hours compared with other UMEC doses and tiotropium. Increases in FEV1 over 0–12 hours were similar to those observed over 12–24 hours after the second dose of UMEC was administered. UMEC was rapidly absorbed following inhaled dosing and eliminated from plasma. Adverse events, generally mild, were highest with UMEC 125 ?g QD (18%) compared with placebo (8%), tiotropium (4%) and other UMEC doses (5–12%). Conclusions UMEC is a potent QD bronchodilator with geometric mean ED50 of 37 ?g. A dose ordering over the range of UMEC 15.6–125 ?g QD doses was observed, with UMEC 125 ?g showing the greatest improvement in trough FEV1. Trial registration GlaxoSmithKline funded (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01372410; GlaxoSmithKline study number AC4115321).

2014-01-01

396

CUDASW++: optimizing Smith-Waterman sequence database searches for CUDA-enabled graphics processing units  

PubMed Central

Background The Smith-Waterman algorithm is one of the most widely used tools for searching biological sequence databases due to its high sensitivity. Unfortunately, the Smith-Waterman algorithm is computationally demanding, which is further compounded by the exponential growth of sequence databases. The recent emergence of many-core architectures, and their associated programming interfaces, provides an opportunity to accelerate sequence database searches using commonly available and inexpensive hardware. Findings Our CUDASW++ implementation (benchmarked on a single-GPU NVIDIA GeForce GTX 280 graphics card and a dual-GPU GeForce GTX 295 graphics card) provides a significant performance improvement compared to other publicly available implementations, such as SWPS3, CBESW, SW-CUDA, and NCBI-BLAST. CUDASW++ supports query sequences of length up to 59K and for query sequences ranging in length from 144 to 5,478 in Swiss-Prot release 56.6, the single-GPU version achieves an average performance of 9.509 GCUPS with a lowest performance of 9.039 GCUPS and a highest performance of 9.660 GCUPS, and the dual-GPU version achieves an average performance of 14.484 GCUPS with a lowest performance of 10.660 GCUPS and a highest performance of 16.087 GCUPS. Conclusion CUDASW++ is publicly available open-source software. It provides a significant performance improvement for Smith-Waterman-based protein sequence database searches by fully exploiting the compute capability of commonly used CUDA-enabled low-cost GPUs.

Liu, Yongchao; Maskell, Douglas L; Schmidt, Bertil

2009-01-01

397

LIGHT SOURCE: Design of a new compact THz source based on Smith-Purcell radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, people are dedicated to the research work of finding compact THz sources with high emission power. Smith-Purcell radiation is qualified for the possibility of coherent enhancement due to the effect of FEL mechanism. The compact experiment device is expected to produce hundreds mW level THz ray. The electron beam with good quality is provided under the optimized design of the electron gun. Besides, the grating is designed as an oscillator without any external feedbacks. While the beam passes through the grating surface, the beam bunching will be strong and the second harmonics enhancement will be evident, as is seen from the simulation results.

Dai, Dong-Dong; Bei, Hua; Dai, Zhi-Min

2009-06-01

398

Significance of Z-value Statistics of Smith-Waterman Scores for Protein Alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Z-value is an attempt,to estimate the statistical significance of a Smith?Waterman,dynamic,alignment,score (SW-score) through,the use of a Monte?Carlo process. It partly reduces the bias induced,by the composition,and length of the sequences. This paper is not a theoretical study on the distribution of SW-scores and Z-values. Rather, it presents a statistical analysis of Z-values on large datasets of protein sequences,

Jean-paul Comet; Jean-christophe Aude; Eric Glémet; Jean-loup Risler; Alain Hénaut; Piotr P. Slonimski; Jean-jacques Codani

1999-01-01

399

STS-110 M.S. Smith and Ross in slidewire basket during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith (left) and Jerry L. Ross (right) get ready to climb out of the slidewire basket, part of emergency egress equipment on the launch pad.. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown, held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

400

STS-110 M.S. Smith driving M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith waits his turn at driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. TCDT includes emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown, and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

401

STS-110 M.S. Smith, Ross, and Walheim in Atlantis during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- (Left to right) STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven Smith, Jerry Ross and Rex Walheim settle into their seats aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis prior to a simulated launch countdown. The simulation is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. TCDT also includes emergency egress training and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

402

STS-110 M.S. Ross and Smith in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- With STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross (far left) and Steven Smith (third from left) on board, Commander Michael Bloomfield scatters dust as he practices driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier. The driving is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

403

Growth rate and start current in Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

This letter reports a theory to calculate the growth rate and start current of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser, which is a promising radiation source in the terahertz domain. A two-dimensional model was used to investigate the interaction between a sheet electron beam and the surface wave above a lamellar grating. After deriving the growth rate from the dispersion equation, the start current was carefully estimated by considering the power flow above the grating. The agreement between the predictions of our theory and the results from the particle-in-cell simulations is acceptable.

Li, D.; Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hangyo, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Yang, Z.; Wei, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Asakawa, M. R. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

2012-05-07

404

A case of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome, defect of cholesterol biosynthesis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a child with Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome. The pregnancy was complicated by prenatal growth retardation. The baby was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Chieti when she was five months old. She showed postnatal growth retardation, trouble sucking and swallowing, microcephaly and multiple major and minor malformations, including characteristic facial features and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. We found correlations between multiple congenital malformations, failure to thrive and low plasmatic cholesterol measurement. PMID:16831310

Domizio, S; Pallotta, R; Romanelli, A; Puglielli, C; Pollice, R; Casacchia, M; Conte, E; Domizio, R; Sabatino, G

2006-01-01

405

The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree.  

PubMed Central

James McCune Smith (1813-1865)--first black American to obtain a medical degree, prominent abolitionist and suffragist, compassionate physician, prolific writer, and public intellectual--has been relatively neglected by historians of medicine. No biography of Smith exists to this day, though he has been the subject of several essays. Born, in his own words, "the son of a self-emancipated bond-woman," and denied admission to colleges in the United States, his native land, Smith earned medical, master's, and baccalaureate degrees at Glasgow University in Scotland. On his return to New York City in 1837, Smith became the first black physician to publish articles in US medical journals. Smith was broadly involved in the anti-slavery and suffrage movements, contributing to and editing abolitionist newspapers and serving as an officer of many organizations for the improvement of social conditions in the black community. In his scientific writings Smith debunked the racial theories in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia, refuted phrenology and homeopathy, and responded with a forceful statistical critique to the racially biased US Census of 1840. Frederick Douglass, Gerrit Smith, and John Brown personally collaborated with James McCune Smith in the fight for black freedom. As the learned physician-scholar of the abolition movement, Smith was instrumental in making the overthrow of slavery credible and successful. Images Figure 1

Morgan, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

406

Calculation of force and power during bench throws using a Smith machine: the importance of considering the effect of counterweights.  

PubMed

For achieving accurate and safe measurements of the force and power exerted on a load during resistance exercise, the Smith machine has been used instead of free weights. However, because some Smith machines possess counterweights, the equation for the calculation of force and power in this system should be different from the one used for free weights. The purpose of this investigation was to calculate force and power using an equation derived from a dynamic equation for a Smith machine with counterweights and to determine the differences in force and power calculated using 2 different equations. One equation was established ignoring the effect of the counterweights (Method 1). The other equation was derived from a dynamic equation for a barbell and counterweight system (Method 2). 9 female collegiate judo athletes performed bench throws using a Smith machine with a counterweight at 6 different loading conditions. Barbell displacement was recorded using a linear position transducer. The force and power were subsequently calculated by Methods 1 and 2. The results showed that the mean and peak power and force in Method 1 were significantly lower relative to those of Method 2 under all loading conditions. These results indicate that the mean and peak power and force during bench throwing using a Smith machine with counterweights would be underestimated when the calculations used to determine these parameters do not account for the effect of counterweights. PMID:23459856

Kobayashi, Y; Narazaki, K; Akagi, R; Nakagaki, K; Kawamori, N; Ohta, K

2013-09-01

407

Left Ventricular Remodeling With Carvedilol in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure Due to Ischemic Heart Disease fn1 fn1 This study was funded by a grant from SmithKline Beecham; however, the study was initiated, conducted, analyzed and reported by the Australia–New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group independently of the sponsor. The Clinical Trials Research Unit is supported by a programme grant from the Health Research Council of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study, a substudy of the Australia–New Zealand trial of carvedilol in patients with heart failure due to ischemic heart disease, was to determine the effects of this treatment on left ventricular size and function with the use of quantitative two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography.Background. Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been shown to improve left ventricular ejection fraction in

Robert N. Doughty; Gillian A. Whalley; Greg Gamble; Stephen MacMahon; Norman Sharpe

1997-01-01

408

Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention. PMID:19748044

Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

2009-10-01

409

Smith predictor-based robot control for ultrasound-guided teleoperated beating-heart surgery.  

PubMed

Performing surgery on fast-moving heart structures while the heart is freely beating is next to impossible. Nevertheless, the ability to do this would greatly benefit patients. By controlling a teleoperated robot to continuously follow the heart's motion, the heart can be made to appear stationary. The surgeon will then be able to operate on a seemingly stationary heart when in reality it is freely beating. The heart's motion is measured from ultrasound images and thus involves a non-negligible delay due to image acquisition and processing, estimated to be 150 ms that, if not compensated for, can cause the teleoperated robot's end-effector (i.e., the surgical tool) to collide with and puncture the heart. This research proposes the use of a Smith predictor to compensate for this time delay in calculating the reference position for the teleoperated robot. The results suggest that heart motion tracking is improved as the introduction of the Smith predictor significantly decreases the mean absolute error, which is the error in making the distance between the robot's end-effector and the heart follow the surgeon's motion, and the mean integrated square error. PMID:24403413

Bowthorpe, Meaghan; Tavakoli, Mahdi; Becher, Harald; Howe, Robert

2014-01-01

410

A field calibration of the sediment-trapping characteristics of the Helley-Smith bed-load sampler  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For sediment particle sizes between 0.50 mm and 16 mm, the Helley-Smith bedload sampler has a near perfect sediment-trapping efficiency. For particles sizes smaller than 0.50 mm, the Helley-Smith sampler has a high bedload sediment-trapping efficiency because part of the sediement retained by the sampler has been transported in suspension and it cannot be quantified separately from the bedload. For particle sizes larger than about 16 mm, the Helley-Smith sampler has low sediment-trapping efficiency but this may be related to the paucity of coarse particles in transport in the calibration tests rather than reflecting an actual low trap efficiency for large-size particles. (USGS)

Emmett, William W.

1980-01-01

411

A REVISED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING OXIDE BASICITY PER THE SMITH SCALE WITH EXAMPLE APPLICATION TO GLASS DURABILITY  

SciTech Connect

Previous researchers have developed correlations between oxide electronegativity and oxide basicity. The present paper revises those correlations using a newer method of calculating electronegativity of the oxygen anion. Basicity is expressed using the Smith {alpha} parameter scale. A linear relation was found between the oxide electronegativity and the Smith {alpha} parameter, with an R{sup 2} of 0.92. An example application of this new correlation to the durability of high-level nuclear waste glass is demonstrated. The durability of waste glass was found to be directly proportional to the quantity and basicity of the oxides of tetrahedrally coordinated network forming ions.

REYNOLDS JG

2011-07-27

412

Prenatal diagnosis of interstitial deletion of 17(p11.2p11.2) (Smith-Magenis Syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial deletion of 17p11.2 is associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome. This is a recognizable chromosomal deletion syndrome, characterized by brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, growth and mental retardation, behavioral problems, and ocular abnormalities. Molecular analysis indicates it is a contiguous gene syndrome. Over 50 patients have been reported since the deletion was first described by Smith et al. [1982]. Cases include one with mosaicism and a familial example. None were prenatally diagnosed. The authors report on the prenatal detection of interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. 11 refs., 1 fig.

NONE

1994-01-15

413

“For the Means of Your Subsistence ... Look Under God to Your Own Industry and Frugality”: Life and Labor in Gerrit Smith's Peterboro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural hamlet of Peterboro, the home of Gerrit Smith, the nineteenth century's most famous social reformer, has been portrayed as an idyllic and peaceful community free of class conflict. The extensive documentary record suggests a less harmonious situation and indicates that the community was fraught with struggle, engendered as much by Smith's reform efforts as by general class relations.

LouAnn Wurst

2002-01-01

414

[Isolation and identification of a Streptomyces strain against ginger bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith].  

PubMed

Streptomyces SR-11 was isolated from the soil of ginger in Sichuan Province against ginger bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith. It had distinctively inhibitive effect on gram-positive bacterium, gram-negative bacterium and some kinds of pathogenic fungi. It's morphological, cultural physiological, biochemical characteristics, chemotaxonomy and 16S rDNA sequences analysis were studied. The substrate mycelium have no partition, the aerial mycelium are ramose; The spore-bearing filaments are spiral, the spores are oval and the surface are smooth. Cell wall type I, Sugar type C. When SR-11 is matured, the aerial mycelium are gray and the strain can give out an earthy smell. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with the published 16S rDNA sequences of the related bacteria species. In the phylogenetic tree the overall similarity value between strain SR-11 and 12 type Streptomyces sp are 96.5-98.3%. PMID:15989219

Ran, Hong-yan; Ge, Shao-rong; Tao, Yong; Jin, Hong; Liu, Shi-gui

2005-06-01

415

Adam Smith's invisible hand is unstable: physics and dynamics reasoning applied to economic theorizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neo-classical economic theory is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Neo-classical economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics, however, a utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrability. Price as a function of demand does not exist and all equilibria are unstable. Qualitatively, and empirically, the neo-classical prediction of price as a function of demand describes neither consumer nor trader demand. We also discuss five inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct, and then explain the fallacy in the economists’ notion of ‘temporary price equilibria’.

McCauley, Joseph L.

2002-11-01

416

Analysis of the sensory profile in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and quadrants (p < .001). No main effects of age or gender were found, but an interaction effect of age by gender was found in Modulation of Sensory Input Affecting Emotional Responses, in which older females presented with the lowest scores. A significant decline over time was found in the Seeking pattern, reflecting increased vulnerability (p < .05). Nonsignificant trends suggest more vulnerabilities for older versus younger children, especially older females. The neurobehavioral phenotype in children with SMS is expanded by this description of sensory processing. How children with SMS experience and respond to everyday sensations informs multidisciplinary team decisions. PMID:21599572

Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Smith, Ann C M

2012-02-01

417

STS-103 MS Smith prepares to enter orbiter from White Room  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith, in his orange launch and entry suit, waits for assistance from closeout crew members in the White Room before entering the orbiter. From left, they are NASA Quality Assurance Specialist Danny Wyatt, United Space Alliance (USA) Mechanical Technician Vinny Defranzo and USA Orbiter Vehicle Closeout Chief Travis Thompson. The White Room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm on the fixed service structure. It provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

418

Start-to-end simulation of a Smith-Purcell free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz (THz) radiation has generated much recent interest due to its ability to penetrate deep into many organic materials without the damage associated with ionizing radiations. Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers (SPFELs) offer a viable path toward generating copious amounts of narrow-band THz radiation. In this paper we present numerical simulations, performed with the conformal finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic solver VORPAL of a SPFEL operating in the superradiant regime. We first explore the standard (single grating) configuration and investigate the impact of incoming beamparameters. We also present a new concept based a double grating configuration to efficiently bunch the electron beam, followed by a single grating to produce super-radiant SP radiation.

Prokop, C.; /Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Lin, M.C.; Stoltz, P.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2010-08-01

419

Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

Not Available

1981-09-01

420

Optimizing Peirce-Smith Converters Using Thermodynamic Modeling and Plant Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of pyrometallurgical slag cleaning furnaces at many primary copper smelters is dependent in part on the quality of the converter slag, commonly produced in the batch-wise Peirce Smith converter (PSC). In order to understand the impact of converter slag chemistry and at the same time help optimize the converter operation, thermodynamic modeling of molten slag (including any contained slag solid fractions) was carried out on slag produced at the Chagres smelter in Chile. Phase characterization studies on actual plant slag samples were also carried out. The results are provided in the present paper. This work is also considered as a case study example to illustrate the type of work that can be performed to fairly quickly diagnose the quality of converter slag and assess the overall condition of the converter operation.

Cardona, N.; Mackey, P. J.; Coursol, P.; Parada, R.; Parra, R.

2012-05-01

421

Phenolic Acids, Hydrolyzable Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis from the Stingless Bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.  

PubMed

Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (?max) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. PMID:24571707

Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

2014-03-26

422

[Ultrastructure of the secretory parenchyma of the postanal gland of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae Smith].  

PubMed

Latimeria chalumnae Smith, the only surviving crossopterygian, possesses a well-developed, unpaired, postanal gland whose function is as yet undocumented. The availability of tissues suitable for ultrastructural and histochemical studies from the recent International Comores Expedition has permitted a reappraisal of the comparative morphology and functional hypotheses relating to the postanal gland. The richly vascularized tubuloacinar postanal gland is composed of cells which show the characteristic specializations of active ion transport. These include complex and extensive development of basal and lateral cell membrane infolding (cisternae) which are closely associated with numerous large, dense mitochondria. Histochemical studies have shown a high level of ATPase activity within the gland cells. These features of the postanal gland correlate well with those of the rectal glands of elasmobranchs and suggest a similar role in ion excretion and osmoregulation. PMID:442958

Lemire, M; Lagios, M

1979-01-01

423

Desulfurization Rate during the Copper Blow in a Peirce-Smith Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desulfurization rate in a Peirce-Smith converter (which works as a well-mixed reactor) was obtained during the copper blow. Conversion data of the copper sulfide as a function of the operation time were correlated distinguishing between two kinetic steps; in both cases, the conversion was proportional to time. The variation of the matte temperature was not influential, so the chemical resistance in the bulk of the melt can be considered negligible. The variation in the global volumetric coefficient deduced from the experimental data was justified by a model having two resistances to mass transfer, the gas-side resistance being constant and the liquid-side resistance increasing when the sulfide concentration decreased.

Roselló, A.; Martínez, J.; Barrios, P.; Carrillo, F.

2008-02-01

424

Electron Bunch Profile Diagnostics in the Few FS Regime Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The rapid developments in the field of laser-driven particle acceleration hold the prospect of intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. The determination of the temporal profile of such bunches presents new challenges. The use of a radiative process such as Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising in this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of e/m radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

Bartolini, R.; /Oxford U. /Diamond Light Source; Clarke, C.; /SLAC; Delerue, N.; /Orsay, LAL; Doucas, G.; Pattle, K.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Tovey, R.; /Oxford U.

2011-12-13

425

Treatment of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Other Sterol Disorders  

PubMed Central

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive genetic condition with a broad phenotype that results from deficiency of the final enzyme of the cholesterol synthesis pathway. This defect causes low or low-normal plasma cholesterol levels and increased 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol (DHC) levels. Many therapies for SLOS and other disorders of sterol metabolism have been proposed, and a few of them have been undertaken in selected patients, but robust prospective clinical trials with validated outcome measures are lacking. We review the current literature and expert opinion on treatments for SLOS and other selected sterol disorders, including dietary cholesterol therapy, statin treatment, bile acid supplementation, medical therapies and surgical interventions, as well as directions for future therapies and treatment research.

Svoboda, Melissa D.; Christie, Jill M.; Eroglu, Yasemen; Freeman, Kurt A.; Steiner, Robert D.

2013-01-01

426

Commentary: Cause for alarm? Youth and internet risk research - a commentary on Livingstone and Smith (2014).  

PubMed

This commentary on Livingstone and Smith (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 2014, XXX) suggests that more attention should be paid to a set of hypotheses about technology that contrasts with those that have animated much of the current research interest: (a) That the digital environment is no more perilous and perhaps less perilous than other offline environments youth inhabit; (b) That the problems the digital technology poses are not unique, but rather extensions of social interaction or media consumption problems that cut across many environments and are best conceptualized holistically rather than as special; and (c) That the appropriate responses should not be specialized Internet safety training but more generic education about life skills, social interaction, emotional intelligence, and media literacy. The commentary also argues for more research that reflects and tries to illuminate the basis for the excitement and enthusiasm that the young have for the technology. PMID:24840173

Finkelhor, David

2014-06-01

427

Taxonomic studies on the ant genus Cerapachys Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from India.  

PubMed

The Indianspeciesof the ant genus Cerapachys Smith are keyed. Twelve species are recognized of which 6 are described as new. The species are: Cerapachys aitkenii Forel, Cerapachys alii sp. n., Cerapachys anokha sp. n., Cerapachys besucheti Brown, Cerapachys biroi Forel, Cerapachys indicus Brown, Cerapachys longitarsus (Mayr), Cerapachys nayana sp. n., Cerapachys schoedli sp. n., Cerapachys seema sp. n., Cerapachys sulcinodis Emery and Cerapachys wighti sp. n. Geographic distribution and group affinities of the new species are discussed. A revised key to the Indian species is provided. The rare ergatoid queens of Cerapachys nayana, Cerapachys schoedli and Cerapachys seema are reported. Formed in response to selective pressures these ergatoid queens have a significant role in dispersal strategies and contribute much to our understanding of the biology of these ants. PMID:24146574

Bharti, Himender; Akbar, Shahid Ali

2013-01-01

428

An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function…

Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

2012-01-01

429

Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

2012-01-01

430

Sensory Motor and Functional Skills of Dizygotic Twins: One with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and a Twin Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), the result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2, is a disorder that may include minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, speech delays, cognitive deficits, signs of peripheral neuropathy, scoliosis, and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive…

Smith, Michaele R.; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Smith, Ann C. M.

2009-01-01

431

Fostering Student Success: An Interview with Julie Phelps. Virginia B. Smith Innovative Leadership Award Recipient for 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning are pleased to announce the winner of the 2010 Virginia B. Smith Innovative Leadership Award, Julie M. Phelps. Phelps is a professor of mathematics at Valencia Community College who teaches and has studied and refined three types of…

Finney, Joni E.; Stoel, Carol F.

2010-01-01

432

What's All the Noise? Differentiating Dimensions of Acoustic Stress and the Limits to Meta-Analysis: Reply to Smith (2012)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith (2012) has provided pertinent observations on our recently published meta-analytic review (Szalma & Hancock, 2011) of the effects of acoustic noise on performance. His main points are as follows: (a) our review excluded some areas of research; (b) there were conceptual problems with our moderator analyses; and (c) limitations to…

Szalma, J. L.; Hancock, P. A.

2012-01-01

433

"And This Is How You Shall Ask": Linguistics, Anthropology, and Education in the Work of David Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article celebrates the life and work of David M. Smith, former Council on Anthropology and Education president and founder of the University of Pennsylvania Ethnography in Education Research Forum, tracing his contributions to the fields of linguistics, anthropology, and education through the dual lens of his ten research principles and Walt…

Gilmore, Perry; McDermott, Ray

2006-01-01

434

In Quest of Walter Smith: The Past, Present, and Future Impact of Visual Art in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walter Smith is a relatively unknown historical figure in the art world, but he is essential to defining adult education's past. present. and future in the area of visual art. His artistic endeavors in America sparked facets of the way art education is practiced today. However, along the way we have lost the tenets of social change which he sought…

Cole, Meredith Amanda

2009-01-01

435

An efficient implementation of Smith Waterman algorithm on GPU using CUDA, for massively parallel scanning of sequence databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smith Waterman algorithm for sequence alignment is one of the main tools of bioinformatics. It is used for sequence similarity searches and alignment of similar sequences. The high end Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), used for processing graphics on desktop computers, deliver computational capabilities exceeding those of CPUs by an order of magnitude. Recently these capabilities became a ccessible for

Lukasz Ligowski; Witold Rudnicki

2009-01-01

436

How published books shape public opinion and policy implementation : a case study of author Jeffrey Smith, the book \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Capstone paper explores the power of written words and in particular, published books. For my Practicum, I worked as a Publicist for Jeffrey Smith, author of Seeds of Deception: Exposing Industry and Government Lies about the Safety of the Genetically Engineered Foods You're Eating. Books like The Jungle or Silent Spring have made an impact on the general public

Christian Avard

2005-01-01

437

Promoting Social Competence in an Era of School Reform: A Commentary on Gifford-Smith and Brownell.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a response to Gifford-Smith and Brownell's "Childhood Peer Relationships: Social Acceptance, Friendships, and Peer Networks" (this issue). A focus on enhancing social competence within the context of classrooms designed to accommodate the needs of all students is presented as an integrated framework for applying research concerning…

Gettinger, Maribeth

2003-01-01

438

Reflections on a Proposed Theory of Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Alcohol Use: Comment on Spillane and Smith (2007)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their recent article, N. Spillane and G. Smith suggested that reservation-dwelling American Indians have higher rates of problem drinking than do either non-American Indians or those American Indians living in nonreservation settings. These authors further argued that problematic alcohol use patterns in reservation communities are due to the…

Beals, Janette; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Freedenthal, Stacey; Kaufman, Carol; Mitchell, Christina; Whitesell, Nancy; Albright, Karen; Beauvais, Fred; Belcourt, Gordon; Duran, Bonnie; Fleming, Candace; Floersch, Natasha; Foley, Kevin; Jervis, Lori; Kipp, Billie Jo; Mail, Patricia; Manson, Spero; May, Philip; Mohatt, Gerald; Morse, Bradley; Novins, Douglas; O'Connell, Joan; Parker, Tassy; Quintero, Gilbert; Spicer, Paul; Stiffman, Arlene; Stone, Joseph; Trimble, Joseph; Venner, Kamilla; Walters, Karina

2009-01-01

439

Predictive control for a permanent magnet synchronous motor using automatic tuning Smith-predictor with optimal parameter mismatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new predictive speed controller using automatic tuning Smith-predictor (SP) for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. In a full digital speed control system for a PMSM, there are inevitable delays in calculating the speed and the currents and applying the inverter output voltages to the motor terminals. The SP is famous for its delay-free

Qiao Zhang; Anwen Shen; Qiaoling Tong; Haitao Qin

2008-01-01

440

Technical progress, capital accumulation and income distribution in Classical economics: Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the analyses of technical progress, capital accumulation and income distribution elaborated by three major classical economists: Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx. The interpretation given is partly inspired by Piero Sraffa's studies in his hitherto unpublished papers. It will be argued that in the classical authors we encounter a sophisticated typology of different forms of technical

Heinz D. Kurz

2010-01-01

441

Technical Progress, Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution in Classical Economics: Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the analyses of technical progr ess, capital accumulation and income distribution e laborated by three major classical economists: Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx. The interpretation given is partly inspired by Piero Sraffa's studies in his hi therto unpublished papers. It will be argued that i n the classical authors we encounter a sophisticated typology of

Heinz D. Kurz

2009-01-01

442

Correlation of severity and outcome with plasma sterol levels in variants of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether type I and the more severe type II variant of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome have the same metabolic defect and to learn which plasma sterol measurements best predict survival. Methods: Plasma sterols were measured in 33 individuals (24 type I, 9 type II) with a clinical diagnosis of the syndrome. Results: Cholesterol levels were abnormally low (61 ±

G. S. Tint; Gerald Salen; Ashok K. Batta; Sarah Shefer; Mira Irons; Ellen Roy Elias; Dianne N. Abuelo; Virginia P. Johnson; Marie Lambert; Richard Lutz; Carolyn Schanen; Colleen A. Morris; George Hoganson; Rhiannon Hughes-Benzie

1995-01-01

443

Crop losses due to outbreaks of Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834) Muridae, Rodentia, in the Lindi Region of Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, a widespread outbreak of the multimammate rat—Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834) occurred in the Lindi Region in southern Tanzania. Population densities of the rodent were estimated in some areas to be over 1400ratsha?1. Crop loss due to the outbreak was evaluated in the region. A total yield loss of 48% of maize, sorghum, paddy, and pulses that were in

Patrick S. Mwanjabe; Florid B. Sirima; Juma Lusingu

2002-01-01

444

Adaptive Smith-Waterman residue match seeding for protein structural alignment.  

PubMed

The POLYFIT rigid-body algorithm for automated global pairwise and multiple protein structural alignment is presented. Smith-Waterman local alignment is used to establish a set of seed equivalences that are extended using Needleman-Wunsch dynamic programming techniques. Structural and functional interaction constraints provided by evolution are encoded as one-dimensional residue physical environment strings for alignment of highly structurally overlapped protein pairs. Local structure alignment of more distantly related pairs is carried out using rigid-body conformational matching of 15-residue fragments, with allowance made for less stringent conformational matching of metal-ion and small molecule ligand-contact, disulphide bridge, and cis-peptide correspondences. Protein structural plasticity is accommodated through the stepped adjustment of a single empirical distance parameter value in the calculation of the Smith-Waterman dynamic programming matrix. Structural overlap is used both as a measure of similarity and to assess alignment quality. Pairwise alignment accuracy has been benchmarked against that of 10 widely used aligners on the Sippl and Wiederstein set of difficult pairwise structure alignment problems, and more extensively against that of Matt, SALIGN, and MUSTANG in pairwise and multiple structural alignments of protein domains with low shared sequence identity in the SCOP-ASTRAL 40% compendium. The results demonstrate the advantages of POLYFIT over other aligners in the efficient and robust identification of matching seed residue positions in distantly related protein targets and in the generation of longer structurally overlapped alignment lengths. Superposition-based application areas include comparative modeling and protein and ligand design. POLYFIT is available on the Web server at http://polyfit.insa-toulouse.fr. PMID:23720362

Topham, Christopher M; Rouquier, Mickaël; Tarrat, Nathalie; André, Isabelle

2013-10-01

445

Frameshift mutation hotspot identified in Smith-Magenis syndrome: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex syndrome involving intellectual disabilities, sleep disturbance, behavioural problems, and a variety of craniofacial, skeletal, and visceral anomalies. While the majority of SMS cases harbor an ~3.5 Mb common deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses the retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) gene, some patients carry small intragenic deletions or point mutations in RAI1. We present data on two cases of Smith-Magenis syndrome with mutation of RAI1. Both cases are phenotypically consistent with SMS and RAI1 mutation but also have other anomalies not previously reported in SMS, including spontaneous pneumothoraces. These cases also illustrate variability in the SMS phenotype not previously shown for RAI1 mutation cases, including hearing loss, absence of self-abusive behaviours, and mild global delays. Sequencing of RAI1 revealed mutation of the same heptameric C-tract (CCCCCCC) in exon 3 in both cases (c.3103delC one case and and c.3103insC in the other), resulting in frameshift mutations. Of the seven reported frameshift mutations occurring in poly C-tracts in RAI1, four cases (~57%) occur at this heptameric C-tract. Collectively, these results indicate that this heptameric C-tract is a preferential hotspot for single nucleotide insertion/deletions (SNindels) and therefore, should be considered a primary target for analysis in patients suspected for mutations in RAI1. We expect that as more patients are sequenced for mutations in RAI1, the incidence of frameshift mutations in this hotspot will become more evident. PMID:20932317

Truong, Hoa T; Dudding, Tracy; Blanchard, Christopher L; Elsea, Sarah H

2010-01-01

446

The Smith Cloud: High-Velocity Accretion and Dark Matter Confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smith Cloud is a massive system of metal-poor neutral and ionized gas (M gas gsim 2 × 106 M sun) that is presently moving at high velocity (V GSR? 300 km s-1) with respect to the Galaxy at a distance of 12 kpc from the Sun. The kinematics of the cloud's cometary tail indicates that the gas is in the process of accretion onto the Galaxy, as first discussed by Lockman et al. Here, we re-investigate the cloud's orbit by considering the possibility that the cloud is confined by a dark matter halo. This is required for the cloud to survive its passage through the Galactic corona. We consider three possible models for the dark matter halo (Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), Einasto, and Burkert) including the effects of tidal disruption and ram pressure stripping during the cloud's infall onto and passage through the Galactic disk. For the NFW and Einasto dark matter models, we are able to determine reasonable initial conditions for the Smith Cloud, although this is only marginally possible with the Burkert model. For all three models, the progenitor had an initial (gas+dark matter) mass that was an order-of-magnitude higher than inferred today. In agreement with Lockman et al., the cloud appears to have punched through the disk ?70 Myr ago. For our most successful models, the baryon-to-dark matter ratio is fairly constant during an orbital period but drops by a factor of 2-5 after transiting the disk. The cloud appears to have only marginally survived its transit and is unlikely to retain its integrity during the next transit ? 30 Myr from now.

Nichols, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

2009-12-01

447

Smith machine counterbalance system affects measures of maximal bench press throw performance.  

PubMed

Equipment with counterbalance weight systems is commonly used for the assessment of performance in explosive resistance exercise movements, but it is not known if such systems affect performance measures. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using a counterbalance weight system on measures of smith machine bench press throw performance. Ten men and 14 women (mean ± SD: age, 25 ± 4 years; height, 173 ± 10 cm; weight, 77.7 ± 18.3 kg) completed maximal smith machine bench press throws under 4 different conditions (2 × 2; counterbalance × load): with or without a counterbalance weight system and using 'light' or 'moderate' net barbell loads. Performance variables (peak force, peak velocity, and peak power) were measured using a linear accelerometer attached to the barbell. The counterbalance weight system resulted in significant (p < 0.001) reductions in measures of peak force (mean difference ± standard error: light: -112 ± 20 N; moderate: -140 ± 23 N), peak velocity (light: -0.49 ± 0.10 m·s; moderate: -0.33 ± 0.07 m·s), and peak power (light: -220 ± 43 W; moderate: -143 ± 28 W) compared with no counterbalance system for both load conditions. Load condition did not affect absolute or percentage reductions from the counterbalance weight system for any variable. In conclusion, the use of a counterbalance weight system reduces accelerometer-based performance measures for the bench press throw exercise at light and moderate loads. This reduction in measures is likely because of an increase in the external resistance during the movement, which results in a discrepancy between the manually input and the actual value for external load. A counterbalance weight system should not be used when measuring performance in explosive resistance exercises with an accelerometer. PMID:21701283

Vingren, Jakob L; Buddhadev, Harsh H; Hill, David W

2011-07-01

448

Teleost fish osmoregulation: what have we learned since August Krogh, Homer Smith, and Ancel Keys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The August Krogh Distinguished Lectureship of the APS Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology Section, 2008. Teleost fish osmoregulation: what have we learned since August Krogh, Homer Smith, and Ancel Keys. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295: R704ÃÂ R713, 2008. First published June 4, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.90337.2008.ÃÂIn the 1930s, August Krogh, Homer Smith, and Ancel Keys knew that teleost fishes were hyperosmotic to fresh water and hyposmotic to seawater, and, therefore, they were potentially salt depleted and dehydrated, respectively. Their seminal studies demonstrated that freshwater teleosts extract NaCl from the environment, while marine teleosts ingest seawater, absorb intestinal water by absorbing NaCl, and excrete the excess salt via gill transport mechanisms. During the past 70 years, their research descendents have used chemical, radioisotopic, pharmacological, cellular, and molecular techniques to further characterize the gill transport mechanisms and begin to study the signaling molecules that modulate these processes. The cellular site for these transport pathways was first described by Keys and is now known as the mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC). The model for NaCl secretion by the marine MRC is well supported, but the model for NaCl uptake by freshwater MRC is more unsettled. Importantly, these ionic uptake mechanisms also appear to be expressed in the marine gill MRC, for acid-base regulation. A large suite of potential endocrine control mechanisms have been identified, and recent evidence suggests that paracrines such as endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins might also control MRC function.

David H. Evans (University of Florida Zoology)

2008-06-04

449

Virus-like particles in vaccine development.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multiprotein structures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic native viruses but lack the viral genome, potentially yielding safer and cheaper vaccine candidates. A handful of prophylactic VLP-based vaccines is currently commercialized worldwide: GlaxoSmithKline's Engerix (hepatitis B virus) and Cervarix (human papillomavirus), and Merck and Co., Inc.'s Recombivax HB (hepatitis B virus) and Gardasil (human papillomavirus) are some examples. Other VLP-based vaccine candidates are in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical evaluation, such as, influenza virus, parvovirus, Norwalk and various chimeric VLPs. Many others are still restricted to small-scale fundamental research, despite their success in preclinical tests. This article focuses on the essential role of VLP technology in new-generation vaccines against prevalent and emergent diseases. The implications of large-scale VLP production are discussed in the context of process control, monitorization and optimization. The main up- and down-stream technical challenges are identified and discussed accordingly. Successful VLP-based vaccine blockbusters are briefly presented concomitantly with the latest results from clinical trials and the recent developments in chimeric VLP-based technology for either therapeutic or prophylactic vaccination. PMID:20923267

Roldão, António; Mellado, Maria Candida M; Castilho, Leda R; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

2010-10-01

450

Rotavirus vaccine: a cost effective control measure for India.  

PubMed

Globally, rotavirus diarrhea results in 453,000 deaths in children younger than 5 y—37% of deaths attributable to diarrhea and 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 y. India alone accounts for 22% (~100,000 deaths) of all deaths attributable to rotavirus infection. Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available: Rotarix, a monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline), and RotaTeq, a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine (Merck). Rotarix is administered in a 2-dose schedule with the first and second doses of DTP (DTP1, DTP2). RotaTeq requires a 3-dose schedule with DTP1, DTP2 and DTP3 with an interval of 4–10 weeks between doses. The first dose of either vaccine should be administered to infants aged 6–15 weeks irrespective of the history of previous rotavirus infection, and the maximum age for administering the last dose of either vaccine should be 32 weeks. Although India would require funding from international health organizations/GAVI until new indigenous rotavirus vaccine candidates are developed at a cheaper price, introduction of vaccination into the national immunization program would be a cost-effective step toward control of the rotavirus diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in India. PMID:23071989

Kumar, Arun; Goel, Manish K; Jain, Ram Bilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Vibha, Vibha

2012-04-01

451

Impact of adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine on cell-mediated rejection in heart transplant recipients.  

PubMed

During the H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, vaccination of high risk groups including solid-organ transplant recipients was advised. A retrospective case control study of 60 heart transplant patients, 15 having received the H1N1 virus antigen and ASO3 adjuvant vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline, Mississauga, ON, Canada) within 21 days and 45 having not been vaccinated, all undergoing routine surveillance endmyocardial biopsies, was performed. The overall rate of cellular rejection (all grades) was not statistically different between groups; however, acute cellular rejection, ?grade 2 (1990 ISHLT criteria), was more frequent among those having recently vaccinated (control: 1/45 vs. 6/15, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the only risk factor found to be associated with acute cellular rejection was recent H1N1 viral antigen and adjuvant vaccination (OR 26.5: 95% CI 02.59-270.5). Vaccine adjuvants increase host response to vaccine antigens by immune upregulation potentially increasing risk of rejection in solid-organ transplant recipients. The potential hazard of vaccination this study raises must be weighed with the clear benefit vaccination has proven to be. PMID:21906258

Schaffer, S A; Husain, S; Delgado, D H; Kavanaugh, L; Ross, H J

2011-12-01

452

Once-weekly albiglutide in the management of type 2 diabetes: patient considerations.  

PubMed

This review describes the pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of albiglutide, as well as its clinical efficacy and safety. Albiglutide is a novel, once-weekly, injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The European Commission recently granted marketing authorization for the drug in the European Union and on April 15, 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved albiglutide (Tanzeum™ [GlaxoSmithKline LLC, Wilmington, DE, USA]) to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Albiglutide has been studied in Phase I, II, and III clinical trials. In the Phase III clinical trials, known as the Harmony series, weekly dosing of albiglutide demonstrated reductions in fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin, and was associated with weight loss. In all phases of the clinical trials, albiglutide administered once weekly showed a safety and tolerability profile similar to that of placebo, with mild gastrointestinal-related complaints and injection site erythema being the most commonly encountered adverse effects. Compared with pioglitazone and liraglutide, albiglutide has been shown to be clinically less effective. However, it offers the benefit of weight loss that pioglitazone does not, with fewer gastrointestinal side effects than liraglutide. As guidelines continue to advocate for patient-centered treatment strategies, once-weekly albiglutide will be an important addition to the growing armamentarium of treatment options for adults with type 2 diabetes needing target glycemic control. PMID:24926194

Woodward, Heather N; Anderson, Sarah L

2014-01-01

453

Radioimmunotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Relapse continues to be the primary cause of treatment failure in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) undergoing high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. The anti-CD20 radioimmunoconjugates, Y-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin; Biogen Idec, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA) and I-131 tositumomab (Bexxar; Corixa, Seattle, WA; and Glaxo Smith Kline; Philadelphia, PA, USA) have been associated with high response rates, durable remissions and limited toxicity apart from myelosuppression, making them ideal candidates for use in autotransplantation. Tested first as single agents in relapsed patients with indolent and transformed NHL, and then at much higher doses with stem cell support, these agents have now been combined with high-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplant. Radioimmunoconjugates have been used to replace total body irradiation (TBI) in some studies and to augment standard chemotherapy regimens in others. Thus far the results are promising, with combinations of radioimmunoconjugates and chemotherapy producing long-lasting responses in high-risk patients with no more toxicity than that caused by standard conditioning regimens. These results are notable in light of the fact that the dose of radiation delivered to the tumor is 10-fold higher than the dose achievable with TBI. Whether this increase in radiation dose to the targeted lymphoma translates into more durable remissions and an improvement in overall survival requires further investigation. PMID:16434379

Cilley, Jeffrey; Winter, Jane N

2006-01-01

454

Impact of rotavirus vaccination in Australian children below 5 years of age  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the impact of administration of two-dose rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) among children aged less than 5 y in three states/territories of Australia. Aggregated and de-identified data on rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all-cause gastroenteritis (AGE) from July 1998–June 2009 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare database. The baseline incidence (July 1998–June 2006) of RVGE hospitalizations before RV vaccine introduction in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT) were 33.75, 42.93 and 288.67 per 10?000 child-years, respectively among children aged 0–11 mo. Following RV vaccine introduction in NSW, the ACT and the NT, incidence of RVGE hospitalizations reduced to 13.06, 17.35 and 47.52 per 10?000 child-years, respectively, during July 2007–June 2008 and 3.87, 8.40 and 122.79 per 10,000 child-years, respectively, during July 2008–June 2009 among children aged 0–11 mo. Reductions in RVGE and AGE were also observed in all children below 5 y of age in NSW and the ACT. Overall reduction in hospitalizations due to RVGE and AGE was observed following RV vaccine introduction into the NIP in Australia.

Pendleton, Annmarie; Galic, Maja; Clarke, Christopher; Ng, Su Peing; Ledesma, Emilio; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran; Liu, Yanfang

2013-01-01

455

Interview: European collaboration in relative effectiveness assessment: the use of patient registries and development of common guidelines.  

PubMed

Wim Goettsch is currently the Project Leader of Work Package 5 of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Joint Action 2 (2012-2015). EUnetHTA is a network of the health technology assessment organizations in Europe responsible for advising or deciding on the national reimbursement of pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In this work package, rapid joint assessments of the relative effectiveness of pharmaceuticals are piloted between more than 25 health technology assessment organizations around Europe. These pilots are based on the methodology that was developed in a similar work package in EUnetHTA JA1 (2010-2012), of which Dr Goettsch was also the Project Leader. Until the beginning of 2013, Dr Goettsch was the Deputy Secretary of the Medicinal Products Reimbursement Committee at Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board (CVZ). The Dutch Medicinal Products Reimbursement Committee advises the Dutch Minister of Health on whether new drugs need to be included in the basic insurance package. Before joining CVZ, he worked as a research manager for the PHARMO Institute (Utrecht, The Netherlands) and was responsible for the coordination of numerous pharmacoepidemiological and outcomes studies for international offices of pharmaceutical companies, such as AstraZeneca, Novartis, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Goettsch has approximately 50 publications in peer-reviewed international journals. PMID:24236677

Goettsch, Wim

2013-07-01

456

Cost effectiveness of infant vaccination for rotavirus in Canada  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada]) available in Canada. METHODS: Analysis was conducted through a Markov model that followed a cohort of children from birth to five years of age. Analysis used pertinent data on the natural history of rotavirus and the effects of vaccination. Estimates of heath care costs for children requiring hospitalizations and emergency department visits were derived from the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) surveillance, emergency department studies, as well as other Canadian studies. The model estimated the effect of vaccination on costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: The incremental cost per QALY gained from the health care system perspective was $122,000 for RotaTeq and $108,000 for Rotarix. From the societal perspective, both vaccination strategies were dominant – both cost saving and more effective. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination is dependent on the mode of administration, the perspective adopted and the cost of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: From a societal perspective, a universal vaccination program against rotavirus will be both cost saving and more effective than no vaccination. Becasue the majority of rotavirus infections do not require emergency department visits or hospital admission, from a health care system perspective, a program would not be considered cost effective.

Coyle, Doug; Coyle, Kathryn; Bettinger, Julie A; Halperin, Scott A; Vaudry, Wendy; Scheifele, David W; Le Saux, Nicole

2012-01-01

457

Vardenafil Bayer Yakuhin.  

PubMed

Bayer is developing vardenafil, an orally active phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitor for the potential treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) [314382]. NDAs were filed in September 2001 in the US and Mexico [423096], and vardenafil was submitted for Canadian approval in October 2001. As of November 2001, Bayer was expecting a response from the FDA in the second half of 2002 [429499]; the EMEA accepted a filing in January 2002, following a December 2001 submission [438163]. By October 2000, phase III trials were underway in Japan [384751] and by December 2001, a Japanese NDA had been filed; at the same time an application was filed in South Africa [426526], [433060]. At this time Japanese launch was expected in 2003 [434758]. By February 2001, Bayer was also investigating a nasal formulation of vardenafil for the potential treatment of erectile dysfunction [397608]. In November 2001, Bayer and GlaxoSmithKline signed a worldwide copromotion agreement for vardenafil, under which Bayer was to be responsible for all regulatory work required to obtain approval [429499]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted a 10% probability that vardenafil would reach the market, with launch in 2002. Peak Japanese sales of US$600 million were predicted for 2014 [319225]. In May 2000, Bayer predicted peak sales of Euro900 million [397137]. In July 2001, Lehman Brothers predicted a 75% chance that vardenafil would reach the market, and forecast peak sales of US $0.85 billion worldwide; the analyst also speculated that Bayer would seek a comarketing partner [414766]. PMID:12090732

Sommer, Frank; Engelmann, Udo

2002-04-01

458

Once-weekly albiglutide in the management of type 2 diabetes: patient considerations  

PubMed Central

This review describes the pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of albiglutide, as well as its clinical efficacy and safety. Albiglutide is a novel, once-weekly, injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The European Commission recently granted marketing authorization for the drug in the European Union and on April 15, 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved albiglutide (Tanzeum™ [GlaxoSmithKline LLC, Wilmington, DE, USA]) to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Albiglutide has been studied in Phase I, II, and III clinical trials. In the Phase III clinical trials, known as the Harmony series, weekly dosing of albiglutide demonstrated reductions in fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin, and was associated with weight loss. In all phases of the clinical trials, albiglutide administered once weekly showed a safety and tolerability profile similar to that of placebo, with mild gastrointestinal-related complaints and injection site erythema being the most commonly encountered adverse effects. Compared with pioglitazone and liraglutide, albiglutide has been shown to be clinically less effective. However, it offers the benefit of weight loss that pioglitazone does not, with fewer gastrointestinal side effects than liraglutide. As guidelines continue to advocate for patient-centered treatment strategies, once-weekly albiglutide will be an important addition to the growing armamentarium of treatment options for adults with type 2 diabetes needing target glycemic control.

Woodward, Heather N; Anderson, Sarah L

2014-01-01

459

Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine; Infanrix™ hexa: twelve years of experience in Italy.  

PubMed

Infant vaccination using 2-dose priming at 3 and 5 mo of age with a booster at 11-12 mo of age was pioneered in Italy. The 3-5-11 schedule is now used in a growing number of European countries. Infanrix™ hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) was first licensed for use in 2000 and has been the only pediatric hexavalent vaccine available since 2005. We reviewed available clinical trial data describing the immunogenicity of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib when administered at 3, 5, and 11 mo of age, and conducted an analysis of safety using global and Italian post-marketing surveillance data. In Italy, DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib has a demonstrated safety record extending over a decade of use, it has been associated with record levels of vaccine coverage, and with sustained disease control in vaccinated cohorts. Hexavalent vaccines will continue to contribute to high vaccine coverage in Italy and across Europe. PMID:24004825

Baldo, Vincenzo; Bonanni, Paolo; Castro, Marcela; Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Marchetti, Federico; Prato, Rosa; Vitale, Francesco

2014-01-01

460

Process validation and screen reproducibility in high-throughput screening.  

PubMed

The use of large-scale compound screening has become a key component of drug discovery projects in both the pharmaceutical and the biotechnological industries. More recently, these activities have also been embraced by the academic community as a major tool for chemical genomic activities. High-throughput screening (HTS) activities constitute a major step in the initial drug discovery efforts and involve the use of large quantities of biological reagents, hundreds of thousands to millions of compounds, and the utilization of expensive equipment. All these factors make it very important to evaluate in advance of the HTS campaign any potential issues related to reproducibility of the experimentation and the quality of the results obtained at the end of these very costly activities. In this article, the authors describe how GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has addressed the need of a true validation of the HTS process before embarking in full HTS campaigns. They present 2 different aspects of the so-called validation process: (1) optimization of the HTS workflow and its validation as a quality process and (2) the statistical evaluation of the HTS, focusing on the reproducibility of results and the ability to distinguish active from nonactive compounds in a vast collection of samples. The authors describe a variety of reproducibility indexes that are either innovative or have been adapted from generic medical diagnostic screening strategies. In addition, they exemplify how these validation tools have been implemented in a number of case studies at GSK. PMID:19171922

Coma, Isabel; Clark, Liz; Diez, Emilio; Harper, Gavin; Herranz, Jesus; Hofmann, Glenn; Lennon, Mark; Richmond, Nicola; Valmaseda, Manuel; Macarron, Ricardo

2009-01-01

461

A practical derivatization LC/MS approach for determination of trace level alkyl sulfonates and dialkyl sulfates genotoxic impurities in drug substances.  

PubMed

Derivatization LC/MS methodology has been developed for the determination of a group of commonly encountered alkyl esters of sulfonates or sulfates in drug substances at low ppm levels. This general method uses trimethylamine as the derivatizing reagent for ethyl/propyl/isopropyl esters and triethylamine for methyl esters. The resulting quaternary ammonium derivatization products are highly polar (ionic) and can be retained by a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column and readily separated from the main interfering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) peak that is usually present at very high concentration. The method gives excellent sensitivity for all the alkyl esters at typical target analyte level of 1-2 ppm when the API samples were prepared at 5mg/mL. The recoveries at 1-2 ppm were generally above 85% for all the alkyl esters in the various APIs tested. The injection precisions of the lowest concentration standards were excellent with R.S.D.=0.4-4%. A linear range for concentrations from 0.2 to 20 ppm has been established with R(2)>or=0.99. This general method has been tested in a number of API matrices and used successfully for determination of alkyl sulfonates or dialkyl sulfates in support of API batch releases at GlaxoSmithKline. PMID:18687555

An, Jianguo; Sun, Mingjiang; Bai, Lin; Chen, Ted; Liu, David Q; Kord, Alireza

2008-11-01

462

Comparison of performance of high-performance liquid chromatography columns packed with superficially and fully porous 2.5??m particles using kinetic plots.  

PubMed

A recently introduced 2.5??m fully porous support (Kromasil Eternity) is compared with three different brands of superficially porous material (Kinetex, Halo and Poroshell 120) by means of the kinetic plot method using pharmaceutical compounds from GlaxoSmithKline as probe molecules. The kinetic plot method immediately shows the range of plate numbers wherein a support performs better than another. Results from experiments carried out at pH 4.5 and 8.0 are presented in order to assess the pH stability of the tested phases. Moreover, since all supports are able to withstand pressures higher than 400?bar, they have been evaluated both on HPLC and UHPLC instrumentation. True average particle sizes were determined by SEM images taken from loose stationary phases. Kinetex outperforms the other columns in HPLC conditions for practically relevant efficiencies, but shows poor packing quality in the 100×2.1-mm format. Kromasil is advantageous for simple and fast separations on short columns both in HPLC and in UHPLC conditions. Halo achieves the highest efficiencies of all columns at the lowest pressure cost and shows a noticeable lower axial diffusion. Poroshell 120 has the best packing quality reproducibility across the tested formats. All columns preserve their performance at high pH. PMID:21104797

Fanigliulo, Ameriga; Cabooter, Deirdre; Bellazzi, Guido; Tramarin, Davide; Allieri, Brigida; Rottigni, Alessandro; Desmet, Gert

2010-12-01

463

Prediction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Effectiveness against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Using Opsonophagocytic Activity and Antibody Concentrations Determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with 22F Adsorption ?  

PubMed Central

We compared the abilities of two serological readouts, antipolysaccharide IgG antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers, to predict the clinical effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We also assessed the accuracy of the previously established thresholds for GlaxoSmithKline's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 22F adsorption (22F-ELISA) (?0.2 ?g/ml) and OPA assay (titer, ?8) in predicting effectiveness. We showed that following a 3-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination, the serological response rates as determined using thresholds of ?0.2 ?g/ml IgG and an OPA titer of ?8 corresponded well with overall effectiveness against IPD. In addition, the OPA assay seemed to better predict serotype-specific effectiveness than enzyme-linked immunoassay. Finally, when applied to post-dose-2 immune responses, both thresholds also corresponded well with the overall IPD effectiveness following a 2-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination. These results support the importance of the OPA assay in evaluating immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

Schuerman, L.; Wysocki, J.; Tejedor, J. C.; Knuf, M.; Kim, K.-H.; Poolman, J.

2011-01-01

464

Best of Both Worlds: On the Complementarity of Ligand-Based and Structure-Based Virtual Screening  

PubMed Central

Virtual screening with docking is an integral component of drug design, particularly during hit finding phases. While successful prospective studies of virtual screening exist, it remains a significant challenge to identify best practices a priori due to the many factors that influence the final outcome, including targets, data sets, software, metrics, and expert knowledge of the users. This study investigates the extent to which ligand-based methods can be applied to improve structure-based methods. The use of ligand-based methods to modulate the number of hits identified using the protein–ligand complex and also the diversity of these hits from the crystallographic ligand is discussed. In this study, 40 CDK2 ligand complexes were used together with two external data sets containing both actives and inactives from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and actives and decoys from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). Results show how ligand-based modeling can be used to select a more appropriate protein conformation for docking, as well as to assess the reliability of the docking experiment. The time gained by reducing the pool of virtual screening candidates via ligand-based similarity can be invested in more accurate docking procedures, as well as in downstream labor-intensive approaches (e.g., visual inspection) maximizing the use of the chemical and biological information available. This provides a framework for molecular modeling scientists that are involved in initiating virtual screening campaigns with practical advice to make best use of the information available to them.

2014-01-01

465

The importance of adjuvant formulation in the development of a TB vaccine  

PubMed Central

An effective protein based vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) will require a safe and effective adjuvant. There are few adjuvants in approved human vaccines, including Alum and the oil-in-water (o/w) based emulsions MF59 (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), AS03 and AS04 (GlaxoSmith Kline Biologics, GSK) AF03 (Sanofi), and liposomes (Crucell). When used with pure, defined proteins, both Alum and emulsion adjuvants are effective at inducing primarily humoral responses. One of the newest adjuvants in approved products is AS04, which combines monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a TLR-4 agonist, with Alum. In this study, we compared two adjuvants, an o/w emulsion (SE), and an o/w emulsion incorporating glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a synthetic TLR-4 agonist, together with a recombinant protein, ID93. Both the emulsion SE and GLA-SE adjuvants induce potent cellular responses in combination with ID93 in mice. ID93/SE induced Th2 biased immune responses, whereas ID93/GLA-SE induced multifunctional CD4+ Th1 cell responses (IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2). The ID93/GLA-SE vaccine candidate induced significant protection in mice and guinea pigs, whereas no protection was observed with ID93/SE, as assessed by reductions in bacterial burden, survival, and pathology. These results highlight the importance of properly formulating subunit vaccines with effective adjuvants for use against TB.

Baldwin, Susan L.; Bertholet, Sylvie; Reese, Valerie A.; Ching, Lance K.; Reed, Steven G.; Coler, Rhea N.

2011-01-01

466

Keystone Symposium on Antibodies as Drugs  

PubMed Central

The symposium on Antibodies as Drugs, organized by Keystone Symposia and chaired by J. Marks, (University of California Los Angeles, USA), E.S. Ward (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA) and L. Weiner (Georgetown University Medical Center, USA), was held in Whistler, British Columbia. This Canadian Rockies village, which will host the 2010 Olympic Games, served as an enchanting backdrop to the meeting. The more than 350 speakers and attendees included scientists from major pharmaceutical firms, e.g., Abbott, MedImmune/Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck & Co., Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly, Hoffmann LaRoche, Novartis, Wyeth, and biotechnology companies, e.g., Ablynx, Medarex, Morphosys, GenMab, Amgen, Genentech, ImmunoGen, Agensys, Domantis, Biogen Idec, Centocor, LFB, Micromet, PDL Biopharma, Borean Pharma, Dyax Corp., Symphogen and Syntonix. Academic research groups at Imperial College London, University of Oxford, ETH Zürich, Scripps, Institute Cochin, Karolinska Institute, Utrecht University, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Baylor College, Paul Ehrlich Institute, University of California San Francisco, University of California San Diego, University of Nantes, University of Tours and Ludwig Institute were also represented, as were regulatory authorities, including the US Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health and the Public Health Agency of Canada). The meeting was very interactive and included thoughtful exchanges during the different sessions and networking events.

Larbouret, Christel; Robert, Bruno

2009-01-01

467

Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.  

PubMed

Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed. PMID:15388817

Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

2004-09-01

468

Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on neurocognitive functioning and mood in deployed U.S. soldiers: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) may have neuroprotective properties for psychological health and cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of omega-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic; Harris-Schacky [HS]-Omega-3 Index) on neuropsychological functioning among U.S. Soldiers deployed to Iraq. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included Soldiers between the ages of 18 and 55 years who were randomly assigned to either the active treatment group (n = 44) or placebo group (n = 34). Active treatment was 2.5 g per day of eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic (Lovaza; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). The placebo was corn oil ethyl esters. HS-Omega-3 Index, a neurocognitive battery (Central Nervous System-Vital Signs, Morrisville, North Carolina), and psychological health scales were assessed at baseline and after 60 days of treatment. Although the results revealed that omega-3 FAs significantly increased the HS-Omega-3 Index (p = 0.001), there were no significant effects on indices psychological health and neurocognitive functioning by treatment group. Nevertheless, there was a significant inverse correlation between the changes in the HS-Omega-3 Index and daytime sleepiness (r = 0.30, p = 0.009). Short-term treatment with 2.5 g of omega-3 FAs did not alter measures of neurocognition or psychological health, but there was evidence of a relationship between omega-3 levels and daytime sleepiness. PMID:24690964

Dretsch, Michael N; Johnston, Daniel; Bradley, Ryan S; MacRae, Holden; Deuster, Patricia A; Harris, William S

2014-04-01

469

Comparison of ELISpot and FluoroSpot in the Analysis of Swine Flu-Specific IgG and IgA Secretion by in Vivo Activated Human B Cells.  

PubMed

We have evaluated a novel B-cell FluoroSpot assay for the analysis of antibody responses in healthy individuals vaccinated intramuscularly with Influenza A (H1N1) antigen (Pandemrix®, GlaxoSmithKline). Using the FluoroSpot assay and an ELISpot assay run in parallel for comparison, we measured the frequency of cells secreting antigen-specific as well as total IgG or IgA antibodies seven days post vaccination. The assays were based on high affinity monoclonal antibodies for capture and detection of human IgG and IgA. Whereas conventional ELISpot analyzes IgG- and IgA-secreting B cells separately, fluorescent detection enabled simultaneous enumeration of B cells secreting IgG or IgA in the same well. The FluoroSpot protocol was also simpler as the assay could be performed without the need for an amplifying detection step. While having all the advantages of a conventional ELISpot assay, including high sensitivity, robustness and ease of performance, the FluoroSpot assay adds further value in reducing costs, time and material. PMID:24710411

Kesa, Gun; Larsson, Per H; Ahlborg, Niklas; Axelsson, Bernt

2012-01-01

470

Ropinirole therapy for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Ropinirole (Requip, GlaxoSmithKline) is a novel nonergoline dopamine D2 agonist indicated for the treatment of early and advanced Parkinson's disease. It is mainly metabolized by the liver and its elimination half-life is approximately 5.8 h. When used as monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease, ropinirole improves signs and symptoms of the disorder. When used as an adjunct to levodopa in advanced Parkinson's disease patients with motor fluctuations, ropinirole reduces off time and allows a reduction of levodopa dose. The initial use of ropinirole in early Parkinson's disease to which levodopa is added when necessary, has been demonstrated to lead to a lower incidence of dyskinesias compared with treatment with levodopa alone. An 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography study suggested the possibility that ropinirole could slow the progression of loss of dopamine neurons compared with treatment with levodopa but this remains to be proven. Side effects of ropinirole include nausea, somnolence, edema, orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations and dyskinesia. A once-daily formulation of ropinirole is currently in development that has the potential for greater convenience, improved tolerability and greater efficacy. PMID:15853577

Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Hauser, Robert A

2004-07-01

471

Use of MenACWY-CRM Vaccine in Children Aged 2 Through 23 Months at Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.  

PubMed

During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, and Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is recommended for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months at increased risk. This report summarizes information on MenACWY-CRM administration in infants and provides recommendations for vaccine use in infants aged 2 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Because the burden of meningococcal disease in infants is low in the United States and the majority of cases that do occur are caused by serogroup B, which is not included in any vaccine licensed in the United States, only those infants who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease are recommended to receive a meningococcal vaccine. PMID:24941332

MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; McNamara, Lucy; Briere, Elizabeth C; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

2014-06-20

472

A randomized controlled trial of CBT therapy for adults with ADHD with and without medication  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies of psychological treatment in adults with ADHD have not controlled for medication status and include either medicated participants or mixed samples of medicated and unmedicated participants. The objective of this study is to examine whether use of medication improves outcome of therapy. Method This was a secondary analysis comparing 23 participants randomized to CBT and Dextroamphetamine vs. 25 participants randomized to CBT and placebo. Both patients and investigators were blind to treatment assignment. Two co-primary outcomes were used: ADHD symptoms on the ADHD-RS-Inv completed by the investigator and improvement in functioning as reported by the patient on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Results Both groups showed robust improvement in both symptoms and functioning, but the use of medication did not significantly improve outcome over and above use of CBT and placebo. Conclusion This study replicates previous work demonstrating that CBT is an effective treatment for ADHD in adults. Within the limits of this pilot, secondary analysis we were not able to demonstrate that medication significantly augments the outcome of CBT therapy for adults with ADHD. The study was funded by GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Trials Registry #GSK707.

2012-01-01

473

Essential health care package for children--the 'Fit for School' program in the Philippines.  

PubMed

High prevalence of poverty diseases such as diarrhoea, respiratory tract infection, parasitic infections and dental caries among children in the developing world calls for a return to primary health care principles with a focus on prevention. The 'Fit for School' program in the Philippines is based on international recommendations and offers a feasible, low-cost and realistic strategy using the principles of health promotion outlined in the Ottawa Charter. The cornerstone of the programme is the use of school structures for the implementation of preventive health strategies. 'Fit for School' consists of simple, evidence-based interventions like hand washing with soap, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and other high impact interventions such as bi-annual de-worming as a routine school activity for all children visiting public elementary schools. The programme has been successfully rolled-out in the Philippines covering 630,000 children in 22 provinces and it is planned to reach 6 million children in the next three years. The programme is a partnership project between the Philippine Department of Education and the Local Government Units with support for capacity development activities from the German Development Cooperation and GlaxoSmithKline. PMID:20476713

Monse, Bella; Naliponguit, Ella; Belizario, Vincente; Benzian, Habib; van Helderman, Wim Palenstein

2010-04-01

474

Bioequivalence study of 8?mg ondansetron film-coated tablets in healthy Caucasian volunteers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8?mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8?mg manufactured by Tarchomi?skie Zak?ady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated. PMID:24132707

Rudzki, P J; Kaza, M; Le?, A; Gilant, E; Ksyci?ska, H; Serafin-Byczak, K; Tro?, M; Raszek, J; Pi?tkowska-Chabuda, E; Skowro?ska-Smolak, M; Tarasiuk, A; Wilkowska, E; ?azowski, T

2014-04-01

475

[Diagnostic difficulties in Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) on the basis of own experience and literature data].  

PubMed

The Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare microdeletion dysmorphic syndrome (interstitial microdeletion of chromosome 17p11.2), which occurs sporadically. Mutations in the RAI1 gene are found in part of the patients. SMS is characterized by intellectual disability and behavioural disturbances (sleep disturbances, hyperactivity, attention deficit, self-injury behaviour), craniofacial dysmorphism and defects of other organs and systems (teeth, eyes and upper respiratory and hearing disturbances, short stature, brachydactyly, scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary defects). There are also neurological problems (muscular hypotonia, peripheral neuropathy, epilepsy and decreased sensitivity to pain). Many of the features that appear in the SMS may occur in other genetic syndromes, which may cause diagnostic difficulties. We report two cases of late diagnosed patients with the Smith-Magenis syndrome. Additionally, we present a review of literature and differential diagnosis. This may help in making the diagnosis and in giving optimal medical and psychological care to patients with SMS. PMID:22971658

Stembalska, Agnieszka; Jakubiak, Aleksandra; ?migiel, Robert

2012-01-01

476

Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

Saravanakumar, G.; Wahidabanu, R. S. D.; Nayak, C. G.

2007-08-01

477

Immune Complex-Mediated Autoimmunity in a Patient With Smith-Magenis Syndrome (del 17p11.2).  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a sporadic congenital disorder involving multiple organ systems caused by chromosome 17p11.2 deletions. Smith-Magenis syndrome features craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, cognitive impairment, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. In addition, some SMS patients may exhibit hypogammaglobulinemia. We report the first case of SMS-associated autoimmunity in a woman who presented with adult onset of multiple autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. Molecular analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed a de novo 3.8-Mb deletion (breakpoints, chr17: 16,660,721-20,417,975), resulting in haploinsufficiency for TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor). Our data are consistent with potential loss of function for the BAFF (B cell-activating factor) receptor TACI as a contributing factor to human autoimmune phenomena. PMID:25036569

Yang, Jianying; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Vilboux, Thierry; Smith, Ann C M; Peterson, Erik J

2014-08-01

478

Cone ERG Responses in Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate cone and cone-driven retinal function in patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a condition characterized by low cholesterol. Rod and rod-driven function in SLOS patients are known to be abnormal. Methods Electroretinographic (ERG) responses to full-field stimuli presented on a steady, rod suppressing background were recorded in 13 patients who had received long term cholesterol supplementation. Cone photoresponse sensitivity (SCONE) and saturated amplitude (RCONE) parameters were estimated using a model of the activation of phototransduction, and post-receptor b-wave and 30 Hz flicker responses were analyzed. The responses of the patients were compared to those of control subjects (N=13). Results Although average values of both SCONE and RCONE were lower than in controls, the differences were not statistically significant. Post-receptor b-wave amplitude and implicit time and flicker responses were normal. Conclusions The normal cone function contrasts with the significant abnormalities in rod function that were found previously in these same patients. Possibly cholesterol supplementation has a greater protective effect on cones than rods as has been demonstrated in the rat model of SLOS.

Garry, Deirdre; Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Elias, Ellen R.; Irons, Mira; Fulton, Anne B.

2010-01-01

479

Measurement of bedload discharge in nine Illinois streams with the Helley-Smith sampler  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples collected with the Helley-Smith bedload sampler provide useful information about transport of sand-size sediment in Illinois streams. Samples provide the basis for bedload-discharge rating curves for the Rock and Kaskaskie Rivers and Henderson Creek. Comparison of measured bedload discharge with bedload discharge computed for selected flow conditions from channel characteristics allows the selection of an appropriate indirect method for determining bedload discharge for the Spoon, Kishwaukee, and Edwards Rivers. No one indirect method best represents bedload discharge in studied streams. No bedload-discharge rating curve was developed for the La Moine River, because the two measured bedload discharges are not sufficient for development of a rating curve and do not agree well with discharges computed by any of the three indirect methods. The dominant size of bedload particles in all streams sampled give results which cannot be used at this time. Collection-bag clogging may have been significant in the Green River, and large bed material gains or high flow velocities may have interfered with the operation of the sample in the Vermilion River. (USGS)

Graf, Julia B.

1983-01-01

480

Retinal Degeneration in a Rat Model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: Thinking Beyond Cholesterol Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a recessive hereditary disease caused by a defect in the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis— the reduction of the ?7 double bond of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC)— resulting in the abnormal accumulation of 7DHC and diminished levels of Chol in all bodily tissues. Treatment of rats with AY9944— a drug that inhibits the same enzyme that is genetically defective in SLOS (i.e., DHCR7, 3?-hydroxysterol-?7-reductase)— starting in utero and continuing throughout postnatal life, provides a convenient animal model of SLOS for understanding the disease mechanism and also for testing the efficacy of therapeutic intervention strategies. Herein, the biochemical, morphological, and electrophysiological hallmarks of retinal degeneration in this animal model are reviewed. A high-cholesterol diet partially ameliorates the associated visual function deficits, but not the morphological degeneration. Recent studies using this model suggest that the disease mechanism in SLOS goes well beyond the initial cholesterol pathway defect, including global metabolic alterations, lipid and protein oxidation, and differential expression of hundreds of genes in multiple ontological gene families. These findings may have significant implications with regard to developing more optimal therapeutic interventions for managing SLOS patients.

Fliesler, Steven J.

2011-01-01

481

Challenging Behavior in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: Initial Test of Biobehavioral Influences  

PubMed Central

Objective To study challenging behavior (destruction, aggression, self-injury, stereotypy) in children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) using a biobehavioral model that helps distinguish biological from socially mediated variables influencing the behavior. Background SLOS is an autosomal-recessive syndrome of multiple malformations and intellectual disability resulting from a genetic error in cholesterol synthesis in all cells and tissues, including brain. The exact cause of the challenging behavior in SLOS is unclear, but defective brain cholesterol synthesis may contribute. Because the precise genetic and biochemical etiology of SLOS is known, this disorder is a good model for studying biological causes of challenging behavior. Method In a preliminary application of a biobehavioral model, we studied the association between cholesterol levels (as a biochemical indicator of disease severity) and behavior subtype (“biological” vs “learned”) in 13 children with SLOS. Parents completed a questionnaire that categorized challenging behavior as influenced primarily by social or nonsocial (thus, presumably biological) factors. Results The severity of the cholesterol synthesis defect correlated significantly with behavior subtype classification for 1 of 2 challenging behaviors. Greater severity of the cholesterol synthesis defect was associated with behavior being classified as primarily influenced by biological factors. Conclusion The interplay between challenging behavior and defective cholesterol synthesis in SLOS may help explain biological influences on the behavior. Our findings have implications for research on the effectiveness of behavioral and medical treatments for behavioral difficulties in SLOS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Freeman, Kurt A.; Eagle, Rose; Merkens, Louise S.; Sikora, Darryn; Pettit-Kekel, Kersti; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D.

2013-01-01

482

[General cognitive functioning and psycholinguistic abilities in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome].  

PubMed

This study is a neuropsycholinguistic research of a rare genetic syndrome with microdeletion that co-occurs with intellectual disabilities and relatively good language abilities, the Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS). Nevertheless, there are no cognitive and psycholinguistic profile analyses performed with Spanish population. In this sense, we characterized the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile of a sample with 9 participants with SMS (7 to 11 years of age). The cognitive and psychological profile was assessed with diverse standardized tests: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV version, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Results suggest a specific cognitive and psychological profile characterized by a low IQ and relative good abilities in integrating information, whereas attention problems and hyperactive behaviors were displayed when interacting with the child during the assessment. This work is the first evidence of the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile characterization in patients with SMS in Spain, and will help to guide a more accurate diagnosis and differential intervention in rare genetic diseases with similar cognitive and psycholinguistic profiles. PMID:22047865

Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Lens Villaverde, María; Moruno López, Esther; Conde Magro, Tatiana; Moura, Luis Felipe; Fernández, Montserrat; Sampaio, Adriana

2011-11-01

483

A Turkish patient with large 17p11.2 deletion presenting with Smith Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which occurs as a result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2-p12, is a disorder that presents itself with minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, delayed speech, cognitive deficits and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive repetitive and self-injurious behavior. We present a girl with full SMS phenotype. G-banding cytogenetic analysis showed normal 46,XX karyotype. Whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed due to the severity of the phenotype and the unusual features present in the patient. An interstitial deletion in 17p11.2-p12, approximately 4.73 Mb in size was determined. Characteristic physical and behavioral phenotype strongly suggested SMS. This, to the best of our knowledge is the first patient with SMS reported in Turkey. We emphasize the need for whole genome analysis in multiple congenital abnormalities/mental retardation disorders with unusual and severe phenotypes. PMID:21614983

Tug, E; Cine, N; Aydin, H

2011-01-01

484

Cognitive functioning in children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 17p11.2. This syndrome is characterized by a distinctive profile of physical, medical and neuropsychological characteristics. The latter include general mental disability, with the majority of individuals falling within the mild to moderate range. This study reports a detailed cognitive assessment of children and adults with SMS with the use of the Wechsler intelligence scales at three distinct levels of analysis: full scale IQ, factorial indices, and subtests. Child and adult samples were each compared to samples of age and gender-matched typically developing individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically analyse the cognitive profile of individuals with SMS in Southern Europe. The present study confirmed mental disability, particularly within the moderate category, as a consistent feature of children and adults with SMS. Furthermore, both child and adult samples evidenced significant impairments in all four indices when compared with their typically developing counterparts. A specific pattern of strengths and weaknesses was discernible for both samples, with Verbal Comprehension emerging as a relative strength, whereas Working Memory appeared as a relative weakness. Finally, with the exception of two subtests in the perceptual domain, we found no evidence for a general cognitive decline with age. PMID:22579991

Osório, Ana; Cruz, Raquel; Sampaio, Adriana; Garayzábal, Elena; Carracedo, Angel; Fernández-Prieto, Montse

2012-06-01

485

Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24788350

Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

2014-08-01

486

STS-103 MS Smith and MS Clervoy prepare to enter orbiter from White Room  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the White Room, STS-103 Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith and Jean-Francois Clervoy, in their orange launch and entry suits, are getting ready to enter Space Shuttle Discovery. Assisting them are closeout crew members (from left) United Space Alliance (USA) Mechanical Technician Rene Arriens, NASA Quality Assurance Specialist Danny Wyatt, USA Orbiter Vehicle Closeout Chief Travis Thompson and USA Mechanical Technician Vinny Defranzo. The White Room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm on the fixed service structure. It provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

487

STS-103 Pilot Kelly and MS Clervoy and Smith DEPART PAFB for Houston  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly holds his daughter as he talks to Mission Specialists and fellow crew members Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Steven L. Smith on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

1999-01-01

488

STS-103 Payload Commander Smith and his wife DEPART PAFB for Houston  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Payload Commander Steven L. Smith and his wife, Peggy, smile for the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

1999-01-01

489

Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

Dorava, J. M.; Sokup, J. M.

1994-01-01

490

Desperately seeking social approval: Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen and the moral limits of capitalist culture.  

PubMed

Adam Smith and Thorstein Veblen shared much in matters of economic ontology. Both dismissed the very notion of an autonomous economic self and instead investigated the processes through which self and other are mutually constituted under changing cultural traditions of individual aspiration. Their strikingly similar critiques of status-oriented consumption and concern for the moral basis of the market economy are established in this manner. However, the political implications of their analyses point in different directions, with Veblen being the more radical. The Smithian individual can always use spectatorial insights to assert through genuinely praiseworthy behaviour personal moral distance from social norms of status-oriented consumption. The Veblenian individual, by contrast, has no such capacity for elevating abstract moral principles above socially-situated conduct, as mind and environment co-evolve in line with changing material circumstances of life. For Veblen, the rise of status-oriented consumption itself acted as a form of moral self-education that more deeply entrenched the social norms of ownership out of which it arose, thus the impossibility of an autonomous economic self was matched by the impossibility of an autonomous moral self. To his way of thinking, moral degradation in conspicuous consumption was irredeemably inscribed into the whole cultural structure of capitalism. PMID:22950465

Watson, Matthew

2012-09-01

491

[Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Centris tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) nests].  

PubMed

A new treatment protocol was developed to analyze pollen residues found in nests of Centris tarsata Smith harvested from nest-traps. The study area was located in the Canudos Biological Station in the municipality of Canudos (09 masculine56'34'S; 38 masculine59'17'W), in the northeastern micro-region of Bahia State, Brazil. The local vegetation is an open caatinga (deciduous dryland vegetation), the regional climate is semi-arid, the average annual temperature is 24.1 masculineC, and the annual regional rainfall rate is 454 mm. Ten nests of C. tarsata were collected in trap-nests during the first semester of 2004. Pollen analysis from the nests required the development of a new methodology that combined techniques of palynological sediment analysis with the more common pollinic analysis by acetolysis. Microscopic analyses employed optical microscopy techniques. The pollinic spectrum of the samples from C. tarsata indicated the presence of 17 pollen types from seven plant families, which were present in assemblage of five to eleven pollen types, pointed to the plants used by bees to feed on their offspring. The most represented plant families were Leguminosae (49.3%) and Solanaceae (43.2%). The most frequent pollen types in the samples were from Solanum paniculatum (43.8%) and Senna rizzini (32.1%). The protocol developed provides a new tool for diet assessment of Centris and other groups of solitary bees. PMID:19488507

Dórea, Marcos da C; Dos Santos, Francisco de A R; Lima, Luciene C de L E; Figueroa, Luís E R

2009-01-01

492

Assays of plasma dehydrocholesteryl esters and oxysterols from Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients[S  

PubMed Central

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding 3?-hydroxysterol-?7-reductase and as a result of this defect, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and 8-dehydrocholesterol (8-DHC) accumulate in the fluids and tissues of patients with this syndrome. Both 7- and 8-DHC are susceptible to peroxidation reactions, and several biologically active DHC oxysterols are found in cell and animal models of SLOS. Ex vivo oxidation of DHCs can be a confounding factor in the analysis of these sterols and their esters, and we developed HPLC/MS methods that permit the direct analysis of cholesterol, 7-DHC, 8-DHC, and their esters in human plasma, thus avoiding ex vivo oxidation. In addition, three oxysterols were classified as endogenously formed products by the use of an isotopically-labeled 7-DHC (d7-7-DHC) added to the sample before workup, followed by MS analysis of products formed. Analysis of 17 SLOS plasma samples shows that 8-DHC linoleate correlates better with the SLOS severity score of the patients than other sterols or metabolites, including cholesterol and 7-DHC. Levels of 7-ketocholesterol also correlate with the SLOS severity score. 8-DHC esters should have utility as surrogate markers of severity in SLOS for prognostication and as endpoints in clinical trials.

Liu, Wei; Xu, Libin; Lamberson, Connor R.; Merkens, Louise S.; Steiner, Robert D.; Elias, Ellen R.; Haas, Dorothea; Porter, Ned A.

2013-01-01

493

Absence of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae) Extract  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of the ethanol extracts from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (EEZZR) using a standard battery of tests. Chemical analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that EEZZR contained Zerumbone (200.3 ± 0.37??g/g) and 6-gingerol (102.5 ± 0.28??g/g). There were no increases in the number of revertant colonies with EEZZR at concentrations of 150–5000??g per plate, regardless of the metabolic activation system (S-9 mix) used in the histidine-dependent auxotrophic mutants of Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535) compared to the vehicle control. Furthermore, EEZZR at doses of 150–5000 ?g mL?1 did not increase the number of structural aberrations in Chinese hamster lung cells in the presence or absence of S-9 mix. An oral administration of EEZZR to ICR mice, with doses of up to 2000?mg/kg, caused no significant increases in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) and mean ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to total erythrocytes. Lastly, RZZEE did not increase the incidence of MNPCEs in bone marrow. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that the use of EEZZR in traditional medicine poses no risk of genotoxicity.

Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

2012-01-01

494

Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); and others

1996-03-29

495

Accelerating Smith-Waterman Algorithm for Biological Database Search on CUDA-Compatible GPUs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a fast method capable of accelerating the Smith-Waterman algorithm for biological database search on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Our method is implemented using compute unified device architecture (CUDA), which is available on the nVIDIA GPU. As compared with previous methods, our method has four major contributions. (1) The method efficiently uses on-chip shared memory to reduce the data amount being transferred between off-chip video memory and processing elements in the GPU. (2) It also reduces the number of data fetches by applying a data reuse technique to query and database sequences. (3) A pipelined method is also implemented to overlap GPU execution with database access. (4) Finally, a master/worker paradigm is employed to accelerate hundreds of database searches on a cluster system. In experiments, the peak performance on a GeForce GTX 280 card reaches 8.32 giga cell updates per second (GCUPS). We also find that our method reduces the amount of data fetches to 1/140, achieving approximately three times higher performance than a previous CUDA-based method. Our 32-node cluster version is approximately 28 times faster than a single GPU version. Furthermore, the effective performance reaches 75.6 giga instructions per second (GIPS) using 32 GeForce 8800 GTX cards.

Munekawa, Yuma; Ino, Fumihiko; Hagihara, Kenichi

496

Decreased cerebral spinal fluid neurotransmitter levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with cognitive impairment and a distinct behavioral phenotype that includes autistic features. SLOS is caused by a defect in 3?-hydroxysterol ?(7)-reductase which leads to decreased cholesterol levels and elevated cholesterol precursors, specifically 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol. However, the pathological processes contributing to the neurological abnormalities in SLOS have not been defined. In view of prior data suggesting defects in SLOS in vesicular release and given the association of altered serotonin metabolism with autism, we were interested in measuring neurotransmitter metabolite levels in SLOS to assess their potential to be used as biomarkers in therapeutic trials. We measured cerebral spinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) respectively, in 21 SLOS subjects. Results were correlated with the SLOS anatomical severity score, Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores and concurrent sterol biochemistry. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were significantly reduced in SLOS subjects. In individual patients, the levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were reduced to a similar degree. CSF neurotransmitter metabolite levels did not correlate with either CSF sterols or behavioral measures. This is the first study demonstrating decreased levels of CSF neurotransmitter metabolites in SLOS. We propose that decreased levels of neurotransmitters in SLOS are caused by a sterol-related defect in synaptic vesicle formation and that CSF 5HIAA and HVA will be useful biomarkers in development of future therapeutic trials. PMID:24500076

Sparks, S E; Wassif, C A; Goodwin, H; Conley, S K; Lanham, D C; Kratz, L E; Hyland, K; Gropman, A; Tierney, E; Porter, F D

2014-05-01

497

Modified Smith predictor based cascade control of unstable time delay processes.  

PubMed

An improved cascade control structure with a modified Smith predictor is proposed for controlling open-loop unstable time delay processes. The proposed structure has three controllers of which one is meant for servo response and the other two are for regulatory responses. An analytical design method is derived for the two disturbance rejection controllers by proposing the desired closed-loop complementary sensitivity functions. These two closed-loop controllers are considered in the form of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller cascaded with a second order lead/lag filter. The direct synthesis method is used to design the setpoint tracking controller. By virtue of the enhanced structure, the proposed control scheme decouples the servo response from the regulatory response in case of nominal systems i.e., the setpoint tracking controller and the disturbance rejection controller can be tuned independently. Internal stability of the proposed cascade structure is analyzed. Kharitonov's theorem is used for the robustness analysis. The disturbance rejection capability of the proposed scheme is superior as compared to existing methods. Examples are also included to illustrate the simplicity and usefulness of the proposed method. PMID:21924721

Padhan, Dola Gobinda; Majhi, Somanath

2012-01-01

498

Discordant Clinical Phenotype and Sterol Biochemistry in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation syndrome resulting from mutations of the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene (DHCR7). During de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, DHCR7 catalyzes the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to cholesterol. A clinical diagnosis of SLOS is confirmed biochemically by the presence of elevated levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol. Phenotypic severity of SLOS has previously been shown to correlate with the 7DHC/cholesterol ratio. In this case report, we describe a patient with a severe SLOS phenotype, but a very low serum 7DHC/cholesterol ratio. We further demonstrate that this discordance is due to alternative splicing of a previously unreported IVS5+3 A>T mutation. This mutation results in the transcription of both normal and mutant mRNA transcripts. We postulate that alternative splicing of the IVS5+3 A>T results in insufficient DHCR7 activity during embryogenesis, but sufficient DHCR7 activity once cholesterol synthetic rates decrease postnatally. This case is a unique observation that underscores the adjunctive use of fibroblast and molecular testing in ambiguous cases of SLOS and may provide insight into the potential efficacy of therapeutic interventions altering postnatal cholesterol biosynthesis.

Koo, Grace; Conley, Sandra K.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Porter, Forbes D.

2011-01-01

499

Technical procedures for implementation of aesthetics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program  

SciTech Connect

This chapter introduces the purpose and scope of the visually affected areas determination, as well as definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs. This procedure provides a method for determining the extent of visibility of the project. This area is identified as the visually affected area, and becomes the area within which all visual analysis is conducted. The visually affected area analysis of the Deaf Smith County site will involve identifying and mapping the visibility of all major proposed project features. Baseline analysis will be conducted within the overall visually affected area; impact assessment will be conducted within the visually affected area of each major project feature. This procedure presents the guidelines for determining the visually affected area will be in computer data base construction; viewshed modeling, and site visit and verification of results. Computer data base construction will involve digitizing topographic and project facility data from available data source. The extent of the visible area from each major project feature will then be plotted. Finally, these computer-generated visibility plots will be verified in the field.

Not Available

1987-06-01

500

Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Hedychium coccineum Smith.  

PubMed

The inflorescence of Hedychium coccineum Smith is thyrse, and the primary bracts are initiated in a spiral phyllotactic pattern on the sides of the inflorescence dome. Cincinnus primordia are initiated on the flank of the inflorescence apex, in the axils of primary bracts. This primordium subsequently develops a bract and a floral primordium. Then, the floral primordium enlarges, flattens apically, and becomes rounded. Sepals are initiated sequentially from the rounded corner of the primordium ring sepal initiation, and the floral primordium continues to enlarge and produces a ring primordium. Later, this ring primordium separates three common primordia surrounding a central cavity. The adaxial common primordium is the first separation. This primordium produces the posterior petal and the fertile stamen. The remaining two common primordia separate and produce respectively a petal and a petaloid, the inner androecial member. As the flower enlarges, the cavity of the floral cup becomes a rounded-triangular apex; these apices are the sites of outer androecial primordium initiation. The abaxial outer androecial member slightly forms before the two adaxial members develop. But this primordium ceases growth soon after initiation, while the two posterior primordia continue growth to produce the lateral petaloid staminodes. During this stage, gynoecial initiates in the floral cup and continues to grow until extending beyond the labellum. PMID:20455070

Kong, Ji-Jun; Xia, Yong-Mei; Li, Qing-Jun

2010-11-01