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  1. 78 FR 63226 - GlaxoSmithKline LLC; Withdrawal of Approval of the Indication for Treatment of Patients With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration GlaxoSmithKline LLC; Withdrawal of Approval of the... (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection held by GlaxoSmithKline LLP, P.O. Box 5089, 1250...

  2. Scientists in Sport, the 2012-Inspired GlaxoSmithKline Schools Outreach Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadd, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The GlaxoSmithKline Scientists in Sport team have worked with 4science to provide resources and offer activities for use by schools to show the relevance of science in sport. Much of the content looks at anti-doping and the science involved with detecting the misuse of banned substances. Through the development of a website, this work can continue…

  3. Passing on the medicinal chemistry baton: training undergraduates to be industry-ready through research projects between the University of Nottingham and GlaxoSmithKline.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Simon J F; Fray, M Jonathan; McInally, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In this article we describe a radically different industry-academia collaboration between the School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), aiming to train students in research and give them an insight into medicinal chemistry as practiced in industry. The project concerns the discovery of potent and selective αvβ6 integrin antagonists to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; the synthetic chemistry is performed by a group of ten final-year undergraduates and the biological and physicochemical screening data are generated by GSK. The project planning, organisation and operation are discussed, together with some of the challenges and rewards of working with undergraduates. PMID:26852693

  4. Feasibility Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' GSK2202083A Vaccine in Healthy Infants at 3, 5 and 11 Months of Age.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-11-16

    Haemophilus Influenzae Type b; Poliomyelitis; Hepatitis B; Serogroup C Meningococcal Diseases; Diphtheria; Pertussis; Diphtheria-Tetanus-aPertussis-Hepatitis B-Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b-Neisseria Meningitidis Vaccines; Tetanus

  5. Scanner K-line photometry of Orion stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesser, J. E.; Mcclintock, W.; Henry, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for two-channel scanner measurements of calcium K-line strengths in 39 Orion sword and belt stars. Values of the calcium k index and its associated standard error are given for each observed star, and the K-line strengths are compared with those of K-line standard stars and Hyades stars. Plots of k index against reddening-corrected color and of k-index deviation against metal-strength index deviation are provided which show that the Orion sword and belt stars do not differ significantly in their calcium and metal abundances from general field stars.

  6. 78 FR 22270 - Joint Meeting of the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. AVANDIA is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. FDA intends to... readjudication of the Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Regulation of Glycemia in...

  7. Pharma giants swap research programs.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical giants Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) agreed in late April to swap some assets, with Novartis handing off its vaccine business to GSK and getting most of the British company's cancer portfolio in return. PMID:25002632

  8. Identifying the Right Disease Targets to Develop Better Drugs, Faster | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... initial $230 million invested by NIH through the Foundation for the NIH, and half coming from the ... Idec GlaxoSmithKline Lilly Non-Profit Organizations Alzheimer's Association Foundation for the NIH Geoffrey Beene Foundation USAgainst Alzheimers ...

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y and W glycoconjugate vaccine, ACWY-TT.

    PubMed

    Findlow, Helen; Borrow, Ray

    2013-05-01

    A quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY), utilising tetanus toxoid (TT) as its carrier protein (ACWY-TT; Nimenrix™, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium) has been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic when administered to young children from 12 months of age, older children, adolescents, and adults. Administration of a single dose of ACWY-TT induces protective serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups as well as good antibody persistence. Coadministration studies have demonstrated that ACWY-TT can be administered with diphtheria, tetanus, three-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP3-IPV-HBV/Hib, Infanrix™ hexa; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine (Priorix-Tetra™; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Synflorix(®); GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix(®); GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); and seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix™; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium). Studies in young infants from 2 months of age have now commenced but immunisation with a single dose of ACWY-TT from 12 months of age is a safe and immunogenic option in the prevention of meningococcal disease. PMID:23712402

  10. ERP Modulation during Observation of Abstract Paintings by Franz Kline

    PubMed Central

    Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Berchio, Cristina; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of the static consequences of hand gestures devoid of any meaning.In order to verify this hypothesis we performed an EEG experiment presenting to participants images of abstract works of art with marked traces of brushstrokes. The EEG data were analyzed by using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). We aimed to demonstrate a direct involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of these selected works of abstract art. The stimuli consisted of three different abstract black and white paintings by Franz Kline. Results verified our experimental hypothesis showing the activation of premotor and motor cortical areas during stimuli observation. In addition, abstract works of art observation elicited the activation of reward-related orbitofrontal areas, and cognitive categorization-related prefrontal areas. The cortical sensorimotor activation is a fundamental neurophysiological demonstration of the direct involvement of the cortical motor system in perception of static meaningless images belonging to abstract art. These results support the role of embodied simulation of artist’s gestures in the perception of works of art. PMID:24130693

  11. Stephen Jay Kline on systems, or physics, complex systems, and the gap between.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2011-06-01

    At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), but the topic of the book is systems. Kline first establishes certain limits that are characteristic of our conscious minds. Kline then establishes a complexity measure for systems and uses that complexity measure to develop a hierarchy of systems. Kline then argues that our minds, due to their characteristic limitations, are unable to model the complex systems in that hierarchy. Computers are of no help to us here. Our attempts at modeling these complex systems are based on the way we successfully model some simple systems, in particular, 'inert, naturally-occurring' objects and processes, such as what is the focus of physics. But complex systems overwhelm such attempts. As a result, the best we can do in working with these complex systems is to use a heuristic, what Kline calls the 'Guideline for Complex Systems.' Kline documents the problems that have developed due to 'oversimple' system models and from the inappropriate application of a system model from one domain to another. One prominent such problem is the Procrustean attempt to make the disciplines that deal with complex systems be 'physics-like.' Physics deals with simple systems, not complex ones, using Kline's complexity measure. The models that physics has developed are inappropriate for complex systems. Kline documents a number of the wasteful and dangerous fallacies of this type.

  12. Making British cortisone: Glaxo and the development of corticosteroids in Britain in the 1950s-1960s.

    PubMed

    Quirke, Viviane

    2005-12-01

    Following the announcement in 1949 in the USA that cortisone offered rheumatoid arthritis sufferers effective treatment for their crippling disease, the Ministry of Health came under considerable pressure from the medical profession and the public to make cortisone available in Britain. The Ministry, therefore, urged British companies to start manufacturing cortisone. Among the several pharmaceutical firms responding to the Ministry's request, Glaxo's expertise in the field of vitamins gave them a head start. This paper describes the varied and flexible strategy that enabled Glaxo to maintain this head start, and the scientific and technical capabilities which the company subsequently built up, enabling them to dominate the market for corticosteroids in Britain. Among the drugs to emerge out of the Glaxo project to manufacture cortisone, which began in 1950 and later became a wider R&D programme on steroids, was the topical steroid Betnovate, launched in 1963, which remains a best-seller today. However, although it led to successful new products, Glaxo's programme had limitations. The paper identifies a missed opportunity, in the shape of the biosynthetic route to steroid drugs, often considered as a milestone in the development of the new biotechnology. Whether or not this missed opportunity proved costly to the company is uncertain. However, it illustrates the role of technological path-dependence, and the importance of the integration between different scientific disciplines, in this case chemistry and biology, in pharmaceutical innovation. PMID:16337555

  13. European Respiratory Society (ERS) - 20th Annual Congress.

    PubMed

    Seale, John Paul

    2010-11-01

    The European Respiratory Society Congress, held in Barcelona, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of respiratory health and disease. This conference report highlights selected presentations on therapies targeting inflammatory cells, with a focus on therapeutic agents for asthma and COPD. This report also includes a discussion of novel therapeutic agents for pulmonary hypertension. Investigational drugs discussed include OC-000459 (Oxagen), SCH-527123 (Merck & Co), AZD-9668 (AstraZeneca), benralizumab (MedImmune/Kyowa Hakko Kirin/BioWa), PF-3429281 (Pfizer), vilanterol (GlaxoSmithKline/Theravance), LAS-100977 (Almirall Prodesfarma), selexipag (Nippon Shinyaku/Actelion) and GW-0742 (GlaxoSmithKline). PMID:21046521

  14. Natural product source material use in the pharmaceutical industry: the Glaxo experience.

    PubMed

    Turner, D M

    1996-04-01

    Glaxo PLC has had a significant involvement with Natural Product Source Materials for all of its commercial history and, most recently, has pursued this interest by use of such materials as templates for new lead discovery. Through the expertise and facilities in its Natural Products Discovery Department, Glaxo extracts relatively small quantities of plant material (typically 200-250 g dry weight) and cultures microorganisms from environmental samples (typically 10-50 g). Extracts and fermentation broths are screened in order to detect bioactive principles (BPs). If the potency, selectivity and specificity of the BP is acceptable, isolation, purification and structural elucidation follows. It is most unlikely, in our experience, that the BP itself will become a drug; it is much more likely that we shall need to initiate a medicinal chemistry synthesis program in order to try to produce a molecule that has both the essential biological and desirable chemical properties to become a drug development candidate. This synthetic process is often a long one and our confidence that such a process is worth undertaking is greatly improved if the BP is novel. An essential component of any medicinal chemistry strategy is that it allows us to obtain secure intellectual property rights through patents. Acquisition of product claim protection, the strongest form of patent protection, is of great importance. Safety testing and clinical development of the candidate drug can take 7-10 years, and often more, during which patent protection is constantly eroding. Recognizing that acquisition of Natural Products Source Materials is an issue of growing concern, Glaxo Research and Development Ltd. (GRD), in the early part of 1992, implemented a policy for plant supply. This policy was subsequently modified to embrace source materials such as environmental, soil and marine samples from which fungi, micro- and microorganisms may be obtained. As a direct consequence of this policy, Natural

  15. A possible edge effect in enhanced network. [solar K-line observations by multichannel spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. P.; Brown, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    K-line observations of enhanced network taken with the NASA/SPO Multichannel Spectrometer on September 28, 1975, in support of OSO-8 are discussed. The data show a correlation between core brightness and asymmetry for spatial scans which cross enhanced network boundaries. The implications of this result concerning mass flow in and near supergranule boundaries are discussed.

  16. Smith Tackles Oakland Unified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    As a 20-something, Anthony "Tony" Smith had fulfilled one dream: playing professional football for the Green Bay Packers and the San Francisco 49ers. Next up, he thought, was law school, but a former mentor reminded him that he is a teacher. Smith never became a classroom teacher, but his background in sports--where he learned the power of…

  17. Variability of Solar UV Irradiance Related to Bright Magnetic Features Observed in Call K-Line: Relationship between Lyman alpha and K-line Report for UARS funding agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Cameron, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In this report we comment on the relationship between the Lyman alpha and Calcium K-line emission from the Sun. We firstly examine resolved Lyman alpha images (from TRACE) and resolved K-line images. We find that the Lyman alpha emission is consistent with a linear dependence on the K-line emission. As this is in conflict with the analysis of Johannesson et al.(1995, 1998) we proceed by comparing the disk integrated Lyman alpha flux as a function of ratio between the disk integrated Mg II core and wing fluxes (Johannesson et al (1998) having previously found a linear dependence between this index and the BBSO K-line index). We find that a reasonably good fit can be obtained, however note the discrepancies which lead Johannesson et al to consider the square root relationship. We suggest an alternative interpretation of the discrepancy.

  18. A Comparison of Summed Continuum and CaII K-line Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Walton, S. R.; Smith, C.

    2003-05-01

    Full-disk photometric images are obtained with two telescopes on a daily basis at the following wavelengths: 393 nm (CaII K-line), 472 nm and 672 nm. In order to explore the characteristics of the fainter facular/network elements, we obtain, on occasion, up to 10 images as closely spaced in time as possible. For the work reported on here, we have used red continuum images at 672 nm (bandpass 10 nm) from the CFDT2 telescope (pixel size 2.5" x 2.5"). These images have been coaligned and summed to reduce noise from non-magnetic intensity features. The customary image processing tools have been applied (Walton et al. 1998). The quiet sun rms intensity fluctuation drops from about 0.58 % on a single image to about 0.21 % on the summed image. On the summed red image, bright facular/network features as faint as about 0.6 % become visible across the solar disk. These features will be compared with those found on images obtained in the CaII K-line to determine their reality in terms of K-line faculae. This work has been partially supported by grants from NASA (NAG5-7191) and NSF (ATM-9912132). Reference Walton, S.R., Chapman, G.A., Cookson, A.M., Dobias, J.J. and Preminger, D.G. 1998, Solar Phys. 179, 31-42.

  19. Comparisons of MgII core-wing data with Ground-Based Ca K-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Preminger, D.

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium_II core-wing ratio data will be compared with ground-based K-line photometry for most of cycle 22 and 23. The ground-based data is the photmetric sum computed from the composite K-line obtained from the San Fernando Observatory. We will examine several MgII core-wing composites. This work is partially supported by grants NNX11AB51G from NASA and ATM-0848518 from NSF.

  20. Developing WordSmith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mike

    2008-01-01

    WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk…

  1. Disconnected Youth in the Research Triangle Region: An Ominous Problem Hidden in Plain Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, David; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Raper, Noah; Rausch, Christina

    2008-01-01

    In September 2006, the North Carolina GlaxoSmithKline Foundation commissioned MDC, Inc. of Chapel Hill to analyze the problem of "disconnected youth" in the Research Triangle region, determine the current state of the region's responses to the challenge, and recommend steps to deepen and accelerate action on the issue. The research process was…

  2. 75 FR 17929 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... circovirus type 1 (PCV 1) in Rotarix, a U.S. licensed vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and...

  3. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing. PMID:22712591

  4. Portrait of Waldo Smith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilhaus, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In 1944, Waldo Smith was looking for a place where he could make a difference. He had taught in universities in the United States and Turkey, and he had worked as an engineer in the field of hydrology in the United States. Somehow, a chance meeting with John Adam Fleming, AGU's long-time General Secretary, led to Waldo's becoming the first executive officer employed by the Union. That, in turn, brought him the opportunity to make a difference.

  5. Solar Cycle Fine Structure and Surface Rotation from Ca II K-Line Time Series Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeff; Keil, Steve; Worden, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of three and a half decades of data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program yields evidence for four components to the variation: (a) the solar cycle, with considerable fine structure and a quasi-periodicity of 122.4 days; (b) a stochastic process, faster than (a) and largely independent of it, (c) a quasi-periodic signal due to rotational modulation, and of course (d) observational errors (shown to be quite small). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis is especially useful for extracting information about differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the connection between its behavior and fine structure of the solar cycle on approximately one-year time scales. These results further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced at NASA's Kepler observatory.

  6. Outcome of posterior decompression with instrumented fusion surgery for K-line (-) cervical ossification of the longitudinal ligament.

    PubMed

    Saito, Junya; Maki, Satoshi; Kamiya, Koshiro; Furuya, Takeo; Inada, Taigo; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Aramomi, Masaaki; Mannoji, Chikato; Koda, Masao

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the outcome of posterior decompression and instrumented fusion (PDF) surgery for patients with K-line (-) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine, who may have a poor surgical prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of a series of 27 patients who underwent PDF without correction of cervical alignment for K-line (-) OPLL and were followed-up for at least 1 year after surgery. We had performed double-door laminoplasty followed by posterior instrumented fusion without excessive correction of cervical spine alignment. The preoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score for cervical myelopathy was 8.0 points and postoperative JOA score was 11.9 points on average. The mean JOA score recovery rate was 43.6%. The average C2-C7 angle was 2.2° preoperatively and 3.1° postoperatively. The average maximum occupation ratio of OPLL was 56.7%. In conclusion, PDF without correcting cervical alignment for patients with K-line (-) OPLL showed moderate neurological recovery, which was acceptable considering K-line (-) predicts poor surgical outcomes. Thus, PDF is a surgical option for such patients with OPLL. PMID:27591553

  7. Smith-Lemli-Opitz-syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gedam, Rachana; Shah, Ira; Ali, Uma; Ohri, Alpana

    2012-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder. A severe defect in cholesterol biosynthesis has been identified leading to abnormally low plasma cholesterol levels and elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, the result of deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. We describe one such child with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. This child had clinical features similar to Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome like facial dysmorphism and cardiac and renal anomalies with failure to thrive. PMID:23162303

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Smith-Magenis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Smith-Magenis syndrome Smith-Magenis syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Smith-Magenis syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects ...

  9. An Atlas of K-Line Spectra for Cool Magnetic CP Stars: The Wing-Nib Anomaly (WNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.; Kamp, I.

    2006-04-01

    We present a short atlas illustrating the unusual Ca II K-line profiles in upper main-sequence stars with anomalous abundances. Slopes of the profiles for 10 cool, magnetic chemically peculiar (CP) stars change abruptly at the very core, forming a deep ``nib.'' The nibs show the same or nearly the same radial velocity as the other atomic lines. The near wings are generally more shallow than in normal stars. In three magnetic CP stars, the K lines are too weak to show this shape, although the nibs themselves are arguably present. The Ca II H lines also show deep nibs, but the profiles are complicated by the nearby, strong Hɛ absorption. The K-line structure is nearly unchanged with phase in β CrB and α Cir. Calculations, including NLTE, show that other possibilities in addition to chemical stratification may yield niblike cores.

  10. Absence epileptic activity changing effects of non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G

    2015-08-01

    Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802

  11. SOLAR CYCLE VARIABILITY AND SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION FROM Ca II K-LINE TIME SERIES DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Worden, Simon P.; Keil, Stephen L.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period {approx} 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods {approx} 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range {approx}0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak{sub m}on/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

  12. Solar Cycle Variability and Surface Differential Rotation from Ca II K-line Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Keil, Stephen L.; Worden, Simon P.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period ~ 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods ~ 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range ~0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak_mon/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

  13. Smith heads Reviews of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On January 1, Jim Smith began his term as editor-in-chief of Reviews of Geophysics. As editor-in-chief, he leads the board of editors in enhancing the journal's role as an integrating force in the geophysical sciences by providing timely overviews of current research and its trends. Smith is already beginning to fulfill the journal's role of providing review papers on topics of broad interest to Union members as well as the occasional definitive review paper on selected topics of narrower focus. Smith will lead the editorial board until December 31, 2000. Michael Coffey, Tommy Dickey, James Horwitz, Roelof Snieder, and Thomas Torgersen have been appointed as editors to serve with Smith. At least one more editor will be named to round out the disciplinary expertise on the board.

  14. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. PMID:27154620

  15. NIC23.

    PubMed

    Baxter, David; Guppy, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    The 23rd National Immunization Conference for Health Care Workers was held on December 7th, 2012 at the Manchester Conference Centre. There were over 220 delegates for this event sponsored by educational grants from Crucell, Glaxo Smith Kline, Pfizer Vaccines and Sanofi Pasteur. A number of speakers took the opportunity kindly afforded by Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics to write up their conference presentation as a paper for this special supplement. PMID:23857271

  16. FDA Approves Two HPV Vaccines: Cervarix for Girls, Gardasil for Boys | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The FDA has approved a second vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancers, the vaccine’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), announced last week. The approval is based on data from a large clinical trial showing that the vaccine, Cervarix, prevented precancerous lesions in 93 percent of those who received the full vaccine sequence of three injections over 6 months. |

  17. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed information about…

  18. Fukushima to receive Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1990 Waldo E. Smith Medal for extraordinary service to geophysics will be given to Naoshi Fukushima, who earned an international reputation for his pioneering work in geomagnetic disturbance and ionospheric electric currents. Now retired from the University of Tokyo, Japan, Fukushima is being cited for his public service to international geophysics, and, in particular, his contributions to the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, of which he was Secretary General from September 1975 to August 1983.The Smith Medal will be presented as part of the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Night festivities, Wednesday, December 5, in San Francisco, Calif. Three James B. Macelwane Medals, the John Adam Fleming Medal, and the Maurice Ewing Medal will also be presented (see Eos, February 20, 1990, p. 294).

  19. GPU Accelerated Smith-Waterman

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Huang, W; Johnson, J; Vaidya, S

    2006-02-08

    We present a novel hardware implementation of the double affine Smith-Waterman (DASW) algorithm, which uses dynamic programming to compare and align genomic sequences such as DNA and proteins. We implement DASW on a commodity graphics card, taking advantage of the general purpose programmability of the graphics processing unit to leverage its cheap parallel processing power. The results demonstrate that our system's performance is competitive with current optimized software packages.

  20. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  1. The visible Smith-Purcell radiation search

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Ulc, S. Wang, X.

    1994-03-01

    We report here the results of an experiment at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to search for the production of visible radiation from the Smith-Purcell effect using a 3 MeV electron beam. After running the experiment under a variety of conditions we were unable to isolate a definite signal from Smith-Parcell effect. Any Smith-Purcell signal present in the measured radiation was less than 10% of the background signal.

  2. Near-coincident K-line and K-edge energies as ionization diagnostics for some high atomic number plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Weber, B. V.; Phipps, D. G.; Schumer, J. W.; Seely, J. F.; Carroll, J. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Slabkowska, K.; Polasik, M.

    2012-10-15

    For some high atomic number atoms, the energy of the K-edge is tens of eVs higher than the K-line energy of another atom, so that a few eV increase in the line's energy results in a decreasing transmission of the x-ray through a filter of the matching material. The transmission of cold iridium's Asymptotically-Equal-To 63.287 keV K{alpha}{sub 2} line through a lutetium filter is 7% lower when emitted by ionized iridium, consistent with an energy increase of {Delta}{epsilon} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{+-}1 eV associated with the ionization. Likewise, the transmission of the K{beta}{sub 1} line of ytterbium through a near-coincident K-edge filter changes depending on plasma parameters that should affect the ionization. Systematic exploration of filter-line pairs like these could become a unique tool for diagnostics of suitable high energy density plasmas.

  3. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  4. The Treatment of Smith's Invisible Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Jonathan B.

    2007-01-01

    Adam Smith used the metaphor of an invisible hand to represent the instincts of human nature that direct behavior. Moderated by self-control and guided by proper institutional incentives, actions grounded in instincts can be shown to generate a beneficial social order even if not intended. Smith's concept, however, has been diluted and distorted…

  5. Bringing Sally Smith's Vision to Manayunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her application of what she learned from her internship at Sally Smith's Lab School of Washington to her new school and shares the favorable impact it had brought on her teaching career. The author shares her first exposure to the powerful effects of Smith's "Live It, Learn It" methodology as she encountered a…

  6. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  11. Induced Smith-Purcell radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D. N.; Artemyev, A. I.; Oganesyan, K. B.; Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Hu, C.-K.

    2010-11-01

    Excitation of induced coherent Smith-Purcell (SP) radiation by relativistic magnetized electron beam in the absence of the resonator is considered within the framework of the dispersion equation. We have found that the dispersion equation for the SP instability is a quadratic equation for frequency. The first-step approximation for solution of the dispersion equation, giving the SP-spectrum of frequency, corresponds to the mirror boundary case, when the electron beam propagates above a plane metal surface (mirror). It was found that the conditions for both the Thompson and the Raman regimes of excitation do not depend on beam current and depend on the height of the beam above the grating surface. The growth rate of the instability in both cases is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current. No feedback is needed to provide the coherent emission.

  12. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a developmental disorder that ...

  14. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12–16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Results: Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. Conclusions: We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects. PMID:25821308

  15. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  16. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)

  17. Knauss Receives 2006 Waldo E. Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrad, Richard W.; Knauss, John A.

    2007-01-01

    John A. Knauss was awarded the Waldo E. Smith Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting honors ceremony, which was held on 13 December 2006 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal recognizes extraordinary service to geophysics.

  18. The Devil in Mr. Smith: A Conversation with Jonathan Z. Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan Z.; Pearson, Thomas; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Jensen, Tim; Fujiwara, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    This interview was recorded in November 2012 in Jonathan Z. Smith's Hyde Park graystone. Professor Smith offers insights into how he thinks about his classroom teaching and his students' learning through descriptions of various assignments and classroom activities he has developed over more than forty years of teaching. The discussion…

  19. STS-110 Crew Interviews: Steve Smith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Steve Smith is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Smith outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Smith discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  20. Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Face Speaks.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rekha; Gupta, Neerja; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Mandal, Kausik; Kishore, Yougal; Sharma, Pankaj; Kabra, Madhulika; Phadke, Shubha R

    2016-06-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well delineated microdeletion syndrome with characteristic facial and behavioral phenotype. With the availability of the multi-targeted molecular cytogenetic techniques like Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification and cytogenetic microarray, the cases are diagnosed even without clinical suspicion. Here, the authors present clinical features of nine Indian cases of Smith-Magenis syndrome. Characteristic facial phenotype including tented upper lip, broad forehead, midface hypoplasia, short philtrum and upslant of palpebral fissure is obvious in the photographs. The behavioral variations were seen in some of the cases but were not the presenting features. The characteristic facial phenotype can be an important clinical guide to the diagnosis. PMID:26676648

  1. STS-103 Crew Interviews: Steven Smith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Brown became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is an explanation of the why this required mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope must take place at such an early date, replacement of the gyroscopes, transistors, and computers. Also discussed is Smith's responsibility during any of the planned space walks scheduled for this mission.

  2. Iodine-131 Tositumomab: (131)I-anti-B1 antibody, (131)I-tositumomab, anti-CD20 murine monoclonal antibody-I-131, B1, Bexxar, (131)I-anti-B1 antibody, iodine-131 tositumomab, iodine-131 anti-B1 antibody, tositumomab.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Iodine-131 tositumomab [B1, Bexxar , iodine-131 anti-B1 antibody] is a murine antibody conjugated to iodine 131 that recognises and binds to the B1 (CD20) antigen which is found specifically on B lymphocytes. Iodine-131 tositumomab has a dual mechanism of action. It is capable of initiating a host immune response to those B cells to which it is attached, and it also triggers apoptosis in a significant proportion of the cells to which it binds. The product was first discovered by Coulter Corporation, Miami, in collaboration with the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the University of Michigan. The spin-off company Coulter Pharmaceutical, upon its formation, obtained worldwide rights to iodine-131 tositumomab. (Coulter Corporation was acquired subsequently by Beckman Instruments in October 1997. The union of the two companies produced Beckman Coulter.) In December 2000, Coulter Pharmaceutical was acquired by, and merged into, Corixa Corporation.Iodine-131 tositumomab is available for licencing in Japan. Corixa Corporation and GlaxoSmithKline signed an agreement to jointly develop and commercialise iodine-131 tositumomab. The total agreement has a potential value of up to $US132 million, plus shared profits and royalties. The two companies will jointly market the antibody in the US following regulatory approval. Corixa Corporation has announced it expects iodine-131 tositumomab to be approved in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Under the terms of the original agreement, GlaxoSmithKline will receive exclusive marketing rights outside the US, excluding Japan. However, an amended agreement between the two companies will allow Corixa Corporation to also market the product outside the US. In February 2003, the European Commission granted iodine-131 tositumomab orphan-drug designation. Corixa Corporation and GlaxoSmithKline also intend to jointly investigate the use of the product in other indications. GlaxoSmithKline may also receive access to second generation anti

  3. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  4. Another Perspective: An Interview with David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ruth A.; Johnson, Kelli

    2005-01-01

    To provide another perspective on evaluation within nonformal settings, "New Directions for Evaluation" recently interviewed David Smith, the coordinator of the Professional Learning to Close the Achievement Gap program for the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools, who has extensive background in education and educational research. He formerly held…

  5. Dialogues with Marilyn Cochran-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentini, Dario; Crecci, Vanessa Moreira

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Dr. Marilyn Cochran-Smith has developed and directed research and contributed to publications about education and "practitioner research," especially about teachers' research and learning in inquiry communities. Her primary topics are inquiry communities, teacher research, teacher education for social…

  6. The Old, Old, Very Old Charlie Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joseph T.

    1982-01-01

    Widespread claims of extraordinary longevity continue to receive widespread publicity even in first-rate publications. The story of Charlie Smith is reasonably typical of such cultural apocrypha. Development of chemical methods of determining biologic longevity promises to end what often has been heralded as evidence of national distinction.…

  7. SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings from left to right are: granary, garage, Gould house, and barn. The Olympic Mountains are visible in the distance.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows the Smith Farm in the center of Ebey’s Prairie. Ebey’s Landing and the Puget Sound can be seen on the right. Farmers from the Sherman-Bishop Dairy are visible at the bottom left, cutting hay.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. Dialogue of Differences: The Writing of Henry Holmes Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossen, Howard

    In addition to surveying the writings of Henry Holmes Smith, this paper explains his importance as a theoretician and practitioner of photography. After a discussion of Smith's ideas on "reading photographs" and his concerns with the ethics of photography, particularly of photojournalism, the essays in the book, "Henry Holmes Smith: Selected…

  10. [HPV vaccine for cervical cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Kawana, Kei

    2010-06-01

    High-risk HPV is the causative virus(requirement) for genital cancers with cervical cancer being most prevalent. Thus, theoretically, if HPV infection could be completely eradicated, most of genital cancers could be prevented. Viewed this way, HPV vaccines began to be studied about 10 years ago. Merck in the U.S. and Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) in Europe launched full-scale development of prophylactic vaccines against HPV, and their vaccines were approved and commercially available in the worldwide. In this paper, efficacy and issues for the HPV vaccine and cancer screening in Japan are discussed. PMID:20535972

  11. Disease Caused by Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Che-Liang; Chen, Shou-Chien; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Although rotavirus vaccines are available, rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide. The Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Rixensart, Belgium) and RotaTeq (Merck and Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA) vaccines are effective for reducing the morbidity and mortality of rotavirus infection. This article aims to assess the epidemiology of rotaviral gastroenteritis and the efficacy and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines. This review concludes by presenting challenges in the field that require further exploration by and perspectives from basic and translational research in the future. PMID:25553142

  12. Stable LPV realisation of the Smith predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchini, Franco; Casagrande, Daniele; Miani, Stefano; Viaro, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    The paper is concerned with the control of a linear plant with an output delay. As is known, when the plant parameters do not vary in time, the transfer function approach can be used to find a high-performing controller with the Smith-predictor structure. Such an approach in the domain of the Laplace transform is not directly applicable in the time-variant case. Nevertheless, it is shown that the transfer function of the Smith controller valid for constant values of the parameters can be realised in such a way that closed-loop stability, as well as point-wise optimal performance, is ensured also when the parameters vary with time. The suggested technique is applied to the control of a heat exchanger whose varying parameters include a measurement delay.

  13. Improved Chen-Smith image coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Eduardo M.; de Queiroz, Ricardo L.; Malvar, Henrique S.

    1995-04-01

    A new transform coder based on the zonal sampling strategy, which outperforms the JPEG baseline coder with comparable computational complexity, is presented. The primary transform used is the 8- x 8-pixel-block discrete cosine transform, although it can be replaced by other transforms, such as the lapped orthogonal transform, without any change in the algorithm. This coder is originally based on the Chen-Smith coder; therefore we call it an improved Chen-Smith (ICS) coder. However, because many new features were incorporated in this improved version, it largely outperforms its predecessor. Key approaches in the ICS coder, such as a new quantizer design, arithmetic coders, noninteger bit-rate allocation, decimalized variance maps, distance-based block classification, and human visual sensitivity weighting, are essential for its high performance, Image compression programs were developed and applied to several test images. The results show that the ICS performs substantially better than the JPEG coder.

  14. Smith-Purcell free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.J.; Walsh, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The term Smith-Purcell free electron laser can be employed generally to describe any coherent radiation source in which a diffraction grating is used to couple an electron beam with the electromagnetic field. To date, most practical developments of this concept have focused on devices which operate in the millimeter spectral regime. In this paper construction of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser operating in the far-infrared (FIR) region using a novel resonator cavity design and the electron beam from a low energy (0.5-5 MeV) radio-frequency accelerator will be discussed. A tunable source in this region would have many applications and since the beam energy is low, the small size and low overall cost of such a device would make it a laboratory instrument. Current projects which are progressing towards developing a FIR source are the programs at Stanford and CREOL. Both of these projects are using permanent magnet undulators to couple the electron beam with the electromagnetic field. An alternative approach is to use an electron beam passing over a diffraction grating as the radiating mechanism. This phenomenon is known as Smith-Purcell radiation and was first demonstrated for incoherent emission at visible wavelengths. The addition of feedback enhances the stimulated component of the emission which leads to the growth of coherence. Recent calculations for spontaneous emission have shown that the wiggler parameter and the grating efficiency are analogous. This result has important implications for the development of a Smith-Purcell FEL because a grating based free-electron laser would offer a greater range of tunability at a lower cost than its wiggler based counterpart.

  15. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  16. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  17. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Delos H. Smith, Photographer, 1940 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Delos H. Smith, Photographer, 1940 IN REAR OF PRESIDENT CANNON'S HOUSE. - St. George Tithing Office, Main & Tabernacle Streets, Saint George, Washington County, UT

  19. Processing Semblances Induced through Inter-Postsynaptic Functional LINKs, Presumed Biological Parallels of K-Lines Proposed for Building Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I.

    2011-01-01

    The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of internal sensation – namely, the semblion. In neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization re-activation of functional LINKs is expected to induce semblions, enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI). This paper also explains suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system. PMID:21845180

  20. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Smith Point Bridge, across Narrow Bay, mile 6.1, between Smith Point and...

  1. 77 FR 13593 - PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take... Act of 1978 (PURPA), as amended, 18 CFR 292.205(c), PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP (PowerSmith... operated by PowerSmith located in Oklahoma. PowerSmith makes such a request because of a delay in...

  2. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  3. 1. VIEW OF THE SMITH NO. 3 SITE AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE SMITH NO. 3 SITE AREA TO THE NORTHWEST. THE MINE OFFICE BUILDING IS IN THE FOREGROUND AND THE TIPPLE AND PROCESSING PLANT ARE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Smith Mine, Bear Creek 1.5 miles West of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  4. Oscar F. Smith Middle School: One Extra Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Oscar F. Smith Middle School, a challenging school in Chesapeake, Virginia. When Principal Linda Scott exclaims, "Oscar F. Smith Middle School is "hot"!" to visitors, she is not referring to the inside temperature of the bustling school of grades 6-8 located in the historic South Norfolk borough of Chesapeake. She is…

  5. Father Knows Best: Using Adam Smith to Teach Transactions Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Adam Smith's moral philosophy can be used to introduce economics students to the important idea of transactions costs. The author provides a brief background in this article to Smith's moral philosophy and connects it to the costs of transacting in a way that fits easily into the standard principles of microeconomics classroom. By doing…

  6. Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He…

  7. Environmental assessment overview, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs.

  8. Trinucleotide repeat expansion and DRPLA (Smith`s disease): Molecular characterization of atrophin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.L.; Li, S.H.; Li, X.J.; Ross, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Smith`s disease (also known as dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy or DRPLA) is a rare, progressive, fatal neuropsychiatric disorder similar to Huntington`s disease (HD). Smith`s disease is characterized by ataxia, choreoathetosis, myoclonic epilepsy, dementia, and genetic anticipation. Neuropathological findings include prominent cell loss in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, the globus pallidus, the red nucleus, and the subthalamic nucleus. An expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding polyglutamine in a gene originally identified in our laboratory as part of a program to clone candidate genes for disorders with anticipation has recently been found to cause this disorder. We have identified two families that demonstrate the pathological and genetic features (expanded CAG repeat and anticipation) of this disease. Northern analysis indicates that the gene, which we have termed atrophin-1, is widely expressed as a 5 kb mRNA in normal human brain and peripheral tissues. Brain expression is highest in the cerebellum. The developmental expression of the rat homologues of IT-15 (the gene in which a CAG expansion causes HD) and atrophin-1 were compared. Atrophin-1 was most highly expressed in early rat embryo brain (E16), whereas the greatest expression of IT-15 was in the adult rat brain. Cloning and sequencing of the open reading frame from inserts contained in brain cDNA libraries is in progress. In addition to the CAG repeat, the ORF contains an unusual region of alternating acidic and basic amino acids. Further characterization of atrophin-1, and comparison of it to other genes in which trinucleotide repeat expansion leads to neuropsychiatric disorders, should lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology by which CAG repeat expansion causes human disease.

  9. 76 FR 26767 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment... John Maounis, Superintendent, Captain John Smith National Historic Trail, telephone: (410)...

  10. 76 FR 52691 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment... John Maounis, Superintendent, Captain John Smith National Historic Trail, telephone: (410)...

  11. 77 FR 12324 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment... John Maounis, Superintendent, Captain John Smith National Historic Trail, telephone: (410)...

  12. Abstracts of the 24th international isotope society (UK group) symposium: synthesis and applications of labelled compounds 2015.

    PubMed

    Aigbirhio, F I; Allwein, S; Anwar, A; Atzrodt, J; Audisio, D; Badman, G; Bakale, R; Berthon, F; Bragg, R; Brindle, K M; Bushby, N; Campos, S; Cant, A A; Chan, M Y T; Colbon, P; Cornelissen, B; Czarny, B; Derdau, V; Dive, V; Dunscombe, M; Eggleston, I; Ellis-Sawyer, K; Elmore, C S; Engstrom, P; Ericsson, C; Fairlamb, I J S; Georgin, D; Godfrey, S P; He, L; Hickey, M J; Huscroft, I T; Kerr, W J; Lashford, A; Lenz, E; Lewinton, S; L'Hermite, M M; Lindelöf, Å; Little, G; Lockley, W J S; Loreau, O; Maddocks, S; Marguerit, M; Mirabello, V; Mudd, R J; Nilsson, G N; Owens, P K; Pascu, S I; Patriarche, G; Pimlott, S L; Pinault, M; Plastow, G; Racys, D T; Reif, J; Rossi, J; Ruan, J; Sarpaki, S; Sephton, S M; Simonsson, R; Speed, D J; Sumal, K; Sutherland, A; Taran, F; Thuleau, A; Wang, Y; Waring, M; Watters, W H; Wu, J; Xiao, J

    2016-04-01

    The 24th annual symposium of the International Isotope Society's United Kingdom Group took place at the Møller Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK on Friday 6th November 2015. The meeting was attended by 77 delegates from academia and industry, the life sciences, chemical, radiochemical and scientific instrument suppliers. Delegates were welcomed by Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK, chair of the IIS UK group). The subsequent scientific programme consisted of oral presentations, short 'flash' presentations in association with particular posters and poster presentations. The scientific areas covered included isotopic synthesis, regulatory issues, applications of labelled compounds in imaging, isotopic separation and novel chemistry with potential implications for isotopic synthesis. Both short-lived and long-lived isotopes were represented, as were stable isotopes. The symposium was divided into a morning session chaired by Dr Rebekka Hueting (University of Oxford, UK) and afternoon sessions chaired by Dr Sofia Pascu (University of Bath, UK) and by Dr Alan Dowling (Syngenta, UK). The UK meeting concluded with remarks from Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK). PMID:26991121

  13. Chromospheric Variability: Analysis of 36 years of Time Series from the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak Ca II K-line Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Keil, Stephen L.; Worden, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of more than 36 years of time series of seven parameters measured in the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates five elucidates five components of the variation: (1) the solar cycle (period approx. 11 years), (2) quasi-periodic variations (periods approx 100 days), (3) a broad band stochastic process (wide range of periods), (4) rotational modulation, and (5) random observational errors. Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of the chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (1) and (2) at time scales in the range approx 0.1 - 10 years. These results using only full-disk data further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (3) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random noise process. A timedependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (1), but not in the stochastic process (3). Component (4) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions, and (5) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The recent data suggest that the current cycle is starting late and may be relatively weak. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak_mon/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

  14. STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith Suit Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gives a ''';thumbs up'''; while donning his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A suit technician stands ready to assist with final adjustments. This is Smith''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

  15. 35. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTH COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING ESE. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. STS-82 M.S. Steven Smith in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew members Dave Law, in front; Carlous Gillis, at left; and James Davis.

  20. STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith adjusts the glove of his launch and entry space suit during a practice countdown at KSC. Smith and the other six STS-82 crew members are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. STS-82 will be the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted for February 11.

  1. Longitudinal profile monitors using Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, H. L.; Bakkali Taheri, F.; Barros, J.; Bartolini, R.; Cassinari, L.; Clarke, C.; Le Corre, S.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Fuster-Martinez, N.; Konoplev, I.; Labat, M.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Stevenson, S.; Vieille Grosjean, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has the potential of providing information on the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch. The E-203 experiment at the FACET User Facility measures bunch profiles from the SLAC linac in the hundreds of femtoseconds range and the SPESO collaboration at Synchrotron SOLEIL is planning to make an accurate 2D map of the Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation emission.

  2. Correction to Smith et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl D; Piasecki, Christopher C; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats" by Carl D. Smith, Christopher C. Piasecki, Marcus Weera, Joshua Olszewicz and Joseph S. Lonstein (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2013[Aug], Vol 127[4], 582-597). Table 2 should have used the ratio of 5HIAA/serotonin - rather than the inverse - as the indicator of serotonin turnover. Using the correct ratio, differences in serotonin turnover between the postpartum and virgin females are: BSTv - 1.11 0.06 vs 0.79 0.11 (t 2.57, p 0.05); BSTd - 1.01 0.07 vs 0.68 0.11 (t 2.58, p 0.05). That is, contrary to what was originally reported, postpartum females had higher serotonin turnover in both subregions of the BST compared to virgins. The penultimate sentence in the abstract noting serotonin turnover in mothers has been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-22430-001.) Emotional hyperreactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams' anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine

  3. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point Triathlon. This deviation allows the...

  4. 76 FR 4648 - PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Filing January 19, 2011. Take notice that on January 13, 2011, PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP (PowerSmith), pursuant to section... Regulations for the topping-cycle cogeneration facility owned and operated by PowerSmith located in...

  5. SR-71 Pilot Rogers E. Smith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Research pilot Rogers E. Smith is shown here in front of the SR-71 Blackbird he flew for NASA. Rogers was one of the two original NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Smith has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1982. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. The SR-71 is capable of flying more than 2200 mph (Mach 3+) and at altitudes of over 80,000 feet. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data

  6. MAGNETIZED GAS IN THE SMITH HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Alex S.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Mao, S. A.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Lockman, Felix J. E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au E-mail: benjamir@uww.edu

    2013-11-01

    We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of Hα from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ≈100 rad m{sup –2} which are generally well correlated with decelerated Hα emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ≈8 μG along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or Hα at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth Hα morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (≈1 Rayleigh) Hα intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas.

  7. Additional corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    SciTech Connect

    Londergan, J. T.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate some QCD corrections that contribute to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule but have not been included in previous analyses of it. We first review the techniques by which the xF{sub 3} structure function is extracted from combinations of neutrino and antineutrino cross sections. Next we investigate corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule, with particular attention to contributions arising from strange quark distributions and from charge symmetry violating parton distributions. We find that additional corrections from strange quarks and parton charge symmetry violation are likely to have a small but potentially significant role in decreasing the current discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical estimates of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule.

  8. Angular radiation pattern of Smith-Purcell radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, A.; Dvorkis, P.; Elisha, U.

    1984-10-01

    The power radiation pattern of Smith-Purcell radiation is measured at various latitudes and azimuth angles relative to the electron beam. The experimental data are used to evaluate the various models and the physical mechanisms previously suggested to describe Smith-Purcell radiation. Good agreement is observed between the experimental data and the theoretical curves derive from Van den Berg's analysis (J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1588 (1973)). The radiation mechanism proposed by Salisbury (J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1279 (1970)) was analyzed an shown to be too small to account for the measured radiation. The experimantal and Van den Berg's theory predict stronger emission at azimuthal angles off the plane perpendicular to the gratings. This observation leads to conclusions regarding the design of optical cavities for Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers and orotron millimeter-wavelength-radiation tube devices.

  9. Description of floodplains and wetlands, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Floodplains and wetlands are important features of the Texas Panhandle landscape, and are found on the Deaf Smith County site and in its vicinity. Use or disturbance of floodplains and wetlands in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is subject to environmental review requirements implementing two Executive Orders. This report provides general information on playa wetlands in the Texas Panhandle, and describes and maps floodplains and wetlands on the Deaf Smith site and in its vicinity. The report is based on the published literature, with information from limited field reconnaissance included.

  10. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini)

    PubMed Central

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  11. X-29 Research Pilot Rogers Smith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Rogers Smith, a NASA research pilot, is seen here at the cockpit of the X-29 forward-swept-wing technology demonstrator at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1988. The X-29 explored the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable camber wing surfaces; the unique forward-swept-wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strake flaps; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system that overcame the aircraft's instability. Grumman Aircraft Corporation built two X-29s. They were flight tested at Dryden from 1984 to 1992 in a joint NASA, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and U.S. Air Force program. Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, flew at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) from 1984 to 1992. The fighter-sized X-29 technology demonstrators explored several concepts and technologies including: the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable-camber wing surfaces; a unique forward- swept wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strakes; close-coupled canards; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system used to maintain control of the otherwise unstable aircraft. Research results showed that the configuration of forward-swept wings, coupled with movable canards, gave pilots excellent control response at angles of attack of up to 45 degrees. During its flight history, the X-29 aircraft flew 422 research missions and a total of 436 missions. Sixty of the research flights were part of the X-29 follow-on 'vortex control' phase. The forward-swept wing of the X-29 resulted in reverse airflow, toward the fuselage rather than away from it, as occurs on the usual aft-swept wing. Consequently, on the forward-swept wing, the ailerons remained unstalled at high angles of attack. This provided better airflow over the ailerons and

  12. Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Genetic Basis and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finucane, Brenda; Haas-Givler, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with deletions and mutations of the "RAI1" gene on chromosome 17p11.2. Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, sleep disturbance, craniofacial differences, and a distinctive profile of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors. Although the functional…

  13. Harry Smith — recipient of the 2008 Molecular Ecology Prize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harry Smith is a scholar, mentor, internationally renowned researcher, eloquent speaker and author, pioneering journal editor and highly valued colleague who has contributed greatly in multiple ways to plant science and the community. He richly deserves the honour of the Molecular Ecology Prize....

  14. Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. The dark trestle at right center carried the spur track to coal unloading facilities located in the space now occupied by the coal pile. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  15. The Hmong Resettlement Study Site Report: Fort Smith, Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Bruce T.

    This document reports on the resettlement of Hmong refugees in Fort Smith, Arkansas: what their employment experiences have been, which resettlement efforts have been successful, and how current resettlement efforts could be altered to improve the Hmong's long-term adjustment. The report is part of a larger, national project on Hmong resettlement.…

  16. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF CROSS SECTION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  17. Adam Smith and the Teaching of English Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Franklin E.

    1985-01-01

    Adam Smith used selections from English literature in his classroom during the eighteenth century because he believed that vernacular literature could provide a ready context for the teaching of ideological, social, and moral lessons. He believed that higher education should prepare students for the real business of the real world. (RM)

  18. Adam Smith and the Moral Economy of the Classroom System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, D.

    1980-01-01

    Traces the development of mass schooling to its origins in 19th-century Glasgow. Its importance as an intellectual and economic center enabled Glasgow to invent a solution to the problem of urban schooling, while the association of scholars like Adam Smith with Glasgow University made Scottish educational theories acceptable around the world. (DB)

  19. Captain John Smith and the Enterprise of Virginia: Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James B. M.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the modern-day equivalent prices of items Captain John Smith required for colonists traveling from England to Virginia in 1624. Includes information on wages and cost of living in 1624 and today in the United States. Concludes that the colonists paid a high price for traveling to the New World. (JDH)

  20. Examining Foundational Understandings: Ralph Smith's Contributions to the DBAE Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBlasio, Margaret Klempay

    2002-01-01

    This essay is based on work the author began several years ago when she undertook to analyze and compare the diverse descriptions of discipline-based art education that had appeared in the professional art education literature. It compared concepts of Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) presented in writings by Ralph Smith; Gilbert Clark,…

  1. The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…

  2. TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF STRIPED BASS IN SMITH MOUNTAIN LAKE, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the adequacy of the forage base to meet demand of striped bass in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia. In regards to prey supply, mean alewife biomass from 1993-1998 was 37 kg/ha and mean gizzard shad biomass from 1990-1997 was 112 kg/ha. Mean annual alewife surplus produ...

  3. Smith Assists in Superstorm Sandy Relief Efforts | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Cathy McClintock, Guest Writer It should have been routine by now for a 30-year volunteer firefighter/ emergency medical technician from Thurmont, Md., but it wasn’t. That first night, as Ross Smith, IT security, looked across the Hudson River from Jersey City, N.J., he saw an unusually dark New York skyline.

  4. New Maps for Old? A Reply to Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickles, John

    1986-01-01

    Pickles replies that Smith's critique masks the concrete experience of everyday understanding. The issue of education is not about the transmission of information, but one about how we produce and reproduce our social world. Education must permit rational discourse and decision making within the context of a moral community. (CJH)

  5. Smith and Valley-Gray to Lead NASP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deupree, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 elections are complete and Amy Smith has been elected to lead NASP in 2012. Amy has a long history of serving her state and national professional organizations, most recently as NASP program manager for advocacy and before that as the Pennsylvania delegate and Northeast Region delegate representative. She served the Association of School…

  6. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers: Comment on Smith and Farah (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Glen R.; Elliott, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Smith and Farah (2011) provided a thought-provoking and perhaps deliberately provocative literature review of the use of stimulants to improve cognitive functioning in humans. They addressed the apparently increasing willingness of individuals mostly in the United States to use stimulants for this purpose and then summarized published literature…

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF EAST (SIDE) ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  8. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF FIRST FLOOR PLAN From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  9. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF REAR ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  10. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF WEST (SIDE) ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  11. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF SECOND FLOOR PLAN From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  12. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF LOBBY DETAILS From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  13. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF LONGITUDINAL SECTION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  14. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF BASEMENT PLAN From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  15. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF MAILING PLATFORM From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  16. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Mr. Smith, Draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF EXTERIOR DETAILS From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  17. Modeling Ocean-Forced Changes in Smith Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, D.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers along the Amundsen Coast are changing rapidly, which has drawn substantial scientific and public attention. Modeling and observation suggest warm-water intrusion and consequent melting as the cause of observed changes, and that unstoppable retreat may have already been triggered in some drainages. While Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers are losing the most mass and have been the predominant objects study, other systems, particularly Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers and the corresponding Dotson and Crosson Shelves, are changing more rapidly relative to their size. Though smaller, these glaciers still have potentially large implications for overall regional dynamics as their beds connect below sea level to surrounding basins. In particular, the long, deep trough of Smith Glacier nearly links to the large eastern tributary of Thwaites, potentially causing rapid changes of Smith to have significant impact on the continuing retreat of Thwaites.We implemented a numerical model in Elmer/Ice, an open-source, full-Stokes, finite-element software package, to investigate the response of the Smith/Pope/Kohler system to different initial conditions. We use various parameterizations of sub-shelf melting with constant magnitude to examine the sensitivity of overall dynamics to melt distribution. Because melt distribution affects lateral buttressing and upstream grounded areas, it is potentially an important control on ice shelf and outlet glacier dynamics. Through comparison to the most recent velocity data, we evaluate the ability of differing melt parameterizations to reproduce the behavior currently seen in Smith/Pope/Kohler glaciers. In addition, we investigate the effect of using different years of velocity data with constant elevation input when initiating model runs. By comparing results over the satellite record to initiation with synchronous observations, we assess the accuracy of the often necessary practice of using differently timestamped datasets.

  18. 77 FR 2317 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting via conference call. Designated... National Historic Trail, telephone: (410) 260-2471. DATES: The Captain John Smith Chesapeake...

  19. A Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities at Teachers College: David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…

  20. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  1. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  2. 75 FR 37462 - Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail....S.C. 701. SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignias of the Captain John Smith... John Maounis, Superintendent, Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail. The...

  3. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  4. 77 FR 64352 - Notice of Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory... Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting...-1609 voyages of Captain John Smith to chart the land and waterways of the Chesapeake Bay. This...

  5. 78 FR 32250 - CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to CDM Smith and its subcontractor, Dynamac Corp, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). CDM Smith and...

  6. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  7. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  8. SMITH: a LIMS for handling next-generation sequencing workflows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Life-science laboratories make increasing use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for studying bio-macromolecules and their interactions. Array-based methods for measuring gene expression or protein-DNA interactions are being replaced by RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq. Sequencing is generally performed by specialized facilities that have to keep track of sequencing requests, trace samples, ensure quality and make data available according to predefined privileges. An integrated tool helps to troubleshoot problems, to maintain a high quality standard, to reduce time and costs. Commercial and non-commercial tools called LIMS (Laboratory Information Management Systems) are available for this purpose. However, they often come at prohibitive cost and/or lack the flexibility and scalability needed to adjust seamlessly to the frequently changing protocols employed. In order to manage the flow of sequencing data produced at the Genomic Unit of the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), we developed SMITH (Sequencing Machine Information Tracking and Handling). Methods SMITH is a web application with a MySQL server at the backend. Wet-lab scientists of the Centre for Genomic Science and database experts from the Politecnico of Milan in the context of a Genomic Data Model Project developed SMITH. The data base schema stores all the information of an NGS experiment, including the descriptions of all protocols and algorithms used in the process. Notably, an attribute-value table allows associating an unconstrained textual description to each sample and all the data produced afterwards. This method permits the creation of metadata that can be used to search the database for specific files as well as for statistical analyses. Results SMITH runs automatically and limits direct human interaction mainly to administrative tasks. SMITH data-delivery procedures were standardized making it easier for biologists and analysts to navigate the data. Automation also helps saving time. The

  9. Defenses and morality: Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, and contemporary psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gabrinetti, Paul A; Özler, Sule

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we follow the development and transmission of moral learning from Adam Smith's impartial spectator to Sigmund Freud's superego and then to contemporary psychoanalysis. We argue that defenses are an integral component in the acquisition of any moral system. Elaborating on this argument, we assert that there is a progression from defensive systems that are "closed" to defensive systems that are "open," as defined in a recent work by Novick and Novick. The former system is "static, avoids reality, and is characterized by power dynamics, sadomasochism, and omnipotent defense." The latter, on the other hand, is a system that allows for "joy, creativity, spontaneity, love and it is attuned to reality." Furthermore, while Smith and Freud's systems are more one-person systems of defense, contemporary psychoanalysis has moved to more of a two-person system. PMID:25247288

  10. Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

  11. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 3rd Quarter 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  12. Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.

  13. Technology evaluation: C242-DM1, ImmunoGen Inc.

    PubMed

    Smith, S

    2001-04-01

    C242-DM1 is a tumor-activated immunotoxin under development by GlaxoSmithKline plc (formerly SmithKline Beecham plc), under licence from ImmunoGen Inc, as a potential treatment for colon tumor. It consists of a colon cancer-specific humanized antibody, C242, conjugated to the maytansine derivative DM1. In preclinical studies, C242-DM1 caused complete tumor regression in animal models of both human pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at non-toxic doses. C242-DM1 has also been evaluated in an immunoconjugate combination with J-591 (Cornell University). The J591-DM1 immunoconjugate demonstrated effective, antigen-specific delivery of a highly cytotoxic drug to PSMA-positive Pca cells in vitro and in vivo with low systemic toxicity. Results from studies in monkeys showed that C242-DM1 had no significant toxicity or side effects, when administered at doses higher than those that were previously shown to completely eradicate human colon tumors in mice [271420]. ImmunoGen acquired the right to evaluate, and an option to license, technology related to maytansines from Takeda. In February 1999, ImmunoGen and SmithKline Beecham signed a US $45 million development and commercialization agreement for C242-DM1 [313493]. In August 1997, Immunogen received an SBIR grant to advance development of huC242-DM1 [258356]. EP-00425235, held by ImmunoGen, covers conjugated forms of ansamitocin (maytansine) derivatives. Takeda holds several patents for the production of ansamitocin and its analogs, the first one being JP-53124692. PMID:11338934

  14. Recommendation for the use of newly introduced Tdap vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Yae-Jean; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Su Eun; Lee, Hoan Jong; Eun, Byung Wook; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hong, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Pertussis is an acute respiratory infection characterized by paroxysmal cough and inspiratory whoop for over 2 weeks. The incidence of pertussis has decreased markedly after the introduction of DTwP/DTaP vaccine, but the incidence of pertussis has increased steadily among young infant and among adolescents and adults in many countries. Td vaccine was used in this age group but the increase in pertussis has lead to the development of a Tdap vaccine. The Tdap vaccine is a Td vaccine with a pertussis vaccine added and is thought to decrease the incidence and transmission of pertussis in the respective age group. In Korea, two products are approved by the KOREA FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION, which are ADACEL™ (Sanofi-Pasteur, Totonto, Ontario, Canada) and BOOSTRIX® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) for those aged between 11-64. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society. PMID:21738546

  15. Identification of Novel Anti-mycobacterial Compounds by Screening a Pharmaceutical Small-Molecule Library against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Thulasi; Martinez-Hoyos, Maria; Marin-Amieva, Manuel; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Porras-De Francisco, Esther; Alvarez-Pedraglio, Ana Isabel; Fraile-Gabaldon, Maria Teresa; Torres-Gomez, Pedro Alfonso; Lopez-Quezada, Landys; Gold, Ben; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Little, David; Cammack, Nicholas; Nathan, Carl; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso

    2015-12-11

    Identification of compounds that target metabolically diverse subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may contribute to shortening the course of treatment for tuberculosis. This study screened 270,000 compounds from GlaxoSmithKline's collection against Mtb in a nonreplicating (NR) state imposed in vitro by a combination of four host-relevant stresses. Evaluation of 166 confirmed hits led to detailed characterization of 19 compounds for potency, specificity, cytotoxicity, and stability. Compounds representing five scaffolds depended on reactive nitrogen species for selective activity against NR Mtb, and two were stable in the assay conditions. Four novel scaffolds with activity against replicating (R) Mtb were also identified. However, none of the 19 compounds was active against Mtb in both NR and R states. There was minimal overlap between compounds found active against NR Mtb and those previously identified as active against R Mtb, supporting the hypothesis that NR Mtb depends on distinct metabolic pathways for survival. PMID:27623055

  16. Preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis: do you have the facts?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Geoffrey; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Kirkwood, Carl; Pearce, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    From 1 July 2007 two new rotavirus vaccines licensed for use in Australia (RotaTeq CSL Biotherapies/Merck and Rotarix Glaxo Smith Kline) will be funded for the National Immunisation Program. The vaccines differ with respect to their composition and the timing and mode of administration. Both have been evaluated in huge randomised trials and shown to be highly effective in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis, including severe disease requiring hospital admission. Neither has been associated with an increased rate of intussusception; however, surveillance for adverse effects following vaccination will be important. As rotavirus infection is ubiquitous in young children, funding of this vaccine will significantly decrease the enormous morbidity and costs associated with this disease in our community. PMID:17635688

  17. BAFF/BLyS inhibitors: A new prospect for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Kirsten; Mackay, Ian R; Mackay, Fabienne

    2012-07-01

    In November 2009, Human Genome Sciences and Glaxo-Smith Kline [HGS (Rockville, Maryland) and GSK, respectively] announced that Belimumab, a neutralizing antibody to the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like ligand, B-cell activating factor (BAFF belonging to the TNF family, also named BLyS), met the primary endpoints in two phase III clinical trials in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus). In March 2011, Belimumab was approved by the US Federal Drug Agency for treatment of SLE patients; this was followed in May with approval by the European Medicines Agency for use in the European Union. This is an exciting development as it is the first successful late-stage clinical trial in SLE in over 40 years. In the light of this breakthrough, we review the key data and research outcomes and examine how blocking BAFF in patients with SLE significantly improves clinical outcomes. PMID:22641424

  18. Repeated dosing of digoxin-fragmented antibody in preterm eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Adair, C D; Buckalew, V M; Kipikasa, J; Torres, C; Stallings, S P; Briery, C M

    2009-02-01

    Early onset eclampsia has significant morbidity and mortality for both the mother and fetus. No effective treatment exists at present except delivery and seizure prophylaxis with magnesium sulfate. We report the novel use of a fragmented ovine antibody against digoxin for the treatment of eclampsia. A 16-year-old primagravida at 29 weeks 5/7 days gestation presented with clinical diagnosis of eclampsia and was treated with compassionate off-label use of digoxin-fragmented ovine antibody (Digibind Glaxo Smith Kline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Improvement of her underlying disorder during a 48 h treatment window was noted without adverse maternal or neonatal outcome. We suggest digoxin-fragmented ovine antibody as a possible intervention in preterm pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. PMID:19177044

  19. The FEBS Journal in 2016: read, reflect and don't feed the wolves.

    PubMed

    Martin, Seamus J

    2016-01-01

    Seamus Martin holds the Smurfit Chair of Medical Genetics at the Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. He obtained his PhD with Tom Cotter at the National University of Ireland, followed by post-doctoral fellowships with Ivan Roitt at UCL, London, UK, and Doug Green at The La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, California, USA. He works on all aspects of cell death control and is especially interested in the links between apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. He received the GlaxoSmithKline Award of The Biochemical Society for his work on unravelling the caspase activation cascade and was elected to the Royal Irish Academy in 2006 and EMBO in 2009. He has been the Editor-in-Chief of The FEBS Journal since 2014. PMID:26662635

  20. An ECLIPSE View of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lomas, David A

    2016-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multicomponent condition that is estimated to become the third leading cause of death in 2020. The ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) study, funded by GlaxoSmithKline, is an observational study designed to define outcomes that can be used as endpoints in clinical trials in individuals with COPD. It allowed us to describe the heterogeneity of COPD, the stability of the exacerbation phenotype, and the factors associated with a progressive decline in lung function and the progression of emphysema on computed tomography scans. The cohort was also used to define genetic factors and biomarkers associated with COPD and disease progression. This review considers how the results from ECLIPSE can inform our understanding of the lung disease associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:27564668

  1. GSK-1605786, a selective small-molecule antagonist of the CCR9 chemokine receptor for the treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Eksteen, Bertus; Adams, David H

    2010-07-01

    GSK-1605786 (CCX-282; Traficet-EN), a selective antagonist of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR9), is being developed by GlaxoSmithKline plc under license from ChemoCentryx Inc for the potential treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and celiac disease. CCR9 is a tissue-specific lymphocyte trafficking molecule that selectively attracts both B- and T-cells to the small gut. Inhibition of CCR9 by GSK-1605786 may inhibit B- and T-cell entry to the small gut and ameliorate inflammation while leaving immune function at other anatomical sites unaffected. GSK-1605786 was assessed as a treatment for moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in the phase II/III PROTECT-1 trial and as a treatment for celiac disease in a phase II trial. Data suggest that GSK-1605786 is efficacious in patients with Crohn's disease with the advantage of being orally bioavailable. PMID:20582872

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccine trials and tribulations: Vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Handler, Nancy S; Handler, Marc Z; Majewski, Slawomir; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    As of December 2014, there were 3 approved vaccines for human papillomavirus (HPV): bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, New York, NY), quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck and Co, Kenilworth, NJ), and 9-valent Gardasil-9 (Merck and Co). The average cost per dose is $120, with a recommended 3-dose course. The quadrivalent vaccine is the most widely administered worldwide. As with the bivalent and 9-valent vaccines, the vaccine is considered safe, although concerns have been raised. In addition to immunization against the targeted HPV types, there is evidence that there is cross protection against other types of HPV. This continuing medical education review evaluates the differences in vaccines that are currently on the market; part II focuses on the cost-effectiveness of vaccination, the HPV vaccination programs currently instituted around the globe, efficacy, and safety. PMID:26475535

  3. Bacterial Contamination of the Internal Cavity of Dental Implants After Application of Disinfectant or Sealant Agents Under Cyclic Loading In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Podhorsky, Anke; Putzier, Sven; Rehmann, Peter; Streckbein, Philipp; Domann, Eugen; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of two sealants (Kiero Seal, Kuss Dental, and Berutemp 500, Carl-Bechem) and a disinfectant agent (Chlorhexamed gel, GlaxoSmithKline) on bacterial colonization of the implant-abutment interface. Implants were pretreated with the substances or left without sealing before standard abutments were fixed. Half the specimens were subjected to cyclic loading, and the others were not loaded. Following 7 days of incubation in a bacterial solution, bacterial counts of the internal part of the implants were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All pretreatments lowered bacterial counts, but no substance could guarantee sterility of the implants' internal portion. PMID:27611755

  4. Rapidfilm: an innovative pharmaceutical form designed to improve patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Valentina; Giarratana, Nadia; Monti, Nunzia Ceppi; Breitenbach, Armin; Klaffenbach, Peter

    2010-06-30

    The aim of the research was to assess the bioequivalence between Rapidfilm, a new patented delivery system, versus the traditional orodispersible tablet (ODT). A randomized, two-way, single dose, crossover, bioequivalence study was conducted in 24 fasting, healthy volunteers with two formulations of ondansetron (Ondansetron Rapidfilm vs. Zofran Zydis Lingual ODT by GlaxoSmithKline GmbH & Co. KG). Plasma samples were analysed by a validated LC-MS/MS method during a collection period of 24 h post-dosing. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the targeted pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell within the common acceptance range of 80-125%, satisfying the bioequivalence criteria. These results allow Rapidfilm to claim the same panel of indications of the conventional immediate release oral solid dosage forms, but offering several advantages also over the ODT: it can result in higher patient convenience for several applications. PMID:20363308

  5. Antibody engineering and therapeutics conference

    PubMed Central

    Larrick, James W; Parren, Paul WHI; Huston, James S; Plückthun, Andreas; Bradbury, Andrew; Tomlinson, Ian M; Chester, Kerry A; Burton, Dennis R; Adams, Gregory P; Weiner, Louis M; Scott, Jamie K; Alfenito, Mark R; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of the Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics Conference, the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA, December 7–11, 2014. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the event will celebrate past successes, educate participants on current activities and offer a vision of future progress in the field. Keynote addresses will be given by academic and industry experts Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Ira Pastan (National Cancer Institute), James Wells (University of California, San Francisco), Ian Tomlinson (GlaxoSmithKline) and Anthony Rees (Rees Consulting AB and Emeritus Professor, University of Bath). These speakers will provide updates of their work, placed in the context of the substantial growth of the industry over the past 25 years. PMID:25517297

  6. Hemozoin and antimalarial drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Kim Y; Wright, David W

    2014-01-01

    Recent initiatives to develop more effective and affordable drugs, controlling mosquitoes and development of a preventative vaccine have been launched with the goal of completely eradicating malaria. To this end, Novartis (Surrey, UK) and GlaxoSmithKline (Middlesex, UK) screened their chemical libraries of approximately two million small molecules for antimalarial properties, which resulted in a set of over 20,000 ‘highly druggable’ initial hits. Efforts in academia are centered on specific pathway targets. One such high-throughput screening effort has been focused on hemozoin formation, a unique heme detoxification pathway found in the malaria parasite. This review discusses the current approaches and limitations of high-throughput screening discovery of hemozoin inhibitors. In the future, new methods must be developed to validate the mechanism of action of these hit compounds within the parasite. PMID:23919553

  7. The Safety of Adjuvanted Vaccines Revisited: Vaccine-Induced Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Montomoli, Emanuele; Pasini, Franco Laghi; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents. However, public misperceptions of what adjuvants are and why they are used in vaccines has created in some individuals a closed "black box" attitude towards all vaccines. The focus of this review article is to revisit this "black box" using the example of narcolepsy associated with the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:27228647

  8. [Transparency in biomedical research: about the risks associated with the use of Avandia].

    PubMed

    Salas, Sofía P; Russo, Moisés

    2010-09-01

    The question of how and when to communicate potential risks associated with new drugs has remained an important focus of tension between the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory entities, such as the American Food and Drug Administration. Recently there has been widespread concern related to the cardiovascular risks associated with the use of Avandia, a rosiglitazone produced by Glaxo Smith Kline. In fact, several metaanalyses involving rosiglitazone provided a relatively consistent message that rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial ischemic events. In the present article, we review the controversy regarding the way the pharmaceutical company handled this issue, and we describe examples of inappropriate conduct regarding an industry-sponsored clinical trial with this drug. We raise several important ethical questions related to the way researchers handle conflicts of interest when they are employees of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, we discuss the requirements to conduct biomedical research funded by the pharmaceutical industry in Chile. PMID:21249291

  9. Oxipurinol: alloxanthine, Oxyprim, oxypurinol.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Oxipurinol [alloxanthine, Oxyprim, oxypurinol] is the active metabolite of the only commercially available xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. Oxipurinol is also a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Oxipurinol is currently being developed by Cardiome Pharma. It is waiting for approval in the US for the treatment of allopurinol-intolerant hyperuricaemia (gout) and is in phase III trials for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Allopurinol is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic hyperuricaemia, or gout. Approximately 3-5% of patients receiving allopurinol develop intolerance to the drug. Oxipurinol was originally developed by Burroughs Wellcome (later GlaxoSmithKline), and has been available on a compassionate-use basis since 1967 for use in allopurinol-intolerant patients. The licensee company ILEX Oncology has stated that oxipurinol does not have patent protection. Oxipurinol's potential for treatment of congestive heart failure is based on the possibility that xanthine oxidase inhibitors may improve myocardial work efficiency by sensitising cardiac muscle cells to calcium ions, which are a key determinant of cardiac muscle function. This results in more efficient contraction of cardiac muscle cells, without the same increase in oxygen demand. At the second annual BioPartnering North America conference (BPN-2004) [February 2004, Vancouver, Canada], Cardiome Pharma stated that it was seeking a commercialisation partner to market and distribute oxipurinol in the US for the treatment of allopurinol-intolerant hyperuricaemia. In 1995, ILEX Oncology obtained an exclusive licence to oxipurinol from Burroughs Wellcome. Burroughs Wellcome later became part of Glaxo Wellcome, which merged with SmithKline Beecham in December 2000 to form GlaxoSmithKline. ILEX's licence agreement is now with GlaxoSmithKline and The Wellcome Foundation. In December 2001, ILEX granted Paralex, a privately held New York-based company, an exclusive sublicence to all of ILEX's rights to

  10. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen 2 - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  11. Characteristics of Smith-Purcell radiation in millimeter wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, G. A.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Karataev, P.; Bleko, V.; Sukhikh, L. G.; Shevelev, M. V.; Popov, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of the Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) were began with non-relativistic electron beams with some unexpected experimental results. Further the experimental investigations were performed with relativistic electron beams for application to beam diagnostics. Large discrepancy between different theoretical models significantly increases the role of experimental studies of this phenomenon. In this report we present some problems and features of experimental investigations of SPR in millimeter wavelength region. The problems of prewave zone and coherent effects are considered. The shadowing effect, focusing of radiation using a parabolic SPR target and effect of inclination of target strips were investigated with moderately relativistic electron beam.

  12. The dispersion equation of the induced Smith-Purcell instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Dmitry N.; Artemyev, Alexander I.; Oganesyan, Koryun B.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Scully, Marlan O.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2010-09-01

    The simplest model of a magnetized infinitely thin electron beam is considered. For the grating, where the depth of grooves is a small parameter, the dispersion equation of the induced Smith-Purcell instability was obtained. It was found that the condition of the Thompson or the Raman regimes of excitation does not depend on beam current but depends on the height of the beam above the grating surface. The growth rate of instability in both cases is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current.

  13. The Garrett Lee Smith memorial suicide prevention program.

    PubMed

    Goldston, David B; Walrath, Christine M; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W; Lubell, Keri M; Potter, Lloyd B; Rodi, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs (including gatekeeper training), screening activities, infrastructure for improved linkages to services, crisis hotlines, and community partnerships. Through participation in both local- and cross-site evaluations, GLS grantees are generating data regarding the local context, proximal outcomes, and implementation of programs, as well as opportunities for improvement of suicide prevention efforts. PMID:20560746

  14. STS-110 M.S. Smith suits up for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith relaxes during suit fit, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide flight crews an opportunity to participate in simulated launch countdown activities. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  15. Corrugated capillary as THz Cherenkov Smith-Purcell radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekomtsev, K. V.; Aryshev, A. S.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Ponomarenko, A. A.; Sukharev, V. M.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we discussed Particle In Cell electromagnetic simulations and mechanical design of dielectric capillaries that produce THz Cherenkov Smith-Purcell radiation (ChSPR), arising when a femtosecond electron multi-bunch beam propagates through corrugated and non-corrugated dielectric capillaries with metallic radiation reflectors. We investigated the influence of the four-bunch beam on the SPR field spectrum and on the ChSPR power spectrum, and the influence of the non-central beam propagation on the ChSPR power spectrum. We also discussed the design and assembly of the capillaries, constructed as sets of cylindrical rings.

  16. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 1st Quarter 2014 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  17. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen2 - 2013 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  18. [Inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome].

    PubMed

    Koczok, Katalin; V Oláh, Anna; P Szabó, Gabriella; Oláh, Éva; Török, Olga; Balogh, István

    2015-10-18

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an autosomal recessive mental retardation and multiple malformation syndrome caused by deficiency of the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis. The authors summarize the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnostics and therapy of the disease based on a review of the international literature. Since 2004, fourteen patients have been diagnosed with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in Hungary, which suggests an underdiagnosis of the disease based upon estimated incidence data. Due to deficiency of the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, serum cholesterol concentration is low and 7-dehydrocholesterol concentration is elevated in blood and tissues; the latter being highly specific for the syndrome. Detection of disease-causing mutations makes the prenatal diagnosis possible. The clinical spectrum is wide, the most common symptom is syndactyly of the second and third toes. Standard therapy is cholesterol supplementation. Recent publications suggest that oxidative compounds of 7-dehydrocholesterol may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease as well. PMID:26551309

  19. The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2000-10-01

    Economic theorizing is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics I show the following. A utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrable dynamics when production/investment are accounted for, resolving Mirowski's thesis. Price as a function of demand does not exist mathematically either. All equilibria are unstable. I then explain how deterministic chaos can be distinguished from random noise at short times. In the generalization to liquid markets and finance theory described by stochastic excess demand dynamics, I also show the following. Market price distributions cannot be rescaled to describe price movements as ‘equilibrium’ fluctuations about a systematic drift in price. Utility maximization does not describe equilibrium. Maximization of the Gibbs entropy of the observed price distribution of an asset would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real, liquid markets (stocks, bonds, foreign exchange). There are three inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct. Prices in unregulated free markets are unstable against both noise and rising or falling expectations: Adam Smith's stabilizing invisible hand does not exist, either in mathematical models of liquid market data, or in real market data.

  20. STS-103 Mission Specialist Smith suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After donning his launch and entry suit, sts-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith shows a positive attitude over the second launch attempt for Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Smith and other crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

  1. [Anesthetic management of a patient with Mulvihill-Smith syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Junya; Yamada, Tatsuya; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Junzo

    2007-07-01

    Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is a rare disease that belongs to progeroid syndromes. This syndrome is characterized by a senile face with an underdeveloped lower half, short stature, microcephaly, multiple pigmented nevi, immunodeficiency, hearing loss, and high-pitched voice. We report anesthetic management of a 27-year-old woman, 138 cm and 27 kg, with this syndrome, who underwent removal of mandibular cyst, partial resection of tongue and keratoplasty. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium. There was difficulty in maintaining adequate ventilation with a face mask for children, and we used a mask for infants. Her Cormack grade was rated 3 but her trachea could be intubated assisted by BURP procedure. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen supplemented with fentanyl. The changes of blood pressure during anesthesia were extraordinary, suggesting the presence of advanced arteriosclerosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, with stable hemodynamics, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on 9th postoperative day. Anesthesia for Mulvihill-Smith syndrome should be performed with caution for the potential risk of difficult airway and unstable hemodynamics. PMID:17633848

  2. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis. PMID:25483640

  3. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  4. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  5. Robert Lloyd Smith: A Black Lawmaker in the Shadow of Booker T. Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Merline

    1985-01-01

    Presents a biographical profile of Robert Lloyd Smith, a black Texas legislator of the 1890's. Discusses Smith's philosophy of self-improvement and economic self-sufficiency; his relationship with Booker T. Washington; his involvement in legislation regarding black education, civil rights, and agriculture; and the problems he faced in being a…

  6. 77 FR 23658 - Six Rivers National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Smith River National Recreation Area Restoration and Motorized Travel Management Project AGENCY: Forest.... This project responds to the Travel Management Rule, Subpart B (36 CFR 212.52), which requires the...-pacificsouthwest-six-rivers@fs.fed.us . Please insure that ``Smith River NRA Restoration and Motorized...

  7. A Helping Hand in the Frederick Community—Ross Smith | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By day, Ross Smith is the compliance and security officer for Data Management Services, Inc., assigned to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick. His role is to ensure the secure operation of in-house computer systems, servers, and network connections. But in his spare time, Smith is also a volunteer firefighter and emergency medical technician (EMT).

  8. How To Survive in Postindustrial Environments: Adam Smith's Advice for Today's Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortmann, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    Adam Smith's discussion of the payment modes of teachers and resulting consequences for the quality of teaching and process of curricular innovation are reviewed through the conceptual lens of modern agency theory. Smith's analysis of higher education in his day (eighteenth century) sheds light on faculty incentive and assessment problems that…

  9. 2. VIEW OF THE SMITH NO.3 SITE ARE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE SMITH NO.3 SITE ARE TO THE NORTHEAST. THE BLACKSMITH/MINE CAR REPAIR SHOP IS LEFT CENTER. THE PROCESSING PLANT AND TIPPLE ARE RIGHT CENTER. - Smith Mine, Bear Creek 1.5 miles West of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  10. Rhetorical Studies: A Reassessment of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, William M.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a dissenting interpretation of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres and a more conservative perspective on Smith's significance to the history of rhetorical theory. Views the lectures as an historical commentary on literature and rhetoric from the perspective of an eighteenth-century lecturer. (JD)

  11. Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

  12. Telling Tales about Educational Research: A Response to John K. Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley, Martyn

    1998-01-01

    Criticizes the essay by J. Smith on the "balkanization" of educational research, asserting that the assumption that there is no common ground among current views of educational research is not only false but will lead to the very divisions that Smith fears. (SLD)

  13. VIEW OF H.M. CAMP SMITH RECREATIONAL AREA, WITH MANANA HOUSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF H.M. CAMP SMITH RECREATIONAL AREA, WITH MANANA HOUSING AREA IN THE FAR LEFT DISTANCE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  15. Unconscious Odour Conditioning 25 Years Later: Revisiting and Extending "Kirk-Smith, Van Toller and Dodd"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucco, Gesualdo M.; Paolini, Michela; Schaal, Benoist

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering work by Kirk-Smith, Van Toller, and Dodd [Kirk-Smith, M. D., Van Toller, C., & Dodd, G. H. (1983). "Unconscious odour conditioning in human subjects." "Biological Psychology," 17, 221-231], established that an unnoticed odorant paired with an emotionally meaningful task can influence mood and attitudes when the odorant alone is…

  16. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  17. 78 FR 15747 - Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License) Notice of Atomic Safety and... Board (Board) in the above-captioned Charlissa C. Smith case is hereby reconstituted...

  18. 77 FR 64411 - Safety Zone; Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event; Mobile River; Mobile, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP Captain of the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event; Mobile... during the Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this zone...

  19. A Disciplinary Immigrant. Alexander Smith at the University of Chicago, 1894-1911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The publication in 1906 of Alexander Smith's "Introduction to general inorganic chemistry" inaugurated a decisive change in chemical pedagogy in the US, the effects of which are still evident. The nature and extent of Smith's innovations are described through a comparison of his text to its source material and contemporaries. His authoritative…

  20. Pharmacological cognitive enhancers: comment on Smith and Farah (2011).

    PubMed

    Elliott, Glen R; Elliott, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Smith and Farah (2011) provided a thought-provoking and perhaps deliberately provocative literature review of the use of stimulants to improve cognitive functioning in humans. They addressed the apparently increasing willingness of individuals mostly in the United States to use stimulants for this purpose and then summarized published literature that explores whether stimulants actually improve specific aspects of neurocognitive function. Although calling for more research, they tentatively concluded that stimulants indeed may be "smart pills" for some people under certain circumstances. This comment emphasizes that they never actually defined the desired qualities of a smart pill, seemed to accept the unproven axiom that slight improvements in specific tests constitute meaningful enhancement of intelligence, and failed to consider the possible costs to individuals and to society of promoting the use of this class of medications for such a purpose. PMID:21859176

  1. ULTRA-SHARP solution of the Smith-Hutton problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Mokhtari, Simin

    1992-01-01

    Highly convective scalar transport involving near-discontinuities and strong streamline curvature was addressed in a paper by Smith and Hutton in 1982, comparing several different convection schemes applied to a specially devised test problem. First order methods showed significant artificial diffusion, whereas higher order methods gave less smearing but had a tendency to overshoot and oscillate. Perhaps because unphysical oscillations are more obvious than unphysical smearing, the intervening period has seen a rise in popularity of low order artificially diffusive schemes, especially in the numerical heat transfer industry. The present paper describes an alternate strategy of using non-artificially diffusive high order methods, while maintaining strictly monotonic transitions through the use of simple flux limited constraints. Limited third order upwinding is usually found to be the most cost effective basic convection scheme. Tighter resolution of discontinuities can be obtained at little additional cost by using automatic adaptive stencil expansion to higher order in local regions, as needed.

  2. Mission Specialist Smith is suited and ready for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith signals he is suited up and ready for launch. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

  3. The analysis of convolutional codes via the extended Smith algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Onyszchuk, I.

    1993-01-01

    Convolutional codes have been the central part of most error-control systems in deep-space communication for many years. Almost all such applications, however, have used the restricted class of (n,1), also known as 'rate 1/n,' convolutional codes. The more general class of (n,k) convolutional codes contains many potentially useful codes, but their algebraic theory is difficult and has proved to be a stumbling block in the evolution of convolutional coding systems. In this article, the situation is improved by describing a set of practical algorithms for computing certain basic things about a convolutional code (among them the degree, the Forney indices, a minimal generator matrix, and a parity-check matrix), which are usually needed before a system using the code can be built. The approach is based on the classic Forney theory for convolutional codes, together with the extended Smith algorithm for polynomial matrices, which is introduced in this article.

  4. Smith-Purcell radiation emission in aperiodic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, J. R. M.; Castells-Graells, D.; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2016-07-01

    We study the Smith-Purcell light emission produced by electrons moving parallel to linear aperiodic particle arrays. This constitutes a generalization of this type of phenomenon from periodic to aperiodic structures. As in the periodic case, the emission is found to exhibit intense features in its angular and frequency distributions, associated with the condition of constructive interference between the contributions arising from different particles in the array. This condition can also be expressed in terms of momentum conservation involving reciprocal wave-vector transfers from the array. We consider two examples of quasiperiodic and hyperuniform aperiodic arrays that allow us to illustrate this idea. Our study provides insight into the interaction of fast electrons with aperiodic arrays characterized by strong features in reciprocal space, which dominate the electron-array coupling.

  5. Smith college secondary math and science outreach program

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.A.; Clark, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Smith College Secondary Math and Science Outreach Program works collaboratively with front-line educators to encourage young women students of all abilities, especially underrepresented and underserved minorities, to continue studying math and science throughout high school. The program includes three main components: (1) Twenty-five to thirty teams of math/science teachers and guidance counselors participate in a year-long program which begins with a three-day Current Students/Future Scientists and Engineering Workshop. This event includes a keynote address, presentations and workshops by successful women in science and engineering, and hands-on laboratory sessions. Each participant receives a stipend and free room and board. Returning to their schools, the teacher-counselor teams implement ongoing plans designed to counteract gender bias in the sciences and to alert female students to the broad range of math, science, and engineering career choices open to them. A follow-up session in the spring allows the teams to present and discuss their year-long activities. (2) TRI-ON, a day of science for 120 ninth- and tenth- grade girls from schools with a large underserved and underrepresented population, is held in early spring. Girls discover the excitement of laboratory investigation and interact with female college science and math majors. (3) Teaching Internships, initiated in 1991, involve ten to fifteen Smith College math and science majors in teaching in public schools. The teaching interns experience the rewards and challenges of classroom teaching, and they also serve as role models for younger students.

  6. Smith-Purcell radiation in the highly relativistic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.E.; Woods, K.J.; Kirk, H.G.

    1995-12-31

    An electron moving over the surface of a diffraction grating will transfer a part of its kinetic energy to radiation via a velocity synchronous coupling with a slow space harmonic component of the field. Since the phase velocity of a slow space harmonic is less than the speed of light, the slow components decay exponentially, or evanesce, with distance above the grating and the evanescence scale is determined by the product of the relative velocity, {beta}, the relative energy, {gamma}, and the wavelength {lambda}. Thus, in the relativistic regime, good electron - grating coupling can be maintained at beam heights that are greater than the emitted wavelength. In order to explore this regime a series of experiments have been carried out with moderately energetic beams and an experiment with the 70-MeV beam at the Accelerator Test Facility is in the planning stage. The work has two basic goals: the first is to explore the characteristics of the spontaneous emission produced by the beam as it moves over the grating, and the second is to evaluate the potential of grating-coupled or Smith-Purcell free electron lasers. The spontaneous emission is of direct interest. It appears on the basis of work to date that the broad spectral distribution produced by a relativistic electron beam moving over a grating is potentially an alternative source for experiments of the type now carried out on synchrotron infrared beam lines. The grating, or a system of gratings, are also a potential alternative to the magnetic undulator and thus another basic approach to free electron laser design. The presentation will include a summary of the design of the experiment which is to be carried out on the 70-MeV A.T.F. beam line and a review of the theory of Smith-Purcell radiation in the high energy limit. Gain calculations and the role of beam quality in establishing performance limits will be discussed.

  7. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  8. 78 FR 11023 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR... First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 43759 (July 26, 2012... To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR...

  9. 75 FR 41922 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Fort Smith Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Smith Regional Airport, Fort Smith, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... comment on the release of land at Fort Smith Regional Airport under the provisions of Title 49, U.S.C... comments submitted to the FM must be mailed or delivered to Mr. John Parker, Airport Director, Fort...

  10. 77 FR 30047 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Michael J Smith Field, Beaufort, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... approximately 7.5 acres of airport property, located at the Michael J Smith Field, be used for aeronautical... Authority to release approximately 7.5 acres of airport property at the Michael J Smith Field. The...

  11. 76 FR 59115 - Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy- Smith America... days after the date of enactment of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e., September 26, 2011) by... filed by electronic means in effect sixty days after the date of enactment of the Leahy-Smith...

  12. 77 FR 34337 - Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest; Evanston-Mountain View Ranger District; Utah; Smiths Fork...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Forest Service Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest; Evanston-Mountain View Ranger District; Utah; Smiths... submitting a correction to the notice of intent for the Smiths Fork Vegetation Restoration Project published... period for the Smiths Fork Vegetation Restoration Project has been extended. Comments concerning...

  13. 75 FR 16099 - Mr. Jerry McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mr. Jerry McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith; Notice of Termination of License...Millan and Ms. Christine Smith d. Name of Project: Sunshine Power Project e. Location: The Sunshine Power.... Jerry McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith by order on February 23, 1996 (74 FERC ] 62,092). On January...

  14. 77 FR 442 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents... considered in ex parte reexamination, inter partes review, and post grant review. The Leahy-Smith...

  15. A local construction of the Smith normal form of a matrix polynomial

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Jon; Yu, Jia

    2008-09-01

    We present an algorithm for computing a Smith form with multipliers of a regular matrix polynomial over a field. This algorithm differs from previous ones in that it computes a local Smith form for each irreducible factor in the determinant separately and then combines them into a global Smith form, whereas other algorithms apply a sequence of unimodular operations to the original matrix row by row (or column by column). The performance of the algorithm in exact arithmetic is reported for several test cases.

  16. Autism spectrum features in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laje, Gonzalo; Morse, Rebecca; Richter, William; Ball, Jonathan; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a well-defined pattern of anomalies. The majority of cases are due to a common deletion in chromosome 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. In children with SMS, autistic-like behaviors and symptoms start to emerge around 18 months of age. This study included 26 individuals (15 females and 11 males), with a confirmed deletion (del 17p11.2). Parents/caregivers were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) both current and lifetime versions. The results suggest that 90% of the sample had SRS scores consistent with autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, females showed more impairment in total T-scores (P = 0.02), in the social cognition (P = 0.01) and autistic mannerisms (P = 0.002) subscales. The SCQ scores are consistent to show that a majority of individuals may meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders at some point in their lifetime. These results suggest that SMS needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders but also that therapeutic interventions for autism are likely to benefit individuals with SMS. The mechanisms by which the deletion of RAI1 and contiguous genes cause psychopathology remain unknown but they provide a solid starting point for further studies of gene-brain-behavior interactions in SMS and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20981775

  17. Autism Spectrum Features in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Laje, Gonzalo; Morse, Rebecca; Richter, William; Ball, Jonathan; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a well-defined pattern of anomalies. The majority of cases are due to a common deletion in chromosome 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. In children with SMS, autistic-like behaviors and symptoms start to emerge around 18 months of age. This study included 26 individuals (15 females and 11 males), with a confirmed deletion (del 17p11.2). Parents/caregivers were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) both current and lifetime versions. The results suggest that 90% of the sample had SRS scores consistent with autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, females showed more impairment in total T-scores (p=0.02) and in the social cognition (p=0.01) and autistic mannerisms (p=0.002) subscales. The SCQ scores are consistent to show that a majority of individuals may meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders at some point in their lifetime. These results suggest that SMS needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders but also that therapeutic interventions for autism are likely to benefit individuals with SMS. The mechanisms by which the deletion of RAI1 and contiguous genes cause psychopathology remain unknown but they provide a solid starting point for further studies of gene-brain-behavior interactions in SMS and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20981775

  18. Peroxisomal cholesterol biosynthesis and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhofer, Isabelle; Kunze, Markus; Stangl, Herbert; Porter, Forbes D.; Berger, Johannes . E-mail: johannes.berger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-06-23

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), caused by 7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase (DHCR7) deficiency, shows variable severity independent of DHCR7 genotype. To test whether peroxisomes are involved in alternative cholesterol synthesis, we used [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0 for peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation to generate [1-{sup 14}C]acetyl-CoA as cholesterol precursor inside peroxisomes. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin suppressed cholesterol synthesis from [2-{sup 14}C]acetate and [1-{sup 14}C]C8:0 but not from [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0, implicating a peroxisomal, lovastatin-resistant HMG-CoA reductase. In SLOS fibroblasts lacking DHCR7 activity, no cholesterol was formed from [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0-derived [1-{sup 14}C]acetyl-CoA, indicating that the alternative peroxisomal pathway also requires this enzyme. Our results implicate peroxisomes in cholesterol biosynthesis but provide no link to phenotypic variation in SLOS.

  19. Smith River Rancheria's Development of an Energy Organization Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    W.G Buehler & Associates

    2007-08-27

    Smith River Rancheria (SRR), for some time, has had a strong commitment to attaining energy selfsufficiency, to reduce overall energy costs and concurrently initiate economic development within the community. Early on it was recognized that the development of an energy organization was important and for this reason was made part of the SRR's strategic review not only for economic development but also the reduction of energy costs. Towards this end, SRR retained Werner G. Buehler of W.G. Buehler & Associates to investigate the many phases or steps required to establish such an energy organization and determine, if in fact, it could benefit the Tribe. The basic phases are delineated as: (1) Identify potential sources of wholesale power and transmission paths; (2) Evaluating the various forms of energy organizations; (3) Determining the benefits (and disadvantages) of each form of organization; (4) Gathering costs to organize and operate the selected form or energy organization; (5) Performing an economic analysis of forming and operating an energy organization; and (6) Develop an implementation plan.

  20. Cardiovascular malformations in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.E.; Ardinger, H.H.; Ardinger, R.H. Jr.

    1997-01-31

    We reviewed 215 patients (59 new, 156 from the literature) with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), and found that 95 (44%) had a cardiovascular malformation (CVM). Classifying CVMs by disordered embryonic mechanisms, there were 5 (5.3%) class I (ectomesenchymal tissue migration abnormalities), 56 (58.9%) class II (abnormal intracardiac blood flow), 25 (26.3%) class IV (abnormal extracellular matrix), and 5 (5.3%) class V (abnormal targeted growth). Comparing the frequencies of individual CVMs in this series with a control group (the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study), there were 6 individual CVMs which showed a significant difference from expected values. When frequencies of CVMs in SLOS were analyzed by mechanistic class, classes IV and V were significantly more frequent, and class I significantly less frequent, than the control group. Although CVMs in SLOS display mechanistic heterogeneity, with an overall predominance of class II CVMs, the developmental error appears to favor alteration of the cardiovascular developmental mechanisms underlying atrioventricular canal and anomalous pulmonary venous return. This information should assist the clinical geneticist evaluating a patient with possible SLOS, and should suggest research direction for the mechanisms responsible for the SLOS phenotype. 102 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. STS-103 M.S. Steven Smith during TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gets ready to practice driving a small armored personnel carrier that is part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who are with the European Space Agency. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  2. Risk should be objectively defined: reply to Zentall and Smith.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Cédric; Pelé, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Zentall and Smith (2014) have published a comment on Pelé and Sueur (Anim Cogn 16:543-556, 2013) in which they raise two issues, one about the definition of risk and a second concerning the optimality of decisions. When making a choice, subjects are faced not only with several possible alternatives but also with the risk of opting for an unsuitable choice which depends on several variables (context, internal state, knowledge and perception). Although it is true that animals might learn about their environment and adapt their decisions to the context and to their experience, strong constraints make some behavioural traits stable over individual lifetime and even generations. We therefore consider that experience has limited impact on the variability of temporal discounting. These behavioural traits make the difference between perceived and actual risk. If the perceived risk strongly differs from the actual risk, a decision should be considered as suboptimal. If we want to lead individual and collective cognition to a common decision science, it is crucial to use the same definitions for terms implied in decision-making. PMID:25771966

  3. Revisiting a "study of moral development in the South African context" by Smith and Parekh.

    PubMed

    Snarey, J; Keljo, K

    1996-12-01

    Smith and Parekh's 1996 study underscored the importance of studying the influence of racism upon moral development. Alternative interpretations of their findings suggest fruitful directions for research. PMID:8969122

  4. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. George E. KidderSmith, April 1945, Photograph #1338. VIEW OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    George E. Kidder-Smith, April 1945, Photograph #133-8. VIEW OF BUILDING 23, FRONT SIDE FROM ACROSS COURTYARD, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. George E. KidderSmith, photographer, April 1945, Photograph #1101. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    George E. Kidder-Smith, photographer, April 1945, Photograph #110-1. VIEW OF BUILDING 23, SOUTH SIDE WITH ARCADE, FACING NORTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. VIEW OF SMITH FORGING METAL SPECIMEN USING 3,000POUND DROP HAMMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SMITH FORGING METAL SPECIMEN USING 3,000-POUND DROP HAMMER NO. 1, MAN TO RIGHT IS OPERATING HAMMER WHILE OTHER SHAPES SPECIMEN. - Cambria Iron Company, Blacksmith Shop, Lower Works, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  8. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Four-Bedroom, Single-Family Type 10, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. An optimal control approach to pilot/vehicle analysis and Neal-Smith criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, B. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The approach of Neal and Smith was merged with the advances in pilot modeling by means of optimal control techniques. While confirming the findings of Neal and Smith, a methodology that explicitly includes the pilot's objective in attitude tracking was developed. More importantly, the method yields the required system bandwidth along with a better pilot model directly applicable to closed-loop analysis of systems in any order.

  14. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1999-03-30

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

  15. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

  16. C-smithing of Voyager 2 non-imaging instrument pointing information at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tseng-Chan; Acton, Charles H.; Underwood, Ian M.; Synnott, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a family of techniques, collectively called C-smithing, for improving spacecraft nonimaging instrument pointing knowledge is discussed. C-smithing studies using data from the Voyager 2 Uranus Encounter show that significant improvements in pointing knowledge for nonimaging instruments can be achieved with these techniques. This improved pointing information can be used to regenerate instrument viewing geometry parameters for the encounter, which can then be made available to science investigators.

  17. Prevalence of sleep problems in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zarowski, Marcin; Vendrame, Martina; Irons, Mira; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2011-07-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, and intellectual disability. It is caused by a genetically inherited deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol-delta-7-reductase, which results in increased serum levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), and decreased levels of cholesterol. This study assesses the prevalence of sleep problems in patients with SLOS. The study group comprised 18 subjects with SLOS, ages 2-31 years (median 10.7 ± 8.5 years). Parents completed several questionnaires (Intake Demographic Form; Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale). The SLOS subjects had symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (50% snoring; 66.7% mouth breathing), problems with sleep onset [difficulty falling asleep (61.1%) sleep onset time >30 min (62%)], sleep maintenance [wake up screaming (61.1%), waking up more than twice (44.4%), having trouble falling back to sleep (66.7%), waking up early in the morning (61.1%), and restless sleep (50%)]. The subjects with SLOS needed parents in the room to fall asleep (50%), watch TV or listen to music to fall asleep (44.4%), and described bed sharing (33.3%), indicating sleep-anxiety and sleep-associations. Symptoms of excessive-daytime-sleepiness were frequently reported [un-refreshed in the morning (38.9%), daytime sleepiness (44.4%), and daytime naps (55.6%)]. Parents frequently observed difficulty of organizing tasks (66.7%), and easy distractibility (88.9%). Sleep problems such as sleep-disordered breathing, sleep-related anxiety and sleep associations, disturbed sleep patterns at night, and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent in children with SLOS. PMID:21626671

  18. Incidence of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nowaczyk, M J; McCaughey, D; Whelan, D T; Porter, F D

    2001-07-22

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (OMIM 270400) (SLOS) is caused by inherited enzymatic deficiency of 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta7-reductase (7-dehydrocholesterol-Delta7-reductase, DHCR7). SLOS is diagnosed clinically by the demonstration of elevated levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) in body fluids or tissues. SLOS is associated with mental retardation of variable degree and severe behavior abnormalities. The physical abnormalities range from minor facial anomalies to lethal malformations of the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs. The exact incidence of SLOS is not known. Although there exist estimates of the incidence of SLOS ranging from 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 60,000, no prospective studies of the incidence of SLOS, based on the clinical data and biochemical diagnosis of SLOS, have been performed. Five unrelated cases of SLOS were diagnosed in Ontario during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were made based on the demonstration of elevated 7DHC in plasma or amniotic fluid. The birth rate for Ontario for that period was 132,000 births. The incidence of SLOS in Ontario was at least 1 in 26,500 pregnancies in 1999-2000. Given that 86% of the population of Ontario is of European origin, the incidence of SLOS in the Ontario population of European origin was at least 1 in 22,700. As infants with mild forms of SLOS born during this period may remain undiagnosed, these numbers likely are underestimates. This observation has implications for prenatal and newborn screening for this potentially treatable inherited disorder. PMID:11471166

  19. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-Velocity Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gomez-Vargas, German A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant gamma-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (approximately 3 x 10 (sup -26) cubic centimeters per second) for dark matter masses less than or approximately 30 gigaelectronvolts annihilating via the B/B- bar oscillation or tau/antitau channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  20. Searching for dark matter annihilation in the Smith high-velocity cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-07-20

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use γ-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant γ-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (∼ 3 × 10{sup –26} cm{sup 3} s{sup –1}) for dark matter masses ≲ 30 GeV annihilating via the b b-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup –} channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  1. Groundwater and surface-water interaction within the upper Smith River Watershed, Montana 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The 125-mile long Smith River, a tributary of the Missouri River, is highly valued as an agricultural resource and for its many recreational uses. During a drought starting in about 1999, streamflow was insufficient to meet all of the irrigation demands, much less maintain streamflow needed for boating and viable fish habitat. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Meagher County Conservation District, initiated a multi-year hydrologic investigation of the Smith River watershed. This investigation was designed to increase understanding of the water resources of the upper Smith River watershed and develop a detailed description of groundwater and surface-water interactions. A combination of methods, including miscellaneous and continuous groundwater-level, stream-stage, water-temperature, and streamflow monitoring was used to assess the hydrologic system and the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater and surface-water interactions. Collectively, data are in agreement and show: (1) the hydraulic connectedness of groundwater and surface water, (2) the presence of both losing and gaining stream reaches, (3) dynamic changes in direction and magnitude of water flow between the stream and groundwater with time, (4) the effects of local flood irrigation on groundwater levels and gradients in the watershed, and (5) evidence and timing of irrigation return flows to area streams. Groundwater flow within the alluvium and older (Tertiary) basin-fill sediments generally followed land-surface topography from the uplands to the axis of alluvial valleys of the Smith River and its tributaries. Groundwater levels were typically highest in the monitoring wells located within and adjacent to streams in late spring or early summer, likely affected by recharge from snowmelt and local precipitation, leakage from losing streams and canals, and recharge from local flood irrigation. The effects of flood irrigation resulted in increased hydraulic gradients

  2. Geology, paleoclimatology and the evolution of the kidney: some explorations into the legacy of Homer Smith.

    PubMed

    Kooman, Jeroen P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to perform an overview of the relation between kidney development in different species and new developments in plate tectonics and paleoclimatology, which likely had a remarkable effect on evolution. The review follows the ideas of Homer Smith, but adds new data on the subjects which were unknown in Homer Smith's time. The structure and function of the kidney are a result of hundreds of millions of years of evolution, in which adaptations had to be made in response to environmental demands while maintaining the kidney's integrated function. The ideas of Homer Smith have greatly contributed to our understanding of this process, and continue to be of relevance both for researchers as well as physicians working in the field of kidney disease. PMID:22572704

  3. Improving the Mapping of Smith-Waterman Sequence Database Searches onto CUDA-Enabled GPUs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang-Tsung; Wu, Chao-Chin; Lai, Lien-Fu; Li, Yun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Sequence alignment lies at heart of the bioinformatics. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is one of the key sequence search algorithms and has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing compute power. Recently, the Smith-Waterman algorithm has been successfully mapped onto the emerging general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). In this paper, we focused on how to improve the mapping, especially for short query sequences, by better usage of shared memory. We performed and evaluated the proposed method on two different platforms (Tesla C1060 and Tesla K20) and compared it with two classic methods in CUDASW++. Further, the performance on different numbers of threads and blocks has been analyzed. The results showed that the proposed method significantly improves Smith-Waterman algorithm on CUDA-enabled GPUs in proper allocation of block and thread numbers. PMID:26339591

  4. Improving the Mapping of Smith-Waterman Sequence Database Searches onto CUDA-Enabled GPUs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang-Tsung; Wu, Chao-Chin; Lai, Lien-Fu; Li, Yun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Sequence alignment lies at heart of the bioinformatics. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is one of the key sequence search algorithms and has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing compute power. Recently, the Smith-Waterman algorithm has been successfully mapped onto the emerging general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). In this paper, we focused on how to improve the mapping, especially for short query sequences, by better usage of shared memory. We performed and evaluated the proposed method on two different platforms (Tesla C1060 and Tesla K20) and compared it with two classic methods in CUDASW++. Further, the performance on different numbers of threads and blocks has been analyzed. The results showed that the proposed method significantly improves Smith-Waterman algorithm on CUDA-enabled GPUs in proper allocation of block and thread numbers. PMID:26339591

  5. Smith predictor based-sliding mode controller for integrating processes with elevated deadtime.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Oscar; De la Cruz, Francisco

    2004-04-01

    An approach to control integrating processes with elevated deadtime using a Smith predictor sliding mode controller is presented. A PID sliding surface and an integrating first-order plus deadtime model have been used to synthesize the controller. Since the performance of existing controllers with a Smith predictor decrease in the presence of modeling errors, this paper presents a simple approach to combining the Smith predictor with the sliding mode concept, which is a proven, simple, and robust procedure. The proposed scheme has a set of tuning equations as a function of the characteristic parameters of the model. For implementation of our proposed approach, computer based industrial controllers that execute PID algorithms can be used. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller are compared with the Matausek-Micić scheme for linear systems using simulations. PMID:15098585

  6. Breeding habitat associations and predicted distribution of an obligate tundra-breeding bird, Smith's Longspur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Teri C.; Kendall, Steven J.; Guldager, Nikki; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a species of conservation concern which breeds in Arctic habitats that are expected to be especially vulnerable to climate change. We used bird presence and habitat data from point-transect surveys conducted at 12 sites across the Brooks Range, Alaska, 2003–2009, to identify breeding areas, describe local habitat associations, and identify suitable habitat using a predictive model of Smith's Longspur distribution. Smith's Longspurs were observed at seven sites, where they were associated with a variety of sedge–shrub habitats composed primarily of mosses, sedges, tussocks, and dwarf shrubs; erect shrubs were common but sparse. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of ground cover revealed positive associations of Smith's Longspur presence with sedges and mosses and a negative association with high cover of shrubs. To model predicted distribution, we used boosted regression trees to relate landscape variables to occurrence. Our model predicted that Smith's Longspurs may occur in valleys and foothills of the northeastern and southeastern mountains and in upland plateaus of the western mountains, and farther west than currently documented, over a predicted area no larger than 15% of the Brooks Range. With climate change, shrubs are expected to grow larger and denser, while soil moisture and moss cover are predicted to decrease. These changes may reduce Smith's Longspur habitat quality and limit distribution in the Brooks Range to poorly drained lowlands and alpine plateaus where sedge–shrub tundra is likely to persist. Conversely, northward advance of shrubs into sedge tundra may create suitable habitat, thus supporting a northward longspur distribution shift.

  7. Theory of the special Smith-Purcell radiation from a rectangular grating

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weihao He, Zhigang Jia, Qika; Li, Weiwei

    2015-12-15

    The recently uncovered special Smith-Purcell radiation (S-SPR) from the rectangular grating has significantly higher intensity than the ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR). Its monochromaticity and directivity are also much better. Here we explored the mechanism of the S-SPR by applying the fundamental electromagnetic theory and simulations. We have confirmed that the S-SPR is exactly from the radiating eigen modes of the grating. Its frequency and direction are well correlated with the beam velocity and structure parameters, which indicates its promising applications in tunable wave generation and beam diagnostic.

  8. Improve growth rate of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser by Bragg reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Yang, Z.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Asakawa, M. R.; Hangyo, M.; Miyamoto, S.

    2011-05-23

    Grating with Bragg reflectors for the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser is proposed to improve the reflection coefficient, resulting in enhancing the interaction of the surface wave with the electron beam and, consequently, relax the requirements to the electron beam. With the help of particle-in-cell simulations, it has been shown that the usage of Bragg reflectors may improve the growth rate, shorten the time for the device to reach saturation, and lower the start current for the operation of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser.

  9. The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gonzalo M.; Burridge, Alwyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice. PMID:20697750

  10. 76 FR 55413 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-legged Frog, California Tiger Salamander, Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Register on June 17, 1999 (64 FR 32717), the Service would issue a permit to the Applicant authorizing take... Tiger Salamander, Smith's Blue Butterfly, and Yadon's Piperia at Palo Corona Regional Park, Monterey... californiense) and federally endangered Smith's blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) under the...

  11. 76 FR 52972 - United States v. Regal Beloit Corp. and A.O. Smith Corp.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Columbia in United States v. Regal Beloit Corporation. and A.O. Smith Corporation., Civil Action No. 1:11... acquisition by Regal Beloit Corporation (``RBC'') of the electric motor business of A.O. Smith Corporation...., Suite 8700, Washington, DC 20530, Plaintiff, v. Regal Beloit Corporation, 200 State Street,...

  12. 77 FR 4982 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest Management Competitive Grants Program AGENCY: National Institute of...(d) of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343(d)) to provide the ] opportunity for 1862 and 1890 Land... agency, CSREES, on October 6, 2008 and March 26, 2009 about the restructuring of the Smith-Lever 3(d)...

  13. 78 FR 11059 - Examination Guidelines for Implementing the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 43742 (July 26, 2012) (notice of proposed rulemaking... America Invents Act, 77 FR 43759 (July 26, 2012) (notice of proposed examination guidelines). The Office... First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 49427 (Aug. 16,...

  14. Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

  15. 77 FR 43742 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Declaration Provisions of the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 982, 989-90 (Jan. 6, 2012). Section 1.55... program. See Changes to Implement Priority Document Exchange Between Intellectual Property Offices, 72 FR... Examination Timing Control Procedures Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 76 FR 59050 (Sept. 23,...

  16. 77 FR 48775 - Changes To Implement the Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... provisions of section 4 of the AIA and to remove the ``without any deceptive intention'' language due to the... Implement the Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 982... Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR at 983. The...

  17. 37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. 1.109 Section 1.109 Patents, Trademarks, and... a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. (a) The effective filing date for...

  18. 76 FR 72675 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A Smith Corona Corporation, Cortland County, New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A at the Smith Corona Corporation plant in Cortland County, New York (Board Order 300, 50 FR 15469, 04/18/85); Whereas, the County of Onondaga has advised that zone... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A Smith Corona...

  19. 37 CFR 1.130 - Affidavit or declaration of attribution or prior public disclosure under the Leahy-Smith America...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affidavit or declaration of attribution or prior public disclosure under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. 1.130 Section 1.130 Patents... or declaration of attribution or prior public disclosure under the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

  20. 37 CFR 1.130 - Affidavit or declaration of attribution or prior public disclosure under the Leahy-Smith America...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affidavit or declaration of attribution or prior public disclosure under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. 1.130 Section 1.130 Patents... or declaration of attribution or prior public disclosure under the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

  1. 77 FR 3666 - Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Partes Reexamination Request, 76 FR 59055, 59056 (Sept. 23, 2011). Section 1.26: Section 1.26(c) is... Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act and To Revise Reexamination Fees AGENCY: United States... implement the supplemental examination provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. The...

  2. 37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. 1.109 Section 1.109 Patents, Trademarks, and... a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. (a) The effective filing date for...

  3. Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828) MD FRS, botanist, co-founder of the Linnean Society of London.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2009-05-01

    James Edward Smith's interest in botany led him to enter medicine at Edinburgh in 1781. Smith was continuing his medical studies in London when Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) suggested to him that he should purchase the collection of the famous Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus that had just been offered to Banks. Smith bought the Linnean Collection and Library in 1784. In 1786 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Leiden. In 1788 Smith, with two associates, founded the Linnean Society of London and became President for life. Smith turned from medicine to natural history as a lecturer and writer. During his lifetime he produced numerous botanical works of high value, including The English Flora (1824-28), and he did much to popularize botany. PMID:19401517

  4. "Comments on Coulter and Smith": Narrative Researchers as Witnesses of Injustice and Agents of Social Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In commenting on Coulter and Smith (2009), the author explores issues related to the place of the political in education research and in literature, but especially in forms of narrative research that possess both scientific and literary dimensions. More specifically, the author examines four sets of issues related to the researching and writing of…

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) smith

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The aim was designed to study the biological activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. The essential oil extracted from the rhizome of the plant was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and its major components amounting t...

  6. Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

  7. Hidden species complexes within distinctive taxa: the case of Epanthidium bicoloratum (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epanthidium bicoloratum (Smith) differs from all other Neotropical Anthidiini in the distinctive tegula, which is narrowed posteriorly forming a slender wedge. Examination of material standing under this name revealed that it represents a species complex that includes three new cryptic species, E. ...

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  9. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  10. What's in a Surname? Physique, Aptitude, and Sports Type Comparisons between Tailors and Smiths.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Rieder, Stephan; Stieger, Stefan; Swami, Viren

    2015-01-01

    Combined heredity of surnames and physique, coupled with past marriage patterns and trade-specific physical aptitude and selection factors, may have led to differential assortment of bodily characteristics among present-day men with specific trade-reflecting surnames (Tailor vs. Smith). Two studies reported here were partially consistent with this genetic-social hypothesis, first proposed by Bäumler (1980). Study 1 (N = 224) indicated significantly higher self-rated physical aptitude for prototypically strength-related activities (professions, sports, hobbies) in a random sample of Smiths. The counterpart effect (higher aptitude for dexterity-related activities among Tailors) was directionally correct, but not significant, and Tailor-Smith differences in basic physique variables were nil. Study 2 examined two large total-population-of-interest datasets (Austria/Germany combined, and UK: N = 7001 and 20,532) of men's national high-score lists for track-and-field events requiring different physiques. In both datasets, proportions of Smiths significantly increased from light-stature over medium-stature to heavy-stature sports categories. The predicted counterpart effect (decreasing prevalences of Tailors along these categories) was not supported. Related prior findings, the viability of possible alternative interpretations of the evidence (differential positive selection for trades and occupations, differential endogamy and assortative mating patterns, implicit egotism effects), and directions for further inquiry are discussed in conclusion. PMID:26161803

  11. Characterization of Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adults with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finucane, Brenda; Dirrigl, Karen Haines; Simon, Elliot W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and severity of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in 29 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome, a genetic disorder usually involving moderate mental retardation. Findings confirmed the near universal presence of SIB in this population. The overall prevalence of SIB increased with age. Number of types of SIB…

  12. Headed in the Right Direction: A Commentary on Yoshida and Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Yoshida and Smith (this issue) provide one of the first attempts to overcome the most serious impediment to the use of head-mounted eye trackers with infants: Except in rare cases they are not light enough to be worn on an infant's head, or the infant does not tolerate looking through a half-silvered mirror that is hanging on a rigid stalk…

  13. Hidden Dangers of Computer Modelling: Remarks on Sokolik and Smith's Connectionist Learning Model of French Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes the computer modelling experiments conducted by Sokolik and Smith (1992), which involved the learning of French gender attribution using connectionist architecture. The article argues that the experiments greatly oversimplified the complexity of gender learning, in that they were designed in such a way that knowledge that must be…

  14. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Joint Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Advisory Council and Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY: National Park... John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail and the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail will.... The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail consists of ``water and overland routes...

  15. 78 FR 16286 - Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 76677) on December 17, 2008. For more about the initial process and the history of... comments in a notice of availability (77 FR 50155) on August 20, 2012. The 30-day comment period ended on... Fish and Wildlife Service Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final...

  16. 77 FR 50155 - Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 7667) on December 17, 2008. For more about the initial process and the history of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA AGENCY: Fish...

  17. An Interview with Linda Tuhiwai Te Rina Smith, March 27, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda Tuhiwai Te Rina; Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Linda Tuhiwai Te Rina Smith--Maori researcher, educator, and activist--discusses key moments in the journey toward decolonization of Maori education, the impact of her book about decolonizing research methodologies, the concept of postcolonialism, challenges to the sustainability of social and educational change, disrupting the power relation…

  18. World of John and Mary Smith: A Study of Quirk and Greenbaum's "University Grammar of English."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kate

    This paper analyzes the "University Grammar of English" by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum (1973) from the point of view of isolation of forms of language from meaning used to convey these forms, especially regarding gender differences and relations in the main characters, John and Mary Smith. It is suggested that females are underrepresented,…

  19. 78 FR 2295 - Charlissa C. Smith; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Charlissa C. Smith; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission, see 37 FR 28,710 (Dec. 29, 1972), and the Commission's regulations, see 10 CFR Sec... rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at Rockville, Maryland, this...

  20. CENTER DIRECTOR RICHARD SMITH AND OTHER PERSONNEL OBSERVE SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET HO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    CENTER DIRECTOR RICHARD SMITH AND OTHER PERSONNEL OBSERVE SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET HO KSC-383C-2860.02 P-16225,ARCHIVE-03951 Spacelab 1 module and its attached pallet are hoisted out of the payload canister, over the work stands and into the cargo bay of the Columbia.

  1. A Case Study of Early Development in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Philofsky, Amy D.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an in-depth description of early development in a young child with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). SMS is a multisystem, neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with mental retardation that predisposes individuals to a distinct pattern of maladaptive behaviors and other neuropsychological impairments.…

  2. Patty Smith Hill, Gifted Early Childhood Educator of the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudnitski, Rose A.

    1995-01-01

    This article chronicles the development of Patty Smith Hill, eminent educator of the Progressive Era. Hill was largely responsible for adding kindergarten to the elementary school curriculum, was the author of the "Happy Birthday" song, and a member of the Woman's Suffrage Movement. (DB)

  3. Comparing Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations to James Madison's Federalist #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson which calls upon students to compare Adam Smith's WEALTH OF NATIONS to James Madison's FEDERALIST #10 to see how the ancient concept of individual rights and liberties was used to describe both economic and governmental systems. Presents questions to provide the basis for comparison. (GEA)

  4. Back to Beginnings: Credentialism, Productivity, and Adam Smith's Division of Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Denis J.

    1981-01-01

    The foundation of factional pressures for upgrading educational credentials in the labor market is examined through a review of human capital and screening theories. The writings of Adam Smith are referenced to show that the claims of the beneficial effects of educational upgrading have been questioned for 200 years. (Author/MLW)

  5. ESTIMATION OF SURPLUS BIOMASS OF CLUPEIDS IN SMITH MOUNTAIN LAKE, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mean annual estimates of surplus biomass of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia, were calculated using data on the biomass, growth, and mortality of each clupeid species. Surplus biomass, defined as production over a...

  6. Back to the Future on Gender and Anti-School Boys: A Response to Jeffrey Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, John

    2008-01-01

    This article examines recent claims by Jeffrey Smith that: (1) "hegemonic masculinity" is an expression of working class counter-school culture; (2) some teachers are "cultural accomplices" in constructing "hegemonic masculinities" of anti-school working class boys, thereby contributing to their underachievement; and (3) these "cultural…

  7. MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST Camp H.M. Smith and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. "Comments on Coulter and Smith": The Issue of Authorial Surplus in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Advocates of narrative research often contend that it is superior to nonnarrative research, both qualitative and quantitative, because they believe it is better able to represent multiple perspectives and foster multiple interpretations. The author of this comment article on Coulter and Smith (2009) draws on literary theory and an analysis of the…

  9. Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2002-01-01

    Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

  10. Celebrating the Past, Ensuring the Future--A Profile of President Glenn Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Anita

    2013-01-01

    "I had no idea how to convince someone to hire me," recalls APPA President, Glen Smith. His first interview was with Bryn Mawr College, a small, prestigious private college with Quaker roots, located 12 miles west of Philadelphia. That was in 1997, after 24 years in the Naval Civil Engineer Corps, and he still remembers a certain…

  11. Adam Smith and the Educative Critique: A Response to My Commentators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Jack Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper is both a response to the four reviewers in a special symposium on my book Adam Smith's Pluralism and a substantive discussion of philosophy of education. In it, I introduce what I call "the educative critique," a mode of analysis similar to Marxist, feminist, or postcolonial critiques, but focusing on the educative role of a…

  12. Another Look at the Glass and Smith Study on Class Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most influential studies affecting educational policy is Glass and Smith's 1978 study, "Meta-Analysis of Research on the Relationship of Class-Size and Achievement." Since its publication, educational policymakers have referenced it frequently as the justification for reducing class size. While teachers and the public had long believed…

  13. Sally L. Smith: A Genius at Seeing the Potential in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Mary Allen

    2010-01-01

    What this author admired most about Sally Smith was the fact that she was a visionary about people and what they could accomplish. She saw more potential in a person--young or old--than anybody or even they themselves, frankly, had ever even considered possible. She was a genius at seeing the potential in people, expecting them to find it in…

  14. What’s in a Surname? Physique, Aptitude, and Sports Type Comparisons between Tailors and Smiths

    PubMed Central

    Voracek, Martin; Rieder, Stephan; Stieger, Stefan; Swami, Viren

    2015-01-01

    Combined heredity of surnames and physique, coupled with past marriage patterns and trade-specific physical aptitude and selection factors, may have led to differential assortment of bodily characteristics among present-day men with specific trade-reflecting surnames (Tailor vs. Smith). Two studies reported here were partially consistent with this genetic-social hypothesis, first proposed by Bäumler (1980). Study 1 (N = 224) indicated significantly higher self-rated physical aptitude for prototypically strength-related activities (professions, sports, hobbies) in a random sample of Smiths. The counterpart effect (higher aptitude for dexterity-related activities among Tailors) was directionally correct, but not significant, and Tailor-Smith differences in basic physique variables were nil. Study 2 examined two large total-population-of-interest datasets (Austria/Germany combined, and UK: N = 7001 and 20532) of men’s national high-score lists for track-and-field events requiring different physiques. In both datasets, proportions of Smiths significantly increased from light-stature over medium-stature to heavy-stature sports categories. The predicted counterpart effect (decreasing prevalences of Tailors along these categories) was not supported. Related prior findings, the viability of possible alternative interpretations of the evidence (differential positive selection for trades and occupations, differential endogamy and assortative mating patterns, implicit egotism effects), and directions for further inquiry are discussed in conclusion. PMID:26161803

  15. De novo 2q+ masquerading as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, A E; Zackai, E H; McDonald, D M; Aquino, R; Emanuel, B S

    1987-01-01

    We report a female infant diagnosed shortly after birth as having Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Despite previously reported normal G banded karyotypes, a high resolution banded chromosome analysis identified 46,XX,2q+. The importance of attention to established features of clinical syndromes, as well as persistence in investigation when diagnostic uncertainties exist, are discussed. Images PMID:3612721

  16. Mr. Smith Goes to Washington: A Resource for Examining Ethical Leadership in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Randall P.

    One of the challenges of a communication instructor is how to initiate the discussion of ethics in the university classroom. The classic film, "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington," has proved a useful tool for initiating discussion of ethical decision-making in leadership. This film presents a young and idealistic leader of boy ranger clubs who is…

  17. EFFECTS OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS ON THE BLOOD OF KUWAIT MULLETS 'LIZA MACROLEPS' (SMITH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Haemopathological changes attributed to heavy metal poisoning observed in blood smears of Liza macrolepis (Smith) taken after exposures of 96 h to graded doses (mg/l) of copper (0.11-1.80), lead (1.15-18.36), and mercury (0.04-0.59), in a flow-through marine bioassay system. In g...

  18. 75 FR 9441 - Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... 16, 2010 (75 FR 7039). Workers of the subject firm are engaged in employment related to the sales and... Employment and Training Administration Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Lucas-...

  19. Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

  20. LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

  1. Smith-chart diagnostics for multi-GHz time-domain-reflectometry dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, N. E.; Domszy, R. C.; Tofighi, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    A time-domain-reflectometry Smith-chart display is demonstrated to be a valuable diagnostic tool in a variety of situations in time-domain-reflectometry dielectric spectroscopy. A relative reflection coefficient is formed by dividing the Laplace transform of the reflected sample transient by the Laplace transform of the empty-sensor transient and displaying in the complex plane, with the approximate sensor admittance read from susceptance and conductance circles. The Smith chart provides, as a diagnostic tool, an initial estimate of the dielectric behavior in the multi-GHz range and a means of identifying artifacts in acquisition and Laplace transform, in a way which does not require multiple steps of calibration and is only one step removed from the direct transient. Results are presented for a simple 3.5-mm flat sensor immersed in various liquid media, showing variations in the Smith chart for typical variations in sample permittivity, loss, and conductivity. Results are matched to vector network analyzer (VNA) measurement over an identical frequency range, as well as to finite-element field simulation. Results are also presented for a 3.5-mm sensor with various terminating pin lengths, typically employed at low frequencies and low permittivity media to increase sensor capacitance. For an unshielded pin, the Smith chart detects reflections from sample boundaries and measures the effectiveness of shielding used to eliminate these reflections. For a shielded pin, it characterizes the effect of pin length on the susceptance variation and the onset of pin resonance at high frequencies and high-permittivity values. The effect of artifacts appearing in the Smith chart on the actual calibration is shown by tracking them through the calibration process to the final result. Results are also presented for a 9-mm flat termination used for concrete hydration monitoring, showing effects of transmission-line discontinuities within a terminating plug and the onset of waveguide

  2. Smith-chart diagnostics for multi-GHz time-domain-reflectometry dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hager, N E; Domszy, R C; Tofighi, M R

    2012-02-01

    A time-domain-reflectometry Smith-chart display is demonstrated to be a valuable diagnostic tool in a variety of situations in time-domain-reflectometry dielectric spectroscopy. A relative reflection coefficient is formed by dividing the Laplace transform of the reflected sample transient by the Laplace transform of the empty-sensor transient and displaying in the complex plane, with the approximate sensor admittance read from susceptance and conductance circles. The Smith chart provides, as a diagnostic tool, an initial estimate of the dielectric behavior in the multi-GHz range and a means of identifying artifacts in acquisition and Laplace transform, in a way which does not require multiple steps of calibration and is only one step removed from the direct transient. Results are presented for a simple 3.5-mm flat sensor immersed in various liquid media, showing variations in the Smith chart for typical variations in sample permittivity, loss, and conductivity. Results are matched to vector network analyzer (VNA) measurement over an identical frequency range, as well as to finite-element field simulation. Results are also presented for a 3.5-mm sensor with various terminating pin lengths, typically employed at low frequencies and low permittivity media to increase sensor capacitance. For an unshielded pin, the Smith chart detects reflections from sample boundaries and measures the effectiveness of shielding used to eliminate these reflections. For a shielded pin, it characterizes the effect of pin length on the susceptance variation and the onset of pin resonance at high frequencies and high-permittivity values. The effect of artifacts appearing in the Smith chart on the actual calibration is shown by tracking them through the calibration process to the final result. Results are also presented for a 9-mm flat termination used for concrete hydration monitoring, showing effects of transmission-line discontinuities within a terminating plug and the onset of waveguide

  3. The Adventures of Captain John Smith, Pocahontas and a Sundial: Cosmology, Mathematics, and Power at the Time of Jamestown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechner, Sara J.

    2007-12-01

    While exploring the Chickahominy River in Virginia by canoe in December 1607, Captain John Smith was ambushed by 200 Powhatan Indians and chased into the swamp. Wounded by arrows and mired in the cold mud, Smith surrendered and was led to their chieftain, Opechancanough. Smith played for time. He pulled out his pocket sundial and proceeded to deliver a lecture on astronomy. The Indians marveled at the dancing needle of the magnetic compass, which they could plainly see but not touch because of the glass cover. They apparently thought less of his discourse in a foreign language on the sun, moon, and planets, as within the hour, Smith's captors had him tied to a tree and were ready to shoot him. But then, Opechancanough held the sundial aloft and spared Smith's life. For the next month, Smith was paraded around various Indian villages before being condemned to have his head bashed in. Pocahontas, however, threw herself across Smith's body in order to save his life. This legendary episode reveals more than Smith's ingenuity. His compass sundial, shaped and marked like a celestial globe, was a microcosm of his universe. It embodied the belief that the smallest things mirrored the large, that number was the key to God's creation, and that by means of mathematical instruments, men could dominate that world (or at least extricate themselves from tight spots!). This paper will examine the astronomical ideas and instruments on which these beliefs were based, and show how ultimately, Smith's sundial also represented the clash of two cosmologies-that of the Indians and European settlers.

  4. Efficacy of Fewer than Three Doses of an HPV-16/18 AS04 adjuvanted Vaccine: Combined Analysis of Data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial and the PATRICIA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Struyf, Frank; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Hildesheim, Allan; Skinner, S Rachel; Wacholder, Sholom; Garland, Suzanne M; Herrero, Rolando; David, Marie-Pierre; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2015-01-01

    and two dose(s) of the HPV16/18 vaccine appear to protect against cervical HPV16/18 infections, similar to the protection provided by the three-dose schedule. Two doses separated by six months additionally provided limited cross-protection. These data argue for a direct evaluation of one-dose efficacy of the HPV16/18 vaccine. Funding The CVT trial was sponsored and funded by the US National Cancer Institute, NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women’s Health, and done with the support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was provided for CVT by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA, under a Clinical Trials Agreement with the NCI. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA provided support for aspects of the trial associated with regulatory submission needs of the company under US Food and Drug Administration BB-IND 7920. The PATRICIA trial was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. PMID:26071347

  5. Identification of a novel DHCR7 mutation in a Korean patient with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jong Hee Chae; Ki Joong Kim; Yong Seung Hwang; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Jong-Won

    2007-11-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a unique malformation syndrome characterized by a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis, which is very rare among populations in Middle and East Asia. The authors identified compound heterozygous mutations ([p.Arg352Trp] + [p.Lys376ArgfsX37]) in a Korean girl with clinical and laboratory features typical of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. The Lys376ArgfsX37 mutation is a novel mutation, and to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a clinically and genetically confirmed case of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in Korea. PMID:18006960

  6. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual. PMID:26256313

  7. Collision of the Smith Cloud and its dark matter halo with the magnetized Galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galyardt, Jason; Shelton, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    The Smith Cloud is a massive High Velocity Cloud (HVC) that may have passed through the Milky Way disk in the recent past. Previous studies using hydrodynamic simulations suggest that a dark matter halo may have provided the confinement neccessary for the Smith Cloud to survive passage through the Galactic corona and disk. However, the models of the Galaxy that were used in these studies did not include a magnetic field, while magnetic fields are known to have confining properties. Other studies have shown that the Galactic magnetic field can inhibit mass exchange between the corona and the disk due to magnetic field compression. We extend upon these studies via FLASH magnetohydrodynamic simulations to consider the effects of a Galactic magnetic field on an infalling, dark matter confined HVC.

  8. Investigation on the special Smith-Purcell radiation from a nano-scale rectangular metallic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiwei; Liu, Weihao; Jia, Qika

    2016-03-01

    The special Smith-Purcell radiation (S-SPR), which is from the radiating eigen modes of a grating, has remarkable higher intensity than the ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation. Yet in previous studies, the gratings were treated as perfect conductor without considering the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) which are of significance for the nano-scale gratings especially in the optical region. In present paper, the rigorous theoretical investigations on the S-SPR from a nano-grating with SPPs taken into consideration are carried out. The dispersion relations and radiation characteristics are obtained, and the results are verified by simulations. According to the analyses, the tunable light radiation can be achieved by the S-SPR from a nano-grating, which offers a new prospect for developing the nano-scale light sources.

  9. [Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and hypothyroidism: the first Venezuelan case].

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Zerpa, José; Gil, Victor

    2014-09-01

    The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to an abnormal cholesterol synthesis. It was first described by Smith, Lemli and Opitz in 1964. Many cases of SLOS have been described since then, leading to the recognition as a relatively common malformation syndrome. Affected individuals have dysmorphism, microcephaly, multiple congenital malformations, mental retardation, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. The severity of physical defects correlates with the severity of the cholesterol deficiency, which is caused by an abnormally low activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. The occurrence of hypothyroidism in association with SLOS is very unusual. We describe the first Venezuelan case in which both anomalies are associated. PMID:25272525

  10. First observation of coherent Smith Purcell radiation in the highly relativistic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Perry, C.; Kimmitt, M. F.

    2008-09-01

    Coherent Smith-Purcell (SP) radiation has already been applied as a technique to measure the longitudinal bunch profile of charged particle beams in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider and the need to develop a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile, it has become necessary to carry out experiments at the highest possible energies. The paper summarizes some recent work at intermediate (45 MeV) energy and presents the first observations of SP radiation from a 28.5 GeV beam at SLAC. The experimental challenges and future possibilities of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a longitudinal bunch profile diagnostic tool are also discussed.

  11. Dispersion characteristics of planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Miaomiao Li, Ke; Liu, Wenxin Wang, Yong

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, a novel method of getting the dispersion relations in planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation is investigated analytically. The continuous profile of the groove is approximately replaced by a series of rectangular steps. By making use of field matches method and the continuity of transverse admittance, the universal dispersion equation for grating with arbitrarily shaped grooves is derived. By solving the dispersion equation in presence of electron beam, the growth rate is obtained directly and the dependence on beam parameters is analyzed. Comparisons of the dispersion characteristics among some special groove shapes have been made by numerical calculation. The results show that the rectangular-step approximation method provides a novel approach to obtain the universal dispersion relation for grating with arbitrary grooves for Smith-Purcell radiation.

  12. Energy conservation study on Smith Frozen Foods processing plant, Weston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-02

    A comprehensive energy study was performed at Smith Frozen Foods in Weston, Oregon, in the fall of 1984. The plant processes corn, peas, lima beans and carrots. The products are inspected, prepared and graded before being sent through freeze tunnels. The frozen products are dumped into tote bins which are transported into cold storage warehouses. Energy conservation measures were calculated using a modified return on investment analysis called a return on capital (ROC) analysis and current rate schedules.

  13. Discovery and antitumor activities of constituents from Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith is an important Chinese herbal medicine because of its biological functions. However, systematic and comprehensive studies on the phytochemicals from Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith and their bioactivity are limited. Results Using the bioassay-guided technique, the ethyl acetate and n-BuOH extracts of the rhizomes of Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith were shown to exhibit good antitumor activities, consequently leading to the isolation of 23 compounds. All compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated on tumor cells MGC-803, PC3, and A375 in vitro by MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay, and the results showed that pimpinellin (3) had potent cytotoxic activities against the three cell lines, with the IC50 values of 14.4 ± 0.3 μM, 20.4 ± 0.5 μM, and 29.2 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. The mechanism of the antitumor action indicated that pimpinellin inhibited the growth of MGC-803 cells via the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, with apoptosis ratio of 27.44% after 72 h of treatment at 20 μM. Conclusions This study suggests that most of the compounds from the roots of Cyrtomium fortumei (J.) Smith could inhibit the growth of human carcinoma cells. Moreover, pimpinellin inhibited the growth of tumor cells via the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:23379693

  14. William Peirce and E.A. Cappelen Smith and their amazing copper converting machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwick, Larry M.

    2008-10-01

    This is the story of how technology advances allowed the copper industry to realize its full potential. The Peirce-Smith Converting Centennial symposium, to be held at the TMS 2009 Annual Meeting, will celebrate the contributions of two men, William Peirce and E.A.C. Smith, in these advances. However, theirs is representative of a larger story: New, simpler technology releasing the stranglehold of older, more complicated technology, new developments in vessel configuration and design finding alternate routes around dead ends in operability, advances in technique and concepts removing roadblocks of cycle time and capacity, and overall innovation opening up vast new reserves around the world to those companies willing to embrace those improvements. Our story is also one of personalities, stubborn smeltermen versus the innovators, those inside the industry versus those from outside. It is a story of an initial borrowing from the steel industry, but also Peirce and Smith, from the refining end of the copper business, taking the ideas of Baggaley from Pittsburgh’s steel and air-brake industry, who built on what Hollway, Manhès and David, Douglas, and others had done in smelter tests, further to compete with the previous primacy and closely held expertise of the copper smeltermen in Wales. The photos presented illustrate these innovations.

  15. 77 FR 9890 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Children, Youth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...-Lever 3(d) Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Sustainable Community Projects AGENCY: National... section 3(d) of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343(d)) to provide the opportunity for 1862 and 1890...

  16. The Edwin Smith Papyrus: the birth of analytical thinking in medicine and otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Marc; Shaner, Arlene; Schaefer, Steven D

    2006-02-01

    The Edwin Smith Papyrus, discovered in 1862 outside of Luxor, Egypt, is the oldest known surgical text in the history of civilization. The surviving scroll, a copy of an earlier text from around 3,000 B.C., gives us remarkable insight into the medical practice of ancient Egyptians in the Nile River bed during the dawn of civilization. The Papyrus is divided into 48 cases, most of which describe traumatic injuries. The text instructs the physician to examine the patient and look for revealing physical signs that may indicate the outcome of the injury. Although in modern medicine we take for granted that the use of physical examination and rational thinking lead to an accurate conclusion, 5,000 years ago, this was extraordinary. The Edwin Smith Papyrus cast aside the prevailing magic and mysticism of that time in favor of logic and deductive reasoning. As Egyptian civilization declined during the next millennium, the teachings of the Papyrus would be lost. It would not be until 300 B.C. when Hippocrates and his disciples in ancient Greece would once again revive logic in medical thinking and teaching. It is believed that the ancient Greeks had knowledge of the contents of the Edwin Smith Papyrus and its teachings and used them as the basis for their writings. As Europe entered the Dark Ages, so did medicine yet again, reverting to spells and prayers instead of judgment and reason. Although Hippocrates teachings were recognized by some scholars during the Middle Ages, they did not make up the basis for mainstream medical knowledge. With the dawn of the Renaissance, medicine would finally purge itself of its past supernatural foundation. Hippocratic teachings were used to form the basis of modern medicine, and medical pioneers in the 17 century studied the ancient Greek texts as the origin for their ideas. Many of the concepts physicians and patients today take as common knowledge originated in the Edwin Smith Papyrus. The authors attempt to uncover some of these

  17. Surgical treatment of scoliosis in Smith-Magenis syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Smith-Magenis syndrome is a rare genetic condition associated with scoliosis in approximately 30% of cases. There is limited information in the literature on the treatment of scoliosis and the surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Characteristic features of the syndrome, such as the presence of congenital heart and renal disease, inherent immunodeficiency, as well as severe behavioural disorders may complicate the surgical treatment of patients. Case presentation We present the case of an 11-year-old British Caucasian girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome who developed a severe, progressive thoracic and lumbar scoliosis measuring 85° and 80°, respectively. She had no cardiac or renal anomalies. Brace treatment was unsuccessful to prevent deterioration of the scoliosis. Both curves were rigid on supine maximum side-bending and traction radiographs. Our patient underwent a posterior spinal arthrodesis with pedicle screw/hook and rod instrumentation and autologous iliac crest graft, supplemented by allograft bone. She had an uneventful postoperative course other than the development of a small wound dehiscence which required resuturing with no signs of a wound infection. A good correction of both scoliotic curvatures to 45° and 40° and a balanced spine in both the coronal and sagittal planes was achieved. Follow-up to skeletal maturity (4 years post-surgery) showed no loss of deformity correction, no detected pseudarthrosis and a good clinical outcome. Conclusion Patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome can develop a severe scoliosis that may require surgical treatment. Congenital cardiac and renal disease, immunodeficiency and severe behavioural problems can affect the surgical outcome following spinal arthrodesis and need to be taken into consideration. Our case demonstrates that surgical correction of the deformity can be performed safely on this group of patients, with a good outcome and an uncomplicated postoperative course. PMID:20181043

  18. Collisions between Dark Matter Confined High Velocity Clouds and Magnetized Galactic Disks: The Smith Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galyardt, Jason; Shelton, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy’s population of High Velocity Clouds (HVCs) may include a subpopulation that is confined by dark matter minihalos and falling toward the Galactic disk. We present the first magnetohydrodynamic simulational study of dark-matter-dominated HVCs colliding with a weakly magnetized galactic disk. Our HVCs have baryonic masses of 5 × 106M⊙ and dark matter minihalo masses of 0, 3 × 108, or 1 × 109 M⊙. They are modeled on the Smith Cloud, which is said to have collided with the disk 70 Myr ago. We find that, in all cases, the cloud’s collision with the galactic disk creates a hole in the disk, completely disperses the cloud, and forms a bubble-shaped structure on the far side of the disk. In contrast, when present, the dark matter minihalo continues unimpeded along its trajectory. Later, as the minihalo passes through the bubble structure and galactic halo, it accretes up to 6.0 × 105 M⊙ in baryonic material, depending on the strengths of the magnetic field and minihalo gravity. These simulations suggest that if the Smith Cloud is associated with a dark matter minihalo and collided with the Galactic disk, the minihalo has accreted the observed gas. However, if the Smith Cloud is dark-matter-free, it is on its first approach toward the disk. These simulations also suggest that the dark matter is most concentrated either at the head of the cloud or near the cloud, depending upon the strength of the magnetic field, a point that could inform indirect dark matter searches.

  19. Theobald Smith--the discoverer of ticks as vectors of disease.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Stanek, Gerold

    2002-07-31

    The cause of Texas fever in cattle, which is characterised by lysis of erythrocytes leading to anaemia, icterus, haemoglobinuria, and death, remained unsolved for many decades and assorted theories were proposed as an explanation for a disease being transmitted by apparently healthy animals. From 1889 to 1893, Theobald Smith and Frederick L. Kilbourne could demonstrate in elegantly conducted experiments how the disease was spread from cattle to cattle by ticks serving as the vector of transmission. Furthermore, they were able to identify the pathogen of Texas fever, an intra-erythrocytic protozoan which Smith named Pyrosoma bigeminum. Today it is recognised that either of two species of the now renamed genus Babesia, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, may be involved in Texas fever and that babesiosis is generally transmitted by ticks. In animals, genera like Boophilus spp., Dermacentor spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. are possible vectors. The first case of tick-transmitted babesiosis in a human was reported by Skrabalo and Deanovic in 1957 and occurred near Ljubliana in the small town of Strmec, Croatia. In humans, the vectors of most reported cases are ticks of the genus Ixodes, which are among the most predominant ticks in Austria. However, cases of human babesiosis in Austria remain to be studied. Smith and Kilbourne's work was the first demonstration that ticks transmit disease of any kind. Furthermore, by proving that ticks carry Babesia microti--which causes babesiosis in animals and humans--this is the first account of a zoonotic disease and the foundation of all later work on the animal host and the arthropod vector. PMID:12422586

  20. Comparing consumption oxygen during and after squat exercise in Smith Machine and whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Justo, Ana C G; Saavedra, Francisco J F; Vilaca-Alves, Jose; Rosa, Claudio; Neves, Eduardo B; Reis, Victor M

    2015-08-01

    Currently the physical exercise in whole body vibration platforms has become popular among people that frequenting gym and physiotherapy clinics. The objective of this study was to compare the oxygen consumption in the squat exercise performed at Smith Machine and squat performed on the vibration platform following the protocols usually referenced in both types of exercise (with load of 70% in the Smith Machine and unloaded on the vibration platform). The sample consisted of eight male subjects, with a mean age of 22.75 ± 2.05 years, an average body mass 74.50 ± 9.50kg, a stature of 1.79 ± 0.63m and estimated body fat percentage of 5.01 ± 0.94%. The volunteers performed two exercise sessions, one in the Smith Machine (AGSM) and the other on the vibration platform (AGPP). Each session consisted in 5 sets of 10 repetitions each, with a cadence of 40 beat.min(-1). The load used in the exercise AGSM performance was 70% of 1RM and in the AGPP was used a vibration frequency of 50 Hz, during 60 seconds in high amplitude. The order of the sections was randomized, with seven days apart. The AGPP session presented VO2 absolute = 0.95 ± 0.21L/min, VO2 relative = 12.86 ± 2.43ml/kg/min, and HR = 93.69 ± 10.55 beats/min; and the AGSM session presented VO2 absolute = 1.33 ± 0.29 L/min, VO2 relative = 17.91 ± 2.70 ml/kg/min, and HR = 120.69 ± 14.21 beats/min. The VO2 and HR values of the AGSM session were significantly higher than that found in AGPP session. PMID:26737301

  1. LIGHT SOURCE: Design of a new compact THz source based on Smith-Purcell radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Dong-Dong; Bei, Hua; Dai, Zhi-Min

    2009-06-01

    In recent years, people are dedicated to the research work of finding compact THz sources with high emission power. Smith-Purcell radiation is qualified for the possibility of coherent enhancement due to the effect of FEL mechanism. The compact experiment device is expected to produce hundreds mW level THz ray. The electron beam with good quality is provided under the optimized design of the electron gun. Besides, the grating is designed as an oscillator without any external feedbacks. While the beam passes through the grating surface, the beam bunching will be strong and the second harmonics enhancement will be evident, as is seen from the simulation results.

  2. Generation of induced Smith-Purcell radiation: free-electron laser in open system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Dmitry N.; Oganesyan, Koryun B.; Ayryan, Edik A.; Izmailian, Nikolay Sh.

    2016-04-01

    We have used the framework of the dispersion equation to study coherent Smith-Purcell (SP) radiation induced by a relativistic magnetized electron beam in the absence of a resonator. As an important example of the application of the obtained results of our previous paper JMO v.57, 2060, (2010) the growth rate of SP FEL in the case with a rectangular grating was calculated. The growth rate of the instability is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental data obtained by Urata et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 516 (1998)].

  3. Enhance the terahertz Smith-Purcell superradiant radiation by using dielectric loaded grating

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Miaomiao Li, Ke; Liu, Wenxin Wang, Yong

    2015-08-15

    A dielectric loaded grating (DLG) for terahertz Smith-Purcell (SP) device is proposed to enhance the radiation intensity. By using the theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations, the dispersion characteristics and SP superradiant radiation are investigated. Compared with the general metal grating, the usage of DLG can improve the magnitude of electric field and, consequently, strengthen the interaction of the evanescent wave with electron beam, which can improve the growth rate, enhance the SP superradiant radiation, and lower the start current for the operation of SP free-electron laser.

  4. Measurement of Patient Satisfaction: The Smith-Falvo Patient-Doctor Interaction Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, François; Fontaine, Denise; Bourque, André; Côté, Luc

    1988-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has been considered important for many years. This article provides a review of various methods that have been developed to measure patient satisfaction and describes the use of the Smith-Falvo scale in determining patient satisfaction with the medical services provided by residents in the Verdun Family Practice Program. In view of the limited range of scores provided by the use of this scale, the authors recommend that further research be done to develop a method of assessment of patient satisfaction that will take into account the duration of patient-physician interviews. PMID:20469488

  5. Correlators for the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix of chaotic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Mezzadri, Francesco; Simm, Nick; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2016-05-01

    We study the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix Q of a ballistic quantum dot supporting N scattering channels. We compute the v-point correlators of the power traces {Tr}{Q}κ for arbitrary v≥slant 1 at leading order for large N using techniques from the random matrix theory approach to quantum chromodynamics. We conjecture that the cumulants of the {Tr}{Q}κ 's are integer-valued at leading order in N and include a MATHEMATICA code that computes their generating functions recursively.

  6. Generation of induced Smith-Purcell radiation in the absence of resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Dmitry N.; Artemyev, Alexander I.; Oganesyan, Koryun B.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Scully, Marlan O.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2010-06-01

    The simplest model of the magnetized infinitely thin electron beam is considered. For the grating, which has depth of grooves as a small parameter, the dispersion equation of the Smith-Purcell instability was obtained. It was found that the condition of the Thompson or the Raman regimes of excitation does not depend on beam current but depends on the height of the beam above grating surface. The growth rate of instability in both cases is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current.

  7. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Gen 2 – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  8. STS-110 M.S. Smith driving M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith waits his turn at driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. TCDT includes emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown, and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  9. STS-110 M.S. Smith and Ross in slidewire basket during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith (left) and Jerry L. Ross (right) get ready to climb out of the slidewire basket, part of emergency egress equipment on the launch pad.. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown, held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  10. STS-110 M.S. Smith, Ross, and Walheim in Atlantis during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- (Left to right) STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven Smith, Jerry Ross and Rex Walheim settle into their seats aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis prior to a simulated launch countdown. The simulation is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. TCDT also includes emergency egress training and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  11. STS-110 M.S. Ross and Smith in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- With STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross (far left) and Steven Smith (third from left) on board, Commander Michael Bloomfield scatters dust as he practices driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier. The driving is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  12. CST simulations of THz Smith-Purcell radiation from a lamellar grating with vacuum gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekomtsev, K.; Karataev, P.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-07-01

    Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) from a lamellar grating with vacuum gaps was calculated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Particle In Cell (PIC) solver. The shapes of the radiation distributions were compared with those of Resonant Diffraction Radiation theory. Study of calculation domain meshing was performed. Influence of a transverse bunch size on the calculation accuracy and an SPR intensity distribution was investigated. Dependencies of the SPR yield on Lorentz factor and grating strip depth were calculated and compared with previously reported theoretical and experimental studies.

  13. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: a variable clinical and biochemical phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, A K; Bartlett, K; Clayton, P; Eaton, S; Mills, L; Donnai, D; Winter, R M; Burn, J

    1998-01-01

    We have reviewed all known UK cases of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Among 49 cases with proven 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency, half had been terminated or had died in infancy. The minimum incidence is 1 in 60,000. The frequent occurrence of hypospadias may account for 71% of recognised cases being male. Important common features which emerged include short thumbs, severe photosensitivity, aggressive behaviour, and atrioventricular septal defect. The typical facial appearance becomes less obvious with age and 20% of cases did not have 2/3 toe syndactyly. Biochemical measurements of serum 7-dehydrocholesterol did not correlate with clinical severity. Images PMID:9678700

  14. Homeopathy and extraordinary claims--a response to Smith's utilitarian argument.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Irene

    2012-11-01

    Kevin Smith's utilitarian argument against homeopathy(1) is flawed because he did not review and refute the relevant basic science literature on ultra-high dilutions. He also failed to appreciate that allopathic medicine is based on a deductive-nomothetic method and that homeopathic medicine is based on an inductive-idiographic method, and thus that the implications for clinical research are very different. His misunderstanding of provings and of the holism of homeopathic medicine also demonstrated his failure to understand the history, philosophy and method of homeopathy. Finally, I questioned the value of introducing ethical judgment into an ongoing scientific debate. PMID:22506685

  15. Graphene on nanoscale gratings for the generation of terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tantiwanichapan, Khwanchai; Wang, Xuanye; Swan, Anna K.; Paiella, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    Generation of THz radiation based on the Smith-Purcell effect in graphene is investigated numerically. The specific device geometry considered involves an electrically biased single-layer sheet of graphene deposited on a periodic array of holes in a solid substrate. Rigorous electrodynamic simulations combined with a basic model of charge transport are presented, showing that technologically significant output power levels can be obtained at geometrically tunable THz frequencies. These results suggest that graphene is a uniquely suited materials platform for the demonstration of THz electron-beam radiation mechanisms in compact solid-state systems.

  16. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen2 - 1Q2014 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  17. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  18. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – 4th Quarter 2013; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  19. The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    James McCune Smith (1813-1865)--first black American to obtain a medical degree, prominent abolitionist and suffragist, compassionate physician, prolific writer, and public intellectual--has been relatively neglected by historians of medicine. No biography of Smith exists to this day, though he has been the subject of several essays. Born, in his own words, "the son of a self-emancipated bond-woman," and denied admission to colleges in the United States, his native land, Smith earned medical, master's, and baccalaureate degrees at Glasgow University in Scotland. On his return to New York City in 1837, Smith became the first black physician to publish articles in US medical journals. Smith was broadly involved in the anti-slavery and suffrage movements, contributing to and editing abolitionist newspapers and serving as an officer of many organizations for the improvement of social conditions in the black community. In his scientific writings Smith debunked the racial theories in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia, refuted phrenology and homeopathy, and responded with a forceful statistical critique to the racially biased US Census of 1840. Frederick Douglass, Gerrit Smith, and John Brown personally collaborated with James McCune Smith in the fight for black freedom. As the learned physician-scholar of the abolition movement, Smith was instrumental in making the overthrow of slavery credible and successful. PMID:12911258

  20. The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    James McCune Smith (1813-1865)--first black American to obtain a medical degree, prominent abolitionist and suffragist, compassionate physician, prolific writer, and public intellectual--has been relatively neglected by historians of medicine. No biography of Smith exists to this day, though he has been the subject of several essays. Born, in his own words, "the son of a self-emancipated bond-woman," and denied admission to colleges in the United States, his native land, Smith earned medical, master's, and baccalaureate degrees at Glasgow University in Scotland. On his return to New York City in 1837, Smith became the first black physician to publish articles in US medical journals. Smith was broadly involved in the anti-slavery and suffrage movements, contributing to and editing abolitionist newspapers and serving as an officer of many organizations for the improvement of social conditions in the black community. In his scientific writings Smith debunked the racial theories in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia, refuted phrenology and homeopathy, and responded with a forceful statistical critique to the racially biased US Census of 1840. Frederick Douglass, Gerrit Smith, and John Brown personally collaborated with James McCune Smith in the fight for black freedom. As the learned physician-scholar of the abolition movement, Smith was instrumental in making the overthrow of slavery credible and successful. Images Figure 1 PMID:12911258

  1. A generalization of the Drude-Smith formula for magneto-optical conductivities in Faraday geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, F. W.; Xu, W.; Li, L. L.; Zhang, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we generalize the impulse response approach and Poisson statistics proposed by Smith [Phys. Rev. B 64, 155106 (2001)] to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse magneto-optical conductivities in an electron gas system in Faraday geometry. Comparing with the standard Drude model, the coefficients an are introduced in the Drude-Smith formula to describe the backscattering or localization effect for the nth electronic scattering event. Such a formula can also be applied to study the elements of the dielectric function matrix in the presence of magnetic and radiation fields in electron gas systems. This theoretical work is primely motivated by recent experimental activities in measuring the real and imaginary parts of longitudinal and transverse magneto-optical conductivities in condensed matter materials and electronic devices using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We believe that the results obtained from this study can provide an appropriate theoretical tool in reproducing the experimental findings and in fitting with experimental data to determine the important sample and material parameters.

  2. Design and implementation of a hybrid MPI-CUDA model for the Smith-Waterman algorithm.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Heba; Faheem, Hossam El Deen Mostafa; El Gohary, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a novel hybrid model for solving the multiple pair-wise sequence alignment problem combining message passing interface and CUDA, the parallel computing platform and programming model invented by NVIDIA. The proposed model targets homogeneous cluster nodes equipped with similar Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) cards. The model consists of the Master Node Dispatcher (MND) and the Worker GPU Nodes (WGN). The MND distributes the workload among the cluster working nodes and then aggregates the results. The WGN performs the multiple pair-wise sequence alignments using the Smith-Waterman algorithm. We also propose a modified implementation to the Smith-Waterman algorithm based on computing the alignment matrices row-wise. The experimental results demonstrate a considerable reduction in the running time by increasing the number of the working GPU nodes. The proposed model achieved a performance of about 12 Giga cell updates per second when we tested against the SWISS-PROT protein knowledge base running on four nodes. PMID:26510289

  3. Neurodevelopment of Children Under Three Years with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Pamela L.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Martin, Staci C.; Smith, Michaele R.; Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Brewer, Carmen C.; Smith, Ann C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome is limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than three years of age (mean = 19 months; range 5–34) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills, and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the non-autistic range. Exploratory analyses revealed the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately one year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed but age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages two to three years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention. PMID:19748044

  4. Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Social Security Administration's Compassionate Allowances Initiative: An Evaluative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shanna L; Maramaldi, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) launched the Compassionate Allowances List (CAL) in 2008. This created a mechanism for expediting review and delivery of disability benefits, while decreasing application backlog. This study hypothesized that developmental disorders, such as Smith-Magenis syndrome, may meet criterion for inclusion. An evaluative review of the literature was undertaken to determine if the expedited review criterion was met. Ten databases were searched and articles meeting pre-defined criteria were coded according to the SSA definition of disability to determine if severity indices screen in or screen out certain severity levels or exclude Smith-Magenis syndrome entirely in relation to the CAL program. It was strongly recommended that Smith-Magenis syndrome receive consideration for inclusion in the CAL. PMID:27494126

  5. A field calibration of the sediment-trapping characteristics of the Helley-Smith bed-load sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, William W.

    1980-01-01

    For sediment particle sizes between 0.50 mm and 16 mm, the Helley-Smith bedload sampler has a near perfect sediment-trapping efficiency. For particles sizes smaller than 0.50 mm, the Helley-Smith sampler has a high bedload sediment-trapping efficiency because part of the sediement retained by the sampler has been transported in suspension and it cannot be quantified separately from the bedload. For particle sizes larger than about 16 mm, the Helley-Smith sampler has low sediment-trapping efficiency but this may be related to the paucity of coarse particles in transport in the calibration tests rather than reflecting an actual low trap efficiency for large-size particles. (USGS)

  6. A REVISED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING OXIDE BASICITY PER THE SMITH SCALE WITH EXAMPLE APPLICATION TO GLASS DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG

    2011-07-27

    Previous researchers have developed correlations between oxide electronegativity and oxide basicity. The present paper revises those correlations using a newer method of calculating electronegativity of the oxygen anion. Basicity is expressed using the Smith {alpha} parameter scale. A linear relation was found between the oxide electronegativity and the Smith {alpha} parameter, with an R{sup 2} of 0.92. An example application of this new correlation to the durability of high-level nuclear waste glass is demonstrated. The durability of waste glass was found to be directly proportional to the quantity and basicity of the oxides of tetrahedrally coordinated network forming ions.

  7. 36th Annual David W. Smith Workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis: Abstracts of the 2015 annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Gripp, Karen W; Adam, Margaret P; Hudgins, Louanne; Carey, John C

    2016-07-01

    The 36th Annual David W Smith Workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis was held on August 14-19, 2015 at the Harbourtowne Conference Center in St. Michaels Maryland. The Workshop, which honors the legacy of David W Smith, brought together over 120 clinicians and researchers interested in congenital malformations and their underlying mechanisms of morphogenesis. As is the tradition of the meeting, the Workshop highlighted five themes besides mechanisms of morphogenesis: Rasopathies, Eye Malformations, Therapeutics, Prenatal Diagnosis, and Disorders of Sex Development. This Conference Report includes the abstracts presented at the 2015 Workshop. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27119594

  8. The Giant Resin Bee, Megachile sculpturalis Smith: New Distributional Records for the Mid- and Gulf-south USA

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Amber D.; Sampson, Blair J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, the giant resin bee, is an adventive species in the United States. First established in the United States during the early 1990s, records currently exist from most states east of the Mississippi River along with Iowa and Kansas. New information New distributional records are presented for Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, an introduced bee. Additional records presented here expand the known distribution southwest through Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas. An updated host plant list containing new records is also presented, expanding the number of known floral associations. PMID:26696766

  9. Drainage Area-Dependent Knickpoint Generation Mechanisms, Smith River, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, D. J.; Kelsey, H. M.

    2011-12-01

    Knickpoints and knickzones (reaches of relatively high gradient located immediately downstream of a knickpoint) are a prominent characteristic of the channel slopes of both mainstem and tributary channels of the 1,575 km2 Smith River drainage in northern California. We have investigated these knickpoints using aerial photos, 10 m and 1 m digital elevation models (DEM's), and NAIP images supplemented by Schmidt hammer rock strength measurements and field verification of channel and terrace elevations using real time kinematic GPS surveys. Two types of knickpoints occur. At higher drainage areas (threshold of greater than ~250 km2), knickpoints occur within rock types with no significant difference in rock strength. There is a distinct upstream convergence of the modern channel with the lowest elevated strath surface along these knickzones, resulting in elevated strath surfaces downstream of the knickzones. We infer that the knickpoints are transient and that the straths are more vertically separated from the modern channel only after the knickpoint has migrated upstream. The causative baselevel fall that generates migrating knickpoints in the Smith River may be eustatic sea level fall following Quaternary highstands. For instance, fluvial terraces are cut into stage 5 marine terraces at the coast and these fluvial terraces likely are generated in the wake of knickpoints migrating upstream. In contrast, at drainage areas less than ~250 km2, the only knickpoints present in channels are those associated with large landslides that mobilize entire hillslopes into the channel, forcing a channel response. Notably absent along the Smith River are any knickpoints associated with changes in rock strength, as measured by Schmidt hammer values. From these observations, we infer that, first, major knickpoints along channels above a threshold drainage area of about 250 km2 are generated by baselevel fall that propagates upstream through channels of varying rock type; and second

  10. Truman Smith's Reports on Nazi Militarism: Domestic Political Priorities and U.S. Foreign Policy-Making in Franklin Roosevelt's First and Second Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sam

    2015-01-01

    After an accomplished military career leading up to and during World War II, Truman Smith (1893-1970) was seemingly forgotten. His name was seldom mentioned after the war until his memoirs were published posthumously in 1984. History shows Smith to be an astoundingly successful figure in military intelligence. This article provides a biography on…

  11. Differences in Social Motivation in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Lucy; Mitchell, Anna; Oliver, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Social excesses, characterised by heightened social motivation, are important for describing social functioning. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a potential exemplar of a disorder where heightened social motivation is associated with negative behavioural outcomes. In Down syndrome (DS) strong social motivation is described, but less commonly associated with behavioural problems. Children with SMS (n = 21) and DS (n = 19) were observed during social situations, in which familiarity of adults present and level of attention available were manipulated. Motivation in SMS was characterised by comparatively frequent social initiations when adult attention was low, and stronger preference for familiar adults, compared to DS. Findings provide insight into the nature of social motivation in SMS and support an argument for nuanced consideration of motivation. PMID:26983920

  12. Electron Bunch Profile Diagnostics in the Few FS Regime Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, R.; Clarke, C.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Pattle, K.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Tovey, R.; /Oxford U.

    2011-12-13

    The rapid developments in the field of laser-driven particle acceleration hold the prospect of intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. The determination of the temporal profile of such bunches presents new challenges. The use of a radiative process such as Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising in this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of e/m radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

  13. Phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

    2014-03-26

    Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λmax) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. PMID:24571707

  14. Responding to the second ghetto: Chicago's Joe Smith and Sin Corner.

    PubMed

    Pacyga, Dominic A

    2011-01-01

    World War Two and its aftermath transformed Chicago's African American community. The Great Migration entered a second and more intense phase as black migrants flooded into Northern cities. This massive relocation of Southern blacks resulted in the expansion and reformulation of Chicago's ghettoes on both the West and South Sides of the city. The question of a response to this Second Ghetto from African Americans themselves presents itself. White politicians, cultural elites and businessmen still controlled the city and could impose their will on its neighborhoods simply redrawing ghetto boundaries to reflect the new realities of the postwar era. The strange case of Joe Smith and Sin Corner sheds some light on black agency in the 1950s. The African American middle class had resources it commanded to try and protect itself from racial injustice. These resources, however, were based on class privileges not enjoyed by most in the African American community. PMID:21158199

  15. Altered cerebrospinal fluid proteins in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Cologna, Stephanie M; Shieh, Christine; Toth, Cynthia L; Cougnoux, Antony; Burkert, Kathryn R; Bianconi, Simona E; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D

    2016-08-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple malformation syndrome with neurocognitive impairment. SLOS arises from mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene which results in impaired enzymatic conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. In the current work, we sought to measure proteins that were altered in the cerebrospinal fluid from SLOS patients compared to pediatric controls. Using a multi-analyte antibody-based assay, we found that 12 proteins are altered in SLOS patients. Validation studies were carried out and the findings from this study suggest alterations in extracellular matrix remodeling and further evidence of oxidative stress within the disease pathophysiology. The results of this study will be used to explore biological pathways altered in SLOS and identifies a set of CSF proteins that can be evaluated as biomarkers in future therapeutic trials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27148958

  16. Non-invasive ventilation for sleep-disordered breathing in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, Victoria; Zhao, Sizheng; Angus, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by behavioural disturbances, intellectual disability and early onset obesity. The physical features of this syndrome are well characterised; however, behavioural features, such as sleep disturbance, are less well understood and difficult to manage. Sleep issues in SMS are likely due to a combination of disturbed melatonin cycle, facial anatomy and obesity-related ventilatory problems. Sleep disorders can be very distressing to patients and their families, as exemplified by our patient's experience, and can worsen behavioural issues as well as general health. This case demonstrates the successful use of non-invasive ventilation in treating underlying obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea. As a consequence of addressing abnormalities in sleep patterns, some behavioural problems improved. PMID:27495174

  17. Effects of Selected Physicochemical Parameters on Zerumbone Production of Zingiber zerumbet Smith Cell Suspension Culture

    PubMed Central

    Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Khalid, Norzulaani

    2015-01-01

    Zingiber zerumbet Smith is an important herb that contains bioactive phytomedicinal compound, zerumbone. To enhance cell growth and production of this useful compound, we investigated the growth conditions of cell suspension culture. Embryogenic callus generated from shoot bud was used to initiate cell suspension culture. The highest specific growth rate of cells was recorded when it was cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing 3% sucrose with pH 5.7 and incubated under continuous shaking condition of 70 rpm for 16 h light and 8 h dark cycle at 24°C. Our results also revealed that the type of carbohydrate substrate, light regime, agitation speed, and incubation temperature could affect the production of zerumbone. Although the zerumbone produced in this study was not abundant compared to rhizome of Z. zerumbet, the possibility of producing zerumbone during early stage could serve as a model for subsequent improvement. PMID:25767555

  18. Impact assessment report: R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station aquatic monitoring program. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.J.; Johnson, G.F.; Summers, J.K.; Smith, R.P.; Ross, R.N.

    1981-06-01

    This document is a summary and interpretation of findings from aquatic monitoring studies that have been conducted since 1976 at the site of the R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station on the upper Potomac River. The report gives an overview of all the studies, summarizes major findings, and presents conclusions about the impact of plant operations on the lotic ecosystem. More detailed descriptions of individual studies (e.g., methods, analyses, results) are presented in Appendices A through D (Volume II), wherein studies are grouped by similar topics: A -- physical and chemical variables, B -- periphyton, C -- benthic macroinvertebrates, and D -- finfish. These appendices include all study findings deemed relevant to the assessment of plant impact.

  19. Heterologous Expression, Purification, and Biochemical Characterization of α-Humulene Synthase from Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Semra; Hartwig, Steffen; Frister, Thore; König, Jan Christoph; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    The α-humulene synthase from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was expressed as a polyhistidine-tagged protein in an E. coli BL21(DE3) strain. Induction time and inductor (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) concentration were optimized. The enzyme was successfully purified directly from cell lysate by NTA affinity column chromatography and careful selection of coordinated metal ion and imidazole elution conditions. Bioactivity assays were conducted with the natural substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) in a two-phase system with in situ extraction of products. The conversion of FDP to α-humulene (~94.5%) and β-caryophyllene (~5.5%) could be monitored by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Optimal pH and temperature as well as kinetic parameters K M and k cat were determined using a discontinuous kinetic assay. PMID:26463657

  20. Adam Smith's invisible hand is unstable: physics and dynamics reasoning applied to economic theorizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2002-11-01

    Neo-classical economic theory is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Neo-classical economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics, however, a utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrability. Price as a function of demand does not exist and all equilibria are unstable. Qualitatively, and empirically, the neo-classical prediction of price as a function of demand describes neither consumer nor trader demand. We also discuss five inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct, and then explain the fallacy in the economists’ notion of ‘temporary price equilibria’.

  1. [Our experience with the method of D'Amour and Smith].

    PubMed

    Stefanova, D; Ivanov, K

    1975-01-01

    The authors carried out studies on a group of analgetic preparations (morphine, lydol, thylidine, pentazocine and analgine) by the method of D Amour and Smith, using thermic painful stimulation. The experiments were carried out on white rats-young and adult of both sexes of the strain Wistar. The mean lethal dosis were determined as well as the mean effective doses and therapeutic indices. The experimental results showed that thylidine was the strongest analgetic agent with atherapeutic index of 67. The index of morphine was 63 and was close to that of thylidine, but without statistical significance. The remaining analgetic indices were with low indices: lyndiol-with 5, pentazocine - 12 and analgine - 2. The method used, according to our data, could be applied successfully on rats of both sexes, at various age groups and both strains. The method is convenient for testing analgetic activity of preparations from two basic types of analgetic agents-narcotic and nonnarcotic. PMID:4289

  2. STS-103 MS Smith prepares to enter orbiter from White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith, in his orange launch and entry suit, waits for assistance from closeout crew members in the White Room before entering the orbiter. From left, they are NASA Quality Assurance Specialist Danny Wyatt, United Space Alliance (USA) Mechanical Technician Vinny Defranzo and USA Orbiter Vehicle Closeout Chief Travis Thompson. The White Room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm on the fixed service structure. It provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

  3. Start-to-end simulation of a Smith-Purcell free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, C.; Piot, P; Lin, M.C.; Stoltz, P.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation has generated much recent interest due to its ability to penetrate deep into many organic materials without the damage associated with ionizing radiations. Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers (SPFELs) offer a viable path toward generating copious amounts of narrow-band THz radiation. In this paper we present numerical simulations, performed with the conformal finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic solver VORPAL of a SPFEL operating in the superradiant regime. We first explore the standard (single grating) configuration and investigate the impact of incoming beamparameters. We also present a new concept based a double grating configuration to efficiently bunch the electron beam, followed by a single grating to produce super-radiant SP radiation.

  4. Hydrologic data for an investigation of the Smith River Watershed through water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilges, Hannah L.; Caldwell, Rodney R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected through water year 2010 and compiled as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study of the water resources of the Smith River watershed in west-central Montana are presented in this report. Tabulated data presented in this report were collected at 173 wells and 65 surface-water sites. Figures include location maps of data-collection sites and hydrographs of streamflow. Digital data files used to construct the figures, hydrographs, and data tables are included in the report. Data collected by the USGS are also stored in the USGS National Water Information System database and are available through the USGS National Water Information System Water Data for Montana Web page at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mt/nwis/.

  5. Taxonomic studies on the ant genus Cerapachys Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from India

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender; Akbar, Shahid Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Indianspeciesof the ant genus Cerapachys Smith are keyed. Twelve species are recognized of which 6 are described as new. The species are: Cerapachys aitkenii Forel, Cerapachys alii sp. n., Cerapachys anokha sp. n., Cerapachys besucheti Brown, Cerapachys biroi Forel, Cerapachys indicus Brown, Cerapachys longitarsus (Mayr), Cerapachys nayana sp. n., Cerapachys schoedli sp. n., Cerapachys seema sp. n., Cerapachys sulcinodis Emery and Cerapachys wighti sp. n. Geographic distribution and group affinities of the new species are discussed. A revised key to the Indian species is provided. The rare ergatoid queens of Cerapachys nayana, Cerapachys schoedli and Cerapachys seema are reported. Formed in response to selective pressures these ergatoid queens have a significant role in dispersal strategies and contribute much to our understanding of the biology of these ants. PMID:24146574

  6. A multimode terahertz-Orotron with the special Smith-Purcell radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weihao; Lu, Yalin; Wang, Lin; Jia, Qika

    2016-05-01

    We proposed and investigated a terahertz Orotron, which is based on the recently revealed special Smith-Purcell radiation. It overcomes the main obstacles of the traditional Orotron in the terahertz region—unreachable high starting-current-density and low radiation power. With the experimentally available electron beam and facilities, its average output power can reach hundreds of milliwatts and even several watts in terahertz region, which is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the traditional Orotron. Additionally, it can be controlled to operate in ether the first or the second order mode, and the radiation frequency can extend from 0.1 THz to 1 THz. These remarkable advantages make it a promising terahertz source for practical applications.

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  8. A few laced genes: women's standpoint in the feminist ancestry of Dorothy E. Smith.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Deirdre

    2009-04-01

    This article looks at the feminist activism of particular women in the ancestry of the eminent Canadian sociologist, Dorothy E. Smith, and at the archival data that confirm the traces of their influence found in her theory-building. Using the method of interpretative historical sociology and a conceptual framework drawn from Marx called the "productive forces," the article examines the feminist theology of her Quaker ancestor, Margaret Fell, and the militant suffrage activism of her mother and her grandmother, Dorothy Foster Place and Lucy Ellison Abraham, respectively. The article argues that the household labour of the remarkable women in her family line became a "productive force" that facilitated her imagining of the feminist theory, "the standpoint of women". PMID:19999830

  9. Performance results of the Tom Smith double shell residence, Lake Tahoe, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Hollingsworth, E.; Holmes, W.; Maloney, J.; Pedersen, K.; Sash, R.; Thorp, J.; Wang, M.

    1980-01-01

    Performance data for a ten day period in January of 1980 was collected for the purpose of attempting to clarify some of the questions surrounding the method of operation of double shell structures. Temperature data are recorded at various key locations throughout the Smith residence as well as ambient temperature data. Solar insolation levels are also recorded. Perhaps of greatest interest is air flow information within the air plenum chamber which separates the inner and outer shells. A DISA 55D-80/81 airflow meter was used to perform the measurements. A direct correlation between air flow magnitude and direction with solar insolation lvels has been found. In addition, the measurements indicate that little actual heat is actually transferred to the storage area located in the rock and dirt beneath the structure.

  10. Concrete and relational vocabulary: comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group. PMID:25194511

  11. The Smith Cloud: High-Velocity Accretion and Dark Matter Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Smith Cloud is a massive system of metal-poor neutral and ionized gas (M gas gsim 2 × 106 M sun) that is presently moving at high velocity (V GSR≈ 300 km s-1) with respect to the Galaxy at a distance of 12 kpc from the Sun. The kinematics of the cloud's cometary tail indicates that the gas is in the process of accretion onto the Galaxy, as first discussed by Lockman et al. Here, we re-investigate the cloud's orbit by considering the possibility that the cloud is confined by a dark matter halo. This is required for the cloud to survive its passage through the Galactic corona. We consider three possible models for the dark matter halo (Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), Einasto, and Burkert) including the effects of tidal disruption and ram pressure stripping during the cloud's infall onto and passage through the Galactic disk. For the NFW and Einasto dark matter models, we are able to determine reasonable initial conditions for the Smith Cloud, although this is only marginally possible with the Burkert model. For all three models, the progenitor had an initial (gas+dark matter) mass that was an order-of-magnitude higher than inferred today. In agreement with Lockman et al., the cloud appears to have punched through the disk ≈70 Myr ago. For our most successful models, the baryon-to-dark matter ratio is fairly constant during an orbital period but drops by a factor of 2-5 after transiting the disk. The cloud appears to have only marginally survived its transit and is unlikely to retain its integrity during the next transit ≈ 30 Myr from now.

  12. The Kansas Squat Test Modality Comparison: Free Weights vs. Smith Machine.

    PubMed

    Luebbers, Paul E; Fry, Andrew C

    2016-08-01

    Luebbers, PE and Fry, AC. The Kansas squat test modality comparison: free weights vs. smith machine. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2186-2193, 2016-Standardized methods of testing power are instrumental in planning and implementing training regimens for many athletes, and also in tracking training adaptations. Previous work has demonstrated that the Kansas squat test (KST) is a valid test for measuring indices of mean and peak power when compared with the Wingate anaerobic cycle test. Although the KST was designed for use with a Smith machine (SM), many power athletes use free weights for training. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using free weights (FW) for the KST by comparing it with the SM modality. Twenty-three track and field athletes participated (mean ± SD; weight, 69.7 ± 10.6 kg; age, 20.1 ± 1.1 years) in this study. Each completed familiarization sessions with the FW and SM modalities before data collection. A 1-repetition maximum squat was also determined for both the FW and SM. Correlation coefficients indicated significant relationships between the FW KST and SM KST on measures of peak test power (r = 0.955; p < 0.01) and mean test power (r = 0.959; p < 0.01) but not for relative fatigue (r = -0.198; p > 0.05) or posttest lactate (r = 0.109; p > 0.05). Paired samples t-tests indicated that the FW KST resulted in significantly higher measures of peak power and mean power (p ≤ 0.01), although no differences were observed for relative fatigue or lactate (p > 0.05). These data indicate that the FW KST is a valid and feasible alternative to the SM KST in measuring peak and mean power. PMID:26950349

  13. Final Report - Conservation & Renewable Energy Potential Study For Smith River Rancheria

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Retzlaff

    2007-07-01

    In January 2006 the Smith River Rancheria (SRR), located in Smith River, California, contracted with the team of Strategic Energy Solutions (SES) and Evergreen NRG to conduct a study for the community. The objective of the study was to identify renewable generation opportunities that would facilitate Rancheria energy independence through SRR owned and operated power projects. These generation facilities were to be located either on or near the reservation. Specifically, the Rancheria was interested in the viability of generating electric power using biomass and wind fuel resources. Initial research identified that a very small portion of the community's energy could be offset by renewable energy generation due to the low solar resource in this area, and the lack of significant wind or biomass resources on or near reservation land. Some larger projects were identified which offered little or no benefit to the Rancheria. As a result, the scope of this study was changed in October 2006 to focus on energy efficiency opportunities for key reservation facilities, with a continued analysis of smaller renewable energy opportunities within reservation boundaries. The consulting team initially performed a resource analysis for biomass and solar generation opportunities in the region of the Rancheria. It was quickly concluded that none of these options would yield renewable power for the Rancheria at costs competitive with current utility sources, and that any larger installations would require substantial funding that may not be available. Having made these conclusions early on, the study effort was redirected and the team investigated each of the major Rancheria buildings to look for solar, wind and conservation opportunities. The buildings were audited for energy use and the roof areas were examined for exposure of solar radiation. Wind resources were also investigated to determine if smaller wind turbines would offer power generation at a reasonable cost.

  14. A taxonomic review of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from South Korea with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kolarov, Janko; Jeong, Jong-Chul; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Nineteen species of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) are recognized from South Korea, including 15 newly recorded species as well as two species new to science, Dolichomitus koreanus sp. nov., and D. rufinus sp. nov., A key to the species of the genus Dolichomitus in South Korea is provided, together with diagnostic illustrations. PMID:27395664

  15. Commentary: Cause for Alarm? Youth and Internet Risk Research--A Commentary on Livingstone and Smith (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on Livingstone and Smith (2014) suggests that more attention should be paid to a set of hypotheses about technology that contrasts with those that have animated much of the current research interest: (a) That the digital environment is no more perilous and perhaps less perilous than other offline environments youth inhabit; (b)…

  16. A Multifaceted Social Norms Approach To Reduce High-Risk Drinking: Lessons from Hobart and Williams Smith Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, H. Wesley; Craig, David W.

    The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Alcohol Education Project (HWS) began in 1996 to test the social norms approach to reducing alcohol use by students. A social norms approach works on the premise that misperceived norms, perceptions that usually exaggerate what is typical for other students, lead to increased drinking as students attempt to…

  17. Reflections on a Proposed Theory of Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Alcohol Use: Comment on Spillane and Smith (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Janette; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Freedenthal, Stacey; Kaufman, Carol; Mitchell, Christina; Whitesell, Nancy; Albright, Karen; Beauvais, Fred; Belcourt, Gordon; Duran, Bonnie; Fleming, Candace; Floersch, Natasha; Foley, Kevin; Jervis, Lori; Kipp, Billie Jo; Mail, Patricia; Manson, Spero; May, Philip; Mohatt, Gerald; Morse, Bradley; Novins, Douglas; O'Connell, Joan; Parker, Tassy; Quintero, Gilbert; Spicer, Paul; Stiffman, Arlene; Stone, Joseph; Trimble, Joseph; Venner, Kamilla; Walters, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In their recent article, N. Spillane and G. Smith suggested that reservation-dwelling American Indians have higher rates of problem drinking than do either non-American Indians or those American Indians living in nonreservation settings. These authors further argued that problematic alcohol use patterns in reservation communities are due to the…

  18. Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

  19. 77 FR 448 - Changes To Implement the Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is proposing changes to the rules of patent practice to implement the preissuance submissions by third parties provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. This provision provides a mechanism for third parties to contribute to the quality of issued patents by submitting to the Office, for consideration and inclusion in the record of......

  20. 77 FR 42149 - Changes To Implement the Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of patent practice to implement the preissuance submissions by third parties provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA). This provision provides a mechanism for third parties to contribute to the quality of issued patents by submitting to the Office, for consideration and inclusion in the record of a......

  1. 77 FR 43759 - Examination Guidelines for Implementing the First-Inventor-to-File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...- File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark... (Office) is publishing ] proposed examination guidelines concerning the first-inventor-to-file (FITF... ``first inventor to file'' system, treats United States patents and United States patent...

  2. An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function…

  3. The Giant Resin Bee, Megachile sculpturalis Smith: New Distributional Records for the Mid- and Gulf-south USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, the giant resin bee, is an adventive species in the United States. First established in the United States during the early 1990s, records currently exist from most states east of the Mississippi River along with Iowa and Kansas. New distributional recor...

  4. 78 FR 31988 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ..., posters, demonstrations, and displays are prohibited in accordance with NRC policy. See 66 FR 31719 (June... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor..., William J. Froehlich, Brian K. Hajek The Atomic Safety and Licensing Board hereby gives notice that...

  5. 77 FR 46615 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 442 (Jan. 5, 2012). The Office received... with the control test discussed in Practice Guide for Proposed Trial Rules, 77 FR 6868, 6870- 71 (Feb... Review of Patent Trial and Appeal Board Decisions, 77 FR 6879, 6883-84 (Feb. 9, 2012) (``Board...

  6. Promoting Social Competence in an Era of School Reform: A Commentary on Gifford-Smith and Brownell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth

    2003-01-01

    Presents a response to Gifford-Smith and Brownell's "Childhood Peer Relationships: Social Acceptance, Friendships, and Peer Networks" (this issue). A focus on enhancing social competence within the context of classrooms designed to accommodate the needs of all students is presented as an integrated framework for applying research concerning…

  7. In Quest of Walter Smith: The Past, Present, and Future Impact of Visual Art in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Meredith Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Walter Smith is a relatively unknown historical figure in the art world, but he is essential to defining adult education's past. present. and future in the area of visual art. His artistic endeavors in America sparked facets of the way art education is practiced today. However, along the way we have lost the tenets of social change which he sought…

  8. What's All the Noise? Differentiating Dimensions of Acoustic Stress and the Limits to Meta-Analysis: Reply to Smith (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalma, J. L.; Hancock, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Smith (2012) has provided pertinent observations on our recently published meta-analytic review (Szalma & Hancock, 2011) of the effects of acoustic noise on performance. His main points are as follows: (a) our review excluded some areas of research; (b) there were conceptual problems with our moderator analyses; and (c) limitations to…

  9. Preserving Precious Instruments in Mathematics History: The Educational Museum of Teachers College and David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A history is given of the Educational Museum of Teachers College, which began in 1886, and David Eugene Smith's extensive collection of mathematical tools used in the Museum's exhibits is discussed. Historic mathematical instruments including, the astrolabe, abacus and counting rods, and the slide rule are examined. The author uses digitized…

  10. "And This Is How You Shall Ask": Linguistics, Anthropology, and Education in the Work of David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry; McDermott, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article celebrates the life and work of David M. Smith, former Council on Anthropology and Education president and founder of the University of Pennsylvania Ethnography in Education Research Forum, tracing his contributions to the fields of linguistics, anthropology, and education through the dual lens of his ten research principles and Walt…

  11. 77 FR 48827 - Changes To Implement the Supplemental Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Invents Act and to Revise Reexamination Fees, 77 FR 3666-81 (Jan. 25, 2012) (notice of proposed rulemaking... Revise Reexamination Fees, 77 FR at 3667. The Office received a number of comments requesting that there... Examination Provisions of the Leahy-Smith Invents Act and to Revise Reexamination Fees, 77 FR at 3667,...

  12. 78 FR 16182 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 78 FR 11024 (Feb. 14, 2013..., 78 FR 11053 (to be codified at 37 CFR 1.55(c)). Specifically, the ``371'' in ``35 U.S.C. 371'' as it... rule FR Doc. 2013-03453 published on February 14, 2013 (78 FR 11024), make the following...

  13. Sensory Motor and Functional Skills of Dizygotic Twins: One with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and a Twin Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michaele R.; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), the result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2, is a disorder that may include minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, speech delays, cognitive deficits, signs of peripheral neuropathy, scoliosis, and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive…

  14. Identification and Characterization of Hundreds of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Growth from a Kinase-Targeted Library Screening Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Rosario; Luengo-Arratta, Sandra A.; Seixas, João D.; Amata, Emanuele; Devine, William; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I.; Jimenez, Elena; Ortega, Fatima; Crouch, Sabrinia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Fiandor, Jose Maria; Martin, Jose Julio; Berlanga, Manuela; Gonzalez, Silvia; Manzano, Pilar; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of identification of new kinase-targeting chemotypes for target and pathway analysis and drug discovery in Trypanosomal brucei, a high-throughput screen of 42,444 focused inhibitors from the GlaxoSmithKline screening collection was performed against parasite cell cultures and counter-screened against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this way, we have identified 797 sub-micromolar inhibitors of T. brucei growth that are at least 100-fold selective over HepG2 cells. Importantly, 242 of these hit compounds acted rapidly in inhibiting cellular growth, 137 showed rapid cidality. A variety of in silico and in vitro physicochemical and drug metabolism properties were assessed, and human kinase selectivity data were obtained, and, based on these data, we prioritized three compounds for pharmacokinetic assessment and demonstrated parasitological cure of a murine bloodstream infection of T. brucei rhodesiense with one of these compounds (NEU-1053). This work represents a successful implementation of a unique industrial-academic collaboration model aimed at identification of high quality inhibitors that will provide the parasitology community with chemical matter that can be utilized to develop kinase-targeting tool compounds. Furthermore these results are expected to provide rich starting points for discovery of kinase-targeting tool compounds for T. brucei, and new HAT therapeutics discovery programs. PMID:25340575

  15. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:27329199

  16. Biochemical Screening of Five Protein Kinases from Plasmodium falciparum against 14,000 Cell-Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory J.; Hillesland, Heidi K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Reid, Molly C.; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria Jose; Ghidelli-Disse, Sonja; Leonard, Stephen E.; He, Panqing; Jones, Jackson C.; Krahn, Mallory M.; Mo, Jack S.; Dasari, Kartheek S.; Fox, Anna M. W.; Boesche, Markus; El Bakkouri, Majida; Rivas, Kasey L.; Leroy, Didier; Hui, Raymond; Drewes, Gerard; Maly, Dustin J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Ojo, Kayode K.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010 the identities of thousands of anti-Plasmodium compounds were released publicly to facilitate malaria drug development. Understanding these compounds’ mechanisms of action—i.e., the specific molecular targets by which they kill the parasite—would further facilitate the drug development process. Given that kinases are promising anti-malaria targets, we screened ~14,000 cell-active compounds for activity against five different protein kinases. Collections of cell-active compounds from GlaxoSmithKline (the ~13,000-compound Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set, or TCAMS), St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (260 compounds), and the Medicines for Malaria Venture (the 400-compound Malaria Box) were screened in biochemical assays of Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases 1 and 4 (CDPK1 and CDPK4), mitogen-associated protein kinase 2 (MAPK2/MAP2), protein kinase 6 (PK6), and protein kinase 7 (PK7). Novel potent inhibitors (IC50 < 1 μM) were discovered for three of the kinases: CDPK1, CDPK4, and PK6. The PK6 inhibitors are the most potent yet discovered for this enzyme and deserve further scrutiny. Additionally, kinome-wide competition assays revealed a compound that inhibits CDPK4 with few effects on ~150 human kinases, and several related compounds that inhibit CDPK1 and CDPK4 yet have limited cytotoxicity to human (HepG2) cells. Our data suggest that inhibiting multiple Plasmodium kinase targets without harming human cells is challenging but feasible. PMID:26934697

  17. Stability through the ages: the GSK experience.

    PubMed

    Blaxill, Zoe; Holland-Crimmin, Sue; Lifely, Rob

    2009-06-01

    It is common knowledge in the pharmaceutical industry that the quality of a company's compound collection has a major influence on the success of biological screening in drug discovery programs. DMSO is the widely accepted solvent of choice for storage of compounds, despite the hygroscopic nature of the solvent, which can lead to stability issues. Other factors that can affect compound stability (e.g., degradation, precipitation) include concentration of compound, intrinsic compound stability, presence of reactive contaminants, storage format-related factors (vessel, sealing, etc.), storage conditions (temperature, humidity, freeze-thaw technique and cycles, etc.), and storage time. To define the best practice for the storage and handling of solution samples, GlaxoSmithKline has undertaken stability experiments over more than a decade, initially to support the implementation of new automated liquid stores (ALS) and, subsequently, to enhance storage and use of compounds in solution through an understanding of compound degradation under storage and assay conditions. The experiments described used a number of technologies, including hyphenated liquid chromatography, electrospray mass spectrometry, flow chemiluminescence nitrogen detection, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Karl Fischer titration. PMID:19470717

  18. A randomized controlled trial of CBT therapy for adults with ADHD with and without medication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies of psychological treatment in adults with ADHD have not controlled for medication status and include either medicated participants or mixed samples of medicated and unmedicated participants. The objective of this study is to examine whether use of medication improves outcome of therapy. Method This was a secondary analysis comparing 23 participants randomized to CBT and Dextroamphetamine vs. 25 participants randomized to CBT and placebo. Both patients and investigators were blind to treatment assignment. Two co-primary outcomes were used: ADHD symptoms on the ADHD-RS-Inv completed by the investigator and improvement in functioning as reported by the patient on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Results Both groups showed robust improvement in both symptoms and functioning, but the use of medication did not significantly improve outcome over and above use of CBT and placebo. Conclusion This study replicates previous work demonstrating that CBT is an effective treatment for ADHD in adults. Within the limits of this pilot, secondary analysis we were not able to demonstrate that medication significantly augments the outcome of CBT therapy for adults with ADHD. The study was funded by GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Trials Registry #GSK707. PMID:22480189

  19. Induction of Bordetella pertussis-specific immune memory by DTPa vaccines.

    PubMed

    Morel, Sandra; Denoël, Philippe; Godfroid, Fabrice; Cortvrindt, Caroline; Vanderheyde, Nathalie; Poolman, Jan

    2011-04-18

    Several vaccines are available against pertussis, differing by the number of Bordetella pertussis antigens that they contain as well as their formulation. The GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK Bio) tricomponent DTPa vaccine (DTPa3, Infanrix™), and the Sanofi-Pasteur (SP) five-component formulation (DTPa5, Pediacel™) were shown to have comparable short-term efficacy in clinical trials. However, potential differences in long-term protection were recently suggested, which might reflect the elicitation of different specific immune memory by the two vaccines. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate in mice the immune responses against B. pertussis, and particularly the establishment of specific B cell memory after immunization with DTPa3 and DTPa5 vaccines. Whereas intranasal challenge experiments showed similar protection with both vaccines, DTPa3 induced higher antibody levels to FHA and PRN than DTPa5. Further, the frequency of memory B cells was investigated by B cell ELISPOT. Higher frequencies of PT- and PRN-specific memory B cells were evidenced after vaccination with DTPa3, compared with DTPa5. Although the origin of such difference is unclear, the use of two different adjuvants (aluminum phosphate versus hydroxide) is proposed as a possible explanation. In conclusion, this study proposes that the induction of higher levels of B. pertussis antigen-specific memory B cells with DTPa3 participate to the suggested longer persistence of protection observed with this vaccine, as compared with DTPa5. PMID:21382483

  20. Impact of a mixed bacterial lysate (OM-85 BV) on the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of inactivated influenza vaccine in children with recurrent respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Prada, Elisabetta; Daleno, Cristina; Porretti, Laura; Carsetti, Rita; Bosco, Annalisa; Ierardi, Valentina; Scala, Alessia; Principi, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the immunogenicity and efficacy of conventional inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are not completely satisfactory in children. The aim of this prospective, randomised, single-blind study was to compare the immune response to, and the effectiveness and safety of, an IIV (Fluarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) administered to 68 children aged 36-59 months affected by recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) who were vaccinated with (n=33) or without (n=35) the mixed bacterial lysate OM-85 BV (Broncho-vaxom, Vifor Pharma, Geneva, Switzerland). OM-85 BV had no effect on seroconversion or seroprotection rates, geometric mean titres, or dendritic cells, which were not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, OM-85 BV did not significantly increase the pool of the memory B cells that produce IgG and IgM antibodies against the influenza antigens. However, respiratory morbidity was significantly lower in the children treated with OM-85 BV (p<0.05), thus confirming its positive effect on the incidence of RRTIs. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. These findings show that the immune response of children to influenza vaccine is not significantly influenced by the administration of OM-85 BV. However, the use of OM-85 before and at the same time as IIV seems to reduce respiratory morbidity, and seems to be safe and well tolerated. PMID:24681270

  1. Straight talk with...Joseph Schwartz.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Mark

    2012-06-01

    On 17 May, Human Genome Sciences (HGS) formally rejected a $2.6 billion unsolicited takeover offer by GlaxoSmithKline. The Maryland-based biotech firm had long partnered with the UK drug giant to develop drugs including Benlysta (belimumab), HGS's first drug on the market and the first new medicine approved to fight lupus in 50 years. But, at $13 a share, GSK's bid was deemed "inadequate" by the HGS board. Recent history in the biotech sector shows how high the stakes are in such negotiations. Since last November, six biopharma buyouts have exceeded $1 billion each, with Gilead Sciences' purchase last year of the hepatitis C specialist Pharmasset topping the charts at a whopping $11.2 billion, the highest ever paid for a clinical-stage biotech and an 89% premium to its share price at the time. More recently, in April AstraZeneca paid $1.3 billion for Ardea Biosciences, a company with cancer and gout drugs in the pipeline but nothing on the market.One person watching the upward clime of such deals is biopharma analyst Joseph Schwartz, a managing director at Leerink Swann in Boston. Mark Ratner sought out Schwartz, who was named the top stock picker for pharmaceuticals in the last year's FT/StarMine Analyst Awards, for his views on what's behind the recent buyout spending. PMID:22673987

  2. Antibody for the prevention of neonatal noscocomial staphylococcal infection: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weisman, L E

    2007-09-01

    Staphylococci, especially coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS), are responsible for over 75 % of late-onset infections in very low birth weight infants. These infections cause increased length of hospital stay, need for antibiotics, and cost of medical care. Several drug companies have developed and evaluated hyperimmune polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for the prevention of neonatal staphylococcal infection including 1) Altastaph by North American Biologics Inc., 2) Veronate by Inhibitex Inc., and 3) Pagibaximab by Biosynexus Inc, and Glaxo Smith Kline Inc. We will review the development and status of these potential products. Altastaph is a S. aureus serotype 5 and 8 vaccine induced hyperimmune polyclonal antibody whose development has been placed on hold due to its failure to demonstrate any trend toward efficacy in a recently completed Phase II study. Veronate is a polyclonal antibody obtained by plasmapheresis from donors with high titers of MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesion matrix molecules) activity against CONS whose development has been placed on hold due to its failure to demonstrate effectiveness in a recently completed Phase III study. Pagibaximab is a humanized mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody (previously known as BSYX-A110) directed against lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, that has recently completed a Phase II study suggesting efficacy and is being developed further for clinical investigation. PMID:17939955

  3. Radioimmunotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Cilley, Jeffrey; Winter, Jane N

    2006-01-01

    Relapse continues to be the primary cause of treatment failure in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) undergoing high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. The anti-CD20 radioimmunoconjugates, Y-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin; Biogen Idec, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA) and I-131 tositumomab (Bexxar; Corixa, Seattle, WA; and Glaxo Smith Kline; Philadelphia, PA, USA) have been associated with high response rates, durable remissions and limited toxicity apart from myelosuppression, making them ideal candidates for use in autotransplantation. Tested first as single agents in relapsed patients with indolent and transformed NHL, and then at much higher doses with stem cell support, these agents have now been combined with high-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplant. Radioimmunoconjugates have been used to replace total body irradiation (TBI) in some studies and to augment standard chemotherapy regimens in others. Thus far the results are promising, with combinations of radioimmunoconjugates and chemotherapy producing long-lasting responses in high-risk patients with no more toxicity than that caused by standard conditioning regimens. These results are notable in light of the fact that the dose of radiation delivered to the tumor is 10-fold higher than the dose achievable with TBI. Whether this increase in radiation dose to the targeted lymphoma translates into more durable remissions and an improvement in overall survival requires further investigation. PMID:16434379

  4. Evaluation of risk markers fluctuation during an initial therapy with rosiglitazon in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macić-Dzanković, Amra; Dzanković, Fuad; Pojskić, Belma; Velija-Asimi, Zelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hypoglycaemic drug-agonists of PPAR-gama receptors-rosiglitazone (Avandia,4 mg - Glaxo Smith Kline) on values of wide-spread risk - markers-fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and uric acid and glicolysated haemoglobin HbA1C as parameter of metabolic control .We included fourty patients with criteria for metabolic syndrome and evaluated results into groups of diabetic and prediabetic patients according to criteria of IDF (International Diabetic Federation)These risk markers and glicolysated haemoglobin HbA1C were observed at the start of therapy, then after four, eight and twelve weeks and results were compared and statistically calculated. Three months initial therapy with rosiglitazone significantly reduced values of HbA1C, fibrinogen and CRP but not uric acid in prediabetic patients.Rosiglitazone initial three months therapy significantly reduced HbA1C, fibrinogen and uric acid, but not CRP in diabetic patients. PMID:20001999

  5. Molecular analysis of varicella vaccines and varicella-zoster virus from vaccine-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Sonja; Borschewski, Aljona; Küchler, Judit; Bieberbach, Marc; Voigt, Sebastian; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    To prevent complications that might follow an infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the live attenuated Oka strain (V-Oka) is administered to children in many developed countries. Three vaccine brands (Varivax from Sanofi Pasteur MSD; Varilrix and Priorix-Tetra, both from Glaxo-Smith-Kline) are licensed in Germany and have been associated with both different degrees of vaccine effectiveness and adverse effects. To identify genetic variants in the vaccines that might contribute to rash-associated syndromes, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles of variants from the three vaccines and rash-associated vaccine-type VZV from German vaccinees were quantitatively compared by PCR-based pyrosequencing (PSQ). The Varivax vaccine contained an estimated 3-fold higher diversity of VZV variants, with 20% more wild-type (wt) SNPs than Varilrix and Priorix-Tetra. These minor VZV variants in the vaccines were identified by analyzing cloned full-length open reading frame (ORF) orf62 sequences by chain termination sequencing and PSQ. Some of these sequences amplified from vaccine VZV were very similar or identical to those of the rash-associated vaccine-type VZV from vaccinees and were almost exclusively detected in Varivax. Therefore, minorities of rash-associated VZV variants are present in varicella vaccine formulations, and it can be concluded that the analysis of a core set of four SNPs is required as a minimum for a firm diagnostic differentiation of vaccine-type VZV from wt VZV. PMID:21562115

  6. [Assessment of a programme of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Ivory Coast (1999-20002)].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, M; Noba, V; Rey, J-L; Msellati, P; Ekpini, R; Chambon, J-F; Malkin, J-E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the results of a programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV conducted from 1999 to 2002 by the PNLS in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. This programme was supported by grants from the Fonds de solidarité international (FSTI) and the Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) Foundation. After pre- and posttest counselling, pregnant women from 4 PMI centres underwent screening for HIV. Seropositive women were offered short course AZT and the possibility of financial assistance for breast-feeding. All programme activities were carried out in close cooperation with association members. A total of 22466 tests were given and 18116 women returned for results. Among the 1829 seropositive women to whom PMCT intervention was proposed, 667 received short course AZT. The rate of transmission at 18 months was 162%. In addition 69 mothers and 28 children eligible for ARV therapy benefited from tritherapy. Limiting factors, at each phase, and efficacy of intervention were analyzed. PMID:16615616

  7. Preclinical efficacy of MEK inhibition in Nras-mutant AML

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Michael R.; Hwang, Eugene; Firestone, Ari J.; Huang, Tannie; Xu, Jin; Zuber, Johannes; Bohin, Natacha; Wen, Tiffany; Kogan, Scott C.; Haigis, Kevin M.; Sampath, Deepak; Lowe, Scott; Shannon, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic NRAS mutations are highly prevalent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Genetic analysis supports the hypothesis that NRAS mutations cooperate with antecedent molecular lesions in leukemogenesis, but have limited independent prognostic significance. Using short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown in human cell lines and primary mouse leukemias, we show that AML cells with NRAS/Nras mutations are dependent on continued oncogene expression in vitro and in vivo. Using the Mx1-Cre transgene to inactivate a conditional mutant Nras allele, we analyzed hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under normal and stressed conditions and found that HSPCs lacking Nras expression are functionally equivalent to normal HSPCs in the adult mouse. Treating recipient mice transplanted with primary NrasG12D AMLs with 2 potent allosteric mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors (PD0325901 or trametinib/GlaxoSmithKline 1120212) significantly prolonged survival and reduced proliferation but did not induce apoptosis, promote differentiation, or drive clonal evolution. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor GDC-0941 was ineffective as a single agent and did not augment the activity of PD0325901. All mice ultimately succumbed to progressive leukemia. Together, these data validate oncogenic N-Ras signaling as a therapeutic target in AML and support testing combination regimens that include MEK inhibitors. PMID:25361812

  8. [Historical aspects and new formulations of levothyroxine sodium for hypothyroidism treatment].

    PubMed

    Shacham, Elena Chertok; Ishay, Avraham; Luboshitsky, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were described in the medical literature. At that time myxedema was a main clinical presentation of the hypothyroid patient. Today, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is determined mainly by laboratory evaluation with most patients exhibiting only a few clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction. The treatment of hypothyroidism has progressed from partially purified extracts of bovine thyroid gland to an oral administration of synthetic hormone. Since 1981 the only thyroid hormone replacement drug approved by the Israeli Ministry of Health was the Eltroxin brand, made by GlaxoSmithKline. Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic range, thus a potential variance exists in the therapeutic efficacy among different levothyroxine preparations. In 2007 the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) announced that the difference in potency of various levothyroxine brands should not exceed ten percent. In 2007 the GSK Company moved the manufacturing of Eltroxin from Canada to Germany. This resulted in a change of the inert ingredients of the drug. It is of interest to know that since the arrival of the new thyroxine formulation in the Israeli pharmaceutical market there has been a dramatic increase in reports of adverse reactions. The media coverage of adverse effects associated with Eltroxin became widespread in television, newspapers and internet sites. This led to a burden on the healthcare system, manifesting itself by an increase in thyroid blood tests, physician follow-up visits, as well as the importing and distribution of a new brand of thyroxine. PMID:24364099

  9. The acute extracellular flux (XF) assay to assess compound effects on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruolan; Novick, Steven J; Mangum, James B; Queen, Kennedy; Ferrick, David A; Rogers, George W; Stimmel, Julie B

    2015-03-01

    Numerous investigations have linked mitochondrial dysfunction to adverse health outcomes and drug-induced toxicity. The pharmaceutical industry is challenged with identifying mitochondrial liabilities earlier in drug development and thereby reducing late-stage attrition. Consequently, there is a demand for reliable, higher-throughput screening methods for assessing the impact of drug candidates on mitochondrial function. The extracellular flux (XF) assay described here is a plate-based method in which galactose-conditioned HepG2 cells were acutely exposed to test compounds, then real-time changes in the oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were simultaneously measured using a Seahorse Bioscience XF-96 analyzer. The acute XF assay was validated using marketed drugs known to modulate mitochondrial function, and data analysis was automated using a spline curve fitting model developed at GlaxoSmithKline. We demonstrate that the acute XF assay is a robust, sensitive screening platform for evaluating drug-induced effects on mitochondrial activity in whole cells. PMID:25381255

  10. Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. PMID:25006041

  11. Rational design of HIV vaccine and microbicides: report of the EUROPRISE annual conference

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    EUROPRISE is a Network of Excellence sponsored from 2007 to 2011 by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program. The Network encompasses a wide portfolio of activities ranging from an integrated research program in the field of HIV vaccines and microbicides to training, dissemination and advocacy. The research program covers the whole pipeline of vaccine and microbicide development from discovery to early clinical trials. The Network is composed of 58 partners representing more than 65 institutions from 13 European countries; it also includes three major pharmaceutical companies (GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis and Sanofi-Pasteur) involved in HIV microbicide and vaccine research. The Network displays a dedicated and informative web page: http://www.europrise.org. Finally, a distinguishing trait of EUROPRISE is its PhD School of students from across Europe, a unique example in the world of science aimed at spreading excellence through training. EUROPRISE held its second annual conference in Budapest in November, 2009. The conference had 143 participants and their presentations covered aspects of vaccine and microbicide research, development and discovery. Since training is a major task of the Network, the students of the EUROPRISE PhD program summarized certain presentations and their view of the conference in this paper. PMID:20659333

  12. Keystone Symposium on Antibodies as Drugs: March 27-April 1, 2009, Whistler, BC CA.

    PubMed

    Wurch, Thierry; Larbouret, Christel; Robert, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The symposium on Antibodies as Drugs, organized by Keystone Symposia and chaired by J. Marks, (University of California Los Angeles, USA), E.S. Ward (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA) and L. Weiner (Georgetown University Medical Center, USA), was held in Whistler, British Columbia. This Canadian Rockies village, which will host the 2010 Olympic Games, served as an enchanting backdrop to the meeting. The more than 350 speakers and attendees included scientists from major pharmaceutical firms, e.g., Abbott, MedImmune/Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck & Co., Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly, Hoffmann LaRoche, Novartis, Wyeth, and biotechnology companies, e.g., Ablynx, Medarex, Morphosys, GenMab, Amgen, Genentech, ImmunoGen, Agensys, Domantis, Biogen Idec, Centocor, LFB, Micromet, PDL Biopharma, Borean Pharma, Dyax Corp., Symphogen and Syntonix. Academic research groups at Imperial College London, University of Oxford, ETH Zürich, Scripps, Institute Cochin, Karolinska Institute, Utrecht University, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Baylor College, Paul Ehrlich Institute, University of California San Francisco, University of California San Diego, University of Nantes, University of Tours and Ludwig Institute were also represented, as were regulatory authorities, including the US Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health and the Public Health Agency of Canada). The meeting was very interactive and included thoughtful exchanges during the different sessions and networking events. PMID:20068403

  13. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed. PMID:15388817

  14. Identification of “Preferred” Human Kinase Inhibitors for Sleeping Sickness Lead Discovery. Are Some Kinases Better than Others for Inhibitor Repurposing?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A kinase-targeting cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against Trypanosoma brucei was recently reported, and this screening set included the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS). From the PKIS was identified 53 compounds with pEC50 ≥ 6. Utilizing the published data available for the PKIS, a statistical analysis of these active antiparasitic compounds was performed, allowing identification of a set of human kinases having inhibitors that show a high likelihood for blocking T. brucei cellular proliferation in vitro. This observation was confirmed by testing other established inhibitors of these human kinases and by mining past screening campaigns at GlaxoSmithKline. Overall, although the parasite targets of action are not known, inhibitors of this set of human kinases displayed an enhanced hit rate relative to a random kinase-targeting HTS campaign, suggesting that repurposing efforts should focus primarily on inhibitors of these specific human kinases. We therefore term this statistical analysis-driven approach “preferred lead repurposing”. PMID:26998514

  15. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of the CCR9 Receptor Antagonist Vercirnon in Healthy US and Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Haberer, Lynda J; Hacquoil, Kimberley; Ino, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kanemoto, Noriaki; McSherry, Iain; Hirama, Toshiyasu

    2013-10-01

    Two randomized, single-dose, crossover studies were carried out to assess different formulations and doses of the CCR9 receptor antagonist vercirnon in healthy subjects. US study (n = 24): a five-period crossover study in healthy US subjects to assess the bioavailability of four new GlaxoSmithKline formulations compared with a "reference" formulation. Each subject received a single 500 mg dose of each of the five vercirnon formulations in a fed state. Primary pharmacokinetic (PK) endpoints were maximum plasma concentration, (Cmax ), and exposure as assessed by area under the curve (AUC). There was no significant difference in PK parameters and bioavailability between the formulations tested. Japanese study (n = 30): a four-period crossover study in healthy Japanese male subjects to assess PK and dose proportionality following single, ascending, oral doses of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg vercirnon under fasted and fed conditions. Vercirnon Cmax and AUC parameters in the fasted state increased in a less than dose proportional manner and were on average 20% higher in fed subjects compared with fasted subjects. Overall, these results support the premise that vercirnon has similar PK/safety profiles within US and Japanese populations. There was no evidence to preclude the use of the new vercirnon formulation in future studies. PMID:27121943

  16. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.

    PubMed

    Mirick, G R; Bradt, B M; Denardo, S J; Denardo, G L

    2004-12-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades. PMID:15640788

  17. Methods in Clinical Pharmacology Series

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Claire; Young, Graeme C; Cavalier, Tom; Young, Malcolm A

    2014-01-01

    Human radiolabel studies are traditionally conducted to provide a definitive understanding of the human absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties of a drug. However, advances in technology over the past decade have allowed alternative methods to be employed to obtain both clinical ADME and pharmacokinetic (PK) information. These include microdose and microtracer approaches using accelerator mass spectrometry, and the identification and quantification of metabolites in samples from classical human PK studies using technologies suitable for non-radiolabelled drug molecules, namely liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These recently developed approaches are described here together with relevant examples primarily from experiences gained in support of drug development projects at GlaxoSmithKline. The advantages of these study designs together with their limitations are described. We also discuss special considerations which should be made for a successful outcome to these new approaches and also to the more traditional human radiolabel study in order to maximize knowledge around the human ADME properties of drug molecules. PMID:25041729

  18. Target prediction for an open access set of compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Papadatos, George; Yang, Lun; Wallace, Iain M; Kumar, Vinod; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Brown, James R; Overington, John P; Marti-Renom, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. The development of new anti-TB therapeutics is required, because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance strains as well as co-infection with other pathogens, especially HIV. Recently, the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline published the results of a high-throughput screen (HTS) of their two million compound library for anti-mycobacterial phenotypes. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain, including a subset of 177 prioritized compounds with high potency and low in vitro cytotoxicity. The next major challenge is the identification of the target proteins. Here, we use a computational approach that integrates historical bioassay data, chemical properties and structural comparisons of selected compounds to propose their potential targets in M. tuberculosis. We predicted 139 target--compound links, providing a necessary basis for further studies to characterize the mode of action of these compounds. The results from our analysis, including the predicted structural models, are available to the wider scientific community in the open source mode, to encourage further development of novel TB therapeutics. PMID:24098102

  19. Interview: European collaboration in relative effectiveness assessment: the use of patient registries and development of common guidelines.

    PubMed

    Goettsch, Wim

    2013-07-01

    Wim Goettsch is currently the Project Leader of Work Package 5 of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Joint Action 2 (2012-2015). EUnetHTA is a network of the health technology assessment organizations in Europe responsible for advising or deciding on the national reimbursement of pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In this work package, rapid joint assessments of the relative effectiveness of pharmaceuticals are piloted between more than 25 health technology assessment organizations around Europe. These pilots are based on the methodology that was developed in a similar work package in EUnetHTA JA1 (2010-2012), of which Dr Goettsch was also the Project Leader. Until the beginning of 2013, Dr Goettsch was the Deputy Secretary of the Medicinal Products Reimbursement Committee at Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board (CVZ). The Dutch Medicinal Products Reimbursement Committee advises the Dutch Minister of Health on whether new drugs need to be included in the basic insurance package. Before joining CVZ, he worked as a research manager for the PHARMO Institute (Utrecht, The Netherlands) and was responsible for the coordination of numerous pharmacoepidemiological and outcomes studies for international offices of pharmaceutical companies, such as AstraZeneca, Novartis, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Goettsch has approximately 50 publications in peer-reviewed international journals. PMID:24236677

  20. A Bayesian Approach for Investigating the Risk of QT Prolongation

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Suraj P.; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2009-01-01

    The standard approach to investigating a drug for its potential for QT prolongation is to construct a 90% two-sided (or a 95% one-sided) confidence interval (CI), for the difference in baseline corrected mean QTc (heart-rate corrected version of QT) between drug and placebo at each time-point, and to conclude non-inferiority if the upper limit for each CI is less than a pre-specified constant. An alternative approach is to base the non-inferiority inference on the largest difference in population mean QTc (baseline corrected) between drug and placebo. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach to resolving this problem using a Monte Carlo simulation method. We use simulated data to assess the performance of the proposed approach, discuss its advantages over the standard approach, and illustrate the method by applying it to a real data set obtained from a thorough QT study conducted at GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). PMID:21857840

  1. Prevention of cervical cancer: journey to develop the first human papillomavirus virus-like particle vaccine and the next generation vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Janine T; Buckland, Barry; Hammond, Jennifer; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2016-06-01

    In 2006, the first human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was licensed. Gardasil(®), the quadrivalent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 recombinant VLP vaccine (4vHPV), developed by Merck demonstrated remarkable efficacy in prevention of important clinical pre-cursors to cervical cancer and genital warts. The vaccine was designed to protect against HPV 16 and 18 that cause ∼70% of cervical cancers and HPV 6 and 11 that cause ∼90% of genital warts. Initially, Gardasil(®) was indicated in the United States for women 9-26 years of age for the prevention of HPV 16 and 18-related cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer, HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related genital intraepithelial neoplasia and the prevention of HPV 6 and 11-related genital warts. Subsequently, a bivalent HPV 16 and 18 VLP vaccine, Cervarix (2vHPV) developed by GlaxoSmithKline was licensed. Since the original licensures, the indications for Gardasil(®) have been expanded to include males and a vaccine with extended HPV coverage, Gardasil 9 (9vHPV), licensed in 2014. PMID:26994695

  2. Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; Infanrix™ hexa

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Bonanni, Paolo; Castro, Marcela; Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Marchetti, Federico; Prato, Rosa; Vitale, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Infant vaccination using 2-dose priming at 3 and 5 mo of age with a booster at 11–12 mo of age was pioneered in Italy. The 3-5-11 schedule is now used in a growing number of European countries. Infanrix™ hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) was first licensed for use in 2000 and has been the only pediatric hexavalent vaccine available since 2005. We reviewed available clinical trial data describing the immunogenicity of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib when administered at 3, 5, and 11 mo of age, and conducted an analysis of safety using global and Italian post-marketing surveillance data. In Italy, DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib has a demonstrated safety record extending over a decade of use, it has been associated with record levels of vaccine coverage, and with sustained disease control in vaccinated cohorts. Hexavalent vaccines will continue to contribute to high vaccine coverage in Italy and across Europe. PMID:24004825

  3. [Narcolepsy with cataplexy: an autoimmune disease?].

    PubMed

    Jacob, Louis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 (also named narcolepsy-cataplexy or hypocretin deficiency syndrome) is a rare sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, plus frequently hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and nocturnal sleep disturbances. Narcolepsy type 1 is an immune system-associated disease linked with the destruction of 70.000-90.000 hypocretin neurons notably involved in wakefulness. Among narcoleptic patients, 98% are positive for HLA-DQB1*06:02, a HLA class II allele, against 20-25% in general population. Individuals carrying HLA-DQB1*06:02 have an extraordinary risk to develop narcolepsy (odd ratio: 251). Other genes involved in CD4+ T cells and immune system activation as T-cell receptor α are also associated with narcolepsy. The development of the disease is linked with environmental factors such as influenza and streptococcal infections. Narcolepsy type 1 incidence also increased in Europe following the use of Pandemrix, a 2009 H1N1 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. Interestingly, such increase was not observed with Arepanrix, another vaccine developed by GSK very similar to Pandemrix. PMID:25537044

  4. Bioequivalence assay between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Armando, Yara Popst; Schramm, Simone Grigoleto; Silva, Marina de Freitas; Kano, Eunice Kazue; Koono, Eunice Emiko Mori; Porta, Valentina; Serra, Cristina Helena dos Reis

    2009-01-21

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bioequivalence of two commercial 8 mg tablet formulations of ondansetrona available in the Brazilian market. In this study, a simple, rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method is described for the determination of ondansetron in human plasma samples. The method was validated over a concentration range of 2.5-60 ng/ml and used in a bioequivalence trial between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet ondansetron formulations, to assess its usefulness in this kind of study. Vonau flash (Biolab Sanus Farmacêutica, Brazil, as test formulations) and Zofran (GlaxoSmithKline, Brazil, as reference formulation) were evaluated following a single 8 mg dose to 23 healthy volunteers of both genders. The dose was administered after an overnight fast according to a two-way crossover design. Bioequivalence between the products was determinated by calculating 90% confidence interval (90% CI) for the ratio of C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity) values for the test and reference products, using logarithmically transformed data. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of C(max) (87.5-103.8%), AUC(0-t) (89.3-107.2%) and AUC(0-infinity) (89.7-106.0%) values for the test and reference products is within the 80-125% interval, proposed by FDA, EMEA and ANVISA. It was concluded that two ondansetron formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of absorption. PMID:18848869

  5. Rotavirus vaccine-derived shedding and viral reassortants.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael D; Payne, Daniel C

    2012-11-01

    EVALUATION OF: Donato CM, Ch’ng LS, Boniface KF et al. Identification of strains of RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine in infants with gastroenteritis following routine vaccination. J. Infect. Dis. 206(3), 377–383 (2012).Two live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq(®) (Merck) and Rotarix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), have been used in Australia since July 2007 to prevent severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children. Using active postvaccination monitoring, passive surveillance and state-of-the-art laboratory techniques, Donato et al. report that RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine and vaccine-derived strains were detected actively in stool samples from 13 out of 61 (21.3%) infants having diarrhea within 2 weeks of rotavirus vaccination, and among three out of 460 (0.7%) cases with acute gastroenteritis captured via the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program. Six (37.5%) of these 16 vaccine-derived viral specimens were associated with a G1P[8] strain thought to be the result of genetic reassortment between two component RotaTeq strains. Although nearly half of these reassortant-associated cases had underlying medical conditions, such as severe combined immunodeficiency disorder, further study is needed to understand the relationship between shedding, viral reassortants and underlying medical conditions. PMID:23249230

  6. Evaluation of Systemic and Mucosal Anti-HPV16 and 18 Antibody Responses from Vaccinated Women

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Falk, Roni T.; Poncelet, Sylviane; Dessy, Francis; Giannini, Sandra L.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Porras, Carolina; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ideal methods to monitor HPV neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination have not been established yet. Here, we evaluated systemic and cervical antibody levels induced by HPV16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) using a secreted alkaline phosphatase neutralization assay (SEAP) and ELISA. Serum and cervical secretions from 50 vaccinated women were used to assess 1) overall assay reproducibility, 2) inter-assay and inter-specimen correlation; 3) correlations between month 1 and month 12 titers. Strong correlations between SEAP-NA and ELISA were observed (serum anti-HPV16/18, ρ=0.91/0.85; cervix anti-HPV16/18, ρ=0.84/0.89). Systemic and cervical antibody measures also correlated well (ρ range: 0.64 – 0.75); except at mid-cycle (ρ range: 0.28 – 0.65). Correlations between antibody levels at one and twelve months following the start of vaccination were poor (ρ range: 0.16 – 0.38). In conclusion, HPV16/18 VLP-based ELISA is a reliable and valid method to monitor anti-HPV16/18 neutralizing potential for the first year following vaccination; however, additional studies will be required to better define the effects of the time on cycle and patterns of antibody response over time following vaccination. PMID:18541349

  7. New Compound Sets Identified from High Throughput Phenotypic Screening Against Three Kinetoplastid Parasites: An Open Resource

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Imanol; Pilar Manzano, M.; Cantizani, Juan; Kessler, Albane; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Bardera, Ana I.; Alvarez, Emilio; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Cotillo, Ignacio; Roquero, Irene; de Dios-Anton, Francisco; Barroso, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Ana; Gray, David W.; Navarro, Miguel; Kumar, Vinod; Sherstnev, Alexander; Drewry, David H.; Brown, James R.; Fiandor, Jose M.; Julio Martin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using whole-cell phenotypic assays, the GlaxoSmithKline high-throughput screening (HTS) diversity set of 1.8 million compounds was screened against the three kinetoplastids most relevant to human disease, i.e. Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. Secondary confirmatory and orthogonal intracellular anti-parasiticidal assays were conducted, and the potential for non-specific cytotoxicity determined. Hit compounds were chemically clustered and triaged for desirable physicochemical properties. The hypothetical biological target space covered by these diversity sets was investigated through bioinformatics methodologies. Consequently, three anti-kinetoplastid chemical boxes of ~200 compounds each were assembled. Functional analyses of these compounds suggest a wide array of potential modes of action against kinetoplastid kinases, proteases and cytochromes as well as potential host–pathogen targets. This is the first published parallel high throughput screening of a pharma compound collection against kinetoplastids. The compound sets are provided as an open resource for future lead discovery programs, and to address important research questions. PMID:25740547

  8. Persistence of T-cell immune response induced by two acellular pertussis vaccines in children five years after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Raffaella; Carollo, Maria; Bianco, Manuela; Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Villani, Alberto; Tozzi, Alberto E; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (Glaxo-SmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated magnitude and duration of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin (PT) by measuring T-cell proliferation, cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) production and memory subsets in two groups of children 5 years after primary vaccination. Some of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. Positive T-cell responses to PT were detected in 36% of children. Percentage of responsive children, T-cell proliferation and CD4IL-2+ cells were significantly higher in the children primed with Hexavac than in those who received Infanrix vaccine. No major effects of the boost on PT-specific proliferation were observed. Overall, our data documented a persistence of T-cell memory against PT in a minor fraction of children 5 years after primary vaccination. The different responses induced by Hexavac and Infanrix vaccine could rely on differences in PT inactivation process or excipients/adjuvants formulations. PMID:26922984

  9. Sample size calculations for crossover thorough QT studies: satisfaction of regulatory threshold and assay sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Suraj P; Murray, Sharon C; Koch, Gary G

    2010-05-01

    The cost for conducting a "thorough QT/QTc study" is substantial and an unsuccessful outcome of the study can be detrimental to the safety profile of the drug, so sample size calculations play a very important role in ensuring adequate power for a thorough QT study. Current literature offers some help in designing such studies, but these methods have limitations and mostly apply only in the context of linear mixed models with compound symmetry covariance structure. It is not evident that such models can satisfactorily be employed to represent all kinds of QTc data, and the existing literature inadequately addresses whether there is a change in sample size and power for more general covariance structures for the linear mixed models. We assess the use of some of the existing methods to design a thorough QT study through data arising from a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)-conducted thorough QT study, and explore newer models for sample size calculation. We also provide a new method to calculate the sample size required to detect assay sensitivity with adequate power. PMID:20358438

  10. Rotavirus vaccine: a cost effective control measure for India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Goel, Manish K; Jain, Ram Bilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Vibha, Vibha

    2012-04-01

    Globally, rotavirus diarrhea results in 453,000 deaths in children younger than 5 y—37% of deaths attributable to diarrhea and 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 y. India alone accounts for 22% (~100,000 deaths) of all deaths attributable to rotavirus infection. Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available: Rotarix, a monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline), and RotaTeq, a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine (Merck). Rotarix is administered in a 2-dose schedule with the first and second doses of DTP (DTP1, DTP2). RotaTeq requires a 3-dose schedule with DTP1, DTP2 and DTP3 with an interval of 4–10 weeks between doses. The first dose of either vaccine should be administered to infants aged 6–15 weeks irrespective of the history of previous rotavirus infection, and the maximum age for administering the last dose of either vaccine should be 32 weeks. Although India would require funding from international health organizations/GAVI until new indigenous rotavirus vaccine candidates are developed at a cheaper price, introduction of vaccination into the national immunization program would be a cost-effective step toward control of the rotavirus diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in India. PMID:23071989

  11. Smoking cessation in the workplace: results of an intervention programme using nicotine patches.

    PubMed

    Cruse, S M; Forster, N J; Thurgood, G; Sys, L

    2001-12-01

    In the workplace, employees need to be protected from the health threats of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a significant cost to employers associated with employee smoking at work, yet the uptake and development of a well-defined policy on smoking are not widespread, and few policies tackle the issue through promotion of smoking cessation. Such an approach could not only reduce costs associated with smoking at work, but also have a direct impact on public health. GlaxoSmithKline has implemented a voluntary programme of smoking cessation support for its employees in the UK. The 10 week programme offers a series of one-to-one support sessions with a trained occupational health adviser, as well as access to nicotine replacement therapy patches. At 12 months (n = 123), 25 participants (20%) were non-smokers, of whom 19 (15%) stated that they had not smoked at all for the 12 month period. The other six (5%) had relapsed, but had since tried again and quit successfully. An additional three (2%) classed themselves as non-smokers but still smoked occasionally. Fifty-two per cent of participants stated that regular face-to-face contact and monitoring of progress were particularly useful in helping them to stop smoking. This provides compelling support for the active promotion and support of smoking cessation among employees. PMID:11741082

  12. Mining Natural-Products Screening Data for Target-Class Chemical Motifs.

    PubMed

    Coma, Isabel; Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Diez, Emilio; Ruiz, Emilio Alvarez; de los Frailes, Maria Teresa; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we describe two complementary data-mining approaches used to characterize the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) natural-products set (NPS) based on information from the high-throughput screening (HTS) databases. Both methods rely on the aggregation and analysis of a large set of single-shot screening data for a number of biological assays, with the goal to reveal natural-product chemical motifs. One of them is an established method based on the data-driven clustering of compounds using a wide range of descriptors,(1)whereas the other method partitions and hierarchically clusters the data to identify chemical cores.(2,3)Both methods successfully find structural scaffolds that significantly hit different groups of discrete drug targets, compared with their relative frequency of demonstrating inhibitory activity in a large number of screens. We describe how these methods can be applied to unveil hidden information in large single-shot HTS data sets. Applied prospectively, this type of information could contribute to the design of new chemical templates for drug-target classes and guide synthetic efforts for lead optimization of tractable hits that are based on natural-product chemical motifs. Relevant findings for 7TM receptors (7TMRs), ion channels, class-7 transferases (protein kinases), hydrolases, and oxidoreductases will be discussed. PMID:24518065

  13. Whole Cell Target Engagement Identifies Novel Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Batt, Sarah M; Cacho Izquierdo, Monica; Castro Pichel, Julia; Stubbs, Christopher J; Vela-Glez Del Peral, Laura; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Dhar, Neeraj; Mouzon, Bernadette; Rees, Mike; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Young, Robert J; McKinney, John D; Barros Aguirre, David; Ballell, Lluis; Besra, Gurdyal S; Argyrou, Argyrides

    2015-12-11

    We have targeted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose oxidase (Mt-DprE1) for potential chemotherapeutic intervention of tuberculosis. A multicopy suppression strategy that overexpressed Mt-DprE1 in M. bovis BCG was used to profile the publically available GlaxoSmithKline antimycobacterial compound set, and one compound (GSK710) was identified that showed an 8-fold higher minimum inhibitory concentration relative to the control strain. Analogues of GSK710 show a clear relationship between whole cell potency and in vitro activity using an enzymatic assay employing recombinant Mt-DprE1, with binding affinity measured by fluorescence quenching of the flavin cofactor of the enzyme. M. bovis BCG spontaneous resistant mutants to GSK710 and a closely related analogue were isolated and sequencing of ten such mutants revealed a single point mutation at two sites, E221Q or G248S within DprE1, providing further evidence that DprE1 is the main target of these compounds. Finally, time-lapse microscopy experiments showed that exposure of M. tuberculosis to a compound of this series arrests bacterial growth rapidly followed by a slower cytolysis phase. PMID:27623058

  14. Resource based view of the firm: measures of reputation among health service-sector businesses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    Application of the strategic leverage of Resource Based View of the Firm (RBV) directly advocates that a company's competitive advantage is derived from its ability to assemble and exploit an appropriate combination of resources (both tangible and intangible assets). The three companies that were selected were Pittsburgh-based companies that were within relatively easy access, representing healthcare service-related industries, and can be reviewed for the principles of the RBV. The particular firms represented a variety of establishments and included Baptist Homes (a long-term care facility), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)(a provider of hospital and other health services), and GlaxoSmithKline, Consumer Healthcare, North America (GSK-CHNA)(a global provider of healthcare products and services). Through the case studies, it was found that not all intangible assets are strategic, and by extension, not all measures of reputation are strategic either. For an intangible asset to be considered strategic, in this case reputation, it must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-substitutable. PMID:19064477

  15. OOMMPPAA: A Tool To Aid Directed Synthesis by the Combined Analysis of Activity and Structural Data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is an ever increasing resource in terms of both structural information and activity data for many protein targets. In this paper we describe OOMMPPAA, a novel computational tool designed to inform compound design by combining such data. OOMMPPAA uses 3D matched molecular pairs to generate 3D ligand conformations. It then identifies pharmacophoric transformations between pairs of compounds and associates them with their relevant activity changes. OOMMPPAA presents this data in an interactive application providing the user with a visual summary of important interaction regions in the context of the binding site. We present validation of the tool using openly available data for CDK2 and a GlaxoSmithKline data set for a SAM-dependent methyl-transferase. We demonstrate OOMMPPAA’s application in optimizing both potency and cell permeability and use OOMMPPAA to highlight nuanced and cross-series SAR. OOMMPPAA is freely available to download at http://oommppaa.sgc.ox.ac.uk/OOMMPPAA/. PMID:25244105

  16. PRO-051, an antisense oligonucleotide for the potential treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Suzan M; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2010-08-01

    PRO-051 (GSK-2402968), being developed by GlaxoSmithKline plc, under license from Leiden University Medical Center and Prosensa Therapeutics BV, is a 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide for the potential treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The PRO-051 oligonucleotide sequence induces skipping of exon 51 of the dystrophin gene by binding to a sequence within the dystrophin pre-mRNA and masking the exon inclusion signals that are used for splicing. Removal of exon 51 from an exon 45 to 50, 47 to 50, 48 to 50, 49 to 50, 50, 52 or 52 to 63 deleted transcript allows restoration of the open reading frame and synthesis of an internally truncated, semi-functional dystrophin protein. By targeting exon 51, approximately 13% of patients with DMD could be treated, the largest proportion of patients that could benefit from targeting a single dystrophin exon. A proof-of-concept clinical trial of PRO-051 in patients with DMD demonstrated that a single intramuscular administration of PRO-051 induced exon skipping within muscle fibers adjacent to the injection site, while biopsies revealed dystrophin expression in treated but not control muscle fibers. At the time of publication, a phase I/IIa trial to evaluate subcutaneous delivery of PRO-051 had been completed, although full results were yet to be published. PMID:20677099

  17. Clinical data on Fluarix: an inactivated split seasonal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A

    2008-08-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual winter epidemics in temperate regions, with significant morbidity, mortality and economical impact. Fluarix is a split, trivalent, inactivated vaccine, manufactured from highly purified, egg-grown influenza viruses by GlaxoSmithKline. In 2005, Fluarix underwent accelerated approval for use in adults by the US FDA following a US-based, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that established its safety and immunogenicity in adults. The vaccine has been licensed in Europe since 1992 for all age groups. Multiple registration trials in all age groups in Europe have demonstrated that the vaccine was safe and well tolerated and of immunogenicity standards that met the requirements of the European Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. There are no published clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness or efficacy of Fluarix against influenza and its complications. Currently, Fluarix plays an important role in the diversification of the supply chain of influenza vaccine to the community. However, vaccines with improved immunogenicity in at-risk populations, such as the elderly, and with less reliance on growth in eggs, as well as the inherent demanding timelines, are needed to enhance the control of influenza. PMID:18665769

  18. Bioequivalence study of 8 mg ondansetron film-coated tablets in healthy Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, P J; Kaza, M; Leś, A; Gilant, E; Ksycińska, H; Serafin-Byczak, K; Troć, M; Raszek, J; Piątkowska-Chabuda, E; Skowrońska-Smolak, M; Tarasiuk, A; Wilkowska, E; Łazowski, T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8 mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8 mg manufactured by Tarchomińskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated. PMID:24132707

  19. Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Papadatos, George; Yang, Lun; Wallace, Iain M.; Kumar, Vinod; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Brown, James R.; Overington, John P.; Marti-Renom, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. The development of new anti-TB therapeutics is required, because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance strains as well as co-infection with other pathogens, especially HIV. Recently, the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline published the results of a high-throughput screen (HTS) of their two million compound library for anti-mycobacterial phenotypes. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain, including a subset of 177 prioritized compounds with high potency and low in vitro cytotoxicity. The next major challenge is the identification of the target proteins. Here, we use a computational approach that integrates historical bioassay data, chemical properties and structural comparisons of selected compounds to propose their potential targets in M. tuberculosis. We predicted 139 target - compound links, providing a necessary basis for further studies to characterize the mode of action of these compounds. The results from our analysis, including the predicted structural models, are available to the wider scientific community in the open source mode, to encourage further development of novel TB therapeutics. PMID:24098102

  20. A malaria vaccine for travelers and military personnel: Requirements and top candidates.

    PubMed

    Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Lumsden, Joanne; Villasante, Eileen

    2015-12-22

    Malaria remains an important health threat to non-immune travelers with the explosive growth of global travel. Populations at high risk of acquiring malaria infections include once semi-immune travelers who visit friends and relatives, military forces, business travelers and international tourists with destinations to sub-Saharan Africa, where malaria transmission intensity is high. Most malaria cases have been associated with poor compliance with existing preventive measures, including chemoprophylaxis. High risk groups would benefit immensely from an efficacious vaccine to protect them against malaria infection and together make up a sizable market for such a vaccine. The attributes of an ideal malaria vaccine for non-immune travelers and military personnel include a protective efficacy of 80% or greater, durability for at least 6 months, an acceptable safety profile and compatibility with existing preventive measures. It is very likely that a malaria vaccine designed to effectively prevent infection and clinical disease in the non-immune traveler and military personnel will also protect semi-immune residents of malaria-endemic areas and contribute to malaria elimination by reducing or blocking malaria transmission. The RTS,S vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) and the PfSPZ Vaccine (Sanaria Inc) are the leading products that would make excellent vaccine candidates for these vulnerable populations. PMID:26458800

  1. Effect of gastric emptying and entero-hepatic circulation on bioequivalence assessment of ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Chrenova, J; Durisova, M; Mircioiu, C; Dedik, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to compare the bioavailability of ranitidine obtained from either Ranitidine (300 mg tablet; LPH® S.C. LaborMed Pharma S.A. Romania: the test formulation) and Zantac® (300 mg tablet; GlaxoSmithKline, Austria: the reference formulation). Twelve, Romanian, healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. An open-label, two-period, crossover, randomized design was used. Plasma levels of ranitidine were determined using the validated, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The physiologically motivated time-delayed model was used for the data evaluation and a paired Student's t-test and Schuirmann's two one-sided tests were carried out to compare parameters. Nonmodeling parameters (AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max)) were tested by the paired Student's t-test and the 90 confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios were determined by Schuirmann's tests. Paired Student's t-test showed no significant differences between nonmodeling and modeling parameters. The results of the Schuirmann's tests however indicated significant statistical differences with reference to AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max) and other modeling parameters, especially MT(c) and τ(c). Schuirmann's tests revealed significant bioequivalence between ranitidine formulations using the modeling parameters MRT and n. The presented model can be useful as an additional tool to assess drug bioequivalence, by screening for disruptive parameters. PMID:20852750

  2. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:27329199

  3. Complete DNA sequences of two oka strain varicella-zoster virus genomes.

    PubMed

    Tillieux, Sueli L; Halsey, Wendy S; Thomas, Elizabeth S; Voycik, John J; Sathe, Ganesh M; Vassilev, Ventzislav

    2008-11-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a herpesvirus and is the causative agent of chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster). Active immunization against varicella became possible with the development of live attenuated varicella vaccine. The Oka vaccine strain was isolated in Japan from a child who had typical varicella, and it was then attenuated by serial passages in cell culture. Several manufacturers have obtained this attenuated Oka strain and, following additional passages, have developed their own vaccine strains. Notably, the vaccines Varilrix and Varivax are produced by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and Merck & Co., Inc., respectively. Both vaccines have been well studied in terms of safety and immunogenicity. In this study, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the Varilrix (Oka-V(GSK)) and Varivax (Oka-V(Merck)) vaccine strain genomes. Their genomes are composed of 124,821 and 124,815 bp, respectively. Full genome annotations covering the features of Oka-derived vaccine genomes have been established for the first time. Sequence analysis indicates 36 nucleotide differences between the two vaccine strains throughout the entire genome, among which only 14 are involved in unique amino acid substitutions. These results demonstrate that, although Oka-V(GSK) and Oka-V(Merck) vaccine strains are not identical, they are very similar, which supports the clinical data showing that both vaccines are well tolerated and elicit strong immune responses against varicella. PMID:18787000

  4. Radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma: Bexxar and Zevalin.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2010-03-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is a form of targeted radionuclide therapy that uses a monoclonal antibody to deliver localized radiation. It is most appropriate for treatment of multiple tumor sites that cannot be readily excised surgically or irradiated using external beam radiation or brachytherapy. At present, 2 products, Bexxar ((131)I-tositumomab and unlabeled tositumomab, GlaxoSmithKline, Triangle Park, NC) and Zevalin ((90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and unlabeled rituximab, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Irvine, CA and Cell Therapeutics, Seattle, WA) are approved for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in certain clinical situations in the United States and Canada. Zevalin is available also in Europe, and there are plans to make both agents more widely available. The therapeutic dose to be used depends upon a number of patient-specific variables. Both regimen achieve a complete response or partial response in approximately 3 of 4 patients, with a duration of remission lasting many years in some cases. This article reviews the basis for dose selection, the nuclear medicine procedures involved, the results obtained to date, and issues related to patient and staff safety. PMID:20113680

  5. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  6. Kline DeWire Public Safety Officers' Retroactive Benefits Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Marino, Tom [R-PA-10

    2014-04-29

    07/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Hepatic Isoprenoid Metabolism in a Rat Model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keller, R. Kennedy; Mitchell, David A.; Goulah, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated (4 to 7-fold) levels of urinary dolichol and coenzyme Q and substantially longer chain lengths for urinary dolichols have been reported in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) patients, compared to normal subjects. We investigated the possibility of similar alterations in hepatic, nonsterol isoprenoids in a well-established rat model of SLOS. In this model, the ratio of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to cholesterol (Chol) in serum approached 15:1; however, total sterol mass in serum decreased by >80 %. Livers from treated rats had 7DHC/Chol ratios of ~32:1, but the steady-state levels of total sterols were >40 % those of livers from age-matched (3-month-old) control animals. No significant differences in the levels of LDL receptor or HMG-CoA reductase were observed. The levels of dolichol and coenzyme Q were elevated only modestly (by 64 and 31 %, respectively; p < 0.05, N = 6) in the livers of the SLOS rat model compared to controls; moreover, the chain lengths of these isoprenoids were not different in the two groups. We conclude that hepatic isoprenoid synthesis is marginally elevated in this animal model of SLOS, but without preferential shunting to the nonsterol branches (dolichol and coenzyme Q) of the pathway and without alteration of normal dolichol chain lengths. PMID:23361583

  8. Photosensitivity in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: a flux balance analysis of altered metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Bell Raj

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet A photosensitivity is a debilitating symptom associated with the metabolic disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). SLOS is a manifestation of the deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, an enzyme involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis. As a result several abnormal intermediary compounds are formed among which Cholesta 5, 7, 9(11)-trien-3beta-ol is the most likely cause of photosensitivity. The effect of various drugs acting on cholesterol biosynthetic pathway on SLOS is not clear as clinical trials are not available for this rare disorder. A Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) has been carried out using the software CellNetAnalyzer or FluxAnalyzer to gain insight into the probable effects of various drugs acting on cholesterol biosynthetic pathway on photosensitivity in SLOS. The model consisted of 44 metabolites and 40 reactions. The formation flux of Cholesta 5, 7, 9(11)-trien-3beta-ol increased in SLOS and remained unchanged on simulation of the effect of miconazole and SR31747. However zaragozic acid can potentially reduce the flux through the entire pathway. FBA predicts zaragozic acid along with cholesterol supplementation as an effective treatment for photosensitivity in SLOS. PMID:18188427

  9. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  10. Committed near-future retreat of Smith, Pope, and Kohler Glaciers inferred by transient model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Heimbach, P.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    A glacial flow model of Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers has been calibrated by means of inverse methods against time-varying, annualy resolved observations of ice height and velocities, covering the period 2002 to 2011. The inversion -- termed ``transient calibration'' -- produces an optimal set of time-mean, spatially varying parameters together with a time-evolving state that accounts for the transient nature of observations and the model dynamics. Serving as an optimal initial condition, the estimated state for 2011 is used, with no additional forcing, for predicting grounded ice volume loss and grounding line retreat over the ensuing 30 years. The transiently calibrated model predicts a near-steady loss of grounded ice volume of approximately 21 km3/a over this period, as well as loss of 33 km2/a grounded area. We contrast this prediction with one obtained following a commonly used ``snapshot'' or steady-state inversion, which does not consider time dependence and assumes all observations to be contemporaneous. Transient calibration is shown to achieve a better fit with observations of thinning and grounding line retreat histories, and yields a quantitatively different projection with respect to ice volume loss and ungrounding. Sensitivity studies suggest large near-future levels of unforced, i.e. committed sea level contribution from these ice streams under reasonable assumptions regarding uncertainties of the unknown parameters.

  11. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Gender, professionalization, and the child in the Progressive Era: Patty Smith Hill, 1868-1946.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ann Taylor

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the career of Patty Smith Hill, a major figure in the American kindergarten movement, in the context of the Progressive Era in American history. Hill, an educator and child-welfare activist, became known both as a reformer of early-childhood education and as an advocate of the inclusion of the kindergarten, originally a private institution, in public-school systems. The article acknowledges this as one of the most significant achievements of the woman-led reform movements of the Progressive Era, but at the same time notes that it involved a substantial transfer of power from the women who had originally developed the kindergarten to the male principals and superintendants who now supervised kindergarten teachers, often without much understanding of their distinctive methods and aims. As a professor at Columbia Teachers College, Hill also exercised an international influence. Hill's career exemplifies broader patterns of women's professionalization during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. PMID:21966708

  13. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: new mutation with a mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Chitra; Marles, Sandra; Prasad, Asuri N; Nikkel, Sarah; Longstaffe, Sally; Peabody, Deborah; Eng, Barry; Wright, Sarah; Waye, John S; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J M

    2002-02-15

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM, 2001, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/ for SLOS, MIM 270400) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis caused by mutations of the 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase gene, DHCR7. We report on a female infant with an exceptionally mild phenotype of SLOS, in whom molecular studies identified a new mutation in DHCR7. The proposita initially presented with feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, mild developmental delay, and oral tactile aversion. She had minor facial anomalies and 2-3 syndactyly of her toes in both feet. The plasma cholesterol was borderline low at 2.88 mmol/L (normal 2.97-4.40 mmol/L). Elevated plasma 7-dehydrocholesterol level of 200.0 micromol/L confirmed the clinical diagnosis of SLOS. Molecular analysis demonstrated compound heterozygosity for IVS8-1G -->C and Y280C, a new missense mutation in DHCR7. Since the other mutation in this patient is a known null mutation, this newly discovered mutation is presumably associated with significant residual enzyme activity and milder expression of clinical phenotype. PMID:11857552

  14. Simulation of Beach Hydraulics for Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, B.; Boufadel, M. C.; Bobo, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains Heavy Oil Residue (HOR) in the lower intertidal zone. The slope of the beach decreases in the seaward direction. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a high hydraulic conductivity, on the order of a few centimeter per second and a lower layer whose hydraulic conductivity is around three orders of magnitude lower. The lingering of oil in the lower intertidal zone is probably due to the decrease in slope in that region, which resulted in small flow in that region that brings nutrients and oxygen to the oil. Thus, it is likely that the oil has not degraded due to stochiometric limitation rather than kinetic limitation.

  15. Isolation and chemical characterization of naphthoquinone metabolites of Aspergillus parvulus Smith

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Although several benzoquinone and anthraquinone compounds have been isolated from Aspergillus species, only two naphthoquinone monomers have been reported thus far. Aspergillus parvulus Smith (ATCC number16911) was first investigated chemically in 1974, and five naphthalenones, along with one naphthoquinone, were isolated and characterized. Based on biosynthetic considerations, it was thought that A. parvulus might be capable of producing additional naphthoquinones under suitable conditions. It was decided to undertake a further investigation of A. parvulus. Thus, three novel naphthoquinones, compounds A, B, and C, were isolated from A. parvulus cultures grown in an acidic medium of glucose and phytone peptone. The structures of these compounds were deduced largely by the comparison of the effects of acetylation on the /sup 1/H-NMR and /sup 13/C-NMR spectra of the parent compounds and their four derivatives. An unusual mass fragmentation pattern which was previously thought to be unfavorable was discovered, and the other fragmentation patterns of the parent compounds, as well as their derivatives, were proposed. This investigation appears to be the third reported isolation of 2,5,7-tri-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives from nature and the first reported from A. parvulus.

  16. Desperately seeking social approval: Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen and the moral limits of capitalist culture.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Adam Smith and Thorstein Veblen shared much in matters of economic ontology. Both dismissed the very notion of an autonomous economic self and instead investigated the processes through which self and other are mutually constituted under changing cultural traditions of individual aspiration. Their strikingly similar critiques of status-oriented consumption and concern for the moral basis of the market economy are established in this manner. However, the political implications of their analyses point in different directions, with Veblen being the more radical. The Smithian individual can always use spectatorial insights to assert through genuinely praiseworthy behaviour personal moral distance from social norms of status-oriented consumption. The Veblenian individual, by contrast, has no such capacity for elevating abstract moral principles above socially-situated conduct, as mind and environment co-evolve in line with changing material circumstances of life. For Veblen, the rise of status-oriented consumption itself acted as a form of moral self-education that more deeply entrenched the social norms of ownership out of which it arose, thus the impossibility of an autonomous economic self was matched by the impossibility of an autonomous moral self. To his way of thinking, moral degradation in conspicuous consumption was irredeemably inscribed into the whole cultural structure of capitalism. PMID:22950465

  17. Factor structure of the Smith irrational beliefs inventory: results of analyses on six independent samples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Rausch, Sarah M; Kettmann, Julie D Jenks

    2004-10-01

    This study reports the results of six factor analyses (alpha factoring, direct oblimin rotation, Delta= .4) on six items from the Smith Irrational Beliefs Inventory. Six independent samples of 1851 college students (521 men, 1,280 women, 50 sex unstated) were tested. Three factors emerged with identical content for each analysis. Distorted Egocentrism was defined by two items reflecting feelings of entitlement and the naive assumption that events should always turn out favorably the way one desires; Task Exaggeration/Catastrophizing was defined by two items directly depicting a tendency to view challenges as overwhelming and catastrophic; and Isolated Low Self-esteem was defined by two items expressing the feeling that one has unacceptable feelings that could lead to isolation or rejection. Previous research on other irrational belief inventories has yielded inconsistent results, with multifactorial solutions emerging for clinical samples and unifactoral solutions for student samples. That the present six factor analytic studies yielded a consistent multifactoral set of irrational beliefs for a very large student sample suggests that factors do emerge when items are initially screened and the subject population is carefully defined. PMID:15587238

  18. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Associated with Abnormal Gene Dosage: Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Neira-Fresneda, Juanita; Potocki, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) are reciprocal contiguous gene syndromes within the well-characterized 17p11.2 region. Approximately 3.6 Mb microduplication of 17p11.2, known as PTLS, represents the mechanistically predicted homologous recombination reciprocal of the SMS microdeletion, both resulting in multiple congenital anomalies. Mouse model studies have revealed that the retinoic acid-inducible 1 gene (RAI1) within the SMS and PTLS critical genomic interval is the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for the major phenotypic features in these disorders. Even though PTLS and SMS share the same genomic region, clinical manifestations and behavioral issues are distinct and in fact some mirror traits may be on opposite ends of a given phenotypic spectrum. We describe the neurobehavioral phenotypes of SMS and PTLS patients during different life phases as well as clinical guidelines for diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach once diagnosis is confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization or RAI1 gene sequencing. The main goal is to increase awareness of these rare disorders because an earlier diagnosis will lead to more timely developmental intervention and medical management which will improve clinical outcome. PMID:27617127

  19. Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal-system demonstration at Marlin, Texas. Final design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    The final design and economics of the Torbett-Hutchings-Smith (THS) Memorial Hospital geothermal heating system at Marlin, Texas are outlined. A brief description of the existing heating system, an overview of the geothermal retrofit, and the results of an economic analysis are included. It is estimated that the geothermal heating system will displace approximately 84 percent of the hospital's average annual natural gas consumption. In summer conditions, approximately 45 gpm of geothermal fluid will be utilized at a wellhead temperature of 139/sup 0/F. In peak demand winter conditions, approximately 160 gpm will be utilized at a wellhead temperature of 148/sup 0/F. The geothermal fluid temperature drop across the system will range from about 5/sup 0/F in summer to over 45/sup 0/F during winter. Total capital costs for the system are estimated to be $673,000, including the production well, a geothermal equipment room, engineering and architectural costs, and all equipment. The average annual natural gas savings are expected to be $28,200 while average annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $7750. A before tax life cycle economic analysis of the THS system shows the breakeven period (BEP) of 29 years falling slightly below the 30 year expected life. This BEP is significantly influenced by the developmental nature of this project and by its lack of tax incentives.

  20. Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L.

    1996-03-29

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Sperm Bundles in the Seminal Vesicle of the Crematogaster victima (Smith) Adult Males (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M; Moreira, J; Gomes, L F; Camargo-Mathias, M I; Lino-Neto, J

    2014-06-01

    This study establishes the presence of spermatodesm in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature males of Crematogaster victima (Smith). In this species, the spermatozoa are maintained together by an extracellular matrix in which the acrosomal regions are embedded. This characteristic has not yet been observed in any other Aculeata. However, the sperm morphology in this species is similar to that described for other ants. The spermatozoa measure on average 100 μm in length, and the number of sperm per bundle is up to 256. They are composed of a head formed by the acrosome and nucleus; this is followed by the flagellum, which is formed by the centriolar adjunct, an axoneme with a 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern, two mitochondrial derivatives, and two accessory bodies. The acrosome is formed by the acrosomal vesicle and perforatorium. The nucleus is filled with compact chromatin with many areas of thick and non-compacted filaments. Both mitochondrial derivatives have the same shape and diameters. The presence of sperm bundles in sexually mature males differentiates C. victima from other ants; however, the similarities in the sperm ultrastructure support the monophyly of this insect group. PMID:27193615

  3. STS-103 Payload Commander Smith and his wife DEPART PAFB for Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Payload Commander Steven L. Smith and his wife, Peggy, smile for the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  4. STS-103 Pilot Kelly and MS Clervoy and Smith DEPART PAFB for Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly holds his daughter as he talks to Mission Specialists and fellow crew members Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Steven L. Smith on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  5. STS-103 MS Smith and MS Clervoy prepare to enter orbiter from White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the White Room, STS-103 Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith and Jean-Francois Clervoy, in their orange launch and entry suits, are getting ready to enter Space Shuttle Discovery. Assisting them are closeout crew members (from left) United Space Alliance (USA) Mechanical Technician Rene Arriens, NASA Quality Assurance Specialist Danny Wyatt, USA Orbiter Vehicle Closeout Chief Travis Thompson and USA Mechanical Technician Vinny Defranzo. The White Room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm on the fixed service structure. It provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

  6. 7-dehydrocholesterol efficiently supports Ret signaling in a mouse model of Smith-Opitz-Lemli syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gou-Fàbregas, Myriam; Macià, Anna; Anerillas, Carlos; Vaquero, Marta; Jové, Mariona; Jain, Sanjay; Ribera, Joan; Encinas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare disorder of cholesterol synthesis. Affected individuals exhibit growth failure, intellectual disability and a broad spectrum of developmental malformations. Among them, renal agenesis or hypoplasia, decreased innervation of the gut, and ptosis are consistent with impaired Ret signaling. Ret is a receptor tyrosine kinase that achieves full activity when recruited to lipid rafts. Mice mutant for Ret are born with no kidneys and enteric neurons, and display sympathetic nervous system defects causing ptosis. Since cholesterol is a critical component of lipid rafts, here we tested the hypothesis of whether the cause of the above malformations found in SLOS is defective Ret signaling owing to improper lipid raft composition or function. No defects consistent with decreased Ret signaling were found in newborn Dhcr7−/− mice, or in Dhcr7−/− mice lacking one copy of Ret. Although kidneys from Dhcr7−/− mice showed a mild branching defect in vitro, GDNF was able to support survival and downstream signaling of sympathetic neurons. Consistently, GFRα1 correctly partitioned to lipid rafts in brain tissue. Finally, replacement experiments demonstrated that 7-DHC efficiently supports Ret signaling in vitro. Taken together, our findings do not support a role of Ret signaling in the pathogenesis of SLOS. PMID:27334845

  7. Ella Thea Smith and the lost history of American high school biology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Ladouceur, Ronald P

    2008-01-01

    Two influential articles published in the 1970s suggested that pressure from Christian fundamentalists, subsequent to the Scopes trial of 1925, forced American high school biology textbook authors and publishers to significantly limit discussion of the topic of evolution. The conclusions reached by these studies have become foundational for historians examining the interplay between science and religion in the United States in the twentieth century. However, a reexamination of key twentieth century biology textbooks suggests that the narrative that the treatment of the theory of evolution was held hostage to anti-rational cultural forces is largely a myth, created first as part of a public relations effort by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) to differentiate, defend, and promote its work, and later as part of an attempt by scholars to sound a warning concerning the rise of the religious right. A focus on this narrative has not only allowed biologists to sidestep uncomfortable questions regarding the race-biased and class-biased assumptions embedded within the concept of evolutionary progress, it has also limited reliance on the texts in question as reliable reflections of the cultural assumptions of educators and scientists. A reexamination of the most popular American biology textbooks from 1907 to 1963, particularly the work of Ella Thea Smith, provides evidence in support of these contentions. PMID:19244720

  8. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Algorithm for Biological Database Search on CUDA-Compatible GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munekawa, Yuma; Ino, Fumihiko; Hagihara, Kenichi

    This paper presents a fast method capable of accelerating the Smith-Waterman algorithm for biological database search on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Our method is implemented using compute unified device architecture (CUDA), which is available on the nVIDIA GPU. As compared with previous methods, our method has four major contributions. (1) The method efficiently uses on-chip shared memory to reduce the data amount being transferred between off-chip video memory and processing elements in the GPU. (2) It also reduces the number of data fetches by applying a data reuse technique to query and database sequences. (3) A pipelined method is also implemented to overlap GPU execution with database access. (4) Finally, a master/worker paradigm is employed to accelerate hundreds of database searches on a cluster system. In experiments, the peak performance on a GeForce GTX 280 card reaches 8.32 giga cell updates per second (GCUPS). We also find that our method reduces the amount of data fetches to 1/140, achieving approximately three times higher performance than a previous CUDA-based method. Our 32-node cluster version is approximately 28 times faster than a single GPU version. Furthermore, the effective performance reaches 75.6 giga instructions per second (GIPS) using 32 GeForce 8800 GTX cards.

  9. Dispersion characteristics of three-dimensional dielectric-loaded grating for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Miaomiao Li, Ke; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Liu, Wenxin Wang, Yong

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a dielectric-loaded grating for Smith-Purcell device is proposed. The three-dimensional (3D) analytical theory for hot dispersion relation is obtained by using field matched method, which is solved by numerical simulations. The first and second order growth rates for the proposal model are analyzed, which is obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at the operating point. The results show that the dispersion can be effectively weakened by introducing dielectric-loaded grating, in which the cutoff frequency is affected by the grating thickness. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency at the optimum grating parameters. The 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is also performed and the results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Comparing the first order growth rate with the second one, it reveals that the discrepancy is small when electron beam parameters are selected with small values. Otherwise, the discrepancy is large and cannot be ignored. To accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction, the second order growth rate is necessary to apply.

  10. Enhanced modified Smith predictor for second-order non-minimum phase unstable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, S.; Seshagiri Rao, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a modified Smith predictor design is proposed for enhanced control of non-minimum phase unstable second-order time-delay processes with/without zero. The proposed method involves the design of two controllers, i.e. set-point tracking controller and disturbance rejection controller. Set-point tracking controller is designed as a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) in series with a lag filter using direct synthesis method. The disturbance rejection controller is designed as a PID in series with a lead/lag filter based on direct synthesis method. Set-point weighting is considered for minimising the overshoots. The proposed method is applied by simulation on several second-order unstable processes. Robustness studies have been carried out using the small-gain theorem. The method gives good nominal and robust control performances. Significant improvement in the disturbance rejection is obtained with the proposed method when compared to the recently reported methods in the literature.

  11. Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Clinical Aspects of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bianconi, Simona E.; Cross, Joanna L.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Porter, Forbes D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a malformation syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. It is due to a metabolic defect in the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, which leads to an accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol and frequently a deficiency of cholesterol. The syndrome is characterized by typical dysmorphic facial features, multiple malformations, and intellectual disability. Areas covered In this paper we provide an overview of the clinical phenotype and discuss how the manifestations of the syndrome vary depending on the age of the patients. We then explore the underlying biochemical defect and pathophysiological alterations that may contribute to the many disease manifestations. Subsequently we explore the epidemiology and succinctly discuss population genetics as they relate to SLOS. The next section presents the diagnostic possibilities. Thereafter, the treatment and management as is standard of care are presented. Expert opinion Even though the knowledge of the underlying molecular mutations and the biochemical alterations is being rapidly accumulated, there is currently no efficacious therapy addressing neurological dysfunction. We discuss the difficulty of treating this disorder, which manifests as a combination of a malformation syndrome and an inborn error of metabolism. A very important factor in developing new therapies is the need to rigorously establish efficacy in controlled trials. PMID:25734025

  12. Start current of dielectric-loaded grating in Smith-Purcell radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Miaomiao; Wang, Yong; Li, Ke

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional dielectric loaded grating (DLG) is proposed for the Smith-Purcell (SP) device. Taking into the considerations of thickness and width of electron beam, the dispersion equation is derived by using field matches method. The complex frequency is obtained by the numerical solution of dispersion equation, in which the imaginary part represents linear growth rate. The impacts of the electron beam filling factor (EBFF) on growth rate are discussed under the condition that the beam current and beam current density are kept as constants, respectively. In addition, the start current for SP oscillator is obtained by using the dispersion relation combined with boundary conditions. The relationship between the start current and other parameters is discussed and compared with the conventional metal grating. The results show that with the increasing of EBFF, the peak growth rate increases rapidly firstly and then decreases slowly, in which the current and current density are kept as constants, respectively. For the SP oscillator, the start current is increased with the shifting up beam voltage, but it is decreased with the improved EBFF, and only it has a slightly increasing trend when EBFF is close to 1. In addition, the start current is decreased with the increasing of relative dielectric constant, which indicates that by introducing DLG, the start current can be effectively reduced. Theoretical results are in good agreement with that of the simulations.

  13. Study of the Smith-Purcell effect in the relativistic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Doucas, G.; Dumitru, M.; Korschinck, G.

    1995-12-31

    We propose to investigate the spontaneous emission of radiation arising out of the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a metallic grating (the Smith-Purcell effect). The work will concentrate, primarily, in the 50-120 {mu}m part of the infrared spectrum and will be an extension of the work begun by the Oxford-Dartmouth-Essex collaboration; one of the early objectives of the project will be to develop a quantitative understanding of the power spectrum of the emitted radiation over a wide range of emission angles. In particular, the limits of relativistic peaking of forward directed emission will be investigated. The electron beam will be produced by laser irradiation of a metallic cathode in the terminal of a small Van de Graff accelerator located in the Technische Universitaet, Muenchen. Beam energies will be in the range of 2 - 4 MeV. Initial tests on photoproduction of electrons have yielded 10 mA pulses with a width of about 20 ns. The electron pulse length is long enough to not only produce easily observed levels of spontaneous emission, but in principle gain due to stimulated emission should also be observable. Observation of gain is a second goal of the project. The manufacture of the grating chamber and the voltage tests on the accelerator will progress in parallel. This is a 3-year project and is supported, in part, by the British-German Academic Research Collaboration (ARC) program.

  14. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  15. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  16. Evaluation of R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station thermal discharge effects on benthic communities; Spring 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A study of thermal effluent effects on benthic invertebrates was conducted near the R.P. Smith Steam Electric Station. Samples were collected during May 1980 with a dome suction sampler and an aquatic drift net. Samples were collected on upstream and downstream control transects and on transects in the thermally influenced area. The objective of this survey was to assess effects of thermal discharge on the abundance and biomass macroinvertebrates in the Potomac River.

  17. Impact assessment report: R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station aquatic monitoring program. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.J.; Johnson, G.F.; Summers, J.K.; Smith, R.P.; Ross, R.N.

    1981-06-01

    This document is a summary and interpretation of findings from aquatic monitoring studies that have been conducted since 1976 at the site of the R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station on the upper Potomac River. Because the studies are very diverse and most of the findings are in numerous unpublished reports, this report serves as a compendium of results and also integrates the findings into a meaningful assessment of plant effects.

  18. Molecular analyses of 17p11.2 deletions in 62 Smith-Magenis syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, R. C.; Figuera, L. E.; Hauge, X.; Elsea, S. H.; Lupski, J. R.; Greenberg, F.; Baldini, A.; Patel, P. I.

    1996-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion involving band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Toward the molecular definition of the interval defining this microdeletion syndrome, 62 unrelated SMS patients in conjunction with 70 available unaffected parents were molecularly analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of 14 loci in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 17. A multifaceted approach was used to determine deletion status at the various loci that combined (i) FISH analysis, (ii)PCR and Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 17 from selected patients, and (iii) genotype determination of patients for whom a parent(s) was available at four microsatellite marker loci and at four loci with associated RFLPs. The relative order of two novel anonymous markers and a new microsatellite marker was determined in 17p11.2. The results confirmed that the proximal deletion breakpoint in the majority of SMS patients is located between markers D17S58 (EW301) and D17S446 (FG1) within the 17p11.1-17p11.2 region. The common distal breakpoint was mapped between markers cCI17-638, which lies distal to D17S71, and cCI17-498, which lies proximal to the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 1A locus. The locus D17S258 was found to be deleted in all 62 patients, and probes from this region can be used for diagnosis of the SMS deletion by FISH. Ten patients demonstrated molecularly distinct deletions; of these, two patients had smaller deletions and will enable the definition of the critical interval for SMS. Images Figure 2 PMID:8651284

  19. The face of Smith-Magenis syndrome: a subjective and objective study.

    PubMed

    Allanson, J E; Greenberg, F; Smith, A C

    1999-05-01

    We report a study of 55 subjects with Smith-Magenis syndrome, aged 9 months to 35 years. Each person has been evaluated with an assessment of "gestalt" and detailed facial measurement, using previously published methodology, with compilation of Z score pattern profiles. The facial phenotype of SMS is quite distinctive, even in the young child. The overall face shape is broad and square. The brows are heavy, with excessive lateral extension of the eyebrows. The eyes slant upwards and appear close set and deep set. The nose has a depressed root and, in the young child, a scooped bridge. With time, the bridge becomes more ski jump shaped. The height of the nose is markedly reduced while the nasal base is broad and the tip of the nose is full. The shape of the mouth and upper lip are most distinctive. The mouth is wide with full upper and lower lips. The central portion of the upper lip is fleshy and everted with bulky philtral pillars, producing a tented appearance that, in profile, is striking. With age, mandibular growth is greater than average and exceeds that of the maxilla. This leads to increased jaw width and protrusion and marked midface hypoplasia. Craniofacial pattern analysis supports these subjective impressions. After mid-childhood, mandibular dimensions consistently exceed their maxillary counterparts. Craniofacial widths are greater than corresponding depths and heights. Nasal height is reduced while nasal width is increased. There is mild brachycephaly. The most marked age related changes are increased width of the nose and lower face (mandibular width) with reduction in nasal height and midfacial depth. PMID:10353786

  20. Variations in EEG discharges predict ADHD severity within individual Smith-Lemli-Opitz patients

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, John M.; Lanham, Diane C.; Trescher, William H.; Sparks, Susan E.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Caffo, Brian S.; Porter, Forbes D.; Tierney, Elaine; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine the prevalence of EEG abnormalities in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) as well as the relationship between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and within-subject variations in attentional symptom severity. Methods: In the context of a clinical trial for SLOS, we performed cross-sectional and repeated-measure observational studies of the relationship between EEG findings and cognitive/behavioral factors on 23 children (aged 4–17 years). EEGs were reviewed for clinical abnormalities, including IEDs, by readers blinded to participants' behavioral symptoms. Between-group differences in baseline characteristics of participants with and without IEDs were analyzed. Within-subject analyses examined the association between the presence of IEDs and changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Results: Of 85 EEGs, 43 (51%) were abnormal, predominantly because of IEDs. Only one subject had documented clinical seizures. IEDs clustered in 13 subjects (57%), whereas 9 subjects (39%) had EEGs consistently free of IEDs. While there were no significant group differences in sex, age, intellectual disability, language level, or baseline ADHD symptoms, autistic symptoms tended to be more prevalent in the “IED” group (according to Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule–2 criteria). Within individuals, the presence of IEDs on a particular EEG predicted, on average, a 27% increase in ADHD symptom severity. Conclusions: Epileptiform discharges are common in SLOS, despite a relatively low prevalence of epilepsy. Fluctuations in the presence of epileptiform discharges within individual children with a developmental disability syndrome may be associated with fluctuations in ADHD symptomatology, even in the absence of clinical seizures. PMID:24920862

  1. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ryan W.Y.; Conley, Sandra K.; Gropman, Andrea; Porter, Forbes D.; Baker, Eva H.

    2013-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by inborn errors of cholesterol metabolism resulting from mutations in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7). There are only a few studies describing the brain imaging findings in SLOS. This study examines the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in the largest cohort of patients with SLOS to date. Fifty-five individuals with SLOS (27M, 28F) between age 0.17 years and 25.4 years (mean = 6.2, SD = 5.8) received a total of 173 brain MRI scans (mean = 3.1 per subject) on a 1.5T GE scanner between September, 1998 and December, 2003, or on a 3T Philips scanner between October 2010 and September 2012; all exams were performed at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. We performed a retrospective review of these imaging studies for both major and minor brain anomalies. Aberrant MRI findings were observed in 53 of 55 (96%) SLOS patients, with abnormalities of the septum pellucidum the most frequent (42/55, 76%) finding. Abnormalities of the corpus callosum were found in 38 of 55 (69%) patients. Other findings included cerebral atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, colpocephaly, white matter lesions, arachnoid cysts, Dandy-Walker variant, and Type I Chiari malformation. Significant correlations were observed when comparing MRI findings with sterol levels and somatic malformations. Individuals with SLOS commonly have anomalies involving the midline and para-midline structures of the brain. Further studies are required to examine the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disability in SLOS. PMID:23918729

  2. RAI1 Transcription Factor Activity Is Impaired in Mutants Associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Canales, Cesar P.; Cao, Lei; Perez, Irene C.; Srivastava, Anand K.; Young, Juan I.; Walz, Katherina

    2012-01-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a complex genomic disorder mostly caused by the haploinsufficiency of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1), located in the chromosomal region 17p11.2. In a subset of SMS patients, heterozygous mutations in RAI1 are found. Here we investigate the molecular properties of these mutated forms and their relationship with the resulting phenotype. We compared the clinical phenotype of SMS patients carrying a mutation in RAI1 coding region either in the N-terminal or the C-terminal half of the protein and no significant differences were found. In order to study the molecular mechanism related to these two groups of RAI1 mutations first we analyzed those mutations that result in the truncated protein corresponding to the N-terminal half of RAI1 finding that they have cytoplasmic localization (in contrast to full length RAI1) and no ability to activate the transcription through an endogenous target: the BDNF enhancer. Similar results were found in lymphoblastoid cells derived from a SMS patient carrying RAI1 c.3103insC, where both mutant and wild type products of RAI1 were detected. The wild type form of RAI1 was found in the chromatin bound and nuclear matrix subcellular fractions while the mutant product was mainly cytoplasmic. In addition, missense mutations at the C-terminal half of RAI1 presented a correct nuclear localization but no activation of the endogenous target. Our results showed for the first time a correlation between RAI1 mutations and abnormal protein function plus they suggest that a reduction of total RAI1 transcription factor activity is at the heart of the SMS clinical presentation. PMID:23028815

  3. [Smith-Magenis syndrome is an association of behavioral and sleep/wake circadian rhythm disorders].

    PubMed

    Poisson, A; Nicolas, A; Sanlaville, D; Cochat, P; De Leersnyder, H; Rigard, C; Franco, P; des Portes, V; Edery, P; Demily, C

    2015-06-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the association of facial dysmorphism, oral speech delay, as well as behavioral and sleep/wake circadian rhythm disorders. Most SMS cases (90%) are due to a 17p11.2 deletion encompassing the RAI1 gene; other cases stem from mutations of the RAI1 gene. Behavioral issues may include frequent outbursts, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, self-injuries with onychotillomania and polyembolokoilamania (insertion of objects into bodily orifices), etc. It is noteworthy that the longer the speech delay and the more severe the sleep disorders, the more severe the behavioral issues are. Typical sleep/wake circadian rhythm disorders associate excessive daytime sleepiness with nocturnal agitation. They are related to an inversion of the physiological melatonin secretion cycle. Yet, with an adapted therapeutic strategy, circadian rhythm disorders can radically improve. Usually an association of beta-blockers in the morning (stops daily melatonin secretion) and melatonin in the evening (mimics the evening deficient peak) is used. Once the sleep disorders are controlled, effective treatment of the remaining psychiatric features is needed. Unfortunately, as for many orphan diseases, objective guidelines have not been drawn up. However, efforts should be focused on improving communication skills. In the same vein, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, aggressiveness, and anxiety should be identified and specifically treated. This whole appropriate medical management is underpinned by the diagnosis of SMS. Diagnostic strategies include fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) when a microdeletion is sought and Sanger sequencing when a point mutation is suspected. Thus, the diagnosis of SMS can be made from a simple blood sample and should be questioned in subjects of any age presenting with an association of facial dysmorphism, speech delay with

  4. Squat Ground Reaction Force on a Horizontal Squat Device, Free Weights, and Smith Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; Newby, Nathaniel J.; Caldwell, Erin; DeWitt, John K.; Peters, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is an analog to spaceflight and advancement of exercise countermeasures is dependent on the development of exercise equipment that closely mimic actual upright exercise. The Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) was developed to allow a supine exerciser to perform squats that mimic upright squat exercise. PURPOSE: To compare vertical ground reaction force (GRFv) on the HSD with Free Weight (FW) or Smith Machine (SM) during squat exercise. METHODS: Subjects (3F, 3M) performed sets of squat exercise with increasing loads up to 1-repetition (rep) maximum. GRF data were collected and compared with previous GRF data for squat exercise performed with FW & SM. Loads on the HSD were adjusted to magnitudes comparable with FW & SM by subtracting the subject s body weight (BW). Peak GRFv for 45-, 55-, 64-, & 73-kg loads above BW were calculated. Percent (%) difference between HSD and the two upright conditions were computed. Effect size was calculated for the 45-kg load. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg on the HSD; however, 1 subject completed all loads. Anecdotal evidence suggested that most subjects shoulders or back failed before their legs. The mean % difference are shown. In the 45-kg condition, effect sizes were 0.37 & 0.83 (p>0.05) for HSD vs. FW and HSD vs. SM, respectively, indicating no differences between exercise modes. CONCLUSION: When BW was added to the target load, results indicated that vertical forces were similar to those in FW and SM exercise. The exercise prescription for the HSD should include a total external resistance equivalent to goal load plus subject BW. The HSD may be used as an analog to upright exercise in bed rest studies, but because most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg, it may be necessary to prescribe higher reps and lower loads to better target the leg musculature

  5. Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation for use in electron beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, M. C.

    1999-07-01

    Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR) is quite useful in the area of intense ultra-short pulse electron beams. This is because it offers the potential for non-destructive, real time measurements of high brightness pulses being developed for use in many next-generation electron beam accelerator projects, such as NLC, TESLA test facility, and various other plasma-based accelerator schemes. Both the non-destructive and real time aspects of using CSPR are significant to ultra-short pulse measurement. Preliminary calculations show that CSPR is capable of producing usable signals from realistic electron beam and electron beamline operating parameters that can be analyzed to provide pulse structure, energy, emittance, and timing information. At the same time, induced emittance growth is well below an amount that would seriously deteriorate beam quality for even ultra-high brightness beams. Timing measurements using CSPR is a critical area for development efforts, because of the lack of existing techniques for accurate single pulse sub-picosecond measurements. Injection accuracy for advanced accelerator techniques, as is the case for conventional RF structures, is dictated by getting the pulse into the accelerator at the correct phase. This implies absolute timing accuracies on the order of 10-20 femtoseconds, for a laser-accelerator system that pulses at much less than once per second. By producing CSPR at one or more locations along the beamline, interferometric techniques can then mix this radiation with a timing signal from the laser and beamline timing measurements, useful for fine tuning the transport system and laser beam delay lines, will become obtainable.

  6. Overlap of clinical features of Smith-Magenis & Down Syndrome in newborns and infants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, K.A.; Finucane, B.M.; Bauer, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) frequently goes unrecognized in newborns and infants as these patients do not yet demonstrate the characteristic behavioral phenotype and may only present with developmental delay and physical dysmorphism. Six of Hall`s ten cardinal features of trisomy 21 in the newborn are also frequently found in newborns with SMS, leading to an early presumptive diagnosis of DS in many of these patients. CASE No. 1: Based on clinical findings, a presumptive diagnosis of DS was given to the patient in the newborn period. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype. Given this result, the possibility of mosaic DS was raised, and a skin fibroblast study done. Again, the karyotype was reported as normal. Clinical features and cytogenetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of SMS when the patient was 8 years old. CASE No. 2: A presumptive diagnosis of DS was made in an infant with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A routine chromosome analysis was ordered, which revealed a 46,XY,del(17)(p11.2p11.2) karyotype. Indeed, approximately 38% of blood samples referred to our laboratory to rule out DS in an infant failed to demonstrate trisomy for chromosome 21. Given the high degree of clinical overlap with Down Syndrome, the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in all such patients. Additional analysis should be done to look for deletion 17p11.2 when faced with a {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} karyotype in an infant referred to rule out DS.

  7. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  8. Pharmacological evaluation of extracts of Hedychium spicatum (Ham-ex-Smith) rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Shivani; Gautam, Manish K.; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

    2012-01-01

    Hedychium spicatum (Ham-ex-Smith), known as Shati in Ayurvedic classics, is documented for the treatment of cough, hiccough, fever and asthma. The present study includes the evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the dried rhizome of H. spicatum for anti-histaminic and ulcer-protective activities in guinea pig (GP), anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat and acute toxicity in mouse. The extracts were administered orally, daily as suspension, in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose either for 7 days in GP studies or 60 min before or just before experiment in rats and mice. An initial dose-dependent anti-histaminic action of both the extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was performed against histamine-induced bronchospasm in GPs. The 200 mg/ kg dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts was selected both in GP and rat for further studies. GPs treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed gastric ulcer protection against histamine-induced gastric ulcer compared with the control group. Both the extracts also showed an anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats from 1 h onwards, and this was maximum at 3 h. Analgesic effect was determined by using hot plate and tail flick tests in rats, and both the extracts at 200 mg/kg showed a significant increase in the latent period from 30 min onwards till 120 min of their study period. Both the extracts did not show any toxic effect like increased motor activity, salivation, clonic convulsion, coma and death in mice even at the 2000 mg/kg dose (nearly 10 times of the optimal effective dose), indicating the safety of the extracts. The result confirms the indigenous use of this plant in respiratory disorders. PMID:23284217

  9. Dryden Test Pilots 1990 - Smolka, Fullerton, Schneider, Dana, Ishmael, Smith, and McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It was a windy afternoon on Rogers Dry Lake as the research pilots of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility gathered for a photo shoot. It was a special day too, the 30th anniversary of the first F-104 flight by research pilot Bill Dana. To celebrate, a fly over of Building 4800, in formation, was made with Bill in a Lockheed F-104 (826), Gordon Fullerton in a Northrop T-38, and Jim Smolka in a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 (841) on March 23, 1990. The F-18 (841), standing on the NASA ramp is a backdrop for the photo of (Left to Right) James W. (Smoke) Smolka, C. Gordon Fullerton, Edward T. (Ed) Schneider, William H. (Bill) Dana, Stephen D. (Steve) Ishmael, Rogers E. Smith, and Thomas C. (Tom) McMurtry. Smolka joined NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in September 1985. He has been the project pilot on the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) research and F-15 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. He has also flown as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control aircraft and the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Other aircraft he has flown in research programs are the F-16, F-111, F-104 and the T-38 as support. Fullerton, joined NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in November 1986. He was project pilot on the NASA/Convair 990 aircraft to test space shuttle landing gear components, project pilot on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft, and project pilot on the B-52 launch aircraft, where he was involved in six air launches of the commercially developed Pegasus space launch vehicle. Other assignments include a variety of flight research and support activities in multi-engine and high performance aircraft such as, F-15, F-111, F-14, X-29, MD-11 and DC-8. Schneider arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research

  10. Retinal Degeneration in a Rodent Model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fliesler, Steven J.; Peachey, Neal S.; Richards, Michael J.; Nagel, Barbara A.; Vaughan, Dana K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the electrophysiologic, histologic, and biochemical features of an animal model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with AY9944, a selective inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ7-reductase (the affected enzyme in SLOS). Dark- and light-adapted electroretinograms were obtained from treated and control animals. From each animal, 1 retina was analyzed by microscopy, and the contralateral retina plus serum samples were analyzed for sterol composition. The main outcome measures were rod and cone electroretinographic amplitudes and implicit times, outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, rod outer segment length, pyknotic ONL nucleus counts, and the 7-dehydrocholesterol/ cholesterol mole ratio in the retina and serum. Results By 10 weeks’ postnatal age, rod and cone electroretinographic wave amplitudes in AY9944-treated animals were significantly reduced and implicit times were significantly increased relative to controls. Maximal rod photoresponse and gain values were reduced approximately 2-fold in treated animals relative to controls. The ONL thickness and average rod outer segment length were reduced by approximately 18% and 33%, respectively, and ONL pyknotic nucleus counts were approximately 4.5-fold greater in treated animals relative to controls. The retinal pigment epithelium of treated animals contained massive amounts of membranous/lipid inclusions not routinely observed in controls. The 7-dehydrocholesterol/cholesterol mole ratios in treated retinas and serum samples were approximately 5:1 and 9:1, respectively, whereas the ratios in control tissues were essentially zero. Conclusions This rodent model exhibits the key biochemical hallmarks associated with SLOS and displays electrophysiologic deficits comparable to or greater than those observed in the human disease. Clinical Relevance These results predict retinal degeneration in patients with SLOS, particularly those with the more severe (type II

  11. On the Metallicity and Origin of the Smith High-velocity Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Lehner, Nicolas; Lockman, Felix J.; Wakker, Bart P.; Hill, Alex S.; Heitsch, Fabian; Stark, David V.; Barger, Kathleen A.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Rahman, Mubdi

    2016-01-01

    The Smith Cloud (SC) is a gaseous high-velocity cloud (HVC) in an advanced state of accretion, only 2.9 kpc below the Galactic plane and due to impact the disk in ≈27 Myr. It is unique among HVCs in having a known distance (12.4 ± 1.3 kpc) and a well-constrained 3D velocity (296 km s‑1), but its origin has long remained a mystery. Here we present the first absorption-line measurements of its metallicity, using Hubble Space Telescope/COS UV spectra of three active galactic nuclei lying behind the Cloud together with Green Bank Telescope 21 cm spectra of the same directions. Using Voigt-profile fitting of the S ii λλ1250, 1253, 1259 triplet together with ionization corrections derived from photoionization modeling, we derive the sulfur abundance in each direction; a weighted average of the three measurements gives [S/H] = ‑0.28 ± 0.14, or {0.53}-0.15+0.21 solar metallicity. The finding that the SC is metal-enriched lends support to scenarios where it represents recycled Galactic material, rather than the remnant of a dwarf galaxy or accreting intergalactic gas. The metallicity and trajectory of the Cloud are both indicative of an origin in the outer disk. However, its large mass and prograde kinematics remain to be fully explained. If the cloud has accreted cooling gas from the corona during its fountain trajectory, as predicted in recent theoretical work, its current mass would be higher than its launch mass, alleviating the mass concern. Based on observations taken under program 13840 of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and under program GBT09A_17 of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  12. Antisecretory, Gastroprotective, Antioxidant and Anti-Helicobcter Pylori Activity of Zerumbone from Zingiber Zerumbet (L.) Smith

    PubMed Central

    Sidahmed, Heyam Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Mohan, Syam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Fai, Loke Mun; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Background Zingiber zerumbet Smith is a perennial herb, broadly distributed in many tropical areas. In Malaysia, it’s locally known among the Malay people as “lempoyang” and its rhizomes, particularly, is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease beyond other gastric disorders. Aim of the study The aim of the current study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of zerumbone, the main bioactive compound of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome, against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Materials and Methods Rats were pre-treated with zerumbone and subsequently exposed to acute gastric ulcer induced by absolute ethanol administration. Following treatment, gastric juice acidity, ulcer index, mucus content, histological analysis (HE and PAS), immunohistochemical localization for HSP-70, prostaglandin E2 synthesis (PGE2), non-protein sulfhydryl gastric content (NP-SH), reduced glutathione level (GSH), and malondialdehyde level (MDA) were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and anti-H. pylori activity were investigated in vitro. Results The results showed that the intragastric administration of zerumbone protected the gastric mucosa from the aggressive effect of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, coincided with reduced submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration. This observed gastroprotective effect of zerumbone was accompanied with a significant (p <0.05) effect of the compound to restore the lowered NP-SH and GSH levels, and to reduce the elevated MDA level into the gastric homogenate. Moreover, the compound induced HSP-70 up-regulation into the gastric tissue. Furthermore, zerumbone significantly (p <0.05) enhanced mucus production, showed intense PAS stain and maintained PG content near to the normal level. The compound exhibited antisecretory activity and an interesting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori strain. Conclusion The results of the present

  13. Topography and age mediate the growth responses of Smith fir to climate warming in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, H.; Liang, E.; Camarero, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds some of the world's highest undisturbed natural treelines and timberlines. Such extreme environments constitute potentially valuable monitoring sites of the effects of climate warming on high-elevation forests. Here, we analyze a network of 21 Smith fir forests situated in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau, using tree-ring width (TRW) and basal area increment (BAI) chronologies. Sampled sites encompassed a wide elevation gradient, from 3600 to 4400 m, including some treeline sites and diverse aspects and tree ages. In comparison with TRW series, BAI series better capture the long-term warming signal. Previous November and current April and summer temperatures are the dominant climatic factors controlling Smith fir radial growth. The mean inter-series correlations of TRW increased upwards, but the forest limit presented the highest potential to reconstruct past temperature variability. Moreover, the growth responses of young trees were less stable than those of trees older than 100 years. Climate warming is accelerating radial growth of Smith fir forest subjected to mesic conditions. Collectively, these findings confirm that the effects of site elevation and tree age should be considered when quantifying climate-growth relationships. The type of tree-ring data (BAI vs. TRW) is also relevant since BAI indices seem to be a better climatic proxy of low-frequency temperature signals than TRW indices. Therefore, site (e.g., elevation) and tree (e.g., age) features should be considered to properly evaluate the effects of climate warming on growth of high-elevation forests.

  14. Disruptive innovation: can health care learn from other industries? A conversation with Clayton M. Christensen. Interview by Mark D. Smith.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Clayton M

    2007-01-01

    Clayton Christensen is one of America's most influential business thinkers and writers. A professor at Harvard Business School, Christensen is perhaps best known for his writings on disruptive innovation in such books as The Innovator's Dilemma and The Innovator's Solution. In this interview with the California HealthCare Foundation's Mark Smith, he argues that the answer for more affordable health care will come not from an injection of more funding but, rather, from innovations that aim to make more and more areas of care cheaper, simpler, and more in the hands of patients. Christensen has been an adviser to several new companies in health care. PMID:17355981

  15. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Fort Smith quadrangle, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The Fort Smith quadrangle in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma overlies thick Paleozoic sediments of the Arkoma Basin. These Paleozoics dominate surface exposure except where covered by Quaternary Alluvial materials. Examination of available literature shows no known uranium deposits (or occurrences) within the quadrangle. Seventy-five groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant, and most appeared to be of cultural origin. Magnetic data show character that suggest structural and/or lithologic complexity, but imply relatively deep-seated sources.

  16. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation -- Gen 2 -- Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  17. [Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: evaluation of the correlations between individual traits as an approach to the study of heterogeneity].

    PubMed

    Nikonovich, Iu B; Kaurov, B A; Lur'e, I V

    1987-01-01

    A computer analysis was used to study heterogeneity of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) with or without certain anomalies and to determine intrafamilial phenotypical variability. The analysis of 83 SLOS cases showed significant differences in average values of intragroup similarity, estimated for the cases with cleft palate and without it and those with or without polydactyly. The degree of intragroup similarity in familial cases appeared to be twice as high as in sporadic ones. These data confirm the hypothesis on genetic heterogeneity of SLOS with some allelic forms. PMID:3564150

  18. Delay-dependent guaranteed-cost control based on combination of Smith predictor and equivalent-input-disturbance approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Wu, Min; She, Jinhua; He, Yong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new system configuration and a design method to improve control performance for a system with an input time delay and disturbances. The equivalent-input-disturbance approach is extended to handle a time-delay system. It is combined with the Smith predictor to reject disturbances. A delay-dependent stability condition is devised in terms of a matrix inequality by using the free-weighting matrix approach. The gain of the observer is designed by applying the cone complementary linearization method to the matrix inequality. A numerical example demonstrates the validity of the method. PMID:26948118

  19. RSH/SLO (Smith-Lemli-Opitz) syndrome: designing a high cholesterol diet for the SLO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Acosta, P B

    1994-05-01

    A high cholesterol diet has been suggested to help prevent the poor reproductive outcomes found in heterozygote carriers of fetuses affected with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. The theory has also been presented that a high cholesterol medical food may enhance myelination of the central nervous system of the infant and prevent demyelination in the child and adult with SLO. Clinical studies are required to test this hypothesis and to determine the optimal composition of such medical foods. FDA requires proof of efficacy and controls nutrient composition, ingredients, and label claims of medical foods. PMID:8209916

  20. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 3rd Quarter 2013; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.