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  1. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, Elodie A.; Valable, Samuel; Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien; Marteau, Lena; Bernaudin, Jean-Francois; Roussel, Simon; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele; Bernaudin, Myriam; Petit, Edwige

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

  2. Baicalein Reduces the Invasion of Glioma Cells via Reducing the Activity of p38 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoming; Li, Siyuan; Zhang, Yong; Meng, Lihua; Xue, Rongliang; Li, Zongfang

    2014-01-01

    Baicalein, one of the major flavonids in Scutellaria baicalensis, has historically been used in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. However, the anti-metastatic effect and related mechanism(s) in glioma are still unclear. In this study, we thus utilized glioma cell lines U87MG and U251MG to explore the effect of baicalein. We found that administration of baicalein significantly inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, after treating with baicalein for 24 h, there was a decrease in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression as well as proteinase activity in glioma cells. Conversely, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, baicalein treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylated level of p38, but not ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and PI3K/Akt. Combined treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and baicalein resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and then increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression; and the invasive capabilities of U87MG cells were also inhibited. However, p38 chemical activator (anisomycin) could block these effects produced by baicalein, suggesting baicalein directly downregulate the p38 signaling pathway. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits glioma cells invasion and metastasis by reducing cell motility and migration via suppression of p38 signaling pathway, suggesting that baicalein is a potential therapeutic agent for glioma. PMID:24587321

  3. AT1 receptor is present in glioma cells; its blockage reduces the growth of rat glioma

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, E; Arrieta, O; Guevara, P; Duarte-Rojo, A; Sotelo, J

    2001-01-01

    Malignancy of neoplasms is partly dependent on angiogenesis. Angiotensin II mediates angiogenesis and transcription of growth-related factors through stimulation of the AT1 receptor (AT1R). Losartan, a drug used mostly for treatment of hypertension, binds strongly to this receptor. We found the presence of AT1 receptor on C6 glioma cells and studied the effect of Losartan on the growth and angiogenesis of C6 rat glioma; Losartan in dose of 80 mg/kg induced 79% reduction of tumoural volume with a significant decrease of vascular density, mitotic index and cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate the conspicuous presence of AT1R in malignant glial cells and a favourable therapeutic response in experimental glioma by selective blockage of the AT1 receptor. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720480

  4. Celecoxib and LLW-3-6 reduce survival of human glioma cells independently and synergistically with sulfasalazine

    PubMed Central

    Yerokun, Tokunbo; Winfield, Leyte L.

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most commonly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Celecoxib has been utilized with success in the treatment of several types of cancer, including gliomas. The present study examined the antiproliferative effects of celecoxib and its benzimidazole-based analog, LLW-3-6, when used as co-treatments with sulfasalazine against human glioma LN18 cells. At 48-hour treatment, the glioma cells maintained 60% viability in the presence of celecoxib or LLW-3-6 at the maximum concentration tested (40 μM). Co-treatment of the glioma cells with a non-lethal dose (50 μM) of sulfasalazine and either celecoxib or LLW-3-6 (administered at different concentrations) resulted in improved inhibition of cell viability. The concentration of the molecules needed to reduce cell growth in the combined treatments was significantly less than that needed when either molecule was administered independently. Based on computational values, LLW-3-6 has physiochemical characteristics that should allow for improved bioavailability in comparison to that of celecoxib. PMID:26637851

  5. Celecoxib and LLW-3-6 Reduce Survival of Human Glioma Cells Independently and Synergistically with Sulfasalazine.

    PubMed

    Yerokun, Tokunbo; Winfield, Leyte L

    2015-12-01

    Gliomas are among the most commonly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Celecoxib has been utilized with success in the treatment of several types of cancer, including gliomas. The present study examined the antiproliferative effects of celecoxib and its benzimidazole-based analog, LLW-3-6, when used as co-treatment with sulfasalazine against human glioma LN18 cells. At 48-h treatment, the glioma cells maintained 60% viability in the presence of celecoxib or LLW-3-6 at the maximum concentration tested (40 μM). Co-treatment of glioma cells under a non-lethal dose (50 μM) of sulfasalazine and either celecoxib or LLW-3-6 (administered at different concentrations) resulted in improved inhibition of cell viability. The concentration of the molecules required to reduce cell growth in the combined treatment was significantly less than that needed when either molecule was administered independently. Based on computational values, LLW-3-6 has physiochemical characteristics that should allow for improved bioavailability in comparison to that of celecoxib. PMID:26637851

  6. Escin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on glioma and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Gülşen Akalin; Işcan, Arzu; Kutlu, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) seed extract has a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is escin. It is known that several medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties have been found to have a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of escin in the C6 glioma and A549 cell lines were analyzed by MTT. Apoptotic effects of escin on both cell lines were evaluated by Annexin V binding capacity with flow cytometric analysis. Structural and ultrastructural changes were also evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has potent antiproliferative effects against C6 glioma and A549 cells. These effects are both dose and time dependent. Taken together, escin possesses cell cycle arrest on G0/G1 phase and selective apoptotic activity on A549 cells as indicated by increased Annexin V-binding capacity, bax protein expression, caspase-3 activity and morphological changes obtained from micrographs by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25906387

  7. Fructus ligustri lucidi extracts induce human glioma cell death through regulation of Akt/mTOR pathway in vitro and reduce glioma tumor growth in U87MG xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Cheon; Kim, Jin Won; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Kim, Thae Hyun; Kim, Yong Keun

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL) extracts on glioma cell growth and to determine the underlying mechanism by which FLL extracts exert anticancer properties in human U87MG glioma cells. The FLL extracts resulted in cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that treatment with FLL extracts caused down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Overexpression of Akt prevented the cell death induced by the FLL extracts. The FLL extracts caused a decrease in the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the FLL extract-induced cell death was increased by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. The FLL extracts decreased the expression of survivin. Oral administration of FLL extracts in subcutaneous U87MG xenograft models reduced the glioma tumor volume. These findings indicate that the FLL extracts resulted in glioma cell death through regulation of the Akt/mTOR/survivin pathway in vitro and inhibited glioma tumor growth in vivo. These data suggest that the FLL extracts may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for malignant human gliomas. PMID:20737659

  8. DNMT1 mediates chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of miRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daoyang; Wan, Yingfeng; Xie, Dajiang; Wang, Yirong; Wei, Junhua; Yan, Qingfeng; Lu, Peng; Mo, Lianjie; Xie, Jixi; Yang, Shuxu; Qi, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Although methyltransferase has been recognized as a major element that governs the epigenetic regulation of the genome during temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients, its regulatory effect on glioblastoma chemoresistance has not been well defined. This study investigated whether DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was associated with TMZ sensitivity in glioma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanism. DNMT expression was analyzed by western blotting. miR-20a promoter methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assays, respectively. The results showed that compared with parental U251 cells, DNMT1 expression was downregulated, miR-20a promoter methylation was attenuated and miR-20a levels were elevated in TMZ-resistant U251 cells. Methyltransferase inhibition by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment reduced TMZ sensitivity in U251 cells. In U251/TM cells, DNMT1 expression was negatively correlated with miR-20a expression and positively correlated with TMZ sensitivity and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 expression; these effects were reversed by changes in miR-20a expression. DNMT1 overexpression induced an increase in U251/TM cell apoptosis that was inhibited by the miR-20a mimic, whereas DNMT1 silencing attenuated U251/TM cell apoptosis in a manner that was abrogated by miR-20a inhibitor treatment. Tumor growth of the U251/TM xenograft was inhibited by pcDNA-DNMT1 pretreatment and boosted by DNMT1-small hairpin RNA pretreatment. In summary, DNMT1 mediated chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of the microRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells. PMID:26337869

  9. MiR-15b and miR-152 reduce glioma cell invasion and angiogenesis via NRP-2 and MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuguang; Chopp, Michael; Lu, Yong; Buller, Ben; Jiang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Invasion and angiogenesis are two major pathophysiological features of malignant gliomas. Anti-angiogenic treatment lead to enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In the current study, we tested invasion and angiogenesis related mRNA expression profiles of glioma cells via RT2Profiler PCR Array by employing an in vivo 9L homograft glioma tumor animal model and an in vitro hypoxic cell culture model. The miRNA profile was also obtained via miRNA array. Genes with mRNA expression that changed significantly in the mRNA array were selected to predict possible miRNAs that regulate mRNA expression using the TargetScan database, and were then matched with miRNA array results. Based on these criteria, NRP-2 with the matching miRNA miR-15b, and MMP-3 with the matching miRNA miR-152 were selected for further study, and to determine whether they regulate tumor microenviroment changes and affect glioma angiogenesis and invasion. The protein expression of NRP-2 and MMP-3 were verified in 9L glioma cells and were negatively correlated to miR-15b and miR-152 level, respectively. Rat astrocytes (primary and cell line), when co-cultured with 9L glioma cells, showed significantly elevated NRP-2, MMP-3 expression and reduced miR-15b, miR-152 expression compared to non co-cultured astrocytes. Luciferase activity assay confirmed that miR-15b and miR-152 attenuate expression of NRP-2 and MMP-3 protein by binding to NRP-2 and MMP-3 transcript, respectively. In vitro invasion assay data showed that miR-15b and miR-152 significantly decreased 9L cell invasiveness. Anti-miR-15b and anti-miR-152 inhibitors counteracted the inhibition of invasion caused by miR-15b and miR-152. In vitro tube formation assay data showed that miR-15b, but not miR-152, reduced tube formation in cultured endothelial cells, and anti-miR-15b inhibitor counteracted the inhibition of tube formation caused by miR-15b. A preliminary pathway study indicated that miR-15b and miR-152 deactivated the MEK-ERK pathway

  10. Vorinostat modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins in glioma cells and human glioma slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jihong; Sampath, Deepa; Lang, Frederick F; Prabhu, Sujit; Rao, Ganesh; Fuller, Gregory N; Liu, Yuanfang; Puduvalli, Vinay K

    2011-11-01

    Chromatin modification through histone deacetylase inhibition has shown evidence of activity against malignancies. The mechanism of action of such agents are pleiotropic and potentially tumor specific. In this study, we studied the mechanisms of vorinostat-induced cellular effects in gliomas. The effects of vorinostat on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle effects were studied in vitro (D54, U87 and U373 glioma cell lines). To gain additional insights into its effects on human gliomas, vorinostat-induced changes were examined ex vivo using a novel organotypic human glioma slice model. Vorinostat treatment resulted in increased p21 levels in all glioma cells tested in a p53 independent manner. In addition, cyclin B1 levels were transcriptionally downregulated and resulted in reduced kinase activity of the cyclin B1/cdk1 complex causing a G2 arrest. These effects were associated with a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in association with hyperacetylation of core histones and induction of apoptosis. Of particular significance, we demonstrate histone hyperacetylation and increased p21 levels in freshly resected human glioma specimens maintained as organotypic slice cultures and exposed to vorinostat similar to cell lines suggesting that human glioma can be targeted by this agent. Our data suggest that the effects of vorinostat are associated with modulation of cell cycle related proteins and activation of a G2 checkpoint along with induction of apoptosis. These effects are mediated by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms which provide potential options that can be exploited to develop new therapeutic approaches against gliomas. PMID:21598070

  11. Vorinostat modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins in glioma cells and human glioma slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jihong; Sampath, Deepa; Lang, Frederick F.; Prabhu, Sujit; Rao, Ganesh; Fuller, Gregory N.; Liu, Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin modification through histone deacetylase inhibition has shown evidence of activity against malignancies. The mechanism of action of such agents are pleiotropic and potentially tumor specific. In this study, we studied the mechanisms of vorinostat-induced cellular effects in gliomas. The effects of vorinostat on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle effects were studied in vitro (D54, U87 and U373 glioma cell lines). To gain additional insights into its effects on human gliomas, vorinostat-induced changes were examined ex vivo using a novel organotypic human glioma slice model. Vorinostat treatment resulted in increased p21 levels in all glioma cells tested in a p53 independent manner. In addition, cyclin B1 levels were transcriptionally downregulated and resulted in reduced kinase activity of the cyclin B1/cdkl complex causing a G2 arrest. These effects were associated with a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in association with hyperacetylation of core histones and induction of apoptosis. Of particular significance, we demonstrate histone hyperacetylation and increased p21 levels in freshly resected human glioma specimens maintained as organotypic slice cultures and exposed to vorinostat similar to cell lines suggesting that human glioma can be targeted by this agent. Our data suggest that the effects of vorinostat are associated with modulation of cell cycle related proteins and activation of a G2 checkpoint along with induction of apoptosis. These effects are mediated by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms which provide potential options that can be exploited to develop new therapeutic approaches against gliomas. PMID:21598070

  12. Regulation of C6 glioma cell migration by thymol

    PubMed Central

    LEE, KANG PA; KIM, JAI-EUN; PARK, WON-HWAN; HONG, HEEOK

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cell motility exhibits a crucial role in tumor development. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether thymol could reduce C6 glioma cell migration. Cell viability was determined using the EZ-Cytox Cell Viability kit. The scratch wound healing and Boyden chamber assays were performed to test C6 glioma cell migration in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Additionally, the study investigated whether signaling proteins relevant to C6 glioma cell migration, i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, protein kinase Cα (PKCα), matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)9 and MMP2, were affected by thymol treatment. Up to 30 µM, thymol did not alter cell viability, whereas 100 µM thymol induced the death of ~20% of the cells. Furthermore, thymol (30 µM) significantly reduced FBS-induced migration. In the FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells, thymol (30 µM) suppressed PKCα and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. MMP9 and MMP2 production was also significantly reduced by treatment with 30 µM thymol in the C6 glioma cells. Taken together, these results indicate that thymol attenuates C6 glioma cell migration. Additionally, the study suggests that the effect of thymol on the FBS-induced migration of C6 glioma cells affects PKCα and ERK1/2 signaling, and suppresses MMP9 and MMP2 production. PMID:27073528

  13. Fascin-1 knock-down of human glioma cells reduces their microvilli/filopodia while improving their susceptibility to lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Neil T; Ge, Lisheng; Erickson, Kate L; Kruse, Carol A; Cornforth, Andrew N; Kuznetsov, Yurii; McPherson, Alex; Martini, Filippo; Jadus, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells derived from Glioblastoma multiforme possess membranous protrusions allowing these cells to infiltrate surrounding tissue, while resisting lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Microvilli and filopodia are supported by actin filaments cross-linked by fascin. Fascin-1 was genetically silenced within human U251 glioma cells; these knock-down glioma cells lost their microvilli/filopodia. The doubling time of these fascin-1 knock-down cells was doubled that of shRNA control U251 cells. Fascin-1 knock-down cells lost their transmigratory ability responding to interleukin-6 or insulin-like growth factor-1. Fascin-1 silenced U251 cells were more easily killed by cytolytic lymphocytes. Fascin-1 knock-down provides unique opportunities to augment glioma immunotherapy by simultaneously targeting several key glioma functions: like cell transmigration, cell division and resisting immune responses. PMID:25901196

  14. Reduced Expression of the Hyaluronan and Proteoglycan Link Proteins in Malignant Gliomas*

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hosung; Hu, Bin; Viapiano, Mariano S.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gliomas have a distinctive ability to infiltrate the brain parenchyma and disrupt the neural extracellular matrix that inhibits motility of axons and normal neural cells. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are among the major inhibitory components in the neural matrix, but surprisingly, some are up-regulated in gliomas and act as pro-invasive signals. In the normal brain, CSPGs are thought to associate with hyaluronic acid and glycoproteins such as the tenascins and link proteins to form the matrix scaffold. Here, we examined for the first time the expression of link proteins in human brain and malignant gliomas. Our results indicate that HAPLN4 and HAPLN2 are the predominant members of this family in the adult human brain but are strongly reduced in the tumor parenchyma. To test if their absence was related to a pro-invasive gain of function of CSPGs, we expressed HAPLN4 in glioma cells in combination with the CSPG brevican. Surprisingly, HAPLN4 increased glioma cell adhesion and migration and even potentiated the motogenic effect of brevican. Further characterization revealed that HAPLN4 expressed in glioma cells was largely soluble and did not reproduce the strong, hyaluronan-independent association of the native protein to brain subcellular membranes. Taken together, our results suggest that the tumor parenchyma is rich in CSPGs that are not associated to HAPLNs and could instead interact with other extracellular matrix proteins produced by glioma cells. This dissociation may contribute to changes in the matrix scaffold caused by invasive glioma cells. PMID:19633295

  15. NDRG1 overexpressing gliomas are characterized by reduced tumor vascularization and resistance to antiangiogenic treatment.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Thomas; Wüstner, Marie; Harms, Christoph; Stange, Lena; Blaes, Jonas; Thomé, Carina; Harms, Ulrike; Mueller, Susanne; Weiler, Markus; Wick, Wolfgang; Vajkoczy, Peter; Czabanka, Marcus

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia-regulated molecules play an important role in vascular resistance to antiangiogenic treatment. N-myc downstream-regulated-gene 1 (NDRG1) is significantly upregulated during hypoxia in glioma. It was the aim of the present study to analyze the role of NDRG1 on glioma angiogenesis and on antiangiogenic treatment. Orthotopically implanted NDRG1 glioma showed reduced tumor growth and vessel density compared to controls. RT-PCR gene array analysis revealed a 30-fold TNFSF15 increase in NDRG1 tumors. Consequently, the supernatant from NDRG1 transfected U87MG glioma cells resulted in reduced HUVEC proliferation, migration and angiogenic response in tube formation assays in vitro. This effect was provoked by increased TNFSF15 promoter activity in NDRG1 cells. Mutations in NF-κB and AP-1 promoter response elements suppressed TNFSF15 promoter activity. Moreover, U87MG glioma NDRG1 knockdown supernatant contained multiple proangiogenic proteins and increased HUVEC spheroid sprouting. Sunitinib treatment of orhotopically implanted mice reduced tumor volume and vessel density in controls; in NDRG1 overexpressing cells no reduction of tumor volume or vessel density was observed. NDRG1 overexpression leads to reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis in experimental glioma via upregulation of TNFSF15. In NDRG1 overexpressing glioma antiangiogenic treatment does not yield a therapeutic response. PMID:26297987

  16. Lower expression of Nrdp1 in human glioma contributes tumor progression by reducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hengliang; Du, Jin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Bao; Gong, Hui; Wu, Yuxuan; Tang, Yuan; Gao, Yong; Yu, Rutong

    2014-10-01

    Ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 (neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1) plays important roles in multiple physiological process because it can ubiquitinate various substrates such as ErbB3, BRUCE, MyD88, C/EBPβ, and Parkin, and so forth. In addition to the physiological function, it was also found to be involved in tumor progression. It has been shown that loss of Nrdp1 enhances breast cancer cell growth. Up to now, the role of Nrdp1 in glioma has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that Nrdp1 as well as cleaved caspase 3 was lower expressed in human glioma tissues comparing with the nontumorous. And then we found that the expression of Nrdp1 and cleaved caspase 3 was increased in the treatment of Temozolomide (TMZ), a drug for glioma chemotherapy. Further investigation indicated that transient transfection of Nrdp1 significantly promoted cell apoptosis by aggravating the degradation of BRUCE and activation of caspase 3. In addition, overexpression of Nrdp1 augmented TMZ induced apoptosis by evaluating the degradation of BRUCE and the activation of caspase 3, while silencing of Nrdp1 reduced the sensitivity to the TMZ by inhibiting the degradation of BRUCE and the activation of caspase 3 in human glioma cells. These observations show that Nrdp1 is a pro-apoptotic protein in human glioma and lower expression of Nrdp1 in human glioma may promote tumor progression by reducing apoptosis, suggesting that Nrdp1 may be an important regulator in the development of human glioma. PMID:25355637

  17. Lymphoid Cell-Glioma Cell Interaction Enhances Cell Coat Production by Human Gliomas: Novel Suppressor Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.; Macchi, Beatrice; Papazoglou, Savvas; Oldfield, Edward H.; Kornblith, Paul L.; Smith, Barry H.; Gately, Maurice K.

    1983-05-01

    Certain human glioma lines produce mucopolysaccharide coats that impair the generation of cytolytic lymphocytes in response to these lines in vitro. Coat production is substantially enhanced by the interaction of glioma cells with a macromolecular factor released by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. This interaction thus constitutes an unusual mechanism by which inflammatory cells may nonspecifically suppress the cellular immune response to at least one class of solid tumors in humans.

  18. Glioma cell proliferation controlled by ERK activity-dependent surface expression of PDGFRA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongfeng; Zuo, Duo; Luan, Cheng; Liu, Min; Na, Manli; Ran, Liang; Sun, Yingyu; Persson, Annette; Englund, Elisabet; Salford, Leif G; Renström, Erik; Fan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Enming

    2014-01-01

    Increased PDGFRA signaling is an essential pathogenic factor in many subtypes of gliomas. In this context the cell surface expression of PDGFRA is an important determinant of ligand sensing in the glioma microenvironment. However, the regulation of spatial distribution of PDGFRA in glioma cells remains poorly characterized. Here, we report that cell surface PDGFRA expression in gliomas is negatively regulated by an ERK-dependent mechanism, resulting in reduced proliferation of glioma cells. Glioma tumor tissues and their corresponding cell lines were isolated from 14 patients and analyzed by single-cell imaging and flow cytometry. In both cell lines and their corresponding tumor samples, glioma cell proliferation correlated with the extent of surface expression of PDGFRA. High levels of surface PDGFRA also correlated to high tubulin expression in glioma tumor tissue in vivo. In glioma cell lines, surface PDGFRA declined following treatment with inhibitors of tubulin, actin and dynamin. Screening of a panel of small molecule compounds identified the MEK inhibitor U0126 as a potent inhibitor of surface PDGFRA expression. Importantly, U0126 inhibited surface expression in a reversible, dose- and time-dependent manner, without affecting general PDGFRA expression. Treatment with U0126 resulted in reduced co-localization between PDGFRA and intracellular trafficking molecules e.g. clathrin, RAB11 and early endosomal antigen-1, in parallel with enhanced co-localization between PDGFRA and the Golgi cisternae maker, Giantin, suggesting a deviation of PDGFRA from the endosomal trafficking and recycling compartment, to the Golgi network. Furthermore, U0126 treatment in glioma cells induced an initial inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, followed by up-regulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation concomitant with diminished surface expression of PDGFRA. Finally, down-regulation of surface PDGFRA expression by U0126 is concordant with reduced glioma cell proliferation. These findings

  19. Enriched environment reduces glioma growth through immune and non-immune mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Stefano; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Chece, Giuseppina; Brau, Frederic; Maggi, Laura; Rosa, Alessandro; Porzia, Alessandra; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauro, Clotilde; Benigni, Giorgia; Bernardini, Giovanni; Santoni, Angela; Limatola, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Mice exposed to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) were transplanted with murine or human glioma cells and differences in tumour development were evaluated. We report that EE exposure affects: (i) tumour size, increasing mice survival; (ii) glioma establishment, proliferation and invasion; (iii) microglia/macrophage (M/Mφ) activation; (iv) natural killer (NK) cell infiltration and activation; and (v) cerebral levels of IL-15 and BDNF. Direct infusion of IL-15 or BDNF in the brain of mice transplanted with glioma significantly reduces tumour growth. We demonstrate that brain infusion of IL-15 increases the frequency of NK cell infiltrating the tumour and that NK cell depletion reduces the efficacy of EE and IL-15 on tumour size and of EE on mice survival. BDNF infusion reduces M/Mφ infiltration and CD68 immunoreactivity in tumour mass and reduces glioma migration inhibiting the small G protein RhoA through the truncated TrkB.T1 receptor. These results suggest alternative approaches for glioma treatment. PMID:25818172

  20. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Cubano, Luis A.; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N.; Eaton, Misty J.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  1. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V; Cubano, Luis A; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Eaton, Misty J; Harrison, Jeffrey K; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  2. [Glioma treatment strategies using mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Namba, Hiroki

    2010-10-01

    Because of the growth characteristics of malignant gliomas that are highly invasive and deeply infiltrate the surrounding brain area; the surgical resection of these gliomas with preservation of neural functions is almost always noncurative. The residual tumor cells are usually resistant to standard adjuvant radiochemotherapy, and therefore, the tumors inevitably recur after a certain period and finally cause the death of the patients. Neural and mesenchymal stem cells have been extensively studied for the development of new strategies for treating malignant gliomas because of these cells possess the intrinsic property of homing toward tumor cells. By using neural and mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for drug carriers, it is possible to deliver anticancer drugs to the tumor cells that infiltrate functioning normal brain tissue and are difficult to remove. Several cytokines and suicide genes have been tested, and promising results have been reported in animal brain tumor models. However, further studies involving safety issues such as secondary cancer formation are required before human trials of stem cell therapies. In the present paper, the author has reviewed the recent concepts involved in the treatment of malignant gliomas with stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells that are much easier to obtain from the patients themselves. PMID:20940507

  3. Stimulation of glioma cell motility by expression, proteolysis, and release of the L1 neural cell recognition molecule

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Muhua; Adla, Shalini; Temburni, Murali K; Patel, Vivek P; Lagow, Errin L; Brady, Owen A; Tian, Jing; Boulos, Magdy I; Galileo, Deni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Malignant glioma cells are particularly motile and can travel diffusely through the brain parenchyma, apparently without following anatomical structures to guide their migration. The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been implicated in contributing to stimulation of motility and metastasis of several non-neural cancer types. We explored the expression and function of L1 protein as a stimulator of glioma cell motility using human high-grade glioma surgical specimens and established rat and human glioma cell lines. Results L1 protein expression was found in 17 out of 18 human high-grade glioma surgical specimens by western blotting. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human U-87/LacZ and rat C6 and 9L glioma cell lines. The glioma cell lines were negative for surface full length L1 by flow cytometry and high resolution immunocytochemistry of live cells. However, fixed and permeablized cells exhibited positive staining as numerous intracellular puncta. Western blots of cell line extracts revealed L1 proteolysis into a large soluble ectodomain (~180 kDa) and a smaller transmembrane proteolytic fragment (~32 kDa). Exosomal vesicles released by the glioma cell lines were purified and contained both full-length L1 and the proteolyzed transmembrane fragment. Glioma cell lines expressed L1-binding αvβ5 integrin cell surface receptors. Quantitative time-lapse analyses showed that motility was reduced significantly in glioma cell lines by 1) infection with an antisense-L1 retroviral vector and 2) L1 ectodomain-binding antibodies. Conclusion Our novel results support a model of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of cell motility in glioma cells by a cleaved L1 ectodomain and/or released exosomal vesicles containing L1. This mechanism could explain the diffuse migratory behavior of high-grade glioma cancer cells within the brain. PMID:19874583

  4. The role of Alix in the proliferation of human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Ban, Na; Dai, Shirong; Zhang, Xiubing; Zhang, Li; Xu, Peng; Chen, Wenjuan; Sun, Jie; Bao, Zhen; Chang, Hao; Wang, Donglin; Ren, Jianbing

    2016-06-01

    Apoptosis-linked-gene-2-interacting protein 1 (Alix) is involved in the endosome-lysosome system in the cytoplasm. The normal function of Alix may be altered by ALG-2 toward a destructive role during active cell death. Alix also may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation. However, the role of Alix in human glioma has not been elucidated yet. This study intended to clarify the relationship between Alix and glioma pathologic grades and its role in the proliferation of glioma cells. Our findings showed that Alix protein concentrations were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissue compared with low-grade glioma (P < .0001). Immunohistochemical study revealed that Alix was overexpressed in 75 resected glioma tissues and may forecast poor survival. Alix expression was increased in resting serum-stimulated glioma cells. Additionally, we reduced Alix expression in U251MG cells and then found that cell viability was decreased significantly when p21 expression increased. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that reduced Alix expression may lead to growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. In summary, our findings suggest that Alix plays an important role in the proliferation of glioma cells and may be a novel therapeutic target. PMID:26980041

  5. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-07-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133{sup +} cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  6. New naphthoquinone derivatives against glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Pezzani, Raffaele; Pasquale, Riccardo; Pavan, Valeria; Crisma, Marco; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed to the development of a set of new naphtoquinone derivatives that can act against glioma. The compounds were tested in order to find out their ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells, and the results of these assays were correlated with electrochemical analysis and NMR-based reoxidation kinetic studies, suggesting that a redox mechanism underlies and may explain the observed biological behavior. In addition to a full description of the synthetic pathways, electrochemistry, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are provided. PMID:25916907

  7. Cell migration in paediatric glioma; characterisation and potential therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cockle, J V; Picton, S; Levesley, J; Ilett, E; Carcaboso, A M; Short, S; Steel, L P; Melcher, A; Lawler, S E; Brüning-Richardson, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric high grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive brain tumours. Their invasive phenotype contributes to their limited therapeutic response, and novel treatments that block brain tumour invasion are needed. Methods: Here, we examine the migratory characteristics and treatment effect of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and the indirubin derivative 6-bromoindirubin-oxime (BIO), previously shown to inhibit the migration of adult glioma cells, on two pHGG cell lines (SF188 and KNS42) and one patient-derived DIPG line (HSJD-DIPG-007) using 2D (transwell membrane, immunofluorescence, live cell imaging) and 3D (migration on nanofibre plates and spheroid invasion in collagen) assays. Results: All lines were migratory, but there were differences in morphology and migration rates. Both LiCl and BIO reduced migration and instigated cytoskeletal rearrangement of stress fibres and focal adhesions when viewed by immunofluorescence. In the presence of drugs, loss of polarity and differences in cellular movement were observed by live cell imaging. Conclusions: Ours is the first study to demonstrate that it is possible to pharmacologically target migration of paediatric glioma in vitro using LiCl and BIO, and we conclude that these agents and their derivatives warrant further preclinical investigation as potential anti-migratory therapeutics for these devastating tumours. PMID:25628092

  8. Tumor initiating cells in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2009-01-01

    A rare subpopulation of cells within malignant gliomas, which shares canonical properties with neural stem cells (NSCs), may be integral to glial tumor development and perpetuation. These cells, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs), have the ability to self-renew, develop into any cell in the overall tumor population (multipotency), and proliferate. A defining property of TICs is their ability to initiate new tumors in immunocompromised mice with high efficiency. Mounting evidence suggests that TICs originate from the transformation of NSCs and their progenitors. New findings show that TICs may be more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation than the bulk of tumor cells, thereby permitting recurrent tumor formation and accounting for the failure of conventional therapies. The development of new therapeutic strategies selectively targeting TICs while sparing NSCs may provide for more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:19189072

  9. MicroRNA-584-3p, a novel tumor suppressor and prognostic marker, reduces the migration and invasion of human glioma cells by targeting hypoxia-induced ROCK1

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hao; Guo, Xing; Han, Xiao; Yan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Jinsen; Xu, Shugang; Li, Tong; Guo, Xiaofan; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Xiao; Liu, Qinglin; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report that microRNA-584-3p (miR-584-3p) is up-regulated in hypoxic glioma cells and in high-grade human glioma tumors (WHO grades III–IV) relative to normoxic cells and to low-grade tumors (WHO grades I–II), respectively. The postoperative survival time was significantly prolonged in the high-grade glioma patients with high miR-584-3p expression compared with those with low miR-584-3p expression. miR-584-3p may function as a potent tumor suppressor and as a prognostic biomarker for malignant glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. Our mechanistic studies revealed that miR-584-3p suppressed the migration and invasion of glioma cells by disrupting hypoxia-induced stress fiber formation. Specifically, we have found that ROCK1 is a direct and functionally relevant target of miR-584-3p in glioma cells. Our results have demonstrated a tumor suppressive function of miR-584-3p in glioma, in which it inhibits the migration and invasion of tumor cells by antagonizing hypoxia-induced, ROCK1-dependent stress fiber formation. Our findings have potential implications for glioma gene therapy and suggest that miR-584-3p could represent a prognostic indicator for glioma. PMID:26715733

  10. Silencing of R-Spondin1 increases radiosensitivity of glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guoda; Cui, Lili; Li, You; Zhou, Haihong; Liang, Wandong; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is the most effective postoperative adjuvant treatment, it does not substantially improve the long-term outcomes of glioma patients because of the characteristic radioresistance of glioma. We found that R-Spondin1 (Rspo1) expression was elevated in high-grade gliomas and was associated with worse overall survival and disease-free survival. Rspo1 expression was also associated with reduced survival rates in glioma patients after treatment with radiotherapy and temozolomide (RT-TMZ). Importantly, Rspo1 was dramatically upregulated after radiation treatment in patients with glioma. Rspo1 silencing by shRNA potentiated glioma cell death upon radiation treatment. In a xenograft nude mouse model, combining radiation and silencing of Rspo1 potentiated tumor growth inhibition. Thus, combining radiotherapy with silencing of Rspo1 is a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:25865226

  11. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Pan, Pin-Ho; Chen, Wen-Ying; Huang, Hsuan-Yi; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  12. Disruption of NF-κB signaling by fluoxetine attenuates MGMT expression in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tao; Li, Hui; Tian, Zhiliang; Xu, Chaojiu; Liu, Jingfang; Guo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) in glioma is modulated by the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). This study aimed to examine the effects of fluoxetine (FLT) on MGMT expression in glioma cells and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods Expression of MGMT, GluR1, or IκB kinase β (IKKβ) was attenuated using short hairpin RNA-mediated gene knockdown. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the growth inhibition induced by FLT or TMZ. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) was conducted to detect apoptotic cells. Western blotting was conducted to analyze the protein expression of MGMT, IKKβ, and NF-κB/p65 following FLT treatment. The murine subcutaneous xenograft model was used to evaluate the combinational effect of TMZ and FLT. Results FLT markedly reduced MGMT expression in glioma cells, which was independent of GluR1 receptor function. Further, FLT disrupted NF-κB/p65 signaling in glioma cells and consequently attenuated NF-κB/p65 activity in regulating MGMT expression. Importantly, FLT sensitized MGMT-expressing glioma cells to TMZ, as FLT enhanced TMZ’s ability to impair the in vitro tumorigenic potential and to induce apoptosis in glioma cells. Knockdown of MGMT or IKKβ expression abolished the synergistic effect of FLT with TMZ in glioma cells, which suggested that FLT might sensitize glioma cells to TMZ through down-regulation of MGMT expression. Consistently, TMZ combined with FLT markedly attenuated NF-κB/p65 activity, reduced MGMT expression, and suppressed in vivo tumor growth in the murine subcutaneous xenograft model. Conclusion Our findings demonstrated that FLT attenuated MGMT expression by disrupting NF-κB signaling and sensitized glioma cells to TMZ, which may warrant further investigation toward possible clinical application in MGMT-expressing glioma. PMID

  13. Constitutive activation of myosin-dependent contractility sensitizes glioma tumor-initiating cells to mechanical inputs and reduces tissue invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sophie Y.; Ulrich, Theresa A.; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; MacKay, Joanna L.; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Martuscello, Regina T.; Jundi, Musa A.; Reynolds, Brent A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) perpetuate tumor growth, enable therapeutic resistance, and drive initiation of successive tumors. Virtually nothing is known about the role of mechanotransductive signaling in controlling TIC tumorigenesis, despite the recognized importance of altered mechanics in tissue dysplasia and the common observation that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness strongly regulates cell behavior. To address this open question, we cultured primary human glioblastoma (GBM) TICs on laminin-functionalized ECMs spanning a range of stiffnesses. Surprisingly, we found that these cells were largely insensitive to ECM stiffness cues, evading the inhibition of spreading, migration, and proliferation typically imposed by compliant ECMs. We hypothesize that this insensitivity may result from insufficient generation of myosin-dependent contractile force. Indeed, we found that both pharmacologic and genetic activation of cell contractility through RhoA GTPase, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) restored stiffness-dependent spreading and motility, with TICs adopting the expected rounded and non-motile phenotype on soft ECMs. Moreover, constitutive activation of RhoA restricted three-dimensional invasion in both spheroid implantation and transwell paradigms. Orthotopic xenotransplantation studies revealed that control TICs formed tumors with classical GBM histopathology including diffuse infiltration and secondary foci, whereas TICs expressing a constitutively active mutant of RhoA produced circumscribed masses and yielded a 30% enhancement in mean survival time. This is the first direct evidence that manipulation of mechanotransductive signaling can alter the tumor-initiating capacity of GBM TICs, supporting further exploration of these signals as potential therapeutic targets and predictors of tumor initiating capacity within heterogeneous tumor cell populations. PMID:25634210

  14. Erythropoietin Augments Survival of Glioma Cells After Radiation and Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Hassouna, Imam; Sperling, Swetlana; Kim, Ella; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hasselblatt, Martin; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Giese, Alf; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Despite beneficial effects of irradiation/chemotherapy on survival of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, collateral damage to intact neural tissue leads to 'radiochemobrain' and reduced quality of life in survivors. For prophylactic neuroprotection, erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising candidate, provided that concerns regarding potential tumor promoting effects are alleviated. Methods and Materials: Human GBM-derived cell lines U87, G44, G112, and the gliosarcoma-derived line G28 were treated with EPO, with and without combinations of irradiation or temozolomide (TMZ). Responsiveness of glioma cells to EPO was measured by cell migration from spheroids, cell proliferation, and clonogenic survival. Implantation of U87 cells into brains of nude mice, followed 5 days later by EPO treatment (5,000 U/kg intraperitoneal every other day for 2 weeks) should reveal effects of EPO on tumor growth in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed for EPOR, HIF-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)vIII in cell lines and 22 human GBM specimens. Results: EPO did not modulate basal glioma cell migration and stimulated proliferation in only one of four cell lines. Importantly, EPO did not enhance tumor growth in mouse brains. Preincubation of glioma cells with EPO for 3 h, followed by irradiation and TMZ for another 24 h, resulted in protection against chemoradiation-induced cytotoxicity in three cell lines. Conversely, EPO induced a dose-dependent decrease in survival of G28 gliosarcoma cells. In GBM specimens, expression of HIF-1{alpha} correlated positively with expression of EPOR and EGFRvIII. EPOR and EGFRvIII expression did not correlate. Conclusions: EPO is unlikely to appreciably influence basal glioma growth. However, concomitant use of EPO with irradiation/chemotherapy in GBM patients is not advisable.

  15. Securin promotes migration and invasion via matrix metalloproteinases in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    YAN, HAICHENG; WANG, WEI; DOU, CHANGWU; TIAN, FUMING; QI, SONGTAO

    2015-01-01

    Human securin, encoded by pituitary tumor transforming gene 1, is implicated in several oncogenic processes in the pathogenesis of brain tumors, including glioma. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of securin on the migration and invasion of glioma cells. The results revealed that the overexpression of securin in glioma LN-229 cells significantly increased the invasion and transmigration abilities. By contrast, these abilities were significantly reduced by the downregulation of securin in glioma U373 cells. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that securin overexpression and downregulation significantly increased and decreased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, respectively. These findings indicate a promotive role for securin in glioma migration and invasion, which may involve the action of matrix metalloproteinases. PMID:26137166

  16. Multifunctional targeting vinorelbine plus tetrandrine liposomes for treating brain glioma along with eliminating glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Tao; Tang, Wei; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Min; Wang, Yan-Hong; Cheng, Lan; Meng, Xian-Sheng

    2016-04-26

    Malignant brain glioma is the most lethal and aggressive type of cancer. Surgery and radiotherapy cannot eliminate all glioma stem cells (GSCs) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the movement of antitumor drugs from blood to brain, thus leading to the poor prognosis with high recurrence rate. In the present study, the targeting conjugates of cholesterol polyethylene glycol polyethylenimine (CHOL-PEG2000-PEI) and D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate vapreotide (TPGS1000-VAP) were newly synthesized for transporting drugs across the BBB and targeting glioma cells and GSCs. The multifunctional targeting vinorelbine plus tetrandrine liposomes were constructed by modifying the targeting conjugates. The studies were undertaken on BBB model, glioma cells, GSCs, and glioma-bearing mice. In vitro results showed that multifunctional targeting drugs-loaded liposomes with suitable physicochemical property could enhance the transport drugs across the BBB, increase the intracellular uptake, inhibit glioma cells and GSCs, penetrate and destruct the GSCs spheroids, and induce apoptosis via activating related apoptotic proteins. In vivo results demonstrated that multifunctional targeting drugs-loaded liposomes could significantly accumulate into brain tumor location, show the specificity to tumor sites, and result in a robust overall antitumor efficacy in glioma-bearing mice. These data suggested that the multifunctional targeting vinorelbine plus tetrandrine liposomes could offer a promising strategy for treating brain glioma. PMID:27029055

  17. Overexpression of TREM2 enhances glioma cell proliferation and invasion: a therapeutic target in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Tao, Bang-Bao; Li, Bin; Wang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Chuan; Wan, Liang; Hua, Xu-Ming; Li, Shi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and aggressive type of primary adult brain tumors. Although TREM2 mutation is reported to be related to Nasu-Hakola disease and Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the association between TREM2 and gliomas. Here, we reported that TREM2 was significantly overexpressed in glioma tissues compared with non-tumorous brain tissues. Furthermore, TREM2 expression was closely related to pathological grade and overall survival of patients with gliomas. Down-regulation of TREM2 in two glioma cell lines, U87 and U373, resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation, migration and invasion and a dramatic increase in S phase arrest and apoptosis. In vivo tumorigenesis experiment also revealed that depletion of TREM2 expression inhibited U87 cell proliferation. Moreover, based on gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we found that TREM2 was positive related to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) apoptosis, Cromer metastasis and KEGG chemokine pathways, which was further validated by western blot in TREM2 knockdown glioma cells and indicated a possible mechanism underlying its effects on glioma. In summary, our study suggests that TREM2 may work as an oncogene and a new effective therapeutic target for glioma treatment. PMID:26506595

  18. MiR-328 promotes glioma cell invasion via SFRP1-dependent Wnt-signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Delic, Sabit; Lottmann, Nadine; Stelzl, Anja; Liesenberg, Franziska; Wolter, Marietta; Götze, Silke; Zapatka, Marc; Shiio, Yuzuru; Sabel, Michael C; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Riemenschneider, Markus J

    2014-01-01

    Background Diffusely infiltrative growth of human astrocytic gliomas is one of the major obstacles to successful tumor therapy. Thorough insights into the molecules and pathways signaling glioma cell invasion thus appear of major relevance for the development of targeted and individualized therapies. By miRNA expression profiling of microdissected human tumor biopsy specimens we identified miR-328 as one of the main miRNAs upregulated in invading glioma cells in vivo and further investigated its role in glioma pathogenesis. Methods We employed miRNA mimics and inhibitors to functionally characterize miR-328, 3' untranslated region luciferase assays, and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor reporter assays to pinpoint miR-328 targets and signaling pathways, and analyzed miR-328 expression in a large panel of gliomas. Results First, we corroborated the invasion-promoting role of miR-328 in A172 and TP365MG glioma cells. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, was then pinpointed as a direct miR-328 target. SFRP1 expression is of prognostic relevance in gliomas with reduced expression, being associated with significantly lower overall patient survival in both the Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of note, miR-328 regulated both SFRP1 protein expression levels and Wnt signaling pathway activity. Finally, in human glioma tissues miR-328 appeared to account for the downregulation of SFRP1 preferentially in lower-grade astrocytic gliomas and was inversely related to SFRP1 promoter hypermethylation. Conclusion Taken together, we report on a novel molecular miR-328-dependent mechanism that via SFRP1 inhibition and Wnt activation contributes to the infiltrative glioma phenotype at already early stages of glioma progression, with unfavorable prognostic implications for the final outcome of the disease. PMID:24305703

  19. Anticancer effect of eupatilin on glioma cells through inhibition of the Notch-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAWEI; HOU, HONGWEI; LI, MING; YANG, YANG; SUN, LAN

    2016-01-01

    Eupatilin, one of the major flavonoids in Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), has been reported to possess antitumor properties. However, thus far there have been no reports regarding the effects of eupatilin on glioma. Therefore, in the current study the effects of eupatilin on glioma and the underlying molecular mechanism were explored. The effect of eupatilin on cell viability was detected by the MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were performed with Transwell assays and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Notch-1 knockdown cells were established by transfection with Notch-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression levels of Notch-1 were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results of the present study indicated that eupatilin exhibits an anticancer effect on glioma cells. Eupatilin inhibited proliferation, reduced cell invasion and migration, and promoted the apoptosis of glioma cells. Additionally, it suppressed Notch-1 expression. Knockdown of Notch-1 by siRNA contributed to the inhibitory effect of eupatilin on proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. In conclusion, eupatilin had an inhibitory effect on proliferation, invasion and migration, and promoted apoptosis of glioma cells through suppression of the Notch-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, eupatilin may have potential as an effective agent for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26676446

  20. Lithium inhibits invasion of glioma cells; possible involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Michal O.; Dmitrieva, Nina; Stein, Andrew M.; Cutter, Jennifer L.; Godlewski, Jakub; Saeki, Yoshinaga; Nita, Masayuki; Berens, Michael E.; Sander, Leonard M.; Newton, Herbert B.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Therapies targeting glioma cells that diffusely infiltrate normal brain are highly sought after. Our aim was to identify novel approaches to this problem using glioma spheroid migration assays. Lithium, a currently approved drug for the treatment of bipolar illnesses, has not been previously examined in the context of glioma migration. We found that lithium treatment potently blocked glioma cell migration in spheroid, wound-healing, and brain slice assays. The effects observed were dose dependent and reversible, and worked using every glioma cell line tested. In addition, there was little effect on cell viability at lithium concentrations that inhibit migration, showing that this is a specific effect. Lithium treatment was associated with a marked change in cell morphology, with cells retracting the long extensions at their leading edge. Examination of known targets of lithium showed that inositol monophosphatase inhibition had no effect on glioma migration, whereas inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) did. This suggested that the effects of lithium on glioma cell migration could possibly be mediated through GSK-3. Specific pharmacologic GSK-3 inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of GSK-3α or GSK-3β isoforms both reduced cell motility. These data outline previously unidentified pathways and inhibitors that may be useful for the development of novel anti-invasive therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:18715951

  1. Glioma Stem Cells: Signaling, Microenvironment, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liebelt, Brandon D.; Shingu, Takashi; Zhou, Xin; Ren, Jiangong; Shin, Seul A.; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains the most common and devastating primary brain tumor despite maximal therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. The glioma stem cell (GSC) subpopulation has been identified in glioblastoma and likely plays a key role in resistance of these tumors to conventional therapies as well as recurrent disease. GSCs are capable of self-renewal and differentiation; glioblastoma-derived GSCs are capable of de novo tumor formation when implanted in xenograft models. Further, GSCs possess unique surface markers, modulate characteristic signaling pathways to promote tumorigenesis, and play key roles in glioma vascular formation. These features, in addition to microenvironmental factors, present possible targets for specifically directing therapy against the GSC population within glioblastoma. In this review, the authors summarize the current knowledge of GSC biology and function and the role of GSCs in new vascular formation within glioblastoma and discuss potential therapeutic approaches to target GSCs. PMID:26880988

  2. Cytotoxicity of sophorolipid-gellan gum-gold nanoparticle conjugates and their doxorubicin loaded derivatives towards human glioma and human glioma stem cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Sheetal; Reddy, E. Maheswara; Prabhune, Asmita; Pokharkar, Varsha; Shiras, Anjali; Prasad, B. L. V.

    2011-02-01

    Biocompatible gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a naturally occurring gum-Gellan Gum-as a capping and reducing agent. These were further conjugated with sophorolipids which again were accessed through a biochemical transformation of a fatty acid. The cellular uptake of sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line LN-229 and human glioma stem cell line HNGC-2 were investigated. Quite surprisingly even the simple sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced/capped gold nanoparticles showed greater efficacy in killing the glioma cell lines and, gratifyingly, the glioma stem cell lines also. The cytotoxic effects became more prominent once the anti cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride was also conjugated to these gold nanoparticles.Biocompatible gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a naturally occurring gum-Gellan Gum-as a capping and reducing agent. These were further conjugated with sophorolipids which again were accessed through a biochemical transformation of a fatty acid. The cellular uptake of sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line LN-229 and human glioma stem cell line HNGC-2 were investigated. Quite surprisingly even the simple sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced/capped gold nanoparticles showed greater efficacy in killing the glioma cell lines and, gratifyingly, the glioma stem cell lines also. The cytotoxic effects became more prominent once the anti cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride was also conjugated to these gold nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Confocal Z-stacking images of Texas Red Conjugated SL-GG-Au NPs, thermogravimetic analysis of DOX-SL-GG-Au-NPs and SL-GG-AuNPs, and time-dependent fluorescence spectra of DOX-SL-GG-Au NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00598c

  3. Virotherapy against malignant glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mahua; Ulasov, Ilya V; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2010-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common primary intracranial malignancy, is associated with very poor outcome despite advances in surgical techniques and chemo- and radiation therapy. Many novel treatment modalities are being investigated with varying amount of success. Evolution of cancer stem cell hypothesis provides a new venue for developmental therapeutics. In this review, we highlight the literature regarding the existence of glioma stem cells and their characteristics. We also discuss the potential for virotherapy, a novel therapeutic approach utilizing conditionally replicative viruses, to directly target this population of self-renewing cancer stem cells. PMID:19643532

  4. Virotherapy Against Malignant Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Mahua; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common primary intracranial malignancy, is associated with very poor outcome despite advances in surgical techniques and chemo- and radiation therapy. Many novel treatment modalities are being investigated with varying amount of success. Evolution of cancer stem cell hypothesis provides a new venue for developmental therapeutics. In this review, we highlight the literature regarding the existence of glioma stem cells and their characteristics. We also discuss the potential for virotherapy, a novel therapeutic approach utilizing conditionally replicative viruses, to directly target this population of self-renewing cancer stem cells. PMID:19643532

  5. MicroRNAs and cell cycle of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qing; Xu, Lunshan; Cui, Hongjuan; Xu, Minhui; Yi, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The control of malignant glioma cell cycle by microRNAs (miRNAs) is well established. The deregulation of miRNAs in glioma may contribute to tumor proliferation by directly targeting the critical cell-cycle regulators. Tumor suppressive miRNAs inhibit cell cycle through repressing the expression of positive cell-cycle regulators. However, oncogenic miRNAs promote the cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle negative regulators. Recent studies have identified that transcription factors had involved in the expression of miRNAs. Transcription factors and miRNAs are implicated in regulatory network of glioma cell cycle, the deregulation of these transcription factors might be a cause of the deregulation of miRNAs. Abnormal versions of miRNAs have been implicated in the cell cycle of glioma. Based on those, miRNAs are excellent biomarker candidates and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glioma. PMID:26000816

  6. Estradiol Receptors Regulate Differential Connexin 43 Expression in F98 and C6 Glioma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Moinfar, Zahra; Dambach, Hannes; Schoenebeck, Bodo; Förster, Eckart; Prochnow, Nora; Faustmann, Pedro Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour with male preponderance and poor prognosis. Glioma cells express variable amounts of connexin 43 (Cx43) and estrogen receptors (ERs). Both, Cx43 and ERs, play important roles in cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 17-ß estradiol (E2) on Cx43 expression in two glioma cell lines with variable native expression of Cx43. Materials and Methods F98 and C6 rat glioma cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 nM or 100 nM E2, and the E2-antagonist, Fulvestrant. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. ERα, ERβ and Cx43 protein expressions were analysed by western blotting and Cx43 mRNA expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To quantify cell migration, an exclusive zone migration assay was used. Functional coupling of cells via gap junctions was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results E2 reduced Cx43 expression in C6 cells, but increased Cx43 expression in F98 cultures. These effects were mediated via ERs. Moreover, E2 promoted C6 cell migration, but it did not affect F98 cell migration. The expression level of ERα was found to be high in C6, but low in F98 cells. ERβ was exclusively expressed in C6 cells. In addition, E2 treatment induced a significant decrease of ERβ in C6 cultures, while it decreased ERα expression in F98 glioma cells. Discussion These findings show that E2 differentially modulates Cx43 expression in F98 and C6 glioma cells, likely due to the differential expression of ERs in each of these cell lines. Our findings point to the molecular mechanisms that might contribute to the gender-specific differences in the malignancy of glioma and could have implications for therapeutic strategies against glioma. PMID:26919293

  7. Functionally Active Gap Junctions between Connexin 43-Positive Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gabashvili, A N; Baklaushev, V P; Grinenko, N F; Levinskii, A B; Mel'nikov, P A; Cherepanov, S A; Chekhonin, V P

    2015-05-01

    The formation of functional gap junctions between mesenchymal stem cells and cells of low-grade rat glioma C6 cells was studied in in vitro experiments. Immunocytochemical analysis with antibodies to connexin 43 extracellular loop 2 showed that mesenchymal stem cells as well as C6 glioma cells express the main astroglial gap junction protein connexin 43. Analysis of migration activity showed that mesenchymal stem cells actively migrate towards C6 glioma cells. During co-culturing, mesenchymal stem cells and glioma C6 form functionally active gap junctions mediating the transport of cytoplasmic dye from glioma cells to mesenchymal stem cells in the opposite direction. Fluorometry showed that the intensity of transport of low-molecular substances through heterologous gap junctions between mesenchymal stem cells and glioma cells is similar to that through homologous gap junctions between glioma cells. This phenomenon can be used for the development of new methods of cell therapy of high-grade gliomas. PMID:26033611

  8. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Si-Jian; Wu, Yue-Bing; Cai, Shang; Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2015-03-13

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.

  9. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor induces the upregulation of connexin-43 expression in C6 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    QIN, LI-JUAN; JIA, YONG-SEN; ZHANG, YI-BING; WANG, YIN-HUAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether aspirin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, has an effect on the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in C6 glioma cells. Using an in vitro glioma invasion model, the expression of Cx43 protein in C6 cells was significantly increased following aspirin treatment at a dose of 8 mmol/l for 30, 60 and 120 min via western blot analysis. The peak value of the Cx43 expression was observed in C6 cells after 120 min of aspirin treatment, which was significantly reduced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, aspirin also significantly increased the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity and reduced glioma invasion, which was induced by PGE2. This led to the conclusion that the aspirin-induced glioma invasion decrease may be associated with the increased expression of Cx43 protein and formation of GJIC. PMID:27073629

  10. Cancer cell death by design: apoptosis, autophagy and glioma virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Matthew A; Ulasov, Ilya V; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2009-08-01

    Autophagy has been defined as a mechanism by which oncolytic adenoviruses mediate cell killing in some cancers, including malignant glioma. Until recently, however, adenovirus replication was regarded as a process that induced classical apoptosis in the infected cell. We have assessed the method of conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) death in a model of malignant glioma, considering both autophagy and apoptosis as possible mechanisms of virally-induced cell death. Our initial investigations indicated that autophagy was the predominant system in CRAd-induced cell death in glioma. This appeared to be the case in vitro; however, further investigation in vivo shows that CRAds are capable of inducing both apoptotic and autophagic cell death. In this punctum, we summarize our latest research to uncover the method of oncolytic adenovirus-induced cell death in malignant glioma. Elucidating the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in glioma virotherapy has significant implications for the design of optimal viral vectors. PMID:19430207

  11. MicroRNA-544 inhibits glioma proliferation, invasion and migration but induces cell apoptosis by targeting PARK7

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shiguang; Dai, Yan; Li, Cheng; Fang, Xiao; Han, Huijing; Wang, Daxin

    2016-01-01

    Glioma is a common type of primary brain tumor. The survival rate in people with malignant gliomas is extremely low associated with the lack of effective treatment. Here, we firstly observed that miR-544 expression is downregulated in glioma tissues and its overexpression in glioma cell line dramatically reduces cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, we found that the tumor growth in nude mouse was as well inhibited by miR-544 overexpressed in glioma cell. Our further investigation showed that the inhibitor role of miR-544 in tumor development was related to the downregulated expression of Park7 gene which has been demonstrated as a functional downstream target of miR-544. Thus, our discovery suggested that miR-544 might used as a therapeutic reagent for the treatment of glioma in the future. PMID:27186306

  12. Photodynamic therapy on the ultrastructure of glioma cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Ruyou; Zheng, Yongri

    2005-07-01

    OBJECTIVE :the main purpose of this experiment was to study the change of C6 glioma cells' ultrastructure treated by photodynamic therapy(PDT), observe the change of morphology METHOD :Make the model of rat glioma by transplanted C6 glioma cells into caudate nucleus,treated the glioma rat by PDT after two weeks. Observed the difference of subcellular structure before and after PDT by electron microscope. RESULT : Apoptosis and necrosis can be seen after treated by PDT in the C6 glioma, basal membrance damaged ,number of cellular organ of endothelial cell of blood capillary declined,tight junction of endothelial cell lengthen and the gap enlarge. The PDT has slightly effect on the nomorl rat"s subcellular structue. CONCLUSION: PDT can induce the apoptosis and necrosis of C6 glioma cell. The damage of the ultramicrostructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was the foundmentol of the change. PDT initiate the damage of BBB of the C6 glioma cell and weeken the function、and makes it a useful way of treating the glioma combained with chemotherapy.

  13. Proapoptotic and antiinvasive activity of Rac1 small molecule inhibitors on malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardama, Georgina A; Gonzalez, Nazareno; Ciarlantini, Matias; Gandolfi Donadío, Lucia; Comin, María Julieta; Alonso, Daniel F; Menna, Pablo Lorenzano; Gomez, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by an intrinsic ability to invade diffusely throughout the normal brain tissue. This feature contributes mainly to the failure of existing therapies. Deregulation of small GTPases signaling, in particular Rac1 activity, plays a key role in the invasive phenotype of gliomas. Here we report the effect of ZINC69391, a specific Rac1 inhibitor developed by our group, on human glioma cell lines LN229 and U-87 MG. ZINC69391 is able to interfere with the interaction of Rac1 with Dock180, a relevant Rac1 activator in glioma invasion, and to reduce Rac1-GTP levels. The kinase Pak1, a downstream effector of Dock180–Rac1 signaling, was also downregulated upon ZINC69391 treatment. ZINC69391 reduced cell proliferation, arrested cells in G1 phase, and triggered apoptosis in glioma cells. Importantly, ZINC69391 dramatically affected cell migration and invasion in vitro, interfering with actin cytoskeleton dynamics. We also evaluated the effect of analog 1A-116, a compound derived from ZINC69391 structure. 1A-116 showed an improved antiproliferative and antiinvasive activity on glioma cells. These findings encourage further preclinical testing in clinically relevant animal models. PMID:25378937

  14. Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong; Jiang, Feng; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Kalina; Zheng, Xuguang; Cai, Yizhong; Katakowski, Mark; Chopp, Michael; To, Shing-Shun Tony

    2010-01-01

    Gallic acid, an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is cytotoxic against certain cancer cells, without harming normal cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether gallic acid can inhibit glioma cell viability, proliferation, invasion and reduce glioma cell mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of U87 and U251n glioma cells with gallic acid inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BrdU and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased glioma cell proliferation and tube formation in mouse brain endothelial cells, respectively. In addition, gallic acid decreased U87 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis showed that expression of ADAM17, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in both U87 and U251n cell lines. These data suggest that suppression of ADAM17 and downregulation of PI3K/Akt and Ras/MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to gallic acid-induced decrease of invasiveness. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for treatment of brain tumor. PMID:20553913

  15. Glioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, as well as changes in behavior and personality, are also fairly common in mixed glioma patients. ... Cerebri: Symptoms are often nonspecific and can include personality and behavioral changes, memory disturbance, increased intracranial pressure ...

  16. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei; Lu, Qiong; Fei, Mingyu; Li, Mengmeng; Wu, Xi

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We found that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.

  17. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R.; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  18. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  19. Three-dimensional cultured glioma cell lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Marley, Garry M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional glioma spheroids were produced in vitro with size and histological differentiation previously unattained. The spheroids were grown in liquid media suspension in a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Rotating Wall Bioreactor without using support matrices such as microcarrier beads. Spheroid volumes of greater than 3.5 cu mm and diameters of 2.5 mm were achieved with a viable external layer or rim of proliferating cells, a transitional layer beneath the external layer with histological differentiation, and a degenerative central region with a hypoxic necrotic core. Cell debris was evident in the degenerative central region. The necrotics centers of some of the spheroids had hyaline droplets. Granular bodies were detected predominantly in the necrotic center.

  20. Control of glioma cell migration and invasiveness by GDF-15

    PubMed Central

    Codó, Paula; Weller, Michael; Kaulich, Kerstin; Schraivogel, Daniel; Silginer, Manuela; Reifenberger, Guido; Meister, Gunter; Roth, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-15 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of proteins. GDF-15 levels are increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients. Using a TCGA database interrogation, we demonstrate that high GDF-15 expression levels are associated with poor survival of glioblastoma patients. To elucidate the role of GDF-15 in glioblastoma in detail, we confirmed that glioma cells express GDF-15 mRNA and protein in vitro. To allow for a detailed functional characterization, GDF-15 expression was silenced using RNA interference in LNT-229 and LN-308 glioma cells. Depletion of GDF-15 had no effect on cell viability. In contrast, GDF-15-deficient cells displayed reduced migration and invasion, in the absence of changes in Smad2 or Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Conversely, exogenous GDF-15 stimulated migration and invasiveness. Large-scale expression profiling revealed that GDF-15 gene silencing resulted in minor changes in the miRNA profile whereas several genes, including members of the plasminogen activator/inhibitor complex, were deregulated at the mRNA level. One of the newly identified genes induced by GDF-15 gene silencing was the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E nexin group 1 (serpine1) which is induced by TGF-β and known to inhibit migration and invasiveness. However, serpine1 down-regulation alone did not mediate GDF-15-induced promotion of migration and invasiveness. Our findings highlight the complex contributions of GDF-15 to the invasive phenotype of glioma cells and suggest anti-GDF-15 approaches as a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:26741507

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote glioma cell death by G2 checkpoint abrogation leading to mitotic catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Cornago, M; Garcia-Alberich, C; Blasco-Angulo, N; Vall-Llaura, N; Nager, M; Herreros, J; Comella, J X; Sanchis, D; Llovera, M

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is resistant to conventional anti-tumoral treatments due to its infiltrative nature and capability of relapse; therefore, research efforts focus on characterizing gliomagenesis and identifying molecular targets useful on therapy. New therapeutic strategies are being tested in patients, such as Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) either alone or in combination with other therapies. Here two HDACi included in clinical trials have been tested, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA), to characterize their effects on glioma cell growth in vitro and to determine the molecular changes that promote cancer cell death. We found that both HDACi reduce glioma cell viability, proliferation and clonogenicity. They have multiple effects, such as inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, nevertheless cell death is not prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh. Importantly, we found that HDACi alter cell cycle progression by decreasing the expression of G2 checkpoint kinases Wee1 and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). In addition, HDACi reduce the expression of proteins involved in DNA repair (Rad51), mitotic spindle formation (TPX2) and chromosome segregation (Survivin) in glioma cells and in human glioblastoma multiforme primary cultures. Therefore, HDACi treatment causes glioma cell entry into mitosis before DNA damage could be repaired and to the formation of an aberrant mitotic spindle that results in glioma cell death through mitotic catastrophe-induced apoptosis. PMID:25275596

  2. Glioma Cells in the Tumor Periphery Have a Stem Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Sune; Petterson, Stine Asferg; Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are highly infiltrative tumors incurable with surgery. Although surgery removes the bulk tumor, tumor cells in the periphery are left behind resulting in tumor relapses. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenotype of tumor cells in the periphery focusing on tumor stemness, proliferation and chemo-resistance. This was investigated in situ in patient glioma tissue as well as in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts. We identified 26 gliomas having the R132 mutation in Isocitrate DeHydrogenase 1 (mIDH1). A double immunofluorescence approach identifying mIDH1 positive tumor cells and a panel of markers was used. The panel comprised of six stem cell-related markers (CD133, Musashi-1, Bmi-1, Sox-2, Nestin and Glut-3), a proliferation marker (Ki-67) as well as a chemo-resistance marker (MGMT). Computer-based automated classifiers were designed to measure the mIDH1 positive nucleus area-fraction of the chosen markers. Moreover, orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts from five different patient-derived spheroid cultures were obtained and the tumor cells identified by human specific immunohistochemical markers. The results showed that tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas expressed stem cell markers, however for most markers at a significantly lower level than in the tumor core. The Ki-67 level was slightly reduced in the periphery, whereas the MGMT level was similar. In orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts all markers showed similar levels in the core and periphery. In conclusion tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas have a stem cell phenotype, although it is less pronounced than in the tumor core. Novel therapies aiming at preventing recurrence should therefore take tumor stemness into account. Migrating cells in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts preserve expression and stem cell markers. The orthotopic model therefore has a promising translational potential. PMID:27171431

  3. Glioma Cells in the Tumor Periphery Have a Stem Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Munthe, Sune; Petterson, Stine Asferg; Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are highly infiltrative tumors incurable with surgery. Although surgery removes the bulk tumor, tumor cells in the periphery are left behind resulting in tumor relapses. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenotype of tumor cells in the periphery focusing on tumor stemness, proliferation and chemo-resistance. This was investigated in situ in patient glioma tissue as well as in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts. We identified 26 gliomas having the R132 mutation in Isocitrate DeHydrogenase 1 (mIDH1). A double immunofluorescence approach identifying mIDH1 positive tumor cells and a panel of markers was used. The panel comprised of six stem cell-related markers (CD133, Musashi-1, Bmi-1, Sox-2, Nestin and Glut-3), a proliferation marker (Ki-67) as well as a chemo-resistance marker (MGMT). Computer-based automated classifiers were designed to measure the mIDH1 positive nucleus area-fraction of the chosen markers. Moreover, orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts from five different patient-derived spheroid cultures were obtained and the tumor cells identified by human specific immunohistochemical markers. The results showed that tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas expressed stem cell markers, however for most markers at a significantly lower level than in the tumor core. The Ki-67 level was slightly reduced in the periphery, whereas the MGMT level was similar. In orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts all markers showed similar levels in the core and periphery. In conclusion tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas have a stem cell phenotype, although it is less pronounced than in the tumor core. Novel therapies aiming at preventing recurrence should therefore take tumor stemness into account. Migrating cells in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts preserve expression and stem cell markers. The orthotopic model therefore has a promising translational potential. PMID:27171431

  4. IGFBP2 promotes glioma tumor stem cell expansion and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, David; Hsieh, Antony; Stea, Baldassarre; Ellsworth, Ron

    2010-06-25

    IGFBP2 is overexpressed in the most common brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM), and its expression is inversely correlated to GBM patient survival. Previous reports have demonstrated a role for IGFBP2 in glioma cell invasion and astrocytoma development. However, the function of IGFBP2 in the restricted, self-renewing, and tumorigenic GBM cell population comprised of tumor-initiating stem cells has yet to be determined. Herein we demonstrate that IGFBP2 is overexpressed within the stem cell compartment of GBMs and is integral for the clonal expansion and proliferative properties of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In addition, IGFBP2 inhibition reduced Akt-dependent GSC genotoxic and drug resistance. These results suggest that IGFBP2 is a selective malignant factor that may contribute significantly to GBM pathogenesis by enriching for GSCs and mediating their survival. Given the current dearth of selective molecular targets against GSCs, we anticipate our results to be of high therapeutic relevance in combating the rapid and lethal course of GBM.

  5. Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Hui; Zhu, Guangtong; Xiao, Zhiyong; Wan, Weiqing; Zhang, Peng; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Liwei

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • KDM5B is overexpressed in glioma samples. • KDM5B stimulated proliferation of glioma cells. • Inhibition of p21contributes to KDM5B-induced proliferation. - Abstract: Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management.

  6. Downregulation of BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 sensitizes glioma cells to temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Chai, Kit Man; Wang, Chih-Yen; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Fang, Kuan-Min; Yang, Chung-Shi; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2014-11-15

    We previously found that BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3) was highly expressed in tumorigenic rat glioma cells. However, the functional role of BRCC3 in human glioma cells remains to be characterized. This study indicated that the upregulation of BRCC3 expression was induced in two human malignant glioblastoma U251 and A172 cell lines following exposure to the alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ). Homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DNA repair-associated genes (i.e. BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51 and FANCD2) were also increased in U251 and A172 cells after treatment with TMZ. BRCC3 gene knockdown through lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown approach not only significantly reduced the clonogenic and migratory abilities of U251 and A172 cells, but also enhanced their sensitization to TMZ. The increase in phosphorylated H2AX foci (γH2AX) formation, an indicator of DNA damage, persisted in TMZ-treated glioma cells with stable knockdown BRCC3 expression, suggesting that BRCC3 gene deficiency is associated with DNA repair impairment. In summary, we demonstrate that by inducing DNA repair, BRCC3 renders glioma cells resistant to TMZ. The findings point to BRCC3 as a potential target for treatment of alkylating drug-resistant glioma. PMID:25337721

  7. Macrophage Ablation Reduces M2-Like Populations and Jeopardizes Tumor Growth in a MAFIA-Based Glioma Model12

    PubMed Central

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Fan, Xuejun; Kaminska, Bozena; Marini, Frank C.; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are an influential component of the glioma microenvironment. However, understanding their diversity and plasticity constitute one of the most challenging areas of research due to the paucity of models to study these cells' inherent complexity. Herein, we analyzed the role of monocytes/macrophages in glioma growth by using a transgenic model that allows for conditional ablation of this cell population. We modeled glioma using intracranial GL261-bearing CSF-1R–GFP+ macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic mice. Conditional macrophage ablation was achieved by exposure to the dimerizer AP20187. Double immunofluorescence was used to characterize M1- and M2-like monocytes/macrophages during tumor growth and after conditional ablation. During glioma growth, the monocyte/macrophage population consisted predominantly of M2 macrophages. Conditional temporal depletion of macrophages reduced the number of GFP+ cells, targeting mainly the repopulation of M2-polarized cells, and altered the appearance of M1-like monocytes/macrophages, which suggested a shift in the M1/M2 macrophage balance. Of interest, compared with control-treated mice, macrophage-depleted mice had a lower tumor mitotic index, microvascular density, and reduced tumor growth. These results demonstrated the possibility of studying in vivo the role and phenotype of macrophages in gliomas and suggested that transitory depletion of CSF-1R+ population influences the reconstitutive phenotypic pool of these cells, ultimately suppressing tumor growth. The MAFIA model provides a much needed advance in defining the role of macrophages in gliomas. PMID:25925380

  8. Macrophage Ablation Reduces M2-Like Populations and Jeopardizes Tumor Growth in a MAFIA-Based Glioma Model.

    PubMed

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Hossain, Mohammad B; Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Fan, Xuejun; Kaminska, Bozena; Marini, Frank C; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2015-04-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are an influential component of the glioma microenvironment. However, understanding their diversity and plasticity constitute one of the most challenging areas of research due to the paucity of models to study these cells' inherent complexity. Herein, we analyzed the role of monocytes/macrophages in glioma growth by using a transgenic model that allows for conditional ablation of this cell population. We modeled glioma using intracranial GL261-bearing CSF-1R-GFP(+) macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic mice. Conditional macrophage ablation was achieved by exposure to the dimerizer AP20187. Double immunofluorescence was used to characterize M1- and M2-like monocytes/macrophages during tumor growth and after conditional ablation. During glioma growth, the monocyte/macrophage population consisted predominantly of M2 macrophages. Conditional temporal depletion of macrophages reduced the number of GFP(+) cells, targeting mainly the repopulation of M2-polarized cells, and altered the appearance of M1-like monocytes/macrophages, which suggested a shift in the M1/M2 macrophage balance. Of interest, compared with control-treated mice, macrophage-depleted mice had a lower tumor mitotic index, microvascular density, and reduced tumor growth. These results demonstrated the possibility of studying in vivo the role and phenotype of macrophages in gliomas and suggested that transitory depletion of CSF-1R(+) population influences the reconstitutive phenotypic pool of these cells, ultimately suppressing tumor growth. The MAFIA model provides a much needed advance in defining the role of macrophages in gliomas. PMID:25925380

  9. Metformin and temozolomide act synergistically to inhibit growth of glioma cells and glioma stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiyun; Zhao, Gang; Xie, Guifang; Zhao, Liyan; Chen, Yong; Yu, Hongquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Cai; Li, Yunqian

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive brain tumor in adults. In spite of advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis of patients with GBM has remained dismal. The fast recurrence and multi-drug resistance are some of the key challenges in combating brain tumors. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) which are considered the source of relapse and chemoresistance, the need for more effective therapeutic options is overwhelming. In our present work, we found that combined treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) and metformin (MET) synergistically inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both glioma cells and GSCs. Combination of TMZ and MET significantly reduced the secondary gliosphere formation and expansion of GSCs. We first demonstrated that MET effectively inhibited the AKT activation induced by TMZ, and a combination of both drugs led to enhanced reduction of mTOR, 4EBP1 and S6K phosphorylation. In addition, the combination of the two drugs was accompanied with a powerful AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, while this pathway is not determinant. Xenografts performed in nude mice demonstrate in vivo demonstrated that combined treatment significantly reduced tumor growth rates and prolonged median survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, TMZ in combination with MET synergistically inhibits the GSCs proliferation through downregulation of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. The combined treatment of two drugs inhibits GSCs self-renewal capability and partly eliminates GSCs in vitro and in vivo. This combined treatment could be a promising option for patients with advanced GBM. PMID:26431379

  10. MicroRNA-383 expression regulates proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dawei; Ma, Pengju; Gao, Guojun; Gui, Yongkun; Niu, Xiaolu; Jin, Baozhe

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate microRNA-383 (miR-383) expression level in glioma cells and its influences on proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle in glioma cells. miR-383 expression levels were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Thirty BALB/c-nu mice were randomly assigned into three groups: U87-miR-383 group, vector-control group, and blank group. Tumorigenicity experiment was conducted to confirm the function of miR-383. U251 and U87 glioma cells were divided into three groups: non-transfected control cells (NT group), glioma cells transfected with miR-383 (miR-383 group), and glioma cells transfected with negative sequence (NC group). Transfection efficiency was measured by qRT-PCR. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion were examined by utilizing a Transwell chamber. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The qRT-PCR results revealed that miR-383 expression was down-regulated in human glioma cells, and was negatively related to the pathological grading of glioma. The rates of tumor growth in vector-control group and blank group were significantly faster than that in U87-miR-383 group, and the average tumor volume and weight in vector-control group and blank group were increased as compared with U87-miR-383 group. Additionally, miR-383 levels in miR-383 group were higher than those in NT group and NC group. CCK-8 assay indicated lower cell viability in miR-383 group as compared with NT group and NC group. Flow cytometry implied that the percentages of cells in miR-383 group reduced, while the cell apoptosis rate enhanced compared with NT group and NC group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miR-383 expression is down-regulated in glioma cells, inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, affecting the cell cycle, and inducing cell apoptosis. PMID:25936342

  11. Armodafinil in Reducing Cancer-Related Fatigue in Patients With High Grade Glioma | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies armodafinil to see how well it works in reducing cancer-related fatigue in patients with high grade glioma. Armodafinil may help relieve fatigue in patients with high grade glioma. |

  12. Glioma cell integrin expression and their interactions with integrin antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, Ralph-Heiko; Read, Susana B.; Pierschbacher, Michael D.; Sze, Chun-I; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Kruse, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary A panel of human glioma cell explants was screened for integrin expression by flow cytometry using ανβ-specific antibodies. A lower percentage of the glioma cells were positive for the ανβ3 (mean % positive = 20.8%) integrin, whereas higher percentages were positive for the ανβ5 (mean % positive = 72.7%), VLA5α (mean % positive = 87%) and VLAβ1 (mean % positive = 41.7%) integrins. A series of RGD peptides was designed, synthesized and tested for binding to integrin receptors. Based on the results of the binding to the isolated integrin receptors and the expression of integrins on glioma cell lines, a peptide that binds potently to the ανβ3, ανβ5 and α5β1 was selected for further investigations with regards to its effect on glioma cells. The peptide, Ac-c[(Pen)-Tyr(Me)-Ala-Arg-Gly-Asp-Asn-Tic-Cys]NH2 (RGD peptide), exhibited high potential for use in clinical intracranial administration since it had good stability in rat brain cell homogenates placed into artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Using an HPLC method for quantification of peptides in rat brain cell homogenates, we could demonstrate the half-life of the RGD peptide approximated 20 hr. Relative to a scrambled peptide control (non-RGD sequence, same amino acids), the experimental RGD peptide significantly decreased glioma cell proliferation of the entire panel of rat and human glioma cells tested. Adhesion of recently passaged glioma cells to glioma-derived extracellular matrix protein-coated plates was inhibited significantly by the RGD peptide. The peptide also reversed attachment of plated glioma cells. The RGD peptide caused some, but not substantial, glioma cell injury, as evidenced by a quantitative in vitro nuclear DNA morphologic assay and by a flow cytometric assay employing 7-amino actinomycin D (7AAD). We histologically monitored for toxicity caused by various doses of the RGD peptide infused repeatedly into normal cannulated rat brain. At safe doses, the experimental RGD

  13. miR-218 inhibits the invasive ability of glioma cells by direct downregulation of IKK-{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Libing; Huang, Quan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Liping; Lin, Chuyong; Dai, Ting; Yu, Chunping; Wu, Zhiqiang; Li, Jun

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} miR-218 is markedly downregulated in glioma cell lines and in primary glioma tissues. {yields} Upregulation of miR-218 dramatically reduces the invasive ability of glioma cells. {yields} Ectopic expression of miR-218 inactivates IKK-{beta}/NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. {yields} miR-218 directly targets the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of IKK-{beta}. -- Abstract: Aberrant activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway has been proven to play important roles in the development and progression of cancers. Activation of NF-{kappa}B via the classical pathway is modulated by I{kappa}Bs kinase (IKK-{beta}). However, the mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of IKK-{beta}/NF-{kappa}B pathway remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the expression level of miR-218 was markedly downregulated in glioma cell lines and in human primary glioma tissues. Upregulation of miR-218 dramatically reduced the migratory speed and invasive ability of glioma cells. Furthermore, we showed that ectopically expressing miR-218 in glioma cells resulted in downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and reduction in NF-{kappa}B transactivity at a transcriptional level, but inhibition of miR-218 enhanced the expression of MMP-9 and transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, we showed that miR-218 inactivated the NF-{kappa}B pathway through downregulating IKK-{beta} expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of IKK-{beta}. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-218 plays an important role in preventing the invasiveness of glioma cells, and our results present a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated direct suppression of IKK-{beta}/NF-{kappa}B pathway in gliomas.

  14. Knockdown of long noncoding RNA H19 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pengfei; Wang, Ping; Sun, Xiaoling; Yuan, Zhongshun; Zhan, Rucai; Ma, Xiangyu; Li, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is commonly used in glioma chemotherapy. However, a great clinical challenge for TMZ is chemoresistance. H19 transcripts are recognized as long noncoding RNAs, which potentially interact with chromatin-modifying complexes to regulate gene expression via epigenetic changes. Our data based on glioma patients showed that the expression of H19 was significantly upregulated in TMZ-resistant tumors compared with the TMZ-sensitive tumors. To determine the function of H19 in glioma, cell lines U87 and U251 were exposed to TMZ to establish TMZ-resistant clones U87TMZ and U251TMZ. In U87TMZ and U251TMZ, the expression level of H19 transcripts was increased compared to wild-type or nonresistant clones, as determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Concomitant treatment with small interfering RNA specifically targeting H19 and TMZ in resistant glioma clones resulted in decreased IC50 values for TMZ, and increased apoptotic rates than control small interfering RNA-treated cells. This was also evident by the increased PARP cleavage in resistant cells exposed to TMZ + si-H19. Furthermore, the reduced expression of H19 altered major drug resistance genes, such as MDR, MRP, and ABCG2, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that H19 plays an important role in the development of TMZ resistance, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for TMZ-resistant gliomas. PMID:27366087

  15. MicroRNA-610 is downregulated in glioma cells, and inhibits proliferation and motility by directly targeting MDM2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; Peng, Yong; Ou, Yangzhu; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-09-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR)-610 has previously been reported to be downregulated in gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, miR-610 has yet to be investigated in human glioma. In the present study, miR-610 expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Post‑transfection with miR‑610 mimics and inhibitors, MTT assay, cell migration and invasion assays, western blot analysis and a luciferase assay were performed in glioma cell lines. The results demonstrated that miR‑610 was downregulated in glioma tissues compared with their normal adjacent tissues and normal brain tissues (P<0.05). The reduced expression levels of miR‑610 were associated with World Health Organization grade and the Karnofsky performance status of patients with glioma. Furthermore, the present study revealed that miR‑610 inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion in glioma cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide evidence suggesting that miR‑610 directly targets MDM2 proto-oncogene E3 ubiquitin protein ligase to function as a tumor suppressor in glioma. These results indicate that miR‑610 may be investigated as a target for therapeutic drugs designed to treat glioma. PMID:27485527

  16. High expression of VEGF and PI3K in glioma stem cells provides new criteria for the grading of gliomas

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LEI; ZHANG, LUYAO; SHEN, WEIGAO; LIU, YANBO; LUO, YINAN

    2016-01-01

    Glioma is a type of tumor derived from glial cells, which is associated with a high level of incidence and mortality. At present, the generation of a fast and efficient method to evaluate the malignancy grade of glioma is required. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are currently attracting attention in oncological studies; therefore, the present study aimed to investigate novel biomarkers of glioma CSCs, in order to provide new criteria for the grading of glioma. The mRNA expression levels of CD133, (sex determining region Y)-box 2, nestin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) were detected in 15 human samples of high-malignancy glioma and 12 human samples of low-malignancy glioma in vitro. The mRNA expression levels of VEGF and PI3K were higher in the high-malignancy group, as compared with in the low-malignancy group. In conclusion, the mRNA expression levels of VEGF and PI3K in glioma CSCs may be considered a novel criteria for the grading of glioma. PMID:26893649

  17. Interferon-α/β enhances temozolomide activity against MGMT-positive glioma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong; Guo, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Sai, Ke; Yang, Qun-Ying; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jie; Panasci, Lawrence; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Glioma is one of the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal type of glioma, whose 5-year survival is 9.8% at best. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) play an important role in recurrence and treatment resistance. MGMT is a DNA repair protein that removes DNA adducts and therefore attenuates treatment efficiency. It has been reported that interferon-α/β (IFN-α/β) downregulates the level of MGMT and sensitizes glioma cells to temozolomide. In the present study, we assessed whether IFN-α/β is able to sensitize GSCs to temozolomide by modulating MGMT expression. Upon the treatment of IFN-α/β, the efficacy of temozolomide against MGMT‑positive GSCs was markedly enhanced by combination treatment with IFN-α/β when compared with the temozolomide single agent group, and MGMT expression was markedly decreased at the same time. Further mechanistic study showed that IFN-α/β suppressed the NF-κB activity, which further mediated the sensitization of MGMT‑positive GSCs to temozolomide. Our data therefore demonstrated that the application of IFN-α/β is a promising agent with which to enhance temozolomide efficiency and reduce drug resistance, and our findings shed light on improving clinical outcomes and prolonging the survival of patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:26329778

  18. TLR9 is critical for glioma stem cell maintenance and targeting.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Andreas; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Schroeder, Anne; Phallen, Jillian; Alizadeh, Darya; Xin, Hong; Wang, Tianyi; Lee, Heehyoung; Lahtz, Christoph; Swiderski, Piotr; Armstrong, Brian; Kowolik, Claudia; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brown, Christine; Badie, Behnam; Forman, Stephen; Kortylewski, Marcin; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2014-09-15

    Understanding supports for cancer stem-like cells in malignant glioma may suggest therapeutic strategies for their elimination. Here, we show that the Toll-like receptor TLR9 is elevated in glioma stem-like cells (GSC) in which it contributes to glioma growth. TLR9 overexpression is regulated by STAT3, which is required for GSC maintenance. Stimulation of TLR9 with a CpG ligand (CpG ODN) promoted GSC growth, whereas silencing TLR9 expression abrogated GSC development. CpG-ODN treatment induced Frizzled4-dependent activation of JAK2, thereby activating STAT3. Targeted delivery of siRNA into GSC was achieved via TLR9 using CpG-siRNA conjugates. Through local or systemic treatment, administration of CpG-Stat3 siRNA to silence STAT3 in vivo reduced GSC along with glioma growth. Our findings identify TLR9 as a functional marker for GSC and a target for the delivery of efficacious therapeutics for glioma treatment. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5218-28. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25047528

  19. TLR9 is Critical for Glioma Stem Cell Maintenance and Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Andreas; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Schroeder, Anne; Phallen, Jillian; Alizadeh, Darya; Xin, Hong; Wang, Tianyi; Lee, Heehyoung; Lahtz, Christoph; Swiderski, Piotr; Armstrong, Brian; Kowolik, Claudia; Gallia, Gary L.; Lim, Michael; Brown, Christine; Badie, Behnam; Forman, Stephen; Kortylewski, Marcin; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Understanding supports for cancer stem-like cells in malignant glioma may suggest therapeutic strategies for their elimination. Here we show that the Toll-like receptor TLR9 is elevated in glioma stem-like cells (GSC) where it contributes to glioma growth. TLR9 overexpression is regulated by STAT3 which was required for GSC maintenance. Stimulation of TLR9 with a CpG ligand (CpG ODN) promoted GSC growth, whereas silencing TLR9 expression abrogated GSC development. CpG-ODN treatment induced Frizzled4-dependent activation of JAK2, thereby activating STAT3. Targeted delivery of siRNA into GSC was achieved via TLR9 using CpG-siRNA conjugates. Through local or systemic treatment, administration of CpG-Stat3 siRNA to silence STAT3 in vivo reduced GSC along with glioma growth. Our findings identify TLR9 as a functional marker for GSC and a target for the delivery of efficacious therapeutics for glioma treatment. PMID:25047528

  20. Gene expression profiling distinguishes proneural glioma stem cells from mesenchymal glioma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Uma R.; Luthra, Soumya; Santana-Santos, Lucas; Mao, Ping; Kim, Sung-Hak; Minata, Mutsuko; Li, Jianfeng; Benos, Panayiotis V.; DeWang, Mao; Hu, Bo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Nakano, Ichiro; Sobol, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity of high-grade glioma (HGG) is recognized by four clinically relevant subtypes based on core gene signatures. However, molecular signaling in glioma stem cells (GSCs) in individual HGG subtypes is poorly characterized. Previously we identified and characterized two mutually exclusive GSC subtypes with distinct activated signaling pathways and biological phenotypes. One GSC subtype presented with a gene signature resembling Proneural (PN) HGG, whereas the other was similar to mesenchymal (Mes) HGG. Classical HGG-derived GSCs were sub-classified as either one of these two subtypes. Differential mRNA expression analysis of PN and Mes GSCs identified 5796 differentially expressed genes, revealing a pronounced correlation with the corresponding PN or Mes HGGs. Mes GSCs displayed more aggressive phenotypes in vitro and as intracranial xenografts in mice. Further, Mes GSCs were markedly resistant to radiation compared with PN GSCs. Expression of ALDH1A3 — one of the most up-regulated Mes representative genes and a universal cancer stem cell marker in non-brain cancers — was associated with self-renewal and a multi-potent stem cell population in Mes but not PN samples. Moreover, inhibition of ALDH1A3 attenuated the growth of Mes but not PN GSCs in vitro. Lastly, radiation treatment of PN GSCs up-regulated Mes-associated markers and down-regulated PN-associated markers, whereas inhibition of ALDH1A3 attenuated an irradiation-induced gain of Mes identity in PN GSCs in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that two subtypes of GSCs, harboring distinct metabolic signaling pathways, represent intertumoral glioma heterogeneity and highlight previously unidentified roles of ALDH1A3-associated signaling that promotes aberrant proliferation of Mes HGGs and GSCs. Inhibition of ALDH1A3-mediated pathways therefore might provide a promising therapeutic approach for a subset of HGGs with the Mes signature. Here, we describe the gene expression analysis

  1. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  2. Glioma Stem Cells but Not Bulk Glioma Cells Upregulate IL-6 Secretion in Microglia/Brain Macrophages via Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Hu, Feng; Derkow, Katja; Haage, Verena; Euskirchen, Philipp; Harms, Christoph; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+ )GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+ )cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context. PMID:27030742

  3. Myosin VI contributes to malignant proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Fang, Xu-hao

    2016-01-01

    Previously characterized as a backward motor, myosin VI (MYO6), which belongs to myosin family, moves toward the minus end of the actin track, a direction opposite to all other known myosin members. Recent researches have illuminated the role of MYO6 in human cancers, particularly in prostate cancer. However, the role of MYO6 in glioma has not yet been determined. In this study, to explore the role of MYO6 in human glioma, lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MYO6 was designed to stably down-regulate its endogenous expression in glioblastoma cells U251. Knockdown of MYO6 signifi cantly inhibited viability and proliferation of U251 cells in vitro. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at G0/G1 phase with the absence of MYO6, which could contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we firstly identified the crucial involvement of MYO6 in human glioma. The inhibition of MYO6 by shRNA might be a potential therapeutic method in human glioma. PMID:26937209

  4. Cancer stem cells: the final frontier for glioma virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mahua; Ulasov, Ilya V; Tyler, Matthew A; Sonabend, Adam M; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a very small subset of all cancer cells and possess characteristics very similar to normal stem cells, in particular, the capacity for self-renewal, multipotency and relative quiescence. These chemo- and radiation resistant cells are responsible for maintaining tumor volume leading to therapy failure and recurrence. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary intracranial malignancy, glioma stem cells have been implicated as one of the key players in treatment failure. Many novel treatment modalities are being investigated to specifically target this small group of cells. In this review, we shed light on one such targeted therapy, specifically, oncolytic virotherapy, and review the literature to highlight the advances and challenges in designing effective oncolytic virotherapy for glioma stem cells. PMID:20237963

  5. Cancer Stem Cells: The Final Frontier for Glioma Virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Mahua; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Tyler, Matthew A.; Sonabend, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a very small subset of all cancer cells and possess characteristics very similar to normal stem cells, in particular, the capacity for self-renewal, multipotency and relative quiescence. These chemo- and radiation resistant cells are responsible for maintaining tumor volume leading to therapy failure and recurrence. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary intracranial malignancy, glioma stem cells have been implicated as one of the key players in treatment failure. Many novel treatment modalities are being investigated to specifically target this small group of cells. In this review, we shed light on one such targeted therapy, specifically, oncolytic virotherapy, and review the literature to highlight the advances and challenges in designing effective oncolytic virotherapy for glioma stem cells. PMID:20237963

  6. Dracorhodin perchlorate induces the apoptosis of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Luo, Junjie; Meng, Linghu; Pan, Taifeng; Zhao, Binjie; Tang, Zhen-Gang; Dai, Yongjian

    2016-04-01

    Dracorhodin perchlorate (Dp), a synthetic analogue of the antimicrobial anthocyanin red pigment, has recently been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in various types of cancer cells. Yet, the inhibitory effect of Dp on human glioma cells remains uninvestigated. Therefore, in the present study, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry were used to detect cell viability and cell cycle progression in glioma U87MG and T98G cells, respectively. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining and JC-1 staining were separately applied to determine cellular apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential damage in the cells. The expression levels of associated proteins involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis were measured by western blotting. The activities of caspase‑9/-3 were determined by Caspase-Glo-9/3 assay. The results indicated that Dp treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and blocked cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase in the U87MG and T98G cells via the upregulation of p53 and p21 protein expression, and simultaneous downregulation of Cdc25A, Cdc2 and P-Cdc2 protein expression. Additionally, Dp treatment led to the loss of cellular mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of cytochrome c, and strongly induced the occurence of apoptosis. Increased expression levels of Bim and Bax protein and the downregulated expression of Bcl-2 protein were observed. Caspase-9/-3 were activated and their activities were elevated after Dp treatment. These findings indicate that Dp inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioma cells, and is a possible candidate for glioma treatment. PMID:26846469

  7. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control. PMID:26216710

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. Methods The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. Results The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Conclusions Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma. PMID:23915425

  9. Compound K attenuates stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1)-induced migration of C6 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuck; Roh, Hyo Sun; Kim, Jai Eun; Park, Sun Dong; Park, Won Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1), also known as chemokine ligand 12, and chemokine receptor type 4 are involved in cancer cell migration. Compound K (CK), a metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside by gut microbiota, is reported to have therapeutic potential in cancer therapy. However, the inhibitory effect of CK on SDF-1 pathway-induced migration of glioma has not yet been established. MATERIALS/METHODS Cytotoxicity of CK in C6 glioma cells was determined using an EZ-Cytox cell viability assay kit. Cell migration was tested using the wound healing and Boyden chamber assay. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase C (PKC)α and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were measured by western blot assay, and matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) were measured by gelatin-zymography analysis. RESULTS CK significantly reduced the phosphorylation of PKCα and ERK1/2, expression of MMP9 and MMP2, and inhibited the migration of C6 glioma cells under SDF-1-stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS CK is a cell migration inhibitor that inhibits C6 glioma cell migration by regulating its downstream signaling molecules including PKCα, ERK1/2, and MMPs. PMID:27247721

  10. RhoA regulates invasion of glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiao Jian; Yan, Zhang; Jian, Ren; Tao, Huang; Hui, Ouyang Tao; Jian, Chen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of glioma cell invasion in hypoxic conditions. We demonstrated that hypoxia increased cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity and time-dependent expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in human glioma cells. These data suggest that MMP2 may play a significant role in tumor invasion in hypoxic conditions. We investigated the mechanisms involved in the increased MMP2 activity and cell invasion in hypoxic conditions. Increased expression of phospho-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun) in glioma cells induced by hypoxia was detected. Furthermore, this effect may be reduced by inhibiting the JNK signaling pathway. We found that inhibition of RhoA geranylgeranylation by geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor-2147 (GGTI-2147) or knockdown of RhoA by siRNA against RhoA reduced the expression of p-JNK and p-c-Jun, and decreased MMP2 activity and glioma cell invasion in hypoxic conditions. These data suggest a link among RhoA, JNK, c-Jun and MMP2 activity that is functionally involved in the increased glioma cell invasion induced by hypoxia. PMID:23741249

  11. Selective Calcium Sensitivity in Immature Glioma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Segerman, Anna; Schmidt, Linnéa; Hermansson, Annika; Dirks, Peter; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Westermark, Bengt; Uhrbom, Lene; Linnarsson, Sten; Nelander, Sven; Andäng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are a subpopulation in aggressive cancers that exhibit traits shared with stem cells, including the ability to self-renew and differentiate, commonly referred to as stemness. In addition, such cells are resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy posing a therapeutic challenge. To uncover stemness-associated functions in glioma-initiating cells (GICs), transcriptome profiles were compared to neural stem cells (NSCs) and gene ontology analysis identified an enrichment of Ca2+ signaling genes in NSCs and the more stem-like (NSC-proximal) GICs. Functional analysis in a set of different GIC lines regarding sensitivity to disturbed homeostasis using A23187 and Thapsigargin, revealed that NSC-proximal GICs were more sensitive, corroborating the transcriptome data. Furthermore, Ca2+ drug sensitivity was reduced in GICs after differentiation, with most potent effect in the NSC-proximal GIC, supporting a stemness-associated Ca2+ sensitivity. NSCs and the NSC-proximal GIC line expressed a larger number of ion channels permeable to potassium, sodium and Ca2+. Conversely, a higher number of and higher expression levels of Ca2+ binding genes that may buffer Ca2+, were expressed in NSC-distal GICs. In particular, expression of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GRIA1, was found to associate with Ca2+ sensitive NSC-proximal GICs, and decreased as GICs differentiated along with reduced Ca2+ drug sensitivity. The correlation between high expression of Ca2+ channels (such as GRIA1) and sensitivity to Ca2+ drugs was confirmed in an additional nine novel GIC lines. Calcium drug sensitivity also correlated with expression of the NSC markers nestin (NES) and FABP7 (BLBP, brain lipid-binding protein) in this extended analysis. In summary, NSC-associated NES+/FABP7+/GRIA1+ GICs were selectively sensitive to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, providing a potential target mechanism for eradication of an immature population of malignant cells. PMID:25531110

  12. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:19050827

  13. Fluid Shear Stress Regulates the Invasive Potential of Glioma Cells via Modulation of Migratory Activity and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Henry; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Tarbell, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension) model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs. Conclusions/Significance Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression. PMID:21637818

  14. miR-93 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Gliomas through Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Wang, Chanjuan; Lei, Fangyong; Zhang, Longjuan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Aibin; Wu, Geyan; Zhu, Jinrong; Song, Libing

    2015-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently activated in various human cancer types and plays essential roles in development and progression of cancers. Multiple regulators, such as phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and PH domain leucine rich repeat protein phosphatases (PHLPP), have also found to be involved in suppression of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. However, how suppressive effects mediated by these regulators are concomitantly disrupted in cancers, which display constitutively activated PI3K/Akt signaling, remains puzzling. In the present study, we reported that the expression of miR-93 was markedly upregulated in glioma cell lines and clinical glioma tissues. Statistical analysis revealed that miR-93 levels significantly correlated with clinicopathologic grade and overall survival in gliomas. Furthermore, we found that overexpressing miR-93 promoted, but inhibition of miR-93 reduced, glioma cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression. We demonstrated that miR-93 activated PI3K/Akt signaling through directly suppressing PTEN, PHLPP2 and FOXO3 expression via targeting their 3′UTRs. Therefore, our results suggest that miR-93 might play an important role in glioma progression and uncover a novel mechanism for constitutive PI3K/Akt activation in gliomas. PMID:25823655

  15. MiR-200a impairs glioma cell growth, migration, and invasion by targeting SIM2-s.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuhang; He, Qiaowei; Deng, Lin; Wang, Juntao; Liu, Qinglin; Wang, Donghai; Huang, Qibing; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, single-minded homolog 2-short form (SIM2-s) was reported to be related to tumor development and progression and to be elevated in many human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the factors that contribute to the regulation of SIM2-s expression in gliomas. The results showed that SIM2-s was elevated in gliomas. In addition, inhibition of SIM2-s reduced glioma cell growth, migration, and invasion. Next, we demonstrated that SIM2-s is a functional target of miR-200a. Further, miR-200a is downregulated in human glioma and inhibition of miR-200a caused upregulation of SIM2-s in T98G cells and promoted their motility. Finally, blockage of miR-200a expression in a mouse model of human glioma resulted in significant promotion of tumor growth. These findings suggest that miR-200a could serve as a therapeutic tool for glioma. PMID:24162743

  16. Epigenetic biomarkers of T-cells in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Accomando, William P; Zheng, Shichun; Patoka, Joe; Dou, Xiaoqin; Phillips, Joanna J; Hsuang, George; Christensen, Brock C; Houseman, E Andres; Koestler, Devin C; Bracci, Paige; Wiemels, Joseph L; Wrensch, Margaret; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2012-12-01

    Immune factors are thought to influence glioma risk and outcomes, but immune profiling studies to further our understanding of the immune response are limited by current immunodiagnostic methods. We developed a new assay to capture glioma immune biology based on quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) of two T-cell genes (CD3Z: T-cells, and FOXP3: Tregs). Flow cytometry of T-cells correlated well with the CD3Z demethylation assay (r = 0.93; p < 2.2 × 10 (-16) ), demonstrating the validity of the assay. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between qMSP and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in quantifying tumor infiltrating T-cells (r = 0.85; p = 3.4 × 10 (-11) ). Applying our qMSP methods to archival whole blood from 65 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cases and 94 non-diseased controls, GBM cases had highly statistically significantly lower T-cells (p = 1.7 × 10 (-9) ) as well as Tregs (p = 5.2 × 10 (-11) ) and a modestly lower ratio of Tregs/T-cells (p = 0.024). Applying the methods to 120 excised glioma tumors, we observed that tumor infiltrating CD3+ T-cells were positively correlated with glioma tumor grade (p = 5.7 × 10 (-7) ), and that Tregs were enriched in tumors compared with peripheral blood indicating active chemoattraction of suppressive Tregs into the tumor compartment. Poorer patient survival was correlated with higher levels of tumor infiltrating T-cells (p = 0.01) and Tregs (p = 0.04). DNA methylation based immunodiagnostics represent a new generation of powerful laboratory tools offering many advantages over conventional methods that will facilitate large clinical epidemiologic studies and capitalize on stored archival blood and tissue banks. PMID:23108258

  17. Epigenetic biomarkers of T-cells in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wiencke, John K.; Accomando, William P.; Zheng, Shichun; Patoka, Joe; Dou, Xiaoqin; Phillips, Joanna J.; Hsuang, George; Christensen, Brock C.; Houseman, E. Andres; Koestler, Devin C.; Bracci, Paige; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wrensch, Margaret; Nelson, Heather H.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    Immune factors are thought to influence glioma risk and outcomes, but immune profiling studies to further our understanding of the immune response are limited by current immunodiagnostic methods. We developed a new assay to capture glioma immune biology based on quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) of two T-cell genes (CD3Z: T-cells, and FOXP3: Tregs). Flow cytometry of T-cells correlated well with the CD3Z demethylation assay (r = 0.93; p < 2.2 × 10−16), demonstrating the validity of the assay. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between qMSP and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in quantifying tumor infiltrating T-cells (r = 0.85; p = 3.4 × 10−11). Applying our qMSP methods to archival whole blood from 65 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cases and 94 non-diseased controls, GBM cases had highly statistically significantly lower T-cells (p = 1.7 × 10−9) as well as Tregs (p = 5.2 × 10−11) and a modestly lower ratio of Tregs/T-cells (p = 0.024). Applying the methods to 120 excised glioma tumors, we observed that tumor infiltrating CD3+ T-cells were positively correlated with glioma tumor grade (p = 5.7 × 10−7), and that Tregs were enriched in tumors compared with peripheral blood indicating active chemoattraction of suppressive Tregs into the tumor compartment. Poorer patient survival was correlated with higher levels of tumor infiltrating T-cells (p = 0.01) and Tregs (p = 0.04). DNA methylation based immunodiagnostics represent a new generation of powerful laboratory tools offering many advantages over conventional methods that will facilitate large clinical epidemiologic studies and capitalize on stored archival blood and tissue banks. PMID:23108258

  18. Activation of AMP-activated kinase modulates sensitivity of glioma cells against epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hartel, Ines; Ronellenfitsch, Michael; Wanka, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGFR) pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma but the clinical efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in malignant glioma has been disappointing. The reasons for the failure of the mechanisms of resistance of these inhibitors are unclear, but may involve factors of the tumor microenvironment such as limited glucose availability and hypoxia. It was therefore examined whether glucose and oxygen influenced the response of glioma cells to EGFR inhibition. Decreased levels of glucose and oxygen led to resistance against the EGFR inhibitor PD153035, whereas high glucose amounts and normoxia sensitised glioma cells towards the inhibitor. Low levels of glucose and oxygen stimulated AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in glioma cells. 2DG, an inhibitor of glycolysis, and the AMPK activator A769662 reduced glucose consumption, induced phosphorylation of AMPK and mimicked the effects of low glucose availability on the toxicity of PD153035. Similarly, 2DG reduced toxicity of imatinib in K562 leukemia cells. In contrast, inhibition of AMPK by compound C or by short-hairpin (sh)-mediated gene suppression increased cell death induced by the EGFR inhibitor and reverted the protective effects of 2DG and A769662. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of EGFR inhibition can be diminished by AMPK activation in glioma cells. These results may provide one explanation for the low activity of EGFR inhibitors in clinical trials and suggest antagonism of AMPK or of AMPK-regulated metabolic alterations as a promising approach to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27121290

  19. Nobiletin, a Polymethoxylated Flavone, Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth and Migration via Arresting Cell Cycle and Suppressing MAPK and Akt Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lien, Li-Ming; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Wu, Jia-Lun; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chou, Duen-Suey; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lu, Wan-Jung

    2016-02-01

    Nobiletin, a bioactive polymethoxylated flavone (5,6,7,8,3(') ,4(') -hexamethoxyflavone), is abundant in citrus fruit peel. Although nobiletin exhibits antitumor activity against various cancer cells, the effect of nobiletin on glioma cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nobiletin on the human U87 and Hs683 glioma cell lines. Treating glioma cells with nobiletin (20-100 µm) reduced cell viability and arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, as detected using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively; however, nobiletin did not induce cell apoptosis according to PI-annexin V double staining. Data from western blotting showed that nobiletin significantly attenuated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and E2 promoter-binding factor 1 (E2F1) and the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases, including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Our data also showed that nobiletin inhibited glioma cell migration, as detected by both functional wound healing and transwell migration assays. Altogether, the present results suggest that nobiletin inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt/protein kinase B pathways and downregulates positive regulators of the cell cycle, leading to subsequent suppression of glioma cell proliferation and migration. Our findings evidence that nobiletin may have potential for treating glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:26560814

  20. Formononetin sensitizes glioma cells to doxorubicin through preventing EMT via inhibition of histone deacetylase 5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Sun, Yan; Zheng, Jie-Min; Yan, Xian-Lei; Chen, Hong-Mou; Chen, Jia-Kang; Huang, He-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for glioma. Formononetin is a novel herbal isoflavonoid isolated from Astragalus membranaceus and possesses antitumorigenic properties. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of formononetin on human glioma cells, and further elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-tumor property. We found that formononetin enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in glioma cells. Combined treatment with formononetin reversed the doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells. Moreover, we found that formononetin treatment significantly decreased the expression of HDAC5. Overexpression of HDAC5 diminished the suppressive effects of formononetin on glioma cell viability. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC5 by siRNA inhibited the doxorubicin-induced EMT in glioma cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that formononetin-combined therapy may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in glioma cells by preventing EMT through inhibition of HDAC5. PMID:26261519

  1. Formononetin sensitizes glioma cells to doxorubicin through preventing EMT via inhibition of histone deacetylase 5

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Sun, Yan; Zheng, Jie-Min; Yan, Xian-Lei; Chen, Hong-Mou; Chen, Jia-Kang; Huang, He-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for glioma. Formononetin is a novel herbal isoflavonoid isolated from Astragalus membranaceus and possesses antitumorigenic properties. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of formononetin on human glioma cells, and further elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-tumor property. We found that formononetin enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in glioma cells. Combined treatment with formononetin reversed the doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells. Moreover, we found that formononetin treatment significantly decreased the expression of HDAC5. Overexpression of HDAC5 diminished the suppressive effects of formononetin on glioma cell viability. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC5 by siRNA inhibited the doxorubicin-induced EMT in glioma cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that formononetin-combined therapy may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in glioma cells by preventing EMT through inhibition of HDAC5. PMID:26261519

  2. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of translationally controlled tumor protein induces apoptosis, and inhibits growth and invasion in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    JIN, HUA; ZHANG, XUEXIN; SU, JUN; TENG, YUEQIU; REN, HUAN; YANG, LIZHUANG

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved, growth-associated and small molecule protein, which is highly expressed in various types of tumor cell. TCTP can promote the growth and suppress apoptosis of tumor cels. However, few studies have reported the effects of TCTP in gliomas. In the present study, a glioma cell line was established, which was stably transfected with TCTP short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA), to investigate the impact of downregulated expression of TCTP on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of glioma cells. Western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that TCTP shRNA effectively reduced the expression of TCTP in the U251 glioma cell line. MTT and colony formation assays revealed that downregulated expression of TCTP significantly inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry revealed that the cells in the pRNA-H1.1-TCTP group were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis detected downregulated expression levels of cyclins, including Cyclin D1, Cyclin E and Cyclin B. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide and Hoechst staining demonstrated that the apoptotic rate of the cells in the pRNA-H1.1-TCTP group was significantly higher than that of the cells in the pRNA-H1.1-control group, with upregulated expression levels of B-cell-associated X protein and cleaved-caspase-3 and downregulated expression of B-cell lmyphoma-2 in the apoptotic process. Wound healing and Transwell assays revealed that downregulated expression of TCTP significantly inhibited the migration and invasiveness of the glioma cells; and the expression levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were also significantly affected. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that downregulated expression of TCTP significantly inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced apoptosis in the glioma

  3. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR inhibits malignant biological behaviors of human glioma cells via modulation of miR-326

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jing; Yao, Yi-long; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-hui; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-bai; Li, Zhi-qing; Wang, Zhen-hua; Xue, Yi-xue

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common and aggressive primary adult brain tumor. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in a variety of biological properties of cancers. Here, we elucidated the function and the possible molecular mechanisms of lncRNA HOTAIR in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that HOTAIR expression was up-regulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of HOTAIR exerted tumor-suppressive function in glioma cells. Further, HOTAIR was confirmed to be the target of miR-326 and miR-326 mediated the tumor-suppressive effects of HOTAIR knockdown on glioma cell lines. Moreover, over-expressed miR-326 reduced the FGF1 expression which played an oncogenic role in glioma by activating PI3K/AKT and MEK 1/2 pathways. In addition, the in vivo studies also supported the above findings. Taken together, knockdown of HOTAIR up-regulated miR-326 expression, and further inducing the decreased expression of FGF1, these results provided a comprehensive analysis of HOTAIR-miR-326-FGF1 axis in human glioma and provided a new potential therapeutic strategy for glioma treatment. PMID:26183397

  4. Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in matrix metalloproteinase-9- and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-mediated glioma cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Src tyrosine kinase activates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, in turn, nitric oxide production as a means to transduce cell migration. Src tyrosine kinase plays a key proximal role to control α9β1 signaling. Our recent studies have clearly demonstrated the role of α9β1 integrin in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated glioma cell migration. In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of α9β1 integrin-iNOS pathway in MMP-9- and/or uPAR-mediated glioma cell migration. Methods MMP-9 and uPAR shRNAs and overexpressing plasmids were used to downregulate and upregulate these molecules, respectively in U251 glioma cells and 5310 glioma xenograft cells. The effect of treatments on migration and invasion potential of these glioma cells were assessed by spheroid migration, wound healing, and Matrigel invasion assays. In order to attain the other objectives we also performed immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR, Western blot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Results Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent association of iNOS with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Immunofluorescence analysis showed prominent expression of iNOS in glioma cells. MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown by respective shRNAs reduced iNOS expression in these glioma cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed elevated iNOS mRNA expression in either MMP-9 or uPAR overexpressed glioma cells. The migration potential of MMP-9- and/or uPAR-overexpressed U251 glioma cells was significantly inhibited after treatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of iNOS. Similarly, a significant inhibition of the invasion potential of the control or MMP-9/uPAR-overexpressed glioma cells was noticed after L-NAME treatment. A prominent reduction of iNOS expression was observed in the tumor regions of nude mice brains, which were injected with 5310 glioma cells, after MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown. Protein expressions

  5. Human monocytes kill M-CSF-expressing glioma cells by BK channel activation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Neil T; Zhang, Jian Gang; Delgado, Christina L; Myers, Michael P; Callahan, Linda L; Vandeusen, Gerald; Schiltz, Patric M; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

    2007-02-01

    In this study, human monocytes/macrophages were observed to kill human U251 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) via a swelling and vacuolization process called paraptosis. Human monocytes responded to the mM-CSF-transduced U251 glioma cells, but not to viral vector control U251 glioma cells (U251-VV), by producing a respiratory burst within 20 min. Using patch clamp techniques, functional big potassium (BK) channels were observed on the membrane of the U251 glioma cell. It has been previously reported that oxygen indirectly regulates BK channel function. In this study, it was demonstrated that prolonged BK channel activation in response to the respiratory burst induced by monocytes initiates paraptosis in selected glioma cells. Forced BK channel opening within the glioma cells by BK channel activators (phloretin or pimaric acid) induced U251 glioma cell swelling and vacuolization occurred within 30 min. U251 glioma cell cytotoxicity, induced by using BK channel activators, required between 8 and 12 h. Swelling and vacuolization induced by phloretin and pimaric acid was prevented by iberiotoxin, a specific BK channel inhibitor. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated BK channels co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, the two targeted organelles affected in paraptosis. Iberiotoxin prevented monocytes from producing death in mM-CSF-expressing U251glioma cells in a 24 h assay. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism whereby monocytes can induce paraptosis via the disruption of internal potassium ion homeostasis. PMID:17318194

  6. The effect of yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius) ethanol extract on cell proliferation and migration of C6 glioma cells stimulated with fetal bovine serum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Kim, Jin Teak

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius), a common edible plant grown throughout the world, is well known for its antidiabetic properties. It is also known to have several other pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects. To date, the effect of yacon on gliomas has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of yacon on the migration and proliferation of C6 glioma cells stimulated by fetal bovine serum (FBS). MATERIALS/METHODS Cell growth and proliferation were determined by evaluating cell viability using an EZ-Cytox Cell Viability Assay Kit. FBS-induced migration of C6 glioma cells was evaluated by performing the scratch wound healing assay and the Boyden chamber assay. We also used western blot analysis to determine the expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a major regulator of migration and proliferation of glioma cells. Matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 9 and TIMP-1 levels were measured by performing reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS Yacon (300 µg/mL) reduced both the FBS-induced proliferation of C6 glioma cells and the dose-dependent migration of the FBS-stimulated C6 cells. FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells treated with yacon (200 and 300 µg/mL) showed reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibition of MMP 9 expression compared to those shown by the untreated FBS-stimulated C6 cells. In contrast, yacon (200 and 300 µg/mL) induced TIMP-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of these results, we suggest that yacon may exert an anti-cancer effect on FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells by inhibiting their proliferation and migration. The most likely mechanism for this is down-regulation of ERK1/2 and MMP9 and up-regulation of TIMP-1 expression levels. PMID:26060537

  7. Understanding glioma stem cells: rationale, clinical relevance and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Atique U; Auffinger, Brenda; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most aggressive brain tumors in adults. Despite the use of the best available multimodal therapeutic approaches, the prognosis remains dismal. The identification of glioma stem cells (GSCs) has offered new hope to affected patients, since it could explain, in part, the highly heterogeneous nature of this tumor and its chemo- and radio-resistance. Although still in its infancy, GSC research has unveiled many of its complexities and the theory itself remains controversial. GSC phenotype can significantly vary between patients and a single tumor may present several distinct GSCs. New therapeutic solutions that effectively target this population are of utmost importance, since they may be able to decrease neoplastic recurrence and improve patient survival. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which GSCs lead to glioma relapse, the main controversies in this field and the most recent treatments that could successfully target this population. PMID:23621311

  8. Understanding glioma stem cells: rationale, clinical relevance and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atique U; Auffinger, Brenda; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most aggressive brain tumors in adults. Despite the use of the best available multimodal therapeutic approaches, the prognosis remains dismal. The identification of glioma stem cells (GSCs) has offered new hope to affected patients, since it could explain, in part, the highly heterogeneous nature of this tumor and its chemo- and radio-resistance. Although still in its infancy, GSC research has unveiled many of its complexities and the theory itself remains controversial. GSC phenotype can significantly vary between patients and a single tumor may present several distinct GSCs. New therapeutic solutions that effectively target this population are of utmost importance, since they may be able to decrease neoplastic recurrence and improve patient survival. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which GSCs lead to glioma relapse, the main controversies in this field and the most recent treatments that could successfully target this population. PMID:23621311

  9. Quantum dot-labeled aptamer nanoprobes specifically targeting glioma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue-Chai; Deng, Yu-Lin; Lin, Yi; Pang, Dai-Wen; Qing, Hong; Qu, Feng; Xie, Hai-Yan

    2008-06-01

    Two new techniques, aptamer-based specific recognition and quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence labeling, are becoming increasingly important in biosensing. In this study, these two techniques have been coupled together to construct a new kind of fluorescent QD-labeled aptamer (QD-Apt) nanoprobe by conjugating GBI-10 aptamer to the QD surface. GBI-10 is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer for tenascin-C, which distributes on the surface of glioma cells as a dominant extracellular matrix protein. The QD-Apt nanoprobe can recognize the tenascin-C on the human glioma cell surface, which will be helpful for the development of new convenient and sensitive in vitro diagnostic assays for glioma. The QD-Apt nanoprobe has particular features such as strong fluorescence, stability, monodispersity and uniformity. In addition, this probe preparation method is universal, so it is expected to provide a new type of stable nanoprobe for high-throughput and fast biosensing detection and bioimaging. New methods for real-time and dynamic tracking and imaging can be accordingly developed.

  10. Interference with distinct steps of sphingolipid synthesis and signaling attenuates proliferation of U87MG glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea; Nusshold, Christoph; Brunner, Anna Martina; Plastira, Ioanna; Rechberger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Wadsack, Christian; Zimmer, Andreas; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2015-07-15

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined radio- and chemotherapy, recurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Members of the sphingolipid (SL) family are potent effectors of glioma cell proliferation. In particular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the corresponding G protein-coupled S1P receptors transmit proliferative signals to glioma cells. To investigate the contribution to glioma cell proliferation we inhibited the first step of de novo SL synthesis in p53(wt) and p53(mut) glioma cells, and interfered with S1P signaling specifically in p53(wt) U87MG cells. Subunit silencing (RNAi) or pharmacological antagonism (using myriocin) of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; catalyzing the first committed step of SL biosynthesis) reduced proliferation of p53(wt) but not p53(mut) GBM cells. In U87MG cells these observations were accompanied by decreased ceramide, sphingomyelin, and S1P content. Inhibition of SPT upregulated p53 and p21 expression and induced an increase in early and late apoptotic U87MG cells. Exogenously added S1P (complexed to physiological carriers) increased U87MG proliferation. In line, silencing of individual members of the S1P receptor family decreased U87MG proliferation. Silencing and pharmacological inhibition of the ATP-dependent cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) that facilitates S1P efflux in astrocytes attenuated U87MG growth. Glyburide-mediated inhibition of ABCA1 resulted in intracellular accumulation of S1P raising the possibility that ABCA1 promotes S1P efflux in U87MG glioma cells thereby contributing to inside-out signaling. Our findings indicate that de novo SL synthesis, S1P receptor-mediated signaling, and ABCA1-mediated S1P efflux could provide pharmacological targets to interfere with glioma cell proliferation. PMID:26002572

  11. Both GLS silencing and GLS2 overexpression synergize with oxidative stress against proliferation of glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rufián, Mercedes; Nascimento-Gomes, Renata; Higuero, Ana; Crisma, Amanda R.; Campos-Sandoval, José A.; Gómez-García, María C.; Cardona, Carolina; Cheng, Tzuling; Lobo, Carolina; Segura, Juan A.; Alonso, Francisco J.; Szeliga, Monika; Albrecht, Jan; Curi, Rui; Márquez, Javier; Colquhoun, Alison; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial glutaminase (GA) plays an essential role in cancer cell metabolism, contributing to biosynthesis, bioenergetics and redox balance. Humans contain several GA isozymes encoded by the GLS and GLS2 genes, but the specific roles of each in cancer metabolism are still unclear. In this study, glioma SFxL and LN229 cells with silenced isoenzyme glutaminase KGA (encoded by GLS) showed lower survival ratios and a reduced GSH-dependent antioxidant capacity. These GLS-silenced cells also demonstrated induction of apoptosis indicated by enhanced annexin V binding capacity and caspase 3 activity. GLS silencing was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) (JC-1 dye test), indicating that apoptosis was mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar observations were made in T98 glioma cells overexpressing glutaminase isoenzyme GAB, encoded by GLS2, though some characteristics (GSH/GSSG ratio) were different in the differently treated cell lines. Thus, control of GA isoenzyme expression may prove to be a key tool to alter both metabolic and oxidative stress in cancer therapy. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by treatment with oxidizing agents: arsenic trioxide or hydrogen peroxide, synergizes with either KGA silencing or GAB overexpression to suppress malignant properties of glioma cells, including the reduction of cellular motility. Of note, negative modulation of GLS isoforms or GAB overexpression evoked lower c-myc and bcl-2 expression, as well as higher pro-apoptotic bid expression. Combination of modulation of GA expression and treatment with oxidizing agents may become a therapeutic strategy for intractable cancers and provides a multi-angle evaluation system for anti-glioma pre-clinical investigations. PMID:24276018

  12. Withania somnifera Suppresses Tumor Growth of Intracranial Allograft of Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Hardeep; Kumar, Sushil; Chaudhary, Harshita; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2016-08-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumor in adults. Their highly proliferative nature, complex cellular composition, and ability to escape therapies have confronted investigators for years, hindering the advancement toward an effective treatment. Agents that are safe and can be administered as dietary supplements have always remained priority to be most feasible for cancer therapy. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) is an essential ingredient of Ayurvedic preparations and is known to eliminate cancer cells derived from a variety of peripheral tissues. Although our previous studies have addressed the in vitro anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing properties of ashwagandha on neuronal cell lines, in vivo studies validating the same are lacking. While exploring the mechanism of its action in vitro, we observed that the ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX) induced the G2/M phase blockade and caused the activation of multiple pro-apoptotic pathways, leading to suppression of cyclin D1, bcl-xl, and p-Akt, and reduced the expression of polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) as well as the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. ASH-WEX reduced the intracranial tumor volumes in vivo and suppressed the tumor-promoting proteins p-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p-Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), PSA-NCAM, and cyclin D1 in the rat model of orthotopic glioma allograft. Reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and upregulation of mortalin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression specifically in tumor-bearing tissue further indicated the anti-glioma efficacy of ASH-WEX in vivo. Combining this enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ASH-WEX in glioma with in vivo model system offers new opportunities to develop therapeutic strategy for safe, specific, and effective formulations for treating brain tumors. PMID:26208698

  13. Radiation promotes malignant progression of glioma cells through HIF-1alpha stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Heon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Uddin, Nizam; Lim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Jung; Nam, Seon-Young; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2014-11-01

    Given its contribution to malignant phenotypes of cancer, tumor hypoxia has been considered as a potential therapeutic problem. In the stressful microenvironment condition, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is well known to mediate the transcriptional adaptation of cells to hypoxia and acts as a central player for the process of hypoxia-driven malignant cancer progression. Here, we found that irradiation causes the HIF1α protein to stabilize, even in normoxia condition through activation of p38 MAPK, thereby promoting angiogenesis in tumor microenvironment and infiltrative property of glioma cells. Notably, irradiation reduced hydroxylation of HIF1α through destabilization of prolyl hydroxylases (PHD)-2. Moreover, radiation also decreased the half-life of protein von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL), which is a specific E3 ligase for HIF1α. Of note, inhibition of p38 MAPK attenuated radiation-induced stabilization of HIF1α through destabilization of PHD-2 and pVHL. In agreement with these results, targeting of either p38 MAPK, HIF1α, pVHL or PHD-2 effectively mitigated the radiation-induced tube formation of human brain-derived micro-vessel endothelial cells (HB-MEC) and infiltration of glioma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting HIF1α in combination with ionizing radiation might increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for glioma treatment. PMID:25109450

  14. CHD1L Regulates Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, and Migration in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaojun; Chen, Wenjuan; Wang, Donglin; Ban, Na; Fan, Shaochen; Shen, Chaoyan; Xia, Xiaojie; Ji, Bin; Wang, Yuchan

    2016-05-01

    Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like (CHD1L) gene is a newly identified oncogene located at Chr1q21 and it is amplified in many solid tumors. In this study, we intended to investigate the clinical significance of CHD1L expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CHD1L was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. In addition, the expression level of CHD1L was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that high expression of CHD1L may result in poor prognosis of glioma patients. Accordingly, suppression of CHD1L in glioma cells was shown to induce cell cycle arrest and increase apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of CHD1L significantly accelerated migration and invasion ability of glioma cells. Together our findings suggest that CHD1L is involved in the progression of glioma and may be a novel target for further therapy. PMID:26162969

  15. Synergism between cryoablation and GM-CSF: enhanced immune function of splenic dendritic cells in mice with glioma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongchao; Wang, Qifu; Lin, Chunnan; Yin, Zhilin; He, Xiaozheng; Pan, Jun; Lu, Guohui; Zhang, Shizhong

    2015-04-15

    Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and it has a poor prognosis. Studies have shown that cryoablation can activate antitumor immunoeffects by promoting the augmentation of dendritic cells (DCs). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to be useful for immunotherapy against glioma because it can stimulate DCs to present tumor antigen. Previous studies have shown that cryoablation and GM-CSF can exert antitumor effects. To test the hypothesis that combined therapy with cryoablation and GM-CSF for glioma could synergistically improve specific antiglioma immunity in mice, we tested the validity of this assumption in a murine subcutaneous GL261 glioma model. C57BL/6 mice with subcutaneous GL261 glioma were created and divided into four groups: no treatment, GM-CSF injection, cryoablation treatment, and GM-CSF and cryoablation combined treatment (n=20 in each group). Serial immune indicators were detected at sequential time points during treatment. Compared with the other groups, in the combined treatment group, DCs were more activated and their numbers were markedly upregulated, the secretion of interferon-γ from Th1 cells of mice spleen was increased, and the cytolytic activity of CD8 CTLs exerted a more significant cytotoxic effect on GL261 glioma cells (P<0.05 for all). Furthermore, these changes peaked on the 7th day after treatment, and then gradually reduced, until the 21st day; these changes were higher than those at pretreatment (P<0.05). It is concluded that combined therapy with argon-helium cryoablation and GM-CSF could synergistically enhance the activation of DCs and induce a robust tumor-specific immunologic response in glioma-bearing mice. PMID:25735009

  16. Zn{sup 2+} induces apoptosis in human highly metastatic SHG-44 glioma cells, through inhibiting activity of the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Shangrong; Li, Shu Jie

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Hv1 is expressed in highly metastatic glioma cell. •Zn{sup 2+} ions induces apoptosis in highly metastatic glioma cells. •Zn{sup 2+} ions markedly inhibit proton secretion. •Zn{sup 2+} ions reduce the gelatinase activity. •Inhibition of Hv1 activity via Zn{sup 2+} ions can effectively retard the cancer growth. -- Abstract: In contrast to the voltage-gated K{sup +} channels, the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 contains a voltage-sensor domain but lacks a pore domain. Here, we showed that Hv1 is expressed in the highly metastatic glioma cell SHG-44, but lowly in the poorly metastatic glioma cell U-251. Inhibition of Hv1 activity by 140 μM zinc chloride induces apoptosis in the human highly metastatic glioma cells. Zn{sup 2+} ions markedly inhibit proton secretion, and reduce the gelatinase activity in the highly metastatic glioma cells. In vivo, the glioma tumor sizes of the implantation of the SHG-44 xenografts in nude mice that were injected zinc chloride solution, were dramatically smaller than that in the controlled groups. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of Hv1 activity via Zn{sup 2+} ions can effectively retard the cancer growth and suppress the cancer metastasis by the decrease of proton extrusion and the down-regulation of gelatinase activity. Our results suggest that Zn{sup 2+} ions may be used as a potential anti-glioma drug for glioma therapy.

  17. Methylation-induced silencing of maspin contributes to the proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, LIANG; LIU, HONGYUAN; YU, JU; WANG, ZHONGYONG; ZHU, QING; LI, ZONGPING; ZHONG, QI; ZHANG, SHUYU; QU, MINGQI; LAN, QING

    2016-01-01

    Maspin, a member of the serpin superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has been reported to be involved in cancer initiation and progression. However, the expression of maspin and its expression regulation in glioma remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of maspin in glioma cells and its regulatory mechanism. We found that the expression of maspin was silenced in glioma cells and tissues. Although maspin had no effect on the migration and invasion of human glioma cells in vitro, overexpression of maspin inhibited cell growth in U87 cells. We showed that the methylase inhibitor 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine induced the expression of maspin in glioma cell lines. Furthermore, both U87 and U251 cells showed hypermethylation in the maspin promoter. In addition, bisulphite sequencing analysis indicated that 16 CpG sites in the promoter were completely methylated in glioma cells and cancerous tissues, while CpG dinucleotides in the maspin promoter were unmethylated in normal brain tissues. Our data suggest that methylation-induced silencing of maspin contributes to the proliferation of human glioma cells, and maspin may be a potential therapeutic target in glioma. PMID:27177016

  18. Overexpression of CD99 Increases the Migration and Invasiveness of Human Malignant Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ho Jun; Chang, Jong Hee; Yamamoto, Junkoh; Romagnuolo, Rocco; Suh, Youngchul; Weeks, Adrienne; Agnihotri, Sameer; Smith, Christian A; Rutka, James T

    2012-09-01

    The malignant glioma is the most common primary human brain tumor, and its migration and invasiveness away from the primary tumor mass are considered a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Recently, gene expression profiling revealed that the transmembrane glycoprotein CD99 is more highly expressed in malignant glioma than in normal brain. Although its function is not completely understood, CD99 is implicated in cell adhesion and migration in a variety of different cell types. CD99 has wild-type and splice variant isoforms. Previous studies have shown that wild-type CD99 may be an oncosuppressor in some tumors, distinct from the role of the splice variant isoform. In this study, our data reveal that only wild-type CD99 is expressed in human glioma cells and tissues. Using a tissue microarray, we validated that gliomas demonstrate higher expression of CD99 compared with nonneoplastic brain. To assess the role of CD99 in glioma migration and invasion, we inhibited CD99 expression by siRNA and demonstrated decreased glioma migration and invasion. In contrast, when CD99 was overexpressed in glioma cells, we observed enhancement of cell migration and invasiveness. An orthotopic brain tumor model demonstrates that CD99 overexpression significantly increases invasiveness and decreases survival rate. Interestingly, Rac activity was decreased and Rho activity was increased in CD99 overexpressing glioma cells, and the proportion of amoeboid cells to mesenchymal cells was significantly increased. Taken together, our findings suggest that CD99 may play an important role in the migration and invasion of human gliomas independent of Akt, ERK, or JNK signaling pathways. Moreover, CD99 might be involved in amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in glioma migration. CD99 may be an important future target to inhibit migration and invasion, especially in CD99-expressing gliomas. PMID:23486730

  19. Suppressor of fused (Sufu) represses Gli1 transcription and nuclear accumulation, inhibits glioma cell proliferation, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry, improving glioma chemo-sensitivity and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Du, Wenzhong; Chen, Lingchao; Wang, Guangzhi; Cui, Yuqiong; Liu, Yang; Dou, Zhijin; Wang, Hongjun; Zhang, Ping; Chang, Liang; Yi, Liye; Cai, Jinquan; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2014-11-30

    Glioblastoma are highly aggressive brain tumors with poor prognosis. While various dysregulation of signaling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and therapy targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here we described that the Suppressor of fused (also known as Sufu) is significantly down-regulated in high-grade gliomas, correlating with a poor prognosis. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of Sufu inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry. In addition, overexpression of Sufu reduced Gli reporter gene transcription activity and prevented Gli1 nuclear accumulation, whereas knockdown of Sufu reversed these effects. Furthermore, overexpressed Sufu sensitized glioblastoma to Temozolomide and Cyclopamine. Thus, Sufu is potential tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in glioblastoma. PMID:25373737

  20. Zn(2+) induces apoptosis in human highly metastatic SHG-44 glioma cells, through inhibiting activity of the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Shangrong; Li, Shu Jie

    2013-08-23

    In contrast to the voltage-gated K(+) channels, the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 contains a voltage-sensor domain but lacks a pore domain. Here, we showed that Hv1 is expressed in the highly metastatic glioma cell SHG-44, but lowly in the poorly metastatic glioma cell U-251. Inhibition of Hv1 activity by 140μM zinc chloride induces apoptosis in the human highly metastatic glioma cells. Zn(2+) ions markedly inhibit proton secretion, and reduce the gelatinase activity in the highly metastatic glioma cells. In vivo, the glioma tumor sizes of the implantation of the SHG-44 xenografts in nude mice that were injected zinc chloride solution, were dramatically smaller than that in the controlled groups. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of Hv1 activity via Zn(2+) ions can effectively retard the cancer growth and suppress the cancer metastasis by the decrease of proton extrusion and the down-regulation of gelatinase activity. Our results suggest that Zn(2+) ions may be used as a potential anti-glioma drug for glioma therapy. PMID:23891691

  1. MicroRNA-128 coordinately targets Polycomb Repressor Complexes in glioma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Pierpaolo; Bronisz, Agnieszka; Nowicki, Michal O.; Wang, Yan; Ogawa, Daisuke; Price, Richard; Nakano, Ichiro; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Hayes, Josie; Lawler, Sean E.; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Godlewski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Background The Polycomb Repressor Complex (PRC) is an epigenetic regulator of transcription whose action is mediated by 2 protein complexes, PRC1 and PRC2. PRC is oncogenic in glioblastoma, where it is involved in cancer stem cell maintenance and radioresistance. Methods We used a set of glioblastoma patient samples, glioma stem cells, and neural stem cells from a mouse model of glioblastoma. We characterized gene/protein expression and cellular phenotypes by quantitative PCR/Western blotting and clonogenic, cell-cycle, and DNA damage assays. We performed overexpression/knockdown studies by lentiviral infection and microRNA/small interfering RNA oligonucleotide transfection. Results We show that microRNA-128 (miR-128) directly targets mRNA of SUZ12, a key component of PRC2, in addition to BMI1, a component of PRC1 that we previously showed as a target as well. This blocks the partially redundant functions of PRC1/PRC2, thereby significantly reducing PRC activity and its associated histone modifications. MiR-128 and SUZ12/BMI1 show opposite expression in human glioblastomas versus normal brain and in glioma stemlike versus neural stem cells. Furthermore, miR-128 renders glioma stemlike cells less radioresistant by preventing the radiation-induced expression of both PRC components. Finally, miR-128 expression is significantly reduced in neural stem cells from the brain of young, presymptomatic mice in our mouse model of glioblastoma. This suggests that loss of miR-128 expression in brain is an early event in gliomagenesis. Moreover, knockdown of miR-128 expression in nonmalignant mouse and human neural stem cells led to elevated expression of PRC components and increased clonogenicity. Conclusions MiR-128 is an important suppressor of PRC activity, and its absence is an early event in gliomagenesis. PMID:23733246

  2. A New Epigenetic Mechanism of Temozolomide Action in Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barciszewska, Anna-Maria; Gurda, Dorota; Głodowicz, Paweł; Nowak, Stanisław; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława Z

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent that prolongs the survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Despite that high TMZ potential, progression of disease and recurrence are still observed. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this drug is necessary and may allow more durable benefit from its anti-glioma properties. Using nucleotide post-labelling method and separation on thin-layer chromatography we measured of global changes of 5-methylcytosine (m5C) in DNA of glioma cells treated with TMZ. Although m5C is not a product of TMZ methylation reaction of DNA, we analysed the effects of the drug action on different glioma cell lines through global changes at the level of the DNA main epigenetic mark. The first effect of TMZ action we observed is DNA hypermethylation followed by global demethylation. Therefore an increase of DNA methylation and down regulation of some genes expression can be ascribed to activation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). On the other hand hypomethylation is induced by oxidative stress and causes uncontrolled expression of pathologic protein genes. The results of brain tumours treatment with TMZ suggest the new mechanism of modulation epigenetic marker in cancer cells. A high TMZ concentration induced a significant increase of m5C content in DNA in the short time, but a low TMZ concentration at longer time hypomethylation is observed for whole range of TMZ concentrations. Therefore TMZ administration with low doses of the drug and short time should be considered as optimal therapy. PMID:26309255

  3. Activation of protease-activated receptor 2 reduces glioblastoma cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of glioma is unclear. The disturbance of the apoptosis process plays a critical role in glioma growth. Factors regulating the apoptosis process are to be further understood. This study aims to investigate the role of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in regulation the apoptosis process in glioma cells. Results The results showed that U87 cells and human glioma tissue expressed PAR2. Exposure to tryptase, or the PAR2 active peptide, increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the radiated U87 cells, reduced U87 cell apoptosis, suppressed the expression of p53 in U87 cells. Conclusions Activation of PAR2 can reduce the radiated U87 cell apoptosis via modulating the expression of p53. The results implicate that PAR2 may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of glioma. PMID:24670244

  4. In vitro enhancement of dendritic cell-mediated anti-glioma immune response by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhongjun; Duan, Jinhong; Wang, Chen; Fang, Ying; Yang, Xian-Da

    2014-06-01

    Malignant glioma has extremely poor prognosis despite combination treatments with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may potentially serve as an adjuvant treatment of glioma, but its efficacy generally needs further improvement. Here we explored whether graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could modulate the DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response in vitro, using the T98G human glioma cell line as the study model. Pulsing DCs with a glioma peptide antigen (Ag) generated a limited anti-glioma response compared to un-pulsed DCs. Pulsing DCs with GO alone failed to produce obvious immune modulation effects. However, stimulating DCs with a mixture of GO and Ag (GO-Ag) significantly enhanced the anti-glioma immune reaction ( p < 0.05). The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by the lymphocytes was also markedly boosted by GO-Ag. Additionally, the anti-glioma immune response induced by GO-Ag appeared to be target-specific. Furthermore, at the concentration used in this study, GO exhibited a negligible effect on the viability of the DCs. These results suggested that GO might have potential utility for boosting a DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response.

  5. Involvement of microRNA-1297, a new regulator of HMGA1, in the regulation of glioma cell growth in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiachong; Xu, Xiaoyun; Mo, Shaowei; Tian, Ye; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Jianning; Zhao, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of versatile gene expression regulators, participating in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in both physiological and pathological conditions. Gliomas are the most common brain malignancy in adults, and deregulation of microRNAs takes part in the gliomagenesis process. Here, we found that the expression of miR-1297 is significantly reduced in both glioma cell lines and clinical glioma tissues. Using the MTT assay, soft agar colony formation assay and xenograft tumor formation assay, we show that miR-1297 is a tumor suppressor microRNA in gliomas. We demonstrate that the high mobility group protein A1 (HMGA1) is the functional target of miR-1297 in glioma cells. HMGA1 significantly promotes the growth of glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Together, we unveil a new molecular mechanism in gliomas that may shed new light on understanding this brain malignancy. PMID:27347322

  6. Ingramon, a Peptide Inhibitor of MCP-1 Chemokine, Reduces Migration of Blood Monocytes Stimulated by Glioma-Conditioned Medium.

    PubMed

    Krasnikova, T L; Arefieva, T I; Pylaeva, E A; Sidorova, M V

    2016-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are most common and fatal primary brain tumors. In addition to neoplastic cells, the tumor tissue contains microglial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. It is an established fact that monocyte recruiting promotes the tumor growth and dissemination. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is the major attractant for monocytes. We have previously synthesized an MCP-1 antagonist ingramon, a synthetic peptide fragment (65-76) of this chemokine. In the present study, we demonstrated that glioma-conditioned medium contains MCP-1 and stimulates migration of blood monocytes. Ingramon inhibited the effect of glioma-conditioned medium on monocyte migration. PMID:26906197

  7. Magnetofection Based on Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Weakens Glioma Stem Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Mediating High Expression of MicroRNA-374a

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhiguang; Shi, Zhifeng; Wei, Hua; Sun, Fengyan; Song, Jianping; Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Te; Mao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glioma stem cells belong to a special subpopulation of glioma cells that are characterized by strong proliferation, invasion and drug resistance capabilities. Magnetic nanoparticles are nanoscale biological materials with magnetic properties. In this study, CD133+ primary glioma stem cells were isolated from patients and cultured. Then, magnetic nanoparticles were used to mediate the transfection and expression of a microRNA-374a overexpression plasmid in the glioma stem cells. Transmission electron microscopy detected the presence of significant magnetic nanoparticle substances within the CD133+ glioma stem cells after transfection. The qRT-PCR and Northern blot results showed that the magnetic nanoparticles could be used to achieve the transfection of the microRNA-374a overexpression plasmid into glioma stem cells and the efficient expression of mature microRNA-374a. The MTT and flow cytometry results showed that the proliferation inhibition rate was significantly higher in cells from the microRNA-374a transfection group than in cells from the microRNA-mut transfection group; additionally, the former cells presented significant cell cycle arrest. The Transwell experiments confirmed that the overexpression of microRNA-374a could significantly reduce the invasiveness of CD133+ glioma stem cells. Moreover, the high expression of microRNA-374a mediated by the magnetic nanoparticles effectively reduced the tumourigenicity of CD133+ glioma stem cells in nude mice. The luciferase assays revealed that mature microRNA-374a fragments could bind to the 3'UTR of Neuritin (NRN1), thereby interfering with Neuritin mRNA expression. The qRT-PCR and Western blotting results showed that the overexpression of microRNA-374a significantly reduced the expression of genes such as NRN1, CCND1, CDK4 and Ki67 in glioma stem cells. Thus, magnetic nanoparticles can efficiently mediate the transfection and expression of microRNA expression plasmids in mammalian cells. The overexpression of

  8. Increasing the efficacy of antitumor glioma vaccines by photodynamic therapy and local injection of allogeneic glioma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Peng, Qian; Madsen, Steen J.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Immunotherapy of brain tumors involves the stimulation of an antitumor immune response. This type of therapy can be targeted specifically to tumor cells thus sparing surrounding normal brain. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, the brain is relatively isolated from the systemic circulation and, as such, the initiation of significant immune responses is more limited than other types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to show that the efficacy of tumor primed antigen presenting macrophage vaccines could be increased by: (1) PDT of the priming tumor cells, and (2) injection of allogeneic glioma cells directly into brain tumors. Experiments were conducted in an in vivo brain tumor model using Fisher rats and BT4C (allogeneic) and F98 (syngeneic) glioma cells. Preliminary results showed that vaccination alone had significantly less inhibitory effect on F98 tumor growth compared to the combination of vaccination and allogeneic cell (BT4C) injection.

  9. Fibulin-3 is uniquely upregulated in malignant gliomas and promotes tumor cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Thirtamara-Rajamani, Keerthi K; Sim, Hosung; Viapiano, Mariano S

    2009-11-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumors with an almost invariably rapid and lethal outcome. Surgery and chemoradiotherapy fail to remove resistant tumor cells that disperse within normal tissue, which are a major cause for disease progression and therapy failure. Infiltration of the neural parenchyma is a distinctive property of malignant gliomas compared with other solid tumors. Thus, glioma cells are thought to produce unique molecular changes that remodel the neural extracellular matrix and form a microenvironment permissive for their motility. Here, we describe the unique expression and proinvasive role of fibulin-3, a mesenchymal matrix protein specifically upregulated in gliomas. Fibulin-3 is downregulated in peripheral tumors and is thought to inhibit tumor growth. However, we found fibulin-3 highly upregulated in gliomas and cultured glioma cells, although the protein was undetectable in normal brain or cultured astrocytes. Overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that fibulin-3 did not seem to affect glioma cell morphology or proliferation, but enhanced substrate-specific cell adhesion and promoted cell motility and dispersion in organotypic cultures. Moreover, orthotopic implantation of fibulin-3-overexpressing glioma cells resulted in diffuse tumors with increased volume and rostrocaudal extension compared with controls. Tumors and cultured cells overexpressing fibulin-3 also showed elevated expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases, such as MMP-2/MMP-9 and ADAMTS-5. Taken together, our results suggest that fibulin-3 has a unique expression and protumoral role in gliomas, and could be a potential target against tumor progression. Strategies against this glioma-specific matrix component could disrupt invasive mechanisms and restrict the dissemination of these tumors. PMID:19887559

  10. Resveratrol Represses Pokemon Expression in Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Xue, Feng; Overstreet, Anne-Marie; Zhan, Yiping; Shan, Dapeng; Li, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Yu, Chunjiang; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2016-03-01

    POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon), an important proto-oncoprotein, is a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic compound, has many beneficial biological effects on health. In this study, we investigated the role of Pokemon in RSV-induced biological effects and the effect of RSV on the expression of Pokemon in glioma cells. We found that overexpression of Pokemon decreased RSV-induced cell apoptosis, senescence, and anti-proliferative effects. Moreover, we showed that RSV could efficiently decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter and the expression of Pokemon. Meanwhile, RSV also inhibited Sp1 DNA binding activity to the Pokemon promoter; whereas, it did not influence the expression and nuclear translocation of Sp1. In addition, we found that RSV could increase the recruitment of HDAC1, but decreased p300 to the Pokemon promoter. Taken together, all these results extended our understanding on the anti-cancer mechanism of RSV in glioma cells. PMID:25875864

  11. A Novel Mouse Model of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Initiated in Pax3-Expressing Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Misuraca, Katherine L.; Hu, Guo; Barton, Kelly L.; Chung, Alexander; Becher, Oren J.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and incurable brain tumor that arises predominately in children and involves the pons, a structure that along with the midbrain and medulla makes up the brainstem. We have previously developed genetically engineered mouse models of brainstem glioma using the RCAS/Tv-a system by targeting PDGF-B overexpression, p53 loss, and H3.3K27M mutation to Nestin-expressing brainstem progenitor cells of the neonatal mouse. Here we describe a novel mouse model targeting these same genetic alterations to Pax3-expressing cells, which in the neonatal mouse pons consist of a Pax3 +/Nestin +/Sox2 + population lining the fourth ventricle and a Pax3 +/NeuN + parenchymal population. Injection of RCAS-PDGF-B into the brainstem of Pax3-Tv-a mice at postnatal day 3 results in 40% of mice developing asymptomatic low-grade glioma. A mixture of low- and high-grade glioma results from injection of Pax3-Tv-a;p53fl/fl mice with RCAS-PDGF-B and RCAS-Cre, with or without RCAS-H3.3K27M. These tumors are Ki67 +, Nestin +, Olig2 +, and largely GFAP − and can arise anywhere within the brainstem, including the classic DIPG location of the ventral pons. Expression of the H3.3K27M mutation reduces overall H3K27me3 as compared with tumors without the mutation, similar to what has been previously shown in human and mouse tumors. Thus, we have generated a novel genetically engineered mouse model of DIPG, which faithfully recapitulates the human disease and represents a novel platform with which to study the biology and treatment of this deadly disease. PMID:26806352

  12. Pristimerin triggers AIF-dependent programmed necrosis in glioma cells via activation of JNK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Chen; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Zijian; Jin, Yong; Wang, Zongqi; Zheng, Linjie; Liu, Kai; Luo, Tianfei; Zhu, Dong; Chi, Guangfan; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

    2016-04-28

    Programmed necrosis is established as a new form of programmed cell death and is emerging as a new strategy of treatment for cancers. Pristimerin is a natural chemical with anti-tumor effect despite the fact that its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we used glioma cell lines and mice model of xenograft glioma to investigate the effect of pristimerin on glioma and its underlying mechanism. We found that pristimerin inhibited the viabilities of glioma cells in vitro and the growth of xenograft gliomas in vivo, which was accompanied by upregulation of JNK and phosphor-JNK, nuclear accumulation of AIF, and elevation in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In vitro studies showed that pristimerin induced necrosis in glioma cells, as well as mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of ROS and reduction of GSH. Ablation of AIF level with SiRNA mitigated pristimerin-induced nuclear accumulation of AIF and prevented necrosis in glioma cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK with SP600125 or knockdown of its level with SiRNA reversed mitochondrial depolarization attenuated the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 and suppressed nuclear accumulation of AIF. Further, inhibition of ROS with NAC not only rescued glioma cell necrosis but also suppressed JNK activation, mitigated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited AIF translocation into nucleus. Therefore, we demonstrated first in this study that pristimerin triggered AIF-dependent necroptosis in glioma cells via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of JNK through overproduction of ROS. These results suggest that pristimerin has potential therapeutic effects on glioma. PMID:26854718

  13. Cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer cells on U251 glioma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Wu, Tingting; Wan, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to observe the cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells on U251 glioma cells and to investigate their mechanism of action to establish an effective treatment strategy for neuroglioma. Cell survival curves, colony formation assays and karyotype analysis were performed to investigate the characteristics of U251 glioma cells. The present study demonstrated that natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D)‑major histocompatibility complex class I‑related chain A/B (MICA/B) interactions contributed to the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on K562 and U251 cells. In antibody‑blocking assays to inhibit NKG2D ligands, the cytotoxic activity was not completely attenuated, which suggested that other signaling pathways contribute to the cytotoxic activity of NK cells on tumor cells in addition to the NKG2D‑mediated activity. The present study identified that the expression levels of NKG2D ligands on the surface of target cells influenced the strength of the NK cell immune response. Furthermore, allogeneic NK cells were observed to kill glioma cells in vitro, and this anticancer activity is associated with the rate of NKG2D expression on the surface of glioma cells. PMID:27175912

  14. Oridonin inhibits tumor growth in glioma by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-H; Liu, Y-X; Jia, M; Han, J-S; Zhao, M; Ji, S-P; Li, A-M

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Despite newly developed therapies, these treatments mainly target oncogenic signals, and unfortunately, fail to provide enough survival benefit in both human patients and mouse xenograft models, especially the first-generation therapies. Oridonin is purified from the Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens and considered to exert extensive anti-cancer effects on human tumorigenesis. In this study, we systemically investigated the role of Oridonin in tumor growth and the underlying mechanisms in human glioma. We found that Oridonin inhibited cell proliferations in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both glioma U87 and U251 cells. Moreover, these anti-cancer effects were also confirmed in a mouse model bearing glioma. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest in S phase was observed in Oridonin-mediated growth inhibition by flow cytometry. Cell cycle arrest in S phase led to eventual cell apoptosis, as revealed by Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI double-staining. The cell apoptosis might be accomplished through a mitochondrial manner. In all, we were the first to our knowledge to report that Oridonin could exert anti-cancer effects on tumor growth in human glioma by inducing cell cycle arrest and eventual cell apoptosis. The identification of Oridonin as a critical mediator of glioma growth may potentiate Oridonin as a novel therapeutic strategies in glioma treatments. PMID:25553351

  15. Deoxypodophyllotoxin triggers parthanatos in glioma cells via induction of excessive ROS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Diandong; Lu, Bin; Feng, Chao; Wang, Chen; Wang, Yubo; Luo, Tianfei; Feng, Jiachun; Jia, Hongyao; Chi, Guangfan; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

    2016-02-28

    Parthanatos is a new form of programmed cell death that is regulated by hyper-activated PARP-1, and is emerging as a new strategy to kill cancer cells. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a natural chemical that is found to induce cancer cell death, in which the role of parthanatos is unknown. Thus, we investigated this issue in this study by using glioma cell lines and mice model of xenograft glioma. We found that DPT induced glioma cell death in vitro and inhibited the growth of xenograft glioma in vivo, which was accompanied with parthanatos-related biochemical events including expressional upregulation of PARP-1, cytoplasmic accumulation of PAR polymer, and nuclear translocation of AIF. In vitro study revealed that genetic knockdown of PARP-1 with small interfering RNA attenuated DPT-induced elevation in the cytoplasmic PAR-polymer and the nuclear AIF, as well as protected glioma cells against the toxicity of DPT. Further, antioxidant NAC, as well as PARP-1 inhibitor 3AB, not only alleviated the overproduction of ROS caused by DPT, but also reversed the above-mentioned biochemical events, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and rescued glioma cells death. Therefore, we demonstrated that deoxypodophyllotoxin triggered parthanatos in glioma cells via induction of excessive ROS. PMID:26683770

  16. GSK621 Targets Glioma Cells via Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Shi-Kun; Pan, Yi-Xin; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang; Pan, Si-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the anti-glioma cell activity by a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator GSK621. We showed that GSK621 was cytotoxic to human glioma cells (U87MG and U251MG lines), possibly via provoking caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Its cytotoxicity was alleviated by caspase inhibitors. GSK621 activated AMPK to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and downregulate Tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) in glioma cells. AMPK inhibition, through shRNA knockdown of AMPKα or introduction of a dominant negative (T172A) AMPKα, almost reversed GSK621-induced AMPK activation, mTOR inhibition and Tspan8 degradation. Consequently, GSK621’s cytotoxicity in glioma cells was also significantly attenuated by AMPKα knockdown or mutation. Further studies showed that GSK621, at a relatively low concentration, significantly potentiated temozolomide (TMZ)’s sensitivity and lethality against glioma cells. We summarized that GSK621 inhibits human glioma cells possibly via activating AMPK signaling. This novel AMPK activator could be a novel and promising anti-glioma cell agent. PMID:27532105

  17. Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua Liu, Fenju

    2015-01-15

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. - Highlights: • Inactivation of STAT3 signaling radiosensitizes malignant glioma cells. • STAT3 inhibition triggers a significant increase of autophagy flux induced by ionizing radiation in glioma cells. • Suppression of autophagy further strengthens the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition in glioma cells. • Dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 induce massive apoptotic cells upon exposure to ionizing radiation.

  18. Transmigration of Neural Stem Cells across the Blood Brain Barrier Induced by Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Coránguez, Mónica; Segovia, José; López-Ornelas, Adolfo; Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Ludert, Juan; Chávez, Bibiana; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Transit of human neural stem cells, ReNcell CX, through the blood brain barrier (BBB) was evaluated in an in vitro model of BBB and in nude mice. The BBB model was based on rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) cultured on Millicell inserts bathed from the basolateral side with conditioned media (CM) from astrocytes or glioma C6 cells. Glioma C6 CM induced a significant transendothelial migration of ReNcells CX in comparison to astrocyte CM. The presence in glioma C6 CM of high amounts of HGF, VEGF, zonulin and PGE2, together with the low abundance of EGF, promoted ReNcells CX transmigration. In contrast cytokines IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, as well as metalloproteinases -2 and -9 were present in equal amounts in glioma C6 and astrocyte CMs. ReNcells expressed the tight junction proteins occludin and claudins 1, 3 and 4, and the cell adhesion molecule CRTAM, while RBMECs expressed occludin, claudins 1 and 5 and CRTAM. Competing CRTAM mediated adhesion with soluble CRTAM, inhibited ReNcells CX transmigration, and at the sites of transmigration, the expression of occludin and claudin-5 diminished in RBMECs. In nude mice we found that ReNcells CX injected into systemic circulation passed the BBB and reached intracranial gliomas, which overexpressed HGF, VEGF and zonulin/prehaptoglobin 2. PMID:23637756

  19. Immunoresistant human glioma cell clones selected with alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, German G.; Hickey, Michelle J.; Tritz, Richard; Kruse, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We previously reported the cellular, functional and cytogenetic characterization of immunoresistant (IR) 13-06-IR29 and 13-06-IR30 human glioma cell clones isolated after immunoselection with alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (aCTL). Relative to the 13-06-MG parental cells, both clones resisted aCTL lysis at multiple effector to target ratios; the resistant phenotype was maintained for 13-41 cell doublings after cloning and when selective pressure was removed; cross-resistance to other inducers of apoptosis/cell death was also observed (Gomez et al, 2006; Gomez and Kruse, 2007). In this study we further characterize the IR clones for factors that may contribute to the resistance. Data obtained by in-vitro quantitative morphologic and 7-amino actinomycin D flow cytometric assays revealed reduced apoptotic cell death when IR clones were coincubated with aCTL, relative to the parental cells. Since changes in apoptosis were observed, we examined the expression patterns of apoptosis-related genes in several extracts of parental cells and IR clones using pathway-specific cDNA microarray analysis. In general, the apoptotic factors were downregulated in the IR clones. From three separate extracts analyzed separately on microarrays, three factors, ATM, caspases 3 and 8, were statistically downregulated in both IR clones. Immunoblotting of the proteins confirmed the findings. Therefore, a possible mechanism for immunoresistance in gliomas may be achieved by the downregulation of one or more genes in the apoptotic pathway. PMID:19066635

  20. Knockdown of microRNA-127 reverses adriamycin resistance via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis sensitization in adriamycin-resistant human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ren; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate signaling pathways for reversal of microRNA-127-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) in gliomas cells. Adriamycin-resistant glioma cell lines U251/adr and U87-MG/adr were established and we found that anti-microRNA-127 markedly reduced microRNA-127 expression levels in a time-dependent manner, leading to distinct inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and the content of intracellular Rh123. Silencing of microRNA-127 significantly increased the sensitivity of U251/ADR and U87-MG/adr cells to adriamycin, compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. Silencing of microRNA-127 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1, which are major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter linked to multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. And Runx2, p53, bcl-2 and survivin, which are important role in cell apoptosis, also markedly changed after microRNA-127 silencing. In addition, down-regulating microRNA-127 decreased the level of phosphorylated-Akt. Our data indicate that down-regulation of micorRNA-127 can trigger apoptosis and overcome drug resistance of gliomas cells. Therefore, this resistance of adriamycin in gliomas can be cancelled by silencing expression of microRNA-127. PMID:26261488

  1. Knockdown of microRNA-127 reverses adriamycin resistance via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis sensitization in adriamycin-resistant human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ren; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate signaling pathways for reversal of microRNA-127-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) in gliomas cells. Adriamycin-resistant glioma cell lines U251/adr and U87-MG/adr were established and we found that anti-microRNA-127 markedly reduced microRNA-127 expression levels in a time-dependent manner, leading to distinct inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and the content of intracellular Rh123. Silencing of microRNA-127 significantly increased the sensitivity of U251/ADR and U87-MG/adr cells to adriamycin, compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. Silencing of microRNA-127 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1, which are major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter linked to multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. And Runx2, p53, bcl-2 and survivin, which are important role in cell apoptosis, also markedly changed after microRNA-127 silencing. In addition, down-regulating microRNA-127 decreased the level of phosphorylated-Akt. Our data indicate that down-regulation of micorRNA-127 can trigger apoptosis and overcome drug resistance of gliomas cells. Therefore, this resistance of adriamycin in gliomas can be cancelled by silencing expression of microRNA-127. PMID:26261488

  2. Endothelial Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Glioma Tumors: Implications for Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagó, Juli R; Alieva, Maria; Soler, Carolina; Rubio, Núria; Blanco, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent human adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) are promising therapy vehicles with tumor-homing capacity that can be easily modified to deliver cytotoxicity activating systems in the proximity of tumors. In a previous work, we observed that hAMSCs are very effective delivering cytotoxicity to glioma tumors. However, these results were difficult to reconcile with the relatively few hAMSCs surviving implantation. We use a bioluminescence imaging (BLI) platform to analyze the behavior of bioluminescent hAMSCs expressing HSV-tTK in a U87 glioma model and gain insight into the therapeutic mechanisms. Tumor-implanted hAMSCs express the endothelial marker PECAM1(CD31), integrate in tumor vessels and associate with CD133-expressing glioma stem cells (GSC). Inhibition of endothelial lineage differentiation in hAMSCs by Notch1 shRNA had no effect on their tumor homing and growth-promoting capacity but abolished the association of hAMSCs with tumor vessels and CD133+ tumor cells and significantly reduced their tumor-killing capacity. The current strategy allowed the study of tumor/stroma interactions, showed that tumor promotion and tumor-killing capacities of hAMSCs are based on different mechanisms. Our data strongly suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of hAMSCs results from their association with special tumor vascular structures that also contain GSCs. PMID:23760448

  3. Micheliolide Derivative DMAMCL Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    An, Yinghong; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Linna; Xu, Chengwang; Yang, Dexuan; Wang, Shanshan; Lu, Yaxin; Zhang, Quan; Zhai, Jiadai; Fan, Hongxia; Qiu, Chuanjiang; Qi, Jie; Chen, Yue; Yuan, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no highly effective chemotherapy for malignant gliomas to date. We found that dimethylaminomicheliolide (DMAMCL), a selective inhibitor of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem/progenitor cells, inhibited the growth of glioma cells. Methods The distribution of DMAMCL in brain was analyzed by an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) system. The anti-tumor evaluations of DMAMCL in vitro were performed by MTT, FACS and RT-PCR. In vivo, the mixture of C6 cells and matrigel was injected into caudatum, and the anti-tumor activity of DMAMCL was evaluated by tumor growth and rat survival. The toxicity of DMAMCL was evaluated by body weight, daily food intake, hematological or serum biochemical analyses, and histological appearance of tissues. Results The IC50 values of DMAMCL against the C6 and U-87MG cell lines in vitro were 27.18 ± 1.89 μM and 20.58 ± 1.61 μM, respectively. DAMMCL down-regulated the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 and increased apoptosis in C6 and U-87MG cells in a dose-dependent manner. In a C6 rat tumor model, daily administration of DMAMCL for 21 days reduced the burden of C6 tumors by 60% to 88% compared to controls, and more than doubled the mean lifespan of tumor-bearing rats. Distribution analysis showed that the DMAMCL concentration was higher in the brain than in plasma. Evaluations for toxicity revealed that oral administration of DMAMCL at 200 or 300 mg/kg once a day for 21 days did not result in toxicity. Conclusions These results suggest that DMAMCL is highly promising for the treatment of glioma. PMID:25658946

  4. Transformation of quiescent adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells into malignant glioma through a multistep reactivation process

    PubMed Central

    Galvao, Rui Pedro; Kasina, Anita; McNeill, Robert S.; Harbin, Jordan E.; Foreman, Oded; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Nishiyama, Akiko; Miller, C. Ryan; Zong, Hui

    2014-01-01

    How malignant gliomas arise in a mature brain remains a mystery, hindering the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. We previously showed that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can be transformed into glioma when mutations are introduced perinatally. However, adult OPCs rarely proliferate compared with their perinatal counterparts. Whether these relatively quiescent cells have the potential to transform is unknown, which is a critical question considering the late onset of human glioma. Additionally, the premalignant events taking place between initial mutation and a fully developed tumor mass are particularly poorly understood in glioma. Here we used a temporally controllable Cre transgene to delete p53 and NF1 specifically in adult OPCs and demonstrated that these cells consistently give rise to malignant gliomas. To investigate the transforming process of quiescent adult OPCs, we then tracked these cells throughout the premalignant phase, which revealed a dynamic multistep transformation, starting with rapid but transient hyperproliferative reactivation, followed by a long period of dormancy, and then final malignant transformation. Using pharmacological approaches, we discovered that mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is critical for both the initial OPC reactivation step and late-stage tumor cell proliferation and thus might be a potential target for both glioma prevention and treatment. In summary, our results firmly establish the transforming potential of adult OPCs and reveal an actionable multiphasic reactivation process that turns slowly dividing OPCs into malignant gliomas. PMID:25246577

  5. Integrated Transcriptomic and Glycomic Profiling of Glioma Stem Cell Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wildburger, Norelle C; Zhou, Shiyue; Zacharias, Lauren G; Kroes, Roger A; Moskal, Joseph R; Schmidt, Mary; Mirzaei, Parvin; Gumin, Joy; Lang, Frederick F; Mechref, Yehia; Nilsson, Carol L

    2015-09-01

    Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs) have the innate ability to migrate or home toward and engraft in tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM). Because of this unique property of BM-hMSCs, we have explored their use for cell-mediated therapeutic delivery for the advancement of GBM treatment. Extravasation, the process by which blood-borne cells—such as BM-hMSCs—enter the tissue, is a highly complex process but is heavily dependent upon glycosylation for glycan-glycan and glycan-protein adhesion between the cell and endothelium. However, in a translationally significant preclinical glioma stem cell xenograft (GSCX) model of GBM, BM-hMSCs demonstrate unequal tropism toward these tumors. We hypothesized that there may be differences in the glycan compositions between the GSCXs that elicit homing ("attractors") and those that do not ("non-attractors") that facilitate or impede the engraftment of BM-hMSCs in the tumor. In this study, glycotranscriptomic analysis revealed significant heterogeneity within the attractor phenotype and the enrichment of high mannose type N-glycan biosynthesis in the non-attractor phenotype. Orthogonal validation with topical PNGase F deglycosylation on the tumor regions of xenograft tissue, followed by nLC-ESI-MS, confirmed the presence of increased high mannose type N-glycans in the non-attractors. Additional evidence provided by our glycomic study revealed the prevalence of terminal sialic acid-containing N-glycans in non-attractors and terminal galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine N-glycans in attractors. Our results provide the first evidence for differential glycomic profiles in attractor and non-attractor GSCXs and extend the scope of molecular determinates in BM-hMSC homing to glioma. PMID:26185906

  6. Loss of SOCS3 in myeloid cells prolongs survival in a syngeneic model of glioma

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Braden C.; Marks, Margaret P.; Rowse, Amber L.; Fehling, Samuel C.; Gerigk, Magda; Qin, Hongwei; Benveniste, Etty N.

    2016-01-01

    In glioma, microglia and macrophages are the largest population of tumor-infiltrating cells, referred to as glioma associated macrophages (GAMs). Herein, we sought to determine the role of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), in GAM functionality in glioma. We utilized a conditional model in which SOCS3 deletion is restricted to the myeloid cell population. We found that SOCS3-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages display enhanced and prolonged expression of pro-inflammatory M1 cytokines when exposed to glioma tumor cell conditioned medium in vitro. Moreover, we found that deletion of SOCS3 in the myeloid cell population delays intracranial tumor growth and increases survival of mice bearing orthotopic glioma tumors in vivo. Although intracranial tumors from mice with SOCS3-deficient myeloid cells appear histologically similar to control mice, we observed that loss of SOCS3 in myeloid cells results in decreased M2 polarized macrophage infiltration in the tumors. Furthermore, loss of SOCS3 in myeloid cells results in increased CD8+ T-cell and decreased regulatory T-cell infiltration in the tumors. These findings demonstrate a beneficial effect of M1 polarized macrophages on suppressing glioma tumor growth, and highlight the importance of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26967393

  7. Silencing of protein kinase D2 induces glioma cell senescence via p53-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Heffeter, Petra; Wintersperger, Andrea; Asslaber, Martin; Frank, Saša; Hammer, Astrid; Strohmaier, Heimo; DeVaney, Trevor; Mrfka, Manuel; Eder, Hans; Windpassinger, Christian; Ireson, Christopher R.; Mischel, Paul S.; Berger, Walter; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive tumor of the central nervous system with a dismal prognosis for affected patients. Aberrant protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been implicated in gliomagenesis, and a member of the PKC-activated protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was identified as mediator of GBM growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The outcome of PRKD2 silencing and pharmacological inhibition on glioma cell proliferation was established with different glioma cell lines. Western blotting, senescence assays, co-immunoprecipitation, fluorescence activated cell sorting, quantitative PCR, and immunofluorescence microscopy were utilized to analyze downstream signaling. Results RNA-interference (21-mer siRNA) and pharmacological inhibition (CRT0066101) of PRKD2 profoundly inhibited proliferation of p53wt (U87MG, A172, and primary GBM2), and p53mut (GM133, T98G, U251, and primary Gli25) glioma cells. In a xenograft experiment, PRKD2 silencing significantly delayed tumor growth of U87MG cells. PRKD2 silencing in p53wt and p53mut cells was associated with typical hallmarks of senescence and cell cycle arrest in G1. Attenuated AKT/PKB phosphorylation in response to PRKD2 silencing was a common observation made in p53wt and p53mut GBM cells. PRKD2 knockdown in p53wt cells induced upregulation of p53, p21, and p27 expression, decreased phosphorylation of CDK2 and/or CDK4, hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and reduced transcription of E2F1. In p53mut GM133 and primary Gli25 cells, PRKD2 silencing increased p27 and p15 and reduced E2F1 transcription but did not affect pRb phosphorylation. Conclusions PRKD2 silencing induces glioma cell senescence via p53-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:24463355

  8. Atypical nuclear localization of VIP receptors in glioma cell lines and patients

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarin, Alice; Séité, Paule; Godet, Julie; Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc; Chadéneau, Corinne

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • The VIP receptor VPAC1 contains a putative NLS signal. • VPAC1 is predominantly nuclear in GBM cell lines but not VPAC2. • Non-nuclear VPAC1/2 protein expression is correlated with glioma grade. • Nuclear VPAC1 is observed in 50% of stage IV glioma (GBM). - Abstract: An increasing number of G protein-coupled receptors, like receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), are found in cell nucleus. As VIP receptors are involved in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation and migration, we investigated the expression and the nuclear localization of the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 in this cancer. First, by applying Western blot and immunofluorescence detection in three human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, we observed a strong nuclear staining for the VPAC1 receptor and a weak nuclear VPAC2 receptor staining. Second, immunohistochemical staining of VPAC1 and VPAC2 on tissue microarrays (TMA) showed that the two receptors were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues. Expression in the non-nuclear compartment of the two receptors significantly increased with the grade of the tumors. Analysis of nuclear staining revealed a significant increase of VPAC1 staining with glioma grade, with up to 50% of GBM displaying strong VPAC1 nuclear staining, whereas nuclear VPAC2 staining remained marginal. The increase in VPAC receptor expression with glioma grades and the enhanced nuclear localization of the VPAC1 receptors in GBM might be of importance for glioma progression.

  9. miR-150-5p and miR-133a suppress glioma cell proliferation and migration through targeting membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Moustafa; Takino, Takahisa; Sabit, Hemragul; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Li, Zichen; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-08-10

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary tumors of the brain, and there is no successful treatment for highly malignant gliomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a variety of biological processes. Recent studies showed that miR-150-5p and miR-133a are downregulated in various human malignancies, and one of target mRNAs was shown to be membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mRNA. However, their detailed role in the processes of cancer remains to be determined. Here we found that miR-150-5p and miR-133a expression was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal tissues, and that MT1-MMP expression was inversely upregulated in glioma tissues. Knockdown of MT1-MMP by specific siRNAs in U87 and U251 glioma cells induced suppression of cell proliferation and invasion/migration. Transfection of miR-150-5p or miR-133a mimics into glioma cell lines reduced MT1-MMP expression and MMP-2 activation by these cells, and cell proliferation and invasion/migration were also suppressed by it. Co-transfection of specific inhibitor oligo DNA for miR-150-5p or miR-133a abrogated miR-150-5p or miR-133a mimic's actions, respectively. These results suggest that miR-150-5p and miR-133a may suppress malignancy of gliomas by targeting MT1-MMP, and could be used as an anti-metastatic therapy for glioma patients. PMID:27154818

  10. Cathepsin L knockdown enhances curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yao; Xiong, Yajie; Zhao, Yifan; Wang, Wenjuan; Han, Meilin; Wang, Long; Tan, Caihong; Liang, Zhongqin

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin can be used to prevent and treat cancer. However, its exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is overexpressed in several cancer types. This study aimed to determine the role of cathepsin L in curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. Results revealed that the activity of cathepsin L was enhanced in curcumin-treated glioma cells. Cathepsin L knockdown induced by RNA interference significantly promoted curcumin-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The knockdown also inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Our results suggested that the inhibition of cathepsin L can enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to curcumin. Therefore, cathepsin L may be a new target to enhance the efficacy of curcumin against cancers. PMID:27373979

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Human Gliomas Increase Proliferation and Maintain Stemness of Glioma Stem Cells Through the IL-6/gp130/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Anwar; Gumin, Joy; Gao, Feng; Figueroa, Javier; Shinojima, Naoki; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Priebe, Waldemar; Villarreal, Diana; Kang, Seok-Gu; Joyce, Celine; Sulman, Erik; Wang, Qianghu; Marini, Frank C.; Andreeff, Michael; Colman, Howard; Lang, Frederick F.

    2015-01-01

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been implicated as stromal components of several cancers, their ultimate contribution to tumorigenesis and their potential to drive cancer stem cells, particularly in the unique microenvironment of human brain tumors, remains largely undefined. Consequently, using established criteria, we isolated glioma-associated-human MSCs (GA-hMSCs) from fresh human glioma surgical specimens for the first time. We show that these GA-hMSCs are nontumorigenic stromal cells that are phenotypically similar to prototypical bone marrow-MSCs. Low-passage genomic sequencing analyses comparing GA-hMSCs with matched tumor-initiating glioma stem cells (GSCs) suggest that most GA-hMSCs (60%) are normal cells recruited to the tumor (Group 1 GA-hMSCs), although, rarely (10%), GA-hMSCs may differentiate directly from GSCs (Group 2 GA-hMSCs) or display genetic patterns intermediate between these groups (Group 3 GA-hMSCs). Importantly, GA-hMSCs increase proliferation and self-renewal of GSCs in vitro, and enhance GSC tumorigenicity and mesenchymal features in vivo, confirming their functional significance within the GSC niche. These effects are mediated by GA-hMSC-secreted interleukin-6, which activates STAT3 in GSCs. Our results establish GA-hMSCs as a potentially new stromal component of gliomas that drives the aggressiveness of GSCs, and point to GA-hMSCs as a novel therapeutic target within gliomas. PMID:25966666

  12. Asymmetric Distribution of GFAP in Glioma Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Guelfi, Sophie; Ripoll, Chantal; Teigell, Marisa; Sabourin, Jean-Charles; Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Rothhut, Bernard; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric division (AD) is a fundamental mechanism whereby unequal inheritance of various cellular compounds during mitosis generates unequal fate in the two daughter cells. Unequal repartitions of transcription factors, receptors as well as mRNA have been abundantly described in AD. In contrast, the involvement of intermediate filaments in this process is still largely unknown. AD occurs in stem cells during development but was also recently observed in cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrate the asymmetric distribution of the main astrocytic intermediate filament, namely the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), in mitotic glioma multipotent cells isolated from glioblastoma (GBM), the most frequent type of brain tumor. Unequal mitotic repartition of GFAP was also observed in mice non-tumoral neural stem cells indicating that this process occurs across species and is not restricted to cancerous cells. Immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy were used to capture these rare and transient events. Considering the role of intermediate filaments in cytoplasm organization and cell signaling, we propose that asymmetric distribution of GFAP could possibly participate in the regulation of normal and cancerous neural stem cell fate. PMID:26953813

  13. Use of genetically engineered stem cells for glioma therapy

    PubMed Central

    NAMBA, HIROKI; KAWAJI, HIROSHI; YAMASAKI, TOMOHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant type of primary brain tumor, is associated with poor prognosis, even when treated using combined therapies, including surgery followed by concomitant radiotherapy with temozolomide-based chemotherapy. The invasive nature of this type of tumor is a major reason underlying treatment failure. The tumor-tropic ability of neural and mesenchymal stem cells offers an alternative therapeutic approach, where these cells may be used as vehicles for the invasion of tumors. Stem cell-based therapy is particularly attractive due to its tumor selectivity, meaning that the stem cells are able to target tumor cells without harming healthy brain tissue, as well as the extensive tumor tropism of stem cells when delivering anti-tumor substances, even to distant tumor microsatellites. Stem cells have previously been used to deliver cytokine genes, suicide genes and oncolytic viruses. The present review will summarize current trends in experimental studies of stem cell-based gene therapy against gliomas, and discuss the potential concerns for translating these promising strategies into clinical use. PMID:26870161

  14. Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Charalambous, Christiana; Virrey, Jenilyn; Kardosh, Adel; Jabbour, Mark N.; Qazi-Abdullah, Lubna; Pen, Ligaya; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Schoenthal, Axel H.; Chen, Thomas C.; Hofman, Florence M. . E-mail: hofman@usc.edu

    2007-04-01

    The innately programmed process of replicative senescence has been studied extensively with respect to cancer, but primarily from the perspective of tumor cells overcoming this stringent innate barrier and acquiring the capacity for unlimited proliferation. In this study, we focus on the potential role of replicative senescence affecting the non-transformed endothelial cells of the blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. Based on the well-documented aberrant structural and functional features of blood vessels within solid tumors, we hypothesized that tumor-derived factors may lead to premature replicative senescence in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells (TuBEC). We show here that glioma tissue, but not normal brain tissue, contains cells that express the signature of replicative senescence, senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), on CD31-positive endothelial cells. Primary cultures of human TuBEC stain for SA-{beta}-gal and exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence, including increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs, increased growth factor production, and inability to proliferate. These data provide the first demonstration that tumor-derived brain endothelial cells may have reached an end-stage of differentiation known as replicative senescence and underscore the need for anti-angiogenic therapies to target this unique tumor-associated endothelial cell population.

  15. Controlled Payload Release by Magnetic Field Triggered Neural Stem Cell Destruction for Malignant Glioma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Muroski, Megan E; Morshed, Ramin A; Cheng, Yu; Vemulkar, Tarun; Mansell, Rhodri; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lingjiao; Aboody, Karen S; Cowburn, Russell P; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells have recently garnered attention as drug and particle carriers to sites of tumors, due to their natural ability to track to the site of interest. Specifically, neural stem cells (NSCs) have demonstrated to be a promising candidate for delivering therapeutics to malignant glioma, a primary brain tumor that is not curable by current treatments, and inevitably fatal. In this article, we demonstrate that NSCs are able to internalize 2 μm magnetic discs (SD), without affecting the health of the cells. The SD can then be remotely triggered in an applied 1 T rotating magnetic field to deliver a payload. Furthermore, we use this NSC-SD delivery system to deliver the SD themselves as a therapeutic agent to mechanically destroy glioma cells. NSCs were incubated with the SD overnight before treatment with a 1T rotating magnetic field to trigger the SD release. The potential timed release effects of the magnetic particles were tested with migration assays, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry for apoptosis. After the magnetic field triggered SD release, glioma cells were added and allowed to internalize the particles. Once internalized, another dose of the magnetic field treatment was administered to trigger mechanically induced apoptotic cell death of the glioma cells by the rotating SD. We are able to determine that NSC-SD and magnetic field treatment can achieve over 50% glioma cell death when loaded at 50 SD/cell, making this a promising therapeutic for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26734932

  16. Controlled Payload Release by Magnetic Field Triggered Neural Stem Cell Destruction for Malignant Glioma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muroski, Megan E.; Morshed, Ramin A.; Cheng, Yu; Vemulkar, Tarun; Mansell, Rhodri; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lingjiao; Aboody, Karen S.; Cowburn, Russell P.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells have recently garnered attention as drug and particle carriers to sites of tumors, due to their natural ability to track to the site of interest. Specifically, neural stem cells (NSCs) have demonstrated to be a promising candidate for delivering therapeutics to malignant glioma, a primary brain tumor that is not curable by current treatments, and inevitably fatal. In this article, we demonstrate that NSCs are able to internalize 2 μm magnetic discs (SD), without affecting the health of the cells. The SD can then be remotely triggered in an applied 1 T rotating magnetic field to deliver a payload. Furthermore, we use this NSC-SD delivery system to deliver the SD themselves as a therapeutic agent to mechanically destroy glioma cells. NSCs were incubated with the SD overnight before treatment with a 1T rotating magnetic field to trigger the SD release. The potential timed release effects of the magnetic particles were tested with migration assays, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry for apoptosis. After the magnetic field triggered SD release, glioma cells were added and allowed to internalize the particles. Once internalized, another dose of the magnetic field treatment was administered to trigger mechanically induced apoptotic cell death of the glioma cells by the rotating SD. We are able to determine that NSC-SD and magnetic field treatment can achieve over 50% glioma cell death when loaded at 50 SD/cell, making this a promising therapeutic for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26734932

  17. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo. PMID:26650729

  18. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated. PMID:26788112

  19. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  20. Epigenetic regulation of human hedgehog interacting protein in glioma cell lines and primary tumor samples

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mehdi H.; Zazpe, Idoya; Afzal, Mohammad; Sinha, Subrata; Rebhun, Robert B.; Meléndez, Bárbara; Rey, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma constitutes one of the most common groups of brain tumors, and its prognosis is influenced by different genetic and epigenetic modulations. In this study, we demonstrated low or no expression of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) in most of the cell lines and primary glioma tumor samples. We further proceeded to promoter methylation study of this gene in the same cell lines and primary tumor samples and found 87 % (7/8) HHIP methylation in glioblastoma cell lines and 75 % (33/44) in primary tumor samples. These methylation pattern correlates with low or unexpressed HHIP in both cell lines and primary tumor samples. Our results suggest the possibility of epigenetic regulation of this gene in glioma, similarly to medulloblastoma, gastric, hepatic, and pancreatic cancers. Also, HHIP might be a diagnostic or prognostic marker in glioma and help to the detection of these tumors in early stages of disease. PMID:25416442

  1. Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response Drives Enhanced Metabolism and Chemoresistance in Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Andrea L.; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M.; Herring, Matthew; Winston, Benjamin A.; Lencioni, Alex M.; Russell, Rae L.; Madsen, Helen; Nega, Meheret; Dusto, Nathaniel L.; White, Jason; Bigner, Darell D.; Nicchitta, Christopher V.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Graner, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-based cytoprotective mechanism acting to prevent pathologies accompanying protein aggregation. It is frequently active in tumors, but relatively unstudied in gliomas. We hypothesized that UPR stress effects on glioma cells might protect tumors from additional exogenous stress (ie, chemotherapeutics), postulating that protection was concurrent with altered tumor cell metabolism. Using human brain tumor cell lines, xenograft tumors, human samples and gene expression databases, we determined molecular features of glioma cell UPR induction/activation, and here report a detailed analysis of UPR transcriptional/translational/metabolic responses. Immunohistochemistry, Western and Northern blots identified elevated levels of UPR transcription factors and downstream ER chaperone targets in gliomas. Microarray profiling revealed distinct regulation of stress responses between xenograft tumors and parent cell lines, with gene ontology and network analyses linking gene expression to cell survival and metabolic processes. Human glioma samples were examined for levels of the ER chaperone GRP94 by immunohistochemistry and for other UPR components by Western blotting. Gene and protein expression data from patient gliomas correlated poor patient prognoses with increased expression of ER chaperones, UPR target genes, and metabolic enzymes (glycolysis and lipogenesis). NMR-based metabolomic studies revealed increased metabolic outputs in glucose uptake with elevated glycolytic activity as well as increased phospholipid turnover. Elevated levels of amino acids, antioxidants, and cholesterol were also evident upon UPR stress; in particular, recurrent tumors had overall higher lipid outputs and elevated specific UPR arms. Clonogenicity studies following temozolomide treatment of stressed or unstressed cells demonstrated UPR-induced chemoresistance. Our data characterize the UPR in glioma cells and human tumors, and

  2. Induction of the unfolded protein response drives enhanced metabolism and chemoresistance in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Epple, Laura M; Dodd, Rebecca D; Merz, Andrea L; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M; Herring, Matthew; Winston, Benjamin A; Lencioni, Alex M; Russell, Rae L; Madsen, Helen; Nega, Meheret; Dusto, Nathaniel L; White, Jason; Bigner, Darell D; Nicchitta, Christopher V; Serkova, Natalie J; Graner, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-based cytoprotective mechanism acting to prevent pathologies accompanying protein aggregation. It is frequently active in tumors, but relatively unstudied in gliomas. We hypothesized that UPR stress effects on glioma cells might protect tumors from additional exogenous stress (ie, chemotherapeutics), postulating that protection was concurrent with altered tumor cell metabolism. Using human brain tumor cell lines, xenograft tumors, human samples and gene expression databases, we determined molecular features of glioma cell UPR induction/activation, and here report a detailed analysis of UPR transcriptional/translational/metabolic responses. Immunohistochemistry, Western and Northern blots identified elevated levels of UPR transcription factors and downstream ER chaperone targets in gliomas. Microarray profiling revealed distinct regulation of stress responses between xenograft tumors and parent cell lines, with gene ontology and network analyses linking gene expression to cell survival and metabolic processes. Human glioma samples were examined for levels of the ER chaperone GRP94 by immunohistochemistry and for other UPR components by Western blotting. Gene and protein expression data from patient gliomas correlated poor patient prognoses with increased expression of ER chaperones, UPR target genes, and metabolic enzymes (glycolysis and lipogenesis). NMR-based metabolomic studies revealed increased metabolic outputs in glucose uptake with elevated glycolytic activity as well as increased phospholipid turnover. Elevated levels of amino acids, antioxidants, and cholesterol were also evident upon UPR stress; in particular, recurrent tumors had overall higher lipid outputs and elevated specific UPR arms. Clonogenicity studies following temozolomide treatment of stressed or unstressed cells demonstrated UPR-induced chemoresistance. Our data characterize the UPR in glioma cells and human tumors, and

  3. Reciprocal Activation of Transcription Factors Underlies the Dichotomy between Proliferation and Invasion of Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhruv, Harshil D.; McDonough Winslow, Wendy S.; Armstrong, Brock; Tuncali, Serdar; Eschbacher, Jenny; Kislin, Kerri; Loftus, Joseph C.; Tran, Nhan L.; Berens, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Histology of malignant glioma depicts dense proliferative areas rich in angiogenesis as well as dissemination of neoplastic cells into adjacent brain tissue. Although the mechanisms that trigger transition from proliferative to invasive phenotypes are complex, the dichotomy of cell proliferation and migration, the “Go or Grow” hypothesis, argues for specific and coordinated regulation of these phenotypes. We investigated transcriptional elements that accompany the phenotypes of migration and proliferation, and consider the therapeutic significance of the “Go or Grow” hypothesis. Interrogation of matched core and rim regions from human glioblastoma biopsy specimens in situ (n = 44) revealed higher proliferation (Ki67 labeling index) in cells residing at the core compared to the rim. Profiling activated transcription factors in a panel of migration-activated versus migration-restricted GBM cells portrayed strong NF-κB activity in the migratory cell population. In contrast, increased c-Myc activity was found in migration-restricted proliferative cells. Validation of transcriptional activity by NF-κB- or c-Myc-driven GFP or RFP, respectively, showed an increased NF-κB activity in the active migrating cells, whereas the proliferative, migration restricted cells displayed increased c-Myc activity. Immunohistochemistry on clinical specimens validated a robust phosphorylated c-Myc staining in tumor cells at the core, whereas increased phosphorylated NF-κB staining was detected in the invasive tumor cells at the rim. Functional genomics revealed that depletion of c-Myc expression by siRNA oligonucleotides reduced cell proliferation in vitro, but surprisingly, cell migration was enhanced significantly. Conversely, inhibition of NF-κB by pharmacological inhibitors, SN50 or BAY-11, decreased both cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo. Notably, inhibition of NF-κB was found to have no effect on the proliferation rate of glioma cells. These findings

  4. CD44 promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward glioma

    PubMed Central

    YIN, QIANG; ZHOU, YANG-YANG; WANG, PENG; MA, LI; LI, PENG; WANG, XIAO-GUANG; SHE, CHUN-HUA; LI, WEN-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit tropism for gliomas. However, the mechanism underlying this directed migration remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism underlying platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced chemotactic migration of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) toward glioma. Rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium was utilized to evaluate the chemotactic response of BMSCs toward glioma using an in vitro migration assay. Recombinant rat PDGF-BB was added to C6 cell-conditioned medium to assess its effect on the tropism of BMSCs. The effect of PDGF-BB on the expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assays. The results revealed that chemotactic migration was induced in BMSCs by rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium, which was enhanced by PDGF-BB treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays showed that CD44 expression was upregulated in BMSCs following treatment with 40 ng/ml PDGF-BB for 12 h. Additionally, 3-h pretreatment with the anti-CD44 neutralizing antibody OX-50 was observed to attenuate the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma in the presence or absence of PDGF-BB. The results of the present study indicate that CD44 mediates the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma, and PDGF-BB promotes the migration of BMSCs toward glioma via the upregulation of CD44 expression in BMSCs. These findings suggest CD44 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27073479

  5. MAGI3 negatively regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppresses malignant phenotypes of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Yang, Ying; Feng, Duiping; Zheng, Shuai; Meng, Ran; Fa, Pengyan; Zhao, Chunjuan; Liu, Hua; Song, Ran; Tao, Tao; Yang, Longyan; Dai, Jie; Wang, Songlin; Jiang, Wen G; He, Junqi

    2015-11-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies and are associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we showed that the PDZ domain-containing protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 3 (MAGI3) was downregulated at the both mRNA and protein levels in human glioma samples. MAGI3 inhibited proliferation, migration, and cell cycle progression of glioma cells in its overexpression and knockdown studies. By using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that MAGI3 bound to β-catenin through its PDZ domains and the PDZ-binding motif of β-catenin. MAGI3 overexpression inhibited β-catenin transcriptional activity via its interaction with β-catenin. Consistently, MAGI3 overexpression in glioma cells C6 suppressed expression of β-catenin target genes including Cyclin D1 and Axin2, whereas MAGI3 knockdown in glioma cells U373 and LN229 enhanced their expression. MAGI3 overexpression decreased growth of C6 subcutaneous tumors in mice, and inhibited expression of β-catenin target genes in xenograft tumors. Furthermore, analysis based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) glioma dataset showed association of MAGI3 expression with overall survival and tumor grade. Finally, we demonstrated negative correlation between MAGI3 expression and activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through GSEA of three public glioma datasets and immunohistochemical staining of clinical glioma samples. Taken together, these results identify MAGI3 as a novel tumor suppressor and provide insight into the pathogenesis of glioma. PMID:26452219

  6. Culture and characteristics of hormone-responsive neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamprecht, B.; Glaser, T.; Reiser, G.; Bayer, E.; Propst, F.

    1985-01-01

    Neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells were generated by cell fusion of the 6-thioguanine-resistant clonal mouse neuroblastoma cells and the bromodeoxyuridine-resistant rat glioma cells, selection, and cloning. Every characteristics generally ascribed to neurons has been observed with the hybrid cells. The paper explores the morphological differentiation of hybrid cells, procedures for testing the hormonal regulation of intracellular levels of cyclic, (/sup 3/H)AMP in hybrid cells, hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase in homogenates of hyrbid cells, intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, and uptake of guanidinium ions in hybrid cells.

  7. Photodynamic effect of hypericin in primary cultures of human umbilical endothelial cells and glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stupáková, Viktória; Varinská, Lenka; Mirossay, Andrej; Sarisský, Marek; Mojzis, Ján; Dankovcík, Róbert; Urdzík, Peter; Ostró, Alexander; Mirossay, Ladislav

    2009-06-01

    Hypericin is the most powerful naturally occurring photosensitizer and as such there is renaissant interest in the potentials of this compound for anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy effects on normal human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) in comparison with cancer human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and U-373 MG, in in vitro conditions. The data suggest that endothelial cells as well as glioma cell lines are sensitive only to photoactivated hypericin. The inhibitory effects of photoactivated hypericin did not differ in endothelial compared with tumor cells in cytotoxicity MTT and DNA fragmentation assays. However, an important difference in sensitivity was found between the above mentioned cell types in migration and metalloproteinases inhibition assays performed as cell function tests. The findings in both function tests were supported by the high sensitivity of endothelial cells in an additional angiogenesis test of tubular formation in vitro. PMID:19173218

  8. Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Kanaklata; Wang, Lilin; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Price, Brendan D. . E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-06-09

    Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

  9. Biodegradable microfibers deliver the antitumor drug temozolomide to glioma C6 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoyong; Ni, Shilei; Qi, Hongxu; Wang, Xuping; Wang, Chuanwei; Liu, Yuguang

    2010-11-01

    To develop effective implants for delivery of 3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]-as-tetrazine-8-carboxamide (temozolomide; TM) with low initial burst and less neurotoxicity, TM-loaded poly-propylene carbonate (PPC) fiber was fabricated by electrospinning. Some of the fiber sheets were then covered with alginate (ALG). Influences of several preparation parameters on drug delivery behavior were investigated. The micro-morphology of these fibers was studied using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro release properties of two forms of samples were observed and their cytotoxicity against C6 glioma cells was assessed. Using strict preparation parameters, smooth and uniform fiber could only be obtained when the PPC concentration was 8 % by weight, at 20cm and a voltage of 15 kV between the nozzle and the collection instrument. Fiber diameter was about 3 microm. The initial burst of drug-fiber sheets was reduced after the fiber sheets were covered with ALG. Cytotoxicity test results suggested that both forms of drug fibers inhibit the C6 glioma cells continuously; the pure drug-fiber sheets were strongly cytotoxic. We conclude that (a) electrospinning is a reliable fabrication method for M-loaded PPC fibers; and (b) an ALG coating reduces the initial burst of the fiber sheets. PMID:21155390

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1(+) tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the "classical-like" (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients' outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1(+) cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1(-) cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1(+) cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  11. Glioma Stem Cells and Their Microenvironments: Providers of Challenging Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Codrici, Elena; Enciu, Ana-Maria; Popescu, Ionela-Daniela; Mihai, Simona; Tanase, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, possibly because of highly tumorigenic subpopulations of glioma stem cells. These cells require specific microenvironments to maintain their “stemness,” described as perivascular and hypoxic niches. Each of those niches induces particular signatures in glioma stem cells (e.g., activation of Notch signaling, secretion of VEGF, bFGF, SDF1 for the vascular niche, activation of HIF2α, and metabolic reprogramming for hypoxic niche). Recently, accumulated knowledge on tumor-associated macrophages, possibly delineating a third niche, has underlined the role of immune cells in glioma progression, via specific chemoattractant factors and cytokines, such as macrophage-colony stimulation factor (M-CSF). The local or myeloid origin of this new component of glioma stem cells niche is yet to be determined. Such niches are being increasingly recognized as key regulators involved in multiple stages of disease progression, therapy resistance, immune-escaping, and distant metastasis, thereby substantially impacting the future development of frontline interventions in clinical oncology. This review focuses on the microenvironment impact on the glioma stem cell biology, emphasizing GSCs cross talk with hypoxic, perivascular, and immune niches and their potential use as targeted therapy. PMID:26977157

  12. Mahaley Clinical Research Award: chemosensitization of glioma through dendritic cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Yu, John S; Luptrawan, Anne; Black, Keith L; Liu, Gentao

    2006-01-01

    A major reason chemotherapy fails in cancer treatment is drug resistance. New targets against chemotherapy resistance have been developed with the identification of molecular pathways in drug resistance. These targets are proteins that are highly expressed in human gliomas and are known to be tumor antigens. The immune system produces specialized white blood cells called dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cell of the immune system. DCs have demonstrated the ability to stimulate antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor antigens. Immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment strategy for gliomas with tumor antigens serving as the driving force. Clinical immunotherapy trials for glioma patients using vaccinations made of tumor antigens combined with dendritic cells ex vivo have shown promising results. DC vaccinations may increase sensitivity to chemotherapy, as demonstrated by a significant increase in 2-year survival rates in patients with malignant gliomas who received chemotherapy after immunotherapy (51). The use of DC vaccinations to increase sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy can be rationalized as a novel strategy. Hence, this review will focus on the recent advances in the identification of tumor-associated antigens in gliomas, as well as their biological function related to drug resistance. The current research status and the future direction of DC vaccines to treat glioma in animal models and clinical trials will also be discussed. PMID:17380773

  13. TRAIL conjugated to nanoparticles exhibits increased anti-tumor activities in glioma cells and glioma stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Perlstein, Benny; Finniss, Susan A.; Miller, Cathie; Okhrimenko, Hana; Kazimirsky, Gila; Cazacu, Simona; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lemke, Nancy; Brodie, Shlomit; Umansky, Felix; Rempel, Sandra A.; Rosenblum, Mark; Mikklesen, Tom; Margel, Shlomo; Brodie, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are characterized by resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. TRAIL induces apoptosis in cancer but not in normal cells and is considered to be a promising anti-tumor agent. However, its short in vivo half-life and lack of efficient administration modes are serious impediments to its therapeutic efficacy. Nanoparticles (NP) have been used as effective delivery tools for various anticancer drugs. TRAIL was conjugated to magnetic ferric oxide NP by binding the TRAIL primary amino groups to activated double bonds on the surface of the NP. The effect of NP-TRAIL was examined on the apoptosis of glioma cells and self-renewal of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In addition, the ability of the NP-TRAIL to track U251 cell–derived glioma xenografts and to affect cell apoptosis, tumor volume, and survival among xenografted rats was also examined. Conjugation of TRAIL to NP increased its apoptotic activity against different human glioma cells and GSCs, as compared with free recombinant TRAIL. Combined treatment with NP-TRAIL and γ-radiation or bortezomib sensitized TRAIL-resistant GSCs to NP-TRAIL. Using rhodamine-labeled NP and U251 glioma cell–derived xenografts, we demonstrated that the NP-TRAIL were found in the tumor site and induced a significant increase in glioma cell apoptosis, a decrease in tumor volume, and increased animal survival. In summary, conjugation of TRAIL to NP increased its apoptotic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, NP-TRAIL represents a targeted anticancer agent with more efficient action for the treatment of GBM and the eradication of GSCs. PMID:23144078

  14. Radiosensitization effect of zidovudine on human malignant glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fuxiang; Liao Zhengkai; Dai Jing; Xiong Jie; Xie CongHua; Luo Zhiguo; Liu Shiquan; Zhou Yunfeng . E-mail: yfzhouwhu@163.com

    2007-03-09

    Telomeres are shortened with each cell division and play an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and function. Telomerase, responsible for telomere synthesis, is activated in 90% of human tumor cells but seldom in normal somatic cells. Zidovudine (AZT) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In this study, we have investigated the effects of {gamma}-radiation in combination with AZT on telomerase activity (TA), telomere length, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the changes in radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma cell line U251. The results showed that the TA was suppressed by AZT but enhanced by irradiation, resulting in a deceleration of restored rate of shortened telomere, decreased repair rate of DNA strand breaks, and increased radiosensitivity of U251 cells. Our results suggested that telomerase activity and telomere length may serve as markers for estimating the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, may be used clinically as a new radiosensitizer in cancer radiotherapy.

  15. Malignant transformation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by the brain glioma niche in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Qiuping; Zou, Xifeng; Duan, Deyi; Liu, Yujun; Xu, Qunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Normal human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can develop neoplastic cancer stem cell (CSC) properties after coculture with transformed hESCs in vitro. In the present study, the influence of the tumor microenvironment on malignant transformation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was studied after allografting a mixture of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled BMSCs and C6 glioma cells into the rat brain to understand the influence of the cellular environment, especially the tumor environment, on the transformation of grafted BMSCs in the rat brain. We performed intracerebral transplantation in the rat brain using EGFP-labeled BMSCs coinjected with C6 tumor cells. After transplantation, the EGFP-labeled cells were isolated from the tumor using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the characteristics of the recovered cells were investigated. Glioma-specific biomarkers of the sorted cells and the biological characteristics of the tumors were analyzed. The BMSCs isolated from the cografts were transformed into glioma CSCs, as indicated by the marked expression of the glioma marker GFAP in glioma cells, and of Nestin and CD133 in neural stem cells and CSCs, as well as rapid cell growth, decreased level of the tumor suppressor gene p53, increased level of the oncogene murine double minute gene 2 (MDM2), and recapitulation of glioma tissues in the brain. These data suggest that BMSCs can be transformed into CSCs, which can be further directed toward glioma formation under certain conditions, supporting the notion that the tumor microenvironment is involved in transforming normal BMSCs into glial CSCs. PMID:26590986

  16. Glioma Revisited: From Neurogenesis and Cancer Stem Cells to the Epigenetic Regulation of the Niche

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Sassi, Felipe; Lunardi Brunetto, Algemir; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Roesler, Rafael; Abujamra, Ana Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most incident brain tumor in adults. This malignancy has very low survival rates, even when combining radio- and chemotherapy. Among the gliomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type, and patients frequently relapse or become refractory to conventional therapies. The fact that such an aggressive tumor can arise in such a carefully orchestrated organ, where cellular proliferation is barely needed to maintain its function, is a question that has intrigued scientists until very recently, when the discovery of the existence of proliferative cells in the brain overcame such challenges. Even so, the precise origin of gliomas still remains elusive. Thanks to new advents in molecular biology, researchers have been able to depict the first steps of glioma formation and to accumulate knowledge about how neural stem cells and its progenitors become gliomas. Indeed, GBM are composed of a very heterogeneous population of cells, which exhibit a plethora of tumorigenic properties, supporting the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in these tumors. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how gliomas initiate and progress, taking into account the role of epigenetic modulation in the crosstalk of cancer cells with their environment. PMID:22973309

  17. Stimulation of the midkine/ALK axis renders glioma cells resistant to cannabinoid antitumoral action.

    PubMed

    Lorente, M; Torres, S; Salazar, M; Carracedo, A; Hernández-Tiedra, S; Rodríguez-Fornés, F; García-Taboada, E; Meléndez, B; Mollejo, M; Campos-Martín, Y; Lakatosh, S A; Barcia, J; Guzmán, M; Velasco, G

    2011-06-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance of gliomas to anticancer treatments is an issue of great therapeutic interest. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of marijuana, and other cannabinoids inhibit tumor growth in animal models of cancer, including glioma, an effect that relies, at least in part, on the stimulation of autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, by analyzing the gene expression profile of a large series of human glioma cells with different sensitivity to cannabinoid action, we have identified a subset of genes specifically associated to THC resistance. One of these genes, namely that encoding the growth factor midkine (Mdk), is directly involved in the resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid treatment. We also show that Mdk mediates its protective effect via the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor and that Mdk signaling through ALK interferes with cannabinoid-induced autophagic cell death. Furthermore, in vivo Mdk silencing or ALK pharmacological inhibition sensitizes cannabinod-resistant tumors to THC antitumoral action. Altogether, our findings identify Mdk as a pivotal factor involved in the resistance of glioma cells to THC pro-autophagic and antitumoral action, and suggest that selective targeting of the Mdk/ALK axis could help to improve the efficacy of antitumoral therapies for gliomas. PMID:21233844

  18. microRNA-153 Targets mTORC2 Component Rictor to Inhibit Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Zhao, Jizong; Yi, Lei; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Rictor upregulation and mTORC complex 2 (mTORC2) over-activation participate in glioma cell progression, yet the underling mechanisms are not known. We here identified microRNA-153 (miR-153) as a potential anti-Rictor miRNA, which was downregulated in multiple human glioma tissues and glioma cell lines (U87MG, T98G, U373MG and U251MG). miR-153 downregulation was correlated with Rictor (mRNA and protein) upregulation and p-Akt Ser473 (the mTORC2 indicator) over-activation in the glioma tissues and cells. Our in vitro evidences suggested that Rictor could be one primary target of miR-153 in glioma cells. Exogenous overexpression of miR-153 downregulated Rictor (mRNA and protein) and decreased p-Akt Ser473 in U87MG cells, leading to significant growth inhibition and apoptosis activation. Notably, U87MG cells with Rictor shRNA knockdown showed similar phenotypes of cells with miR-153 overexpression. More importantly, in Rictor-silenced U87MG cells, miR-153 expression failed to further affect cell growth nor apoptosis. In vivo, we showed that miR-153 overexpression dramatically inhibited U87MG tumor growth in nude mice. Together, these results suggest that miR-153 downregulation could be one important reason of Rictor upregulation and mTORC2 over-activation in glioma cells. Further, miR-153-induced anti-glioma cell activity is possibly via downregulating Rictor. PMID:27295037

  19. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SWAP-70 Modulates the Migration and Invasiveness of Human Malignant Glioma Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Ho Jun; Smith, Christian A; Salhia, Bodour; Rutka, James T

    2009-01-01

    The malignant glioma is the most common primary human brain tumor. Its tendency to invade away from the primary tumor mass is considered a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Accordingly, the molecular pathogenesis of glioma invasion is currently under investigation. Previously, we examined a gene expression array database comparing human gliomas to nonneoplastic controls and identified several Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors with differential expression. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SWAP-70 has increased expression in malignant gliomas and strongly correlates with lowered patient survival. SWAP-70 is a multifunctional signaling protein involved in membrane ruffling that works cooperatively with activated Rac. Using a glioma tissue microarray, we validated that SWAP-70 demonstrates higher expression in malignant gliomas compared with low-grade gliomas or nonneoplastic brain tissue. Through immunofluorescence, SWAP-70 localizes to membrane ruffles in response to the growth factor, epidermal growth factor. To assess the role of SWAP-70 in glioma migration and invasion, we inhibited its expression withsmall interfering RNAs and observed decreased glioma cell migration and invasion. SWAP-70 overexpression led to increased levels of active Rac even in low-serum conditions. In addition, when SWAP-70 was overexpressed in glioma cells, we observed enhanced membrane ruffle formation followed by increased cellmigration and invasiveness. Taken together, our findings suggest that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SWAP-70 plays an important role in the migration and invasion of human gliomas into the surrounding tissue. PMID:19956392

  20. Characterization of Invading Glioma Cells Using Molecular Analysis of Leading-Edge Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Soo; Jung, Tae-Young; Jang, Woo-Youl; Sun, Heung-Suk; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Objective We have introduced a method of characterization of invading glioma cells by using molecular analysis of marginal invading tumor cells and molecular profiles of glioma tumor margin. Methods Each of tumor core and marginal tissues was obtained in 22 glioma patients. Tumor core cells and marginal cells from each glial tumor were collected by laser capture microdissection or intraoperative microdissection under the operating microscope. Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, CD44 and RHAMM mRNA by invading glioma cells compared with tumor core was confirmed by realtime-PCR of twenty-four glioma specimens. Clinical data also were reviewed for invasion and recurrence pattern of the gliomas radiologically and invasive rim pattern microscopically. Results Overall results of the molecular analysis showed that relative overexpression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and RHAMM were noted at the invasive edge of human glioma specimens comparing to the tumor core but CD44 was highly expressed in the tumor core comparing to the margin. High marginal expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were noted in poorly ill-defined margin on the pathological finding. High marginal expression of CD44 and MMP-2 were demonstrated in the midline cross group on the radiological review, and that of RHAMM and MMP-2 were showed in the aggressive recurrence group. High expression of MMP-2 seems to be involved in the various invasion-related phenomenons. Conclusion Up-regulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, CD44 and RHAMM was noted in invasive edge of gliomas according to the various clinical situations. PMID:22102942

  1. Regulation of glioma cell phenotype in 3D matrices by hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Sara; Becka, Eftalda; Harley, Brendan A C

    2013-10-01

    Human glioblastoma multiforme (hGBM) is the most common, aggressive, and deadly form of brain cancer. A major obstacle to understanding the impact of extracellular cues on glioblastoma invasion is the absence of model matrix systems able to replicate compositional and structural elements of the glioma mass as well as the surrounding brain tissue. Contact with a primary extracellular matrix component in the brain, hyaluronan, is believed to play a pivotal role in glioma cell invasion and malignancy. In this study we report use of gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based hydrogel platforms to evaluate the effect of extracellular (composition, mechanics, HA incorporation) and intracellular (epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression) factors on the malignant transformation of U87MG glioma cells. Three-dimensional culture platforms elicit significantly different responses of U87MG glioma cells versus standard 2D culture. Critically, grafting brain-mimetic hyaluronic acid (HA) into the hydrogel network was found to induce significant, dose-dependent alterations of markers of glioma malignancy versus non-grafted 3D gelatin or PEG hydrogels. Clustering of glioma cells was observed exclusively in HA containing gels and expression profiles of malignancy-associated genes were found to vary biphasically with incorporated HA content. We also found HA-induced expression of MMP-2 is blocked by +EGFR signaling, suggesting a connection between CD44 and EGFR in glioma malignancy. Together, this work describes an adaptable platform for manipulating the local extracellular microenvironment surrounding glioma cells and highlights the importance of developing such systems for investigating the etiology and early growth of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. PMID:23827186

  2. MicroRNA-217 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion by targeting Runx2 in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yonggang; Zhao, Hongguang; Feng, Li; Xu, Songbai

    2016-01-01

    MircroRNA-217 (miR-217) has been showed to involve in the initiation and development of human cancers, and is recognize as a tumor suppressor miRNA in several tumors. However, the clinical significance and its underlying role in human glioma remain unclear. Herein, we found that the expression of miR-217 was significantly down-regulated in glioma tissues as compared with adjacent normal brain tissues. Clinical association analysis disclosed that low-expression of miR-217 was evidently negative associated with advanced tumor stage (grade III + IV) in glioma. Further function assays showed that miR-217 inhibited proliferation, colony formation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. Notably, runt-related transcription factors 2 (Runx2) was identified as a functional target of miR-217 in glioma. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between miR-217 and Runx2 expression was observed in glioma tissues. Downregulation of Runx2 has similar with inhibition effect of overexpression of miR-217, and upregulation of Runx2 reversed the effects of overexpressing of miR-217. Taken together, these results suggest a critical role of miR-217 in suppressing proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma by targeting Runx2. PMID:27186274

  3. The involvement of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in stem cell differentiation and in malignant glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Soumi; Xiong, Anqi; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPG) are major components of the extracellular matrix. They interact with a plethora of macromolecules that are of physiological importance. The pattern of sulfation of the HS chain determines the specificity of these interactions. The enzymes that synthesize and degrade HS are thus key regulators of processes ranging from embryonic development to tissue homeostasis and tumor development. Formation of the nervous system is also critically dependent on appropriate HSPGs as shown by several studies on the role of HS in neural induction from embryonic stem cells. High-grade glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor among adults, and the prognosis is poor. Neural and glioma stem cells share several traits, including sustained proliferation and highly efficient migration in the brain. There are also similarities between the neurogenic niche where adult neural stem cells reside and the tumorigenic niche, including their interactions with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The levels of many of these components, for example HSPGs and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and modification of HS are attenuated in gliomas. In this paper, HS regulation of pathways involved in neural differentiation and how these may be of importance for brain development are discussed. The literature suggesting that modifications of HS could regulate glioma growth and invasion is reviewed. Targeting the invasiveness of glioma cells by modulating HS may improve upon present therapeutic options, which only marginally enhance the survival of glioma patients.

  4. Decitabine Treatment of Glioma-Initiating Cells Enhances Immune Recognition and Killing.

    PubMed

    Riccadonna, Cristina; Yacoub Maroun, Céline; Vuillefroy de Silly, Romain; Boehler, Margaux; Calvo Tardón, Marta; Jueliger, Simone; Taverna, Pietro; Barba, Leticia; Marinari, Eliana; Pellegatta, Serena; Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Martinvalet, Denis; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Walker, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumours with very poor prognosis. The majority of glioma cells are differentiated (glioma-differentiated cells: GDCs), whereas the smaller population (glioma-initiating cells, GICs) is undifferentiated and resistant to conventional therapies. Therefore, to better target this pool of heterogeneous cells, a combination of diverse therapeutic approaches is envisaged. Here we investigated whether the immunosensitising properties of the hypomethylating agent decitabine can be extended to GICs. Using the murine GL261 cell line, we demonstrate that decitabine augments the expression of the death receptor FAS both on GDCs and GICs. Interestingly, it had a higher impact on GICs and correlated with an enhanced sensitivity to FASL-mediated cell death. Moreover, the expression of other critical molecules involved in cognate recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, MHCI and ICAM-1, was upregulated by decitabine treatment. Consequently, T-cell mediated killing of both GDCs and GICs was enhanced, as was T cell proliferation after reactivation. Overall, although GICs are described to resist classical therapies, our study shows that hypomethylating agents have the potential to enhance glioma cell recognition and subsequent destruction by immune cells, regardless of their differentiation status. These results support the development of combinatorial treatment modalities including epigenetic modulation together with immunotherapy in order to treat heterogenous malignancies such as glioblastoma. PMID:27579489

  5. Demethoxycurcumin Retards Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Brain Malignant Glioma GBM 8401 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzuu-Yuan; Hsu, Che-Wen; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Wang, Miin-Yau; Wu, June-Fu; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Demethoxycurcumin (DMC; a curcumin-related demethoxy compound) has been recently shown to display antioxidant and antitumor activities. It has also produced a potent chemopreventive action against cancer. In the present study, the antiproliferation (using the MTT assay, DMC was found to have cytotoxic activities against GBM 8401 cell with IC50 values at 22.71 μM) and induced apoptosis effects of DMC have been investigated in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells. We have studied the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and NF-κB transcriptional factor activity. By these approaches, our results indicated that DMC has produced an inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells. Both effects were observed to increase in proportion with the dosage of DMC treatment, and the apoptosis was induced by DMC in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. PMID:22454662

  6. Effects of neurotransmitters on calcium efflux from cultured glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarewicz, J.W.; Kanje, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of various neurotransmitters and cyclic nucleotides on 45Ca2+ efflux in cultured human glioma cells were investigated. Glutamate and glycine, but not GABA, stimulated 45Ca2+ release from the cells. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors but not alpha-adrenergic receptors also increased 45Ca2+ efflux. Cholinergic receptor stimulation by carbachol had the same effect. The stimulatory effect of carbachol was abolished in the presence of either atropine or hexamethonium. C-AMP and c-GMP increased the 45Ca2+ efflux, suggesting that these agents are involved in the transmitter-stimulated release of 45Ca2+ from the cell. Kinetic analysis of the efflux revealed four calcium compartments. The carbachol-stimulated efflux represented a net release of calcium and could be ascribed to the slowest compartment. The physiological role of the transmitter-stimulated calcium release is discussed in terms of calcium-regulated stimulus-response coupling in glial-neural interaction during excitation.

  7. Isolation and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Glioma-infiltrating Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gregory J.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells are capable of eradicating orthotopically implanted mouse GL26 and rat CNS-1 malignant gliomas soon after intracranial engraftment if the cancer cells are rendered deficient in their expression of the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1 (gal-1). More recent work now shows that a population of Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid cells is critical to this effect. To better understand the mechanisms by which NK and myeloid cells cooperate to confer gal-1-deficient tumor rejection we have developed a comprehensive protocol for the isolation and analysis of glioma-infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The method is demonstrated here by comparing PBMC infiltration into the tumor microenvironment of gal-1-expressing GL26 gliomas with those rendered gal-1-deficient via shRNA knockdown. The protocol begins with a description of how to culture and prepare GL26 cells for inoculation into the syngeneic C57BL/6J mouse brain. It then explains the steps involved in the isolation and flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs from the early brain tumor microenvironment. The method is adaptable to a number of in vivo experimental designs in which temporal data on immune infiltration into the brain is required. The method is sensitive and highly reproducible, as glioma-infiltrating PBMCs can be isolated from intracranial tumors as soon as 24 hr post-tumor engraftment with similar cell counts observed from time point matched tumors throughout independent experiments. A single experimentalist can perform the method from brain harvesting to flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs in roughly 4–6 hr depending on the number of samples to be analyzed. Alternative glioma models and/or cell-specific detection antibodies may also be used at the experimentalists’ discretion to assess the infiltration of several other immune cell types of interest without the need for alterations to the

  8. Cytotoxic effect through fas/APO-1 expression due to vitamin K in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, L K; Yoshii, Y; Miyagi, K

    2000-03-01

    Congeners of vitamin K have been found to inhibit growth in various rodent and human tumor cells, but the mechanisms of the inhibitory action are still not well understood. To investigate the modes of actions of vitamin K, we used several vitamin K analogs and examined their cytotoxic effect for human glioma cell lines RBR17T and U251. The analogs included vitamin K1 (VK1), vitamin K2 (VK2), vitamin K3 (VK3), and geranylgeraniol (GGO) which form an unsaturated side chain of VK2. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. In order to study the mechanism of apoptosis, we measured the changes of intracellular reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and Fas/APO-1 expression by flow cytometry. The results showed: (1) VK2, VK3, and GGO inhibited cell growth; (2) VK3 had a more potent cytotoxic effect than VK2, and VK3 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of antitumor agents (ACNU and IFN-beta) in RBR17T cells; (3) VK2, VK3, and GGO induce apoptosis: (4) VK3 increased the expression of Fas/APO-1 although VK2 and GGO did not increase its expression in glioma cells; (5) VK3 increased the production of intracellular ROI. Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) inhibited production of intracellular ROI and antagonized inhibition of cell-growth induced by VK3, but failed to antagonize that of VK2 and GGO. We hypothesize that VK3 induces apoptosis by promoting the generation of intracellular ROI and Fas/APO-1 expression. On the other hand, VK2 and GGO induce apoptosis but most likely by some other unknown pathway. PMID:10930097

  9. In vitro studies of phenethyl isothiocyanate against the growth of LN229 human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Chun; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Sui, Shao-Hua; Gao, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is one of the best studied members of isothiocyanates (ITC), a variety of edible cruciferous vegetables including broccoli, watercress, and cabbage, and have generated particular interest because of its remarkable chemopreventive activity. Many literature reports proved that phenethyl isothiocyanate exhibited significant anti-cancer chemopreventive effects including lung, glioma and leukemia cancer. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects as well as mechanisms of PEITC on human glioma LN229 cells. Results demonstrated that PEITC possesses the potential ability to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycling against LN229 human glioma cells. Moreover, investigated results showed that PEITC inhibited the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), and caused oxidative stress to tumor cells. Collective results suggested us to believe that PEITC can inhibit the growth of LN229 cells and its mechanism can be related to the fact that PEITC can cause oxidative stress to tumor cells. PMID:26097624

  10. In vitro studies of phenethyl isothiocyanate against the growth of LN229 human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ji-Chun; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Sui, Shao-Hua; Gao, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is one of the best studied members of isothiocyanates (ITC), a variety of edible cruciferous vegetables including broccoli, watercress, and cabbage, and have generated particular interest because of its remarkable chemopreventive activity. Many literature reports proved that phenethyl isothiocyanate exhibited significant anti-cancer chemopreventive effects including lung, glioma and leukemia cancer. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects as well as mechanisms of PEITC on human glioma LN229 cells. Results demonstrated that PEITC possesses the potential ability to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycling against LN229 human glioma cells. Moreover, investigated results showed that PEITC inhibited the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), and caused oxidative stress to tumor cells. Collective results suggested us to believe that PEITC can inhibit the growth of LN229 cells and its mechanism can be related to the fact that PEITC can cause oxidative stress to tumor cells. PMID:26097624

  11. p27 modulates cell cycle progression and chemosensitivity in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Naumann, U; Weit, S; Rieger, L; Meyermann, R; Weller, M

    1999-08-11

    The cell cycle regulatory protein p27, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), has been attributed a role in (i) prognosis in breast and colon cancer, (ii) induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, and (iii) resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Here we report that p27 is widely expressed in human malignant gliomas in vivo and in glioma cell lines in vitro. Serum deprivation or confluency promotes p27 protein accumulation in vitro. Neither baseline p27 levels nor p27 levels induced by confluency or serum deprivation correlate with p53 status or drug sensitivity of human glioma cell lines. Expression of antisense p27 mRNA increased the doubling times in T98G glioma cells, whereas sense p27 mRNA had no such effect. There was a density-dependent and drug-specific modulation of chemosensitivity by sense or antisense mRNA expression in T98G cells. Taken together, these data define a strong p27 response to altered growth conditions and suggest a role for p27 in modulating response to chemotherapy in human malignant glioma cells. PMID:10441521

  12. Quercetin derivative induces cell death in glioma cells by modulating NF-κB nuclear translocation and caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Kiekow, Cíntia J; Figueiró, Fabrício; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Vechia, Luciana Dalla; Pires, Elisa N S; Jandrey, Elisa H F; Gnoatto, Simone C B; Salbego, Christianne G; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Gosmann, Grace

    2016-03-10

    Treated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients only survive 6 to 14months after diagnosis; therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat gliomas remains critically necessary. Considering that phenolic compounds, like quercetin, have the potential to be used in the chemotreatment of gliomas and that some flavonoids exhibit the ability to cross the BBB, in the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of flavonoids (including chalcones, flavones, flavanones and flavonols). Initially their activities were tested in C6 glioma cells screened using the MTT method, resulting in the selection of chalcone 2 whose feasibility was confirmed by a Trypan Blue exclusion assay in the low μM range on C6 glioma cells. Cell cycle and apoptotic death analyses on C6 glioma cells were also performed, and chalcone 2 increased the apoptosis of the cells but did not alter the cell cycle progression. In addition, treatments with these two compounds were not cytotoxic to hippocampal organotypic cultures, a model of healthy neural cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that 2 induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-κB and activation of active caspase-3 in glioma cells, suggesting that it is a potential prototype to develop new treatments for GBM in the future. PMID:26802551

  13. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant R132H sensitizes glioma cells to BCNU-induced oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Mohrenz, Isabelle Vanessa; Antonietti, Patrick; Pusch, Stefan; Capper, David; Balss, Jörg; Voigt, Sophia; Weissert, Susanne; Mukrowsky, Alicia; Frank, Jan; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; von Deimling, Andreas; Kögel, Donat

    2013-11-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) decarboxylates isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) leading to generation of NADPH, which is required to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH), the major cellular ROS scavenger. Mutation of R132 of IDH1 abrogates generation of α-KG and leads to conversion of α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate. We hypothesized that glioma cells expressing mutant IDH1 have a diminished antioxidative capacity and therefore may encounter an ensuing loss of cytoprotection under conditions of oxidative stress. Our study was performed with LN229 cells stably overexpressing IDH1 R132H and wild type IDH1 or with a lentiviral IDH1 knockdown. Quantification of GSH under basal conditions and following treatment with the glutathione reductase inhibitor BCNU revealed significantly lower GSH levels in IDH1 R132H expressing cells and IDH1 KD cells compared to their respective controls. FACS analysis of cell death and ROS production also demonstrated an increased sensitivity of IDH1-R132H-expressing cells and IDH1 KD cells to BCNU, but not to temozolomide. The sensitivity of IDH1-R132H-expressing cells and IDH1 KD cells to ROS induction and cell death was further enhanced with the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid and under glutamine free conditions, indicating that these cells were more addicted to glutaminolysis. Increased sensitivity to BCNU-induced ROS production and cell death was confirmed in HEK293 cells inducibly expressing the IDH1 mutants R132H, R132C and R132L. Based on these findings we propose that in addition to its established pro-tumorigenic effects, mutant IDH1 may also limit the resistance of gliomas to specific death stimuli, therefore opening new perspectives for therapy. PMID:23801081

  14. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Khong Bee; Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are

  15. OASIS/CREB3L1 Is Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Human Glioma Cell Lines and Contributes to the Unfolded Protein Response, Extracellular Matrix Production and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Ravi N.; Zhang, Liling; Volchuk, Allen

    2013-01-01

    OASIS is a transcription factor similar to ATF6 that is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study we investigated the expression of OASIS in human glioma cell lines and the effect of OASIS knock-down on the ER stress response and cell migration. OASIS mRNA was detected in three distinct glioma cell lines (U373, A172 and U87) and expression levels were increased upon treatment with ER stress-inducing compounds in the U373 and U87 lines. OASIS protein, which is glycosylated on Asn-513, was detected in the U373 and U87 glioma lines at low levels in control cells and protein expression was induced by ER stress. Knock-down of OASIS in human glioma cell lines resulted in an attenuated unfolded protein response to ER stress (reduced GRP78/BiP and GRP94 induction) and decreased expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan extracellular matrix proteins, but induction of the collagen gene Col1a1 was unaffected. Cells in which OASIS was knocked-down exhibited altered cell morphology and reduced cell migration. These results suggest that OASIS is important for the ER stress response and maintenance of some extracellular matrix proteins in human glioma cells. PMID:23335989

  16. T Cells Enhance Stem-Like Properties and Conditional Malignancy in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Dwain K.; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Duvall, Gretchen; Zhang, Xiao-xue; Zhai, Yuying; Sarayba, Danielle; Seksenyan, Akop; Panwar, Akanksha; Black, Keith L.; Wheeler, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Small populations of highly tumorigenic stem-like cells (cancer stem cells; CSCs) can exist within, and uniquely regenerate cancers including malignant brain tumors (gliomas). Many aspects of glioma CSCs (GSCs), however, have been characterized in non-physiological settings. Methods We found gene expression similarity superiorly defined glioma “stemness”, and revealed that GSC similarity increased with lower tumor grade. Using this method, we examined stemness in human grade IV gliomas (GBM) before and after dendritic cell (DC) vaccine therapy. This was followed by gene expression, phenotypic and functional analysis of murine GL26 tumors recovered from nude, wild-type, or DC-vaccinated host brains. Results GSC similarity was specifically increased in post-vaccine GBMs, and correlated best to vaccine-altered gene expression and endogenous anti-tumor T cell activity. GL26 analysis confirmed immune alterations, specific acquisition of stem cell markers, specifically enhanced sensitivity to anti-stem drug (cyclopamine), and enhanced tumorigenicity in wild-type hosts, in tumors in proportion to anti-tumor T cell activity. Nevertheless, vaccine-exposed GL26 cells were no more tumorigenic than parental GL26 in T cell-deficient hosts, though they otherwise appeared similar to GSCs enriched by chemotherapy. Finally, vaccine-exposed GBM and GL26 exhibited relatively homogeneous expression of genes expressed in progenitor cells and/or differentiation. Conclusions T cell activity represents an inducible physiological process capable of proportionally enriching GSCs in human and mouse gliomas. Stem-like gliomas enriched by strong T cell activity, however, may differ from other GSCs in that their stem-like properties may be disassociated from increased tumor malignancy and heterogeneity under specific host immune conditions. PMID:20539758

  17. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiuping; Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang; Sun, Shuhui; Gu, Jianxin; Wei, Yuanyan; Jiang, Jianhai

    2010-07-09

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  18. Therapeutic effect of neural stem cells expressing TRAIL and bortezomib in mice with glioma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, Irina V; Ferguson, Sherise D; Han, Yu; Liu, Feifei; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-11-28

    Treatment of glioblastoma remains a challenge in neuro-oncology. We investigated if treatment with neural stem cells engineered to express membrane-bound TRAIL (NSCs-mTRAIL) alone or in combination with proteasome inhibitors is a feasible therapeutic approach for experimental glioma. Glioma cells showed resistance to soluble TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors alone, but responded well to their combined treatment. In co-culture with NSCs-mTRAIL, glioma cells appeared to be more prone to apoptosis than to treatment with soluble TRAIL, which was enhanced by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. In vivo, the survival of animals bearing intracranial glial xenografts was significantly improved by NSCs-mTRAIL. The addition of bortezomib further enhanced the efficacy of NSCs-TRAIL treated group in one of examined tumor models. These data demonstrate that therapy with NSCs-mTRAIL is a potent cell based approach for treatment of glioma. Such an approach warrants further search for therapeutics capable of increasing sensitivity of glioma cells to mTRAIL in vivo. PMID:21802840

  19. Therapeutic Effect of Neural Stem Cells Expressing TRAIL and Bortezomib in Mice with Glioma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Balyasnikova, Irina V.; Ferguson, Sherise D.; Han, Yu; Liu, Feifei; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma remains a challenge in neuro-oncology. We investigated if treatment with neural stem cells engineered to express membrane-bound TRAIL (NSCs-mTRAIL) alone or in combination with proteasome inhibitors is a feasible therapeutic approach for experimental glioma. Glioma cells showed resistance to soluble TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors alone, but responded well to their combined treatment. In co-culture with NSCs-mTRAIL, glioma cells appeared to be more prone to apoptosis than to treatment with soluble TRAIL, which was enhanced by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. In vivo, the survival of animals bearing intracranial glial xenografts was significantly improved by NSCs-mTRAIL. The addition of bortezomib further enhanced the efficacy of NSCs-TRAIL treated group in one of examined tumor models. These data demonstrate that therapy with NSCs-mTRAIL is a potent cell based approach for treatment of glioma. Such an approach warrants further search for therapeutics capable of increasing sensitivity of glioma cells to mTRAIL in vivo. PMID:21802840

  20. KIF1B promotes glioma migration and invasion via cell surface localization of MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songyu; Han, Mingzhi; Chen, Weiliang; He, Ying; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Peng; Huang, Qibing; Gao, Liang; Qu, Xun; Li, Xingang

    2016-02-01

    Malignant glioma is notorious for its aggressiveness and poor prognosis, and the invasiveness of glioma cells is the major obstacle. Accumulating evidence indicates that kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) may play key roles in tumor invasiveness, but the mechanisms remained unresolved. Our previous study demonstrated that membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was involved in Kinesin family member 1B (KIF1B)-modulated invasion of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, the role of KIF1B in glioma cell invasion and its relationship with MT1-MMP were explored in the present study. We found that aberrantly increased expression of KIF1B was associated with worse WHO pathological classification and Karnofsky performance status (KPS), which also showed a trend towards worse prognosis. In the transwell assay, knockdown of KIF1B using siRNA repressed U87MG and A172 glioma cell migration and invasion. Silencing KIF1B inhibited expression of membranal MT1-MMP; however, the amount of MT1-MMP in the whole cell lysate was not affected. In conclusion, targeting KIF1B may be an option for anti-invasive therapies targeting glioma. PMID:26576027

  1. Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticles across the blood-brain tumor barrier into malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Hemant; Kanevsky, Ariel S; Wu, Haitao; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Fung, Steve H; Sousa, Alioscka A; Auh, Sungyoung; Wilson, Colin M; Sharma, Kamal; Aronova, Maria A; Leapman, Richard D; Griffiths, Gary L; Hall, Matthew D

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics across the blood-brain tumor barrier of malignant gliomas remains a challenge. This is due to our limited understanding of nanoparticle properties in relation to the physiologic size of pores within the blood-brain tumor barrier. Polyamidoamine dendrimers are particularly small multigenerational nanoparticles with uniform sizes within each generation. Dendrimer sizes increase by only 1 to 2 nm with each successive generation. Using functionalized polyamidoamine dendrimer generations 1 through 8, we investigated how nanoparticle size influences particle accumulation within malignant glioma cells. Methods Magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging probes were conjugated to the dendrimer terminal amines. Functionalized dendrimers were administered intravenously to rodents with orthotopically grown malignant gliomas. Transvascular transport and accumulation of the nanoparticles in brain tumor tissue was measured in vivo with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Localization of the nanoparticles within glioma cells was confirmed ex vivo with fluorescence imaging. Results We found that the intravenously administered functionalized dendrimers less than approximately 11.7 to 11.9 nm in diameter were able to traverse pores of the blood-brain tumor barrier of RG-2 malignant gliomas, while larger ones could not. Of the permeable functionalized dendrimer generations, those that possessed long blood half-lives could accumulate within glioma cells. Conclusion The therapeutically relevant upper limit of blood-brain tumor barrier pore size is approximately 11.7 to 11.9 nm. Therefore, effective transvascular drug delivery into malignant glioma cells can be accomplished by using nanoparticles that are smaller than 11.7 to 11.9 nm in diameter and possess long blood half-lives. PMID:19094226

  2. ELMO1 and Dock180, a bipartite Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, promote human glioma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Jarzynka, Michael J; Hu, Bo; Hui, Kwok-Min; Bar-Joseph, Ifat; Gu, Weisong; Hirose, Takanori; Haney, Lisa B; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Nishikawa, Ryo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2007-08-01

    A distinct feature of malignant gliomas is the intrinsic ability of single tumor cells to disperse throughout the brain, contributing to the failure of existing therapies to alter the progression and recurrence of these deadly brain tumors. Regrettably, the mechanisms underlying the inherent invasiveness of glioma cells are poorly understood. Here, we report for the first time that engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) and dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (Dock180), a bipartite Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), are evidently linked to the invasive phenotype of glioma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of primary human glioma specimens showed high expression levels of ELMO1 and Dock180 in actively invading tumor cells in the invasive areas, but not in the central regions of these tumors. Elevated expression of ELMO1 and Dock180 was also found in various human glioma cell lines compared with normal human astrocytes. Inhibition of endogenous ELMO1 and Dock180 expression significantly impeded glioma cell invasion in vitro and in brain tissue slices with a concomitant reduction in Rac1 activation. Conversely, exogenous expression of ELMO1 and Dock180 in glioma cells with low level endogenous expression increased their migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and in brain tissue. These data suggest that the bipartite GEF, ELMO1 and Dock180, play an important role in promoting cancer cell invasion and could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diffuse malignant gliomas. PMID:17671188

  3. Paeoniflorin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human glioma cells via microRNA-16 upregulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Qi, Zhonghua; Wei, Zhenqing; Liu, Siwei; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yanwei; Zhao, Yongshun

    2015-08-01

    Paeoniflorin is one of the active ingredients of the commonly used herbal medicine derived from Paeonia, which exhibits anticancer properties. MicroRNA-16 (miR-16) is upregulated in CD133(-) cells, but downregulated in CD133(+) cells from glioma tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in glioma tissue samples is significantly higher than that in healthy brain tissue samples. Therefore, miR-16 and MMP-9 expression may be associated with glioma pathogenesis. In the present study, the effects of paeoniflorin on glioma were analyzed. U87 cells were treated with paeoniflorin at 0, 5, 10 and 20 μΜ concentrations. The results suggested that paeoniflorin inhibited U87 cell proliferation and accelerated cell apoptosis. In the present study paeoniflorin treatment increased miR-16 expression and reduced MMP-9 protein expression in U87 cells. Additionally, the results of the present study suggested that miR-16 may regulate MMP-9 expression in miR-16-transfected U87 cells. Furthermore, anti-miR-16 antibodies were used in order to investigate the apoptotic effects of paeoniflorin on U87 cells. The results demonstrated that paeoniflorin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human glial cells, via miR-16 upregulation and MMP-9 downregulation. PMID:25954855

  4. Activating transcription factor 3 is overexpressed in human glioma and its knockdown in glioblastoma cells causes growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    MA, SIQI; PANG, CHANGHE; SONG, LAIJUN; GUO, FUYOU; SUN, HONGWEI

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly malignant gliomas that are extremely invasive with high rates of recurrence and mortality. It has been reported that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is expressed in elevated levels in multiple malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of ATF3 in the development of glioma and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and RT-qPCR revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of ATF3 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) were higher in the glioma than in the normal human brain tissues, and that their levels were proportional to the pathological grades. By contrast, the mRNA and protein levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin; SERPINB5) were significantly lower in the glioma than in the normal brain tissue, and maspin expression was inversely proportional to the glioma pathological grade. The transfection of U373MG glioblastoma cells with ATF3-siRNA induced a number of changes in cell behavior; the cell proliferative activity was decreased and flow cytometry revealed an increased proportion of cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, TUNEL staining indicated an increased proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis and Transwell assays revealed impaired cell mobility. The sizes of the tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice were also significantly reduced by treatment of host mice with ATF3-siRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that ATF3 promotes the progression of human gliomas. PMID:25872784

  5. Activating transcription factor 3 is overexpressed in human glioma and its knockdown in glioblastoma cells causes growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siqi; Pang, Changhe; Song, Laijun; Guo, Fuyou; Sun, Hongwei

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastomas are highly malignant gliomas that are extremely invasive with high rates of recurrence and mortality. It has been reported that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is expressed in elevated levels in multiple malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of ATF3 in the development of glioma and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and RT-qPCR revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of ATF3 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) were higher in the glioma than in the normal human brain tissues, and that their levels were proportional to the pathological grades. By contrast, the mRNA and protein levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin; SERPINB5) were significantly lower in the glioma than in the normal brain tissue, and maspin expression was inversely proportional to the glioma pathological grade. The transfection of U373MG glioblastoma cells with ATF3-siRNA induced a number of changes in cell behavior; the cell proliferative activity was decreased and flow cytometry revealed an increased proportion of cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, TUNEL staining indicated an increased proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis and Transwell assays revealed impaired cell mobility. The sizes of the tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice were also significantly reduced by treatment of host mice with ATF3-siRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that ATF3 promotes the progression of human gliomas. PMID:25872784

  6. Inhibition of pentraxin 3 in glioma cells impairs proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jai-Nien; Ko, Chung-Po; Yang, Shun-Fa; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chang, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chia-Liang; Yang, Te-Fang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Kun-Chung

    2016-09-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory molecule that is involved in immune responses, inflammation, and cancer. Recent evidence suggests that PTX3 plays a critical role in tumor progression; however, its impact on the biological function of gliomas remains unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining showed that patients with high-grade gliomas exhibited increased expression levels of PTX3 compared to those with low-grade gliomas (P < 0.001). Furthermore, knockdown of PTX3 in GBM8401 cells inhibits proliferation, increases p21 protein levels, and decreases cyclin D1 protein levels, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. In addition, knockdown of PTX3 significantly decreases GBM8401 cell migration and invasion through the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -2 (MMP-1 and MMP-2) expression. In a GBM8401 xenograft animal model, PTX3 knockdown decreases tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, PTX3 plays an important role in glioma cell proliferation and invasion, and may thus serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of gliomas. PMID:27278519

  7. Extracellular vesicles shed by glioma cells: pathogenic role and clinical value.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly used by normal and tumor cells for communication at long distances to exchange by complex molecular messages and deliver a variety of essential biomolecules. EVs (exosomes and microvesicles) released in large numbers by glioma cells represent a key mechanism of intercellular signaling. Tumor-derived EVs are produced to regulate all vital functions of tumor cells including growth, proliferation, migration, survival, malignancy, invasion, and resistance to host anti-tumor immunity and anti-cancer drugs. Glioma EVs were shown to carry a variety of biomolecules such as oncogenic growth factors, receptors, enzymes, transcription factors, signaling and immunomodulatory molecules, DNA of mutated and nonmutated oncogenes, RNA transcripts, and noncoding RNA including retrotransposons, vault RNA, and microRNAs. Glioma-derived EVs can be useful as a source of potential tumor-associated biomarkers essential for development and validation of new diagnostic and prognostic tools for glioma and glioblastoma. Tumor EVs are enriched with glioma antigens that could be helpful, for example, for development of new advanced anti-tumor immune vaccines based on autologous dendritic cells stimulated by tumor-specific antigens. PMID:24969563

  8. Dynamics of circulating gamma delta T cell activity in an immunocompetent mouse model of high-grade glioma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human gamma delta T cells are potent effectors against glioma cell lines in vitro and in human/mouse xenograft models of glioblastoma, however, this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent mouse model. In this report, we established GL261 intracranial gliomas in syngeneic WT C57BL/6 m...

  9. Tetrandrine suppresses human glioma growth by inhibiting cell survival, proliferation and tumour angiogenesis through attenuating STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji-wei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ru; Ye, Jie-cheng; Li, Hai-ying; Zhang, Yi-kai; Ma, Zheng-lai; Li, Jin-ying; Zhong, Xue-yun; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-10-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-tumour activity. However, its effects on human glioma remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Tet inhibited human glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. It has been hypothesised that Tet inhibits glioma growth by affecting glioma cell survival, proliferation and vasculature in and around the xenograft tumour in the chick CAM model and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediated these activities. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis of the inhibitory effects of Tet on cell survival using a TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis; on cell proliferation based on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen; and on angiogenesis using a CAM anti-angiogenesis assay. We used western blotting to investigate the role of STAT3 on the anti-glioma activities of Tet. The results revealed that Tet inhibited survival and proliferation in human glioma cells, impaired tumour angiogenesis and decreased the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 and its downstream proteins. In sum, our data indicate that STAT3 is involved in Tet-induced the regression of glioma growth by activating tumour cell apoptosis, inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26086859

  10. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in ischaemia but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohoon; Fiske, Brian P; Birsoy, Kivanc; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Kami, Kenjiro; Possemato, Richard L; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Pacold, Michael E; Chen, Walter W; Cantor, Jason R; Shelton, Laura M; Gui, Dan Y; Kwon, Manjae; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Ligon, Keith L; Kang, Seong Woo; Snuderl, Matija; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Sabatini, David M

    2015-04-16

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischaemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumour regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumour environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition. PMID:25855294

  11. Topographical control of cell-cell interaction in C6 glioma by nanodot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Huang, G. Steven

    2014-05-01

    Nanotopography modulates the physiological behavior of cells and cell-cell interactions, but the manner of communication remains unclear. Cell networking (syncytium) of astroglia provides the optimal microenvironment for communication of the nervous system. C6 glioma cells were seeded on nanodot arrays with dot diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm. Cell viability, morphology, cytoskeleton, and adhesion showed optimal cell growth on 50-nm nanodots if sufficient incubation was allowed. In particular, the astrocytic syncytium level maximized at 50 nm. The gap junction protein Cx43 showed size-dependent and time-dependent transport from the nucleus to the cell membrane. The transport efficiency was greatly enhanced by incubation on 50-nm nanodots. In summary, nanotopography is capable of modulating cell behavior and influencing the cell-cell interactions of astrocytes. By fine-tuning the nanoenvironment, it may be possible to regulate cell-cell communications and optimize the biocompatibility of neural implants.

  12. Role of metallothionein 1E in the migration and invasion of human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, In-Young; Jeong, Young-Il; Jin, Shu-Guang; Pei, Jian; Wen, Min; Jang, Woo-Yeol

    2012-10-01

    Metallothionein 1E (MT1E) has been found to be highly expressed in motile cell lines. We investigated whether MT1E actually modulates the migration and invasion of human glioma cell lines and the types of factors that have an effect on MT1E. RNA differential display was performed using Genefishing™ technology in the human glioma cell lines U343MG-A, U87MG and U87MG-10'; the results were validated by RT-PCR and northern blot analysis, in order to detect possible genetic changes as the determining factors for migration ability in malignant glioma. MT1E was identified in U87MG, a highly motile cell line. The migration and invasion abilities of human glioma cell lines, and MT1E transfectants were investigated using simple scratch testing and Matrigel invasion assays. Morphological and cytoskeletal (actin, vimentin) changes were documented by light and confocal microscopy. The expression of MT1E in four glioma cell lines was assessed by RT-PCR and western blotting. In addition, the effects of MT1E on the activity of the NF-κB p50/p65 transcription factor, MMP-2 and -9 were examined by western blotting and zymography. The endogenous MT1E expression in the human glioma cell lines was statistically correlated with their migratory abilities and invasion. The U87-MT-AS cells became more round and had decreased stress fibers, compared with the U87MG cells. Endogenous MT1E expression in the four human glioma cell lines was directly correlated with migration. Two antisense MT1E-transfected cell lines showed decreased NF-κB p50 translocation into the nucleus, which led to decreased activity of MMP-9 in conditioned media. It may be postulated that MT1E can enhance the migration and invasion of human glioma cells by inducing MMP-9 inactivation via the upregulation of NF-κB p50. PMID:22843066

  13. RAD18 mediates resistance to ionizing radiation in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Hongwei; Cheng, Hongbin; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Zhi Yue, Wu

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in glioma cell lines. • RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis. • The elevated expression of RAD18 is associated with recurrent GBM who underwent IR therapy. - Abstract: Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RAD18 a central regulator of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), has been shown to play an important role in regulating genomic stability and DNA damage response. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between RAD18 and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and examined the expression levels of RAD18 in primary and recurrent GBM specimens. Our results showed that RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in GBM. The expression level of RAD18 in glioma cells correlates with their resistance to IR. Ectopic expression of RAD18 in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells confers significant resistance to IR treatment. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells sensitized these cells to IR treatment. Moreover, RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells, whereas cells deficient in RAD18 exhibit increased apoptosis induced by IR. Furthermore, knockdown of RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells disrupts HR-mediated repair, resulting in increased accumulation of DSB. In addition, clinical data indicated that RAD18 was significantly higher in recurrent GBM samples that were exposed to IR compared with the corresponding primary GBM samples. Collectively, our findings reveal that RAD18 may serve as a key mediator of the IR response and may function as a potential target for circumventing IR resistance in human GBM.

  14. Growth of cultured human glioma tumour cells can be regulated with histamine and histamine antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Ven, L. T.; Prinsen, I. M.; Jansen, G. H.; Roholl, P. J.; Defferrari, R.; Slater, R.; Den Otter, W.

    1993-01-01

    The 50% survival time for low grade astrocytomas is 50 months and for high grade astrocytomas it is 13 months, underlining the need for new therapies. Several reports show that in vivo histamine antagonists cause retardation of tumour growth in some animal models and prolonged survival in cancer patients. Therefore we have tested the growth modulating effects of histamine and histamine antagonists on human glioma cultures. Twelve freshly excised human gliomas were cultured and tested for their in vitro sensitivity to histamine and histamine antagonists. Four continuous glioma cell lines were used to confirm the glioma-specificity of the effects observed in the primary cell lines. In low serum concentration (0 or 1%) the growth of 5/9 primary glioma-derived cultures could be stimulated with 0.2 mM histamine, and in 4/5 cases with 0.2 microM histamine. One mM of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine could inhibit the growth of 4/5 primary glioma cultures when tested in 1% human AB serum, and of 6/13 cases when tested in 1% FCS. Lower concentrations (down to 1 microM) were less effective. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist pyrilamine gave variable results. The specificity of the effects is indicated by the absence of a generalised toxic effect, by the observation that the antagonist-induced inhibition could be reversed with histamine, and by the correlation of the obtained cimetidine-induced growth inhibition with the maximal growth rate of the primary cell lines in 10% FCS. The observed cimetidine-induced inhibition of the in vitro proliferation of gliomas suggests that cimetidine is a relevant candidate for the in vivo growth inhibition of these tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8353038

  15. A New Hope in Immunotherapy for Malignant Gliomas: Adoptive T Cell Transfer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dong-Sup; Shin, Hye-Jin; Hong, Yong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to highly incurable malignant gliomas due to tumor-specific cytotoxicity, minimal side effect, and a durable antitumor effect by memory T cells. But, antitumor activities of endogenously activated T cells induced by immunotherapy such as vaccination are not sufficient to control tumors because tumor-specific antigens may be self-antigens and tumors have immune evasion mechanisms to avoid immune surveillance system of host. Although recent clinical results from vaccine strategy for malignant gliomas are encouraging, these trials have some limitations, particularly their failure to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells reproducibly and effectively. An alternative strategy to overcome these limitations is adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in which tumor-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo rapidly and then transferred to patients. Moreover, enhanced biologic functions of T cells generated by genetic engineering and modified immunosuppressive microenvironment of host by homeostatic T cell expansion and/or elimination of immunosuppressive cells and molecules can induce more potent antitumor T cell responses and make this strategy hold promise in promoting a patient response for malignant glioma treatment. Here we will review the past and current progresses and discuss a new hope in adoptive T cell therapy for malignant gliomas. PMID:25009822

  16. Inhibition of Sonic Hedgehog and Notch Pathways Enhances Sensitivity of CD133+ Glioma Stem Cells to Temozolomide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ulasov, Ilya V; Nandi, Suvobroto; Dey, Mahua; Sonabend, Adam M; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are currently treated with temozolomide (TMZ), but often exhibit resistance to this agent. CD133+ cancer stem cells, a population believed to contribute to the tumor’s chemoresistance, bear the activation of Notch and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathways. In this study, we examined whether inhibition of both pathways enhances the efficacy of TMZ monotherapy in the context of glioma stem cells. Transcriptional analysis of Notch and SHH pathways in CD133+-enriched glioma cell populations showed the activity of these pathways. CD133+ cells were less susceptible to TMZ treatment than the unsorted glioma counterparts. Interestingly, Notch and SHH pathway transcriptional activity in CD133+ glioma cells was further enhanced by TMZ exposure, which led to NOTCH 1, NCOR2, and GLI1 upregulation (6.64-, 3.73-, and 2.79-fold, respectively) and CFLAR downregulation (4.22-fold). The therapeutic effect of TMZ was enhanced by Notch and SHH pathway pharmacological antagonism with GSI-1 and cyclopamine. More importantly, simultaneous treatment involving TMZ with both of these compounds led to a significant increase in CD133+ glioma cytotoxicity than treatment with any of these agents alone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CD133+ glioma cells overexpress genes involved in Notch and SHH pathways. These pathways contribute to the chemoresistant phenotype of CD133+ glioma cells, as their antagonism leads to an additive effect when used in combination with TMZ. PMID:20957337

  17. Inhibition of Sonic hedgehog and Notch pathways enhances sensitivity of CD133(+) glioma stem cells to temozolomide therapy.

    PubMed

    Ulasov, Ilya V; Nandi, Suvobroto; Dey, Mahua; Sonabend, Adam M; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are currently treated with temozolomide (TMZ), but often exhibit resistance to this agent. CD133(+) cancer stem cells, a population believed to contribute to the tumor's chemoresistance, bear the activation of Notch and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathways. In this study, we examined whether inhibition of both pathways enhances the efficacy of TMZ monotherapy in the context of glioma stem cells. Transcriptional analysis of Notch and SHH pathways in CD133(+)-enriched glioma cell populations showed the activity of these pathways. CD133(+) cells were less susceptible to TMZ treatment than the unsorted glioma counterparts. Interestingly, Notch and SHH pathway transcriptional activity in CD133(+) glioma cells was further enhanced by TMZ exposure, which led to NOTCH 1, NCOR2, and GLI1 upregulation (6.64-, 3.73-, and 2.79-fold, respectively) and CFLAR downregulation (4.22-fold). The therapeutic effect of TMZ was enhanced by Notch and SHH pathway pharmacological antagonism with GSI-1 and cyclopamine. More importantly, simultaneous treatment involving TMZ with both of these compounds led to a significant increase in CD133(+) glioma cytotoxicity than treatment with any of these agents alone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CD133(+) glioma cells overexpress genes involved in Notch and SHH pathways. These pathways contribute to the chemoresistant phenotype of CD133(+) glioma cells, as their antagonism leads to an additive effect when used in combination with TMZ. PMID:20957337

  18. Characterization of a canine glioma cell line as related to established experimental brain tumor models.

    PubMed

    Rainov, N G; Koch, S; Sena-Esteves, M; Berens, M E

    2000-07-01

    A large animal tumor model for anaplastic glioma has been recently developed using immunotolerant allogeneic Beagle dogs and an established canine glioma cell line, J3T. This model offers advantages in terms of tumor morphology and similarity to human anaplastic glioma. The present study was aimed at evaluating the biological characteristics of the J3T canine glioma cell line as related to experimental gene therapy studies. Furthermore, development and morphology of canine brain tumors in a xenogeneic immunodeficient SCID mouse model was investigated. It was demonstrated that cultured J3T cells can be efficiently infected by adenovirus (AV), herpes-simplex type I (HSV), or retrovirus (RV) vectors, as well as by non-virus vectors such as cationic liposome/DNA complexes. Thus, in terms of infectability and transfectability, J3T cells seem to be closer to human glioma than the 9L rodent gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity of selection antibiotics such as G418, puromycin, and hygromycin on J3T cells essentially resemble cytotoxicity seen with other established glioma lines, for example, 9L, U87, or U343. RV-mediated HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy demonstrated comparable LD50 for TK-expressing and control (non-expressing) J3T and 9L cells treated with Ganciclovir. Further, it was proven that J3T cells are tumorigenic and may grow heterotopically and orthotopically in a xenogeneic immunodeficient host, the SCID mouse, although morphology and growth pattern of these xenogeneic tumors differ from the demonstrated invasive phenotype in the Beagle dog. PMID:10901232

  19. ERK1 as a Therapeutic Target for Dendritic Cell Vaccination against High-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ku, Min-Chi; Edes, Inan; Bendix, Ivo; Pohlmann, Andreas; Waiczies, Helmar; Prozorovski, Tim; Günther, Martin; Martin, Conrad; Pagès, Gilles; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut; Uckert, Wolfgang; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Glioma regression requires the recruitment of potent antitumor immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DC) play a role in immune responses to these tumors. The fact that DC vaccines do not effectively combat high-grade gliomas, however, suggests that DCs need to be genetically modified specifically to promote their migration to tumor relevant sites. Previously, we identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1) as a regulator of DC immunogenicity and brain autoimmunity. In the current study, we made use of modern magnetic resonance methods to study the role of ERK1 in regulating DC migration and tumor progression in a model of high-grade glioma. We found that ERK1-deficient mice are more resistant to the development of gliomas, and tumor growth in these mice is accompanied by a higher infiltration of leukocytes. ERK1-deficient DCs exhibit an increase in migration that is associated with sustained Cdc42 activation and increased expression of actin-associated cytoskeleton-organizing proteins. We also demonstrated that ERK1 deletion potentiates DC vaccination and provides a survival advantage in high-grade gliomas. Considering the therapeutic significance of these results, we propose ERK1-deleted DC vaccines as an additional means of eradicating resilient tumor cells and preventing tumor recurrence. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1975-87. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27256374

  20. Targeting SIM2-s decreases glioma cell invasion through mesenchymal--epithelial transition.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuhang; Wang, Juntao; Zhang, Xiaodan; Shen, Jie; Deng, Lin; Liu, Qinglin; Li, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Glioma is a common primary intracranial carcinoma with high incidence, recurrence, and motility. Single minded homolog 2-short form (SIM2-s), a member of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, is reported to be expressed in glioma and might play a role in the invasion. In the present study, we investigated the importance of SIM2-s in glioma invasion and further explored the potential mechanisms. We showed that targeting SIM2-s by interference technology could decrease cell adhesion to fibronectin, induce cell aggregation and cytoskeletal changes. Furthermore, we showed that targeting SIM2-s increased the expression of epithelial markers and decreased the expression of mesenchymal markers, that is mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Targeting SIM2-s decreased self-renewal of glioma stem cells by tumor sphere formation assay. Taken together, our results indicated that MET is involved in the inhibition of glioma invasion by targeting SIM2-s, and SIM2-s may be a new gene target. PMID:24909296

  1. HEDGEHOG-GLI1 signaling regulates human glioma growth, cancer stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Virginie; Sanchez, Pilar; de Tribolet, Nicolas; Radovanovic, Ivan; Altaba, Ariel Ruiz i

    2007-01-01

    Summary Cancer stem cells are rare tumor cells characterized by their ability to self-renew and to induce tumorigenesis. They are present in gliomas and may be responsible for the lethality of these incurable brain tumors. In the most aggressive and invasive type, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an average of ±1 year spans the period between detection and death (1). The resistence of gliomas to current therapies may be related to the existence of cancer stem cells (2–6). We find that human gliomas display a stemness signature and demonstrate that HEDGEHOG (HH)-GLI signaling regulates the expression of stemness genes in and the self-renewal of CD133+ glioma cancer stem cells. HH-GLI signaling is also required for sustained glioma growth and survival, displaying additive and synergistic effects with temozolomide, the current chemotherapeutic agent of choice, which does not affect glioma stem cell self-renewal. Finally, interference of HH-GLI signaling with cyclopamine or through lentiviral-mediated silencing demonstrates that the tumorigenicity of human gliomas in nude mice requires an active pathway. Our results reveal the essential role of HH-GLI signaling in controlling the behavior of human glioma cancer stem cells and offer new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:17196391

  2. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo; Ye, Minhua; Zhang, Anling; Nan, Yang; Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan; Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei; Pu, Peiyu; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE.

  3. Fluctuation of Rac1 activity is associated with the phenotypic and transcriptional heterogeneity of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Yukinaga, Hiroko; Shionyu, Clara; Hirata, Eishu; Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Nagashima, Takeshi; Kondo, Shinji; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Naoki, Honda; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2014-04-15

    Phenotypic heterogeneity of cancer cells is caused not only by genetic and epigenetic alterations but also by stochastic variation of intracellular signaling molecules. Using cells that stably express Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors, we show here a correlation between a temporal fluctuation in the activity of Rac1 and the invasive properties of C6 glioma cells. By using long-term time-lapse imaging, we found that Rac1 activity in C6 glioma cells fluctuated over a timescale that was substantially longer than that of the replication cycle. Because the relative level of Rac1 activity in each cell was unaffected by a suspension-adhesion procedure, we were able to sort C6 glioma cells according to the levels of Rac1 activity, yielding Rac1(high) and Rac1(low) cells. The Rac1(high) cells invaded more efficiently than did Rac1(low) cells in a Matrigel invasion assay. We assessed the transcriptional profiles of Rac1(high) and Rac1(low) cells and performed gene ontology analysis. Among the 14 genes that were most associated with the term 'membrane' (membrane-related genes) in Rac1(high) cells, we identified four genes that were associated with glioma invasion and Rac1 activity by using siRNA knockdown experiments. Among the transcription factors upregulated in Rac1(high) cells, Egr2 was found to positively regulate expression of the four membrane-related invasion-associated genes. The identified signaling network might cause the fluctuations in Rac1 activity and the heterogeneity in the invasive capacity of glioma cells. PMID:24522191

  4. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Su-zhi; Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan; Liu, Jia-ming

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  5. Enhanced cell growth and tumorigenicity of rat glioma cells by stable expression of human CD133 through multiple molecular actions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kuan-Min; Lin, Tzu-Chien; Chan, Ti-Chun; Ma, Shi-Zhang; Tzou, Bo-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Ruei; Liu, Jun-Jen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Yang, Chung-Shi; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2013-09-01

    CD133 (Prominin-1/AC133) is generally treated as a cell surface marker found on multipotent stem cells and tumor stem-like cells, and its biological function remains debated. Genetically modified rat glioma cell lines were generated by lentiviral gene delivery of human CD133 into rat C6 glioma cells (hCD133(+) -C6) or by infection of C6 cells with control lentivirus (mock-C6). Stable hCD133 expression promoted the self-renewal ability of C6-formed spheres with an increase in the expression of the stemness markers, Bmi-1 and SOX2. Akt phosphorylation, Notch-1 activation, and Notch-1 target gene expression (Hes-1, Hey1 and Hey2) were increased in hCD133(+) -C6 when compared to mock-C6. The inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, Notch-1 activation, and Hes-1 in hCD133(+) -C6 cells effectively suppressed their clonogenic ability, indicating that these factors are involved in expanding the growth of hCD133(+) -C6. An elevated expression of GTPase-activating protein 27 (Arhgap27) was detected in hCD133(+) -C6. A decline in the invasion of hCD133(+) -C6 by knockdown of Arhgap27 expression indicated the critical role of Arhgap27 in promoting cell migration of hCD133(+) -C6. In vivo study further showed that hCD133(+) -C6 formed aggressive tumors in vivo compared to mock-C6. Exposure of hCD133(+) -C6 to arsenic trioxide not only reduced Akt phosphorylation, Notch-1 activation and Hes-1 expression in vitro, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo. The results show that C6 glioma cells with stable hCD133 expression enhanced their stemness properties with increased Notch-1/Hes-1 signaling, Akt activation, and Arhgap27 action, which contribute to increased cell proliferation and migration of hCD133(+) -C6 in vitro, as well as progressive tumor formation in vivo. PMID:23832679

  6. BCAT1 promotes cell proliferation through amino acid catabolism in gliomas carrying wild-type IDH1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Jung; Wang, Wei; Schlotter, Magdalena; Lindroth, Anders M; Pleier, Sabrina V; Bai, Alfa H C; Karra, Daniela; Piro, Rosario M; Felsberg, Jörg; Addington, Adele; Lemke, Dieter; Weibrecht, Irene; Hovestadt, Volker; Rolli, Claudio G; Campos, Benito; Turcan, Sevin; Sturm, Dominik; Witt, Hendrik; Chan, Timothy A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Kemkemer, Ralf; König, Rainer; Schmidt, Kathrin; Hull, William-Edmund; Pfister, Stefan M; Jugold, Manfred; Hutson, Susan M; Plass, Christoph; Okun, Jürgen G; Reifenberger, Guido; Lichter, Peter; Radlwimmer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that glioblastoma express high levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1), the enzyme that initiates the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Expression of BCAT1 was exclusive to tumors carrying wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes and was highly correlated with methylation patterns in the BCAT1 promoter region. BCAT1 expression was dependent on the concentration of α-ketoglutarate substrate in glioma cell lines and could be suppressed by ectopic overexpression of mutant IDH1 in immortalized human astrocytes, providing a link between IDH1 function and BCAT1 expression. Suppression of BCAT1 in glioma cell lines blocked the excretion of glutamate and led to reduced proliferation and invasiveness in vitro, as well as significant decreases in tumor growth in a glioblastoma xenograft model. These findings suggest a central role for BCAT1 in glioma pathogenesis, making BCAT1 and BCAA metabolism attractive targets for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches to treat patients with glioblastoma. PMID:23793099

  7. Cord Blood Stem Cell-Mediated Induction of Apoptosis in Glioma Downregulates X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP)

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Fassett, Daniel; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Gujrati, Meena; Rao, Jasti S.

    2010-01-01

    Background XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) is one of the most important members of the apoptosis inhibitor family. XIAP is upregulated in various malignancies, including human glioblastoma. It promotes invasion, metastasis, growth and survival of malignant cells. We hypothesized that downregulation of XIAP by human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBSC) in glioma cells would cause them to undergo apoptotic death. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed the effect of hUCBSC on two malignant glioma cell lines (SNB19 and U251) and two glioma xenograft cell lines (4910 and 5310). In co-cultures of glioma cells with hUCBSC, proliferation of glioma cells was significantly inhibited. This is associated with increased cytotoxicity of glioma cells, which led to glioma cell death. Stem cells induced apoptosis in glioma cells, which was evaluated by TUNEL assay, FACS analyses and immunoblotting. The induction of apoptosis is associated with inhibition of XIAP in co-cultures of hUCBSC. Similar results were obtained by the treatment of glioma cells with shRNA to downregulate XIAP (siXIAP). Downregulation of XIAP resulted in activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 to trigger apoptosis in glioma cells. Apoptosis is characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and upregulation of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad. Cell death of glioma cells was marked by downregulation of Akt and phospho-Akt molecules. We observed similar results under in vivo conditions in U251- and 5310-injected nude mice brains, which were treated with hUCBSC. Under in vivo conditions, Smac/DIABLO was found to be colocalized in the nucleus, showing that hUCBSC induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of XIAP and activation of Smac/DIABLO. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that downregulation of XIAP by hUCBSC treatment induces apoptosis, which led to the death of the glioma cells and xenograft cells. This study demonstrates the therapeutic

  8. Role of Autophagy in Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis in U251 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Ping; Dong, Fu-Xing; Chai, Xiang; Zhu, Shuang; Zhang, Bao-Le; Gao, Dian-Shuai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the role of capsaicin in cancer prevention and treatment has gained people's attention. However, the mechanism of anti-glioma cells by capsaicin has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the mechanism of capsaicin in U251 cells. Cell viability was detected by MTT and extracellular LDH measurements, while immunofluorescence was performed to measure changes of LC3 in U251 cells. The expressions of LC3II, Puma-α, Beclin1, P62, Procaspase-3, and P53 were observed by immunoblotting. The cell viability decreased and the punctate patterns of LC3 in U251 cells were observed after Capsaicin treatment. Meanwhile, the expressions of Beclin1, P62, and Puma-α increased. After using 3-MA, the expressions of Beclin1 and Procaspase-3 were reduced while those of P53 and Puma-α increased. The expression of LC3II was increased after Pifithrin-α treatment. Therefore, we believed that capsaicin could induce apoptosis in U251 cells, and the inhibition of autophagy could contribute to apoptosis. PMID:26351174

  9. Overexpression of CAP1 and its significance in tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue-Chao; Cui, Chen-Chen; Zhu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Meng; Yu, Jin-Song; Bai, Jin; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2016-09-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), a protein related to the regulation of actin filaments and the Ras/cAMP pathway, is associated with tumor progression. Nevertheless, the expression level and effects of CAP1 in regards to glioma have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the expression of CAP1 in glioma and tumor adjacent normal brain tissues by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that CAP1 was overexpressed in glioma tissues in comparison with that noted in the tumor adjacent normal brain tissues and increased staining of CAP1 was found to be correlated with WHO stage. In addition, we discovered that knockdown of CAP1 by specific RNA interference markedly inhibited cell growth and caused downregulation of the proliferation markers, PCNA and cyclin A. We further demonstrated that knockdown of CAP1 inhibited cell metastatic abilities by downregulating N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulating E-cadherin. These findings revealed that CAP1 expression is markedly increased in human glioma and that downregulation of CAP1 in tumors may serve as a treatment for glioma patients. PMID:27432289

  10. Silencing of CtBP1 suppresses the migration in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Shen, Yifen; Tao, Xuelei; Xu, Jian; Lu, Junjie; Liu, Chao; Xu, Zhiwei; Tang, Qing; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Xiubing

    2016-06-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), up-regulated in various types of human cancers, has been functionally associated with proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and EMT in vitro studies. However, the functional significance of CtBP1 in the pathophysiology of glioma remains unknown. In the present study, we showed the expression of CtBP1 was markedly higher in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CtBP1 mainly localized in the nucleus of glioma cells. Statistical analysis suggested the upregulation of CtBP1 was considerably correlated with the WHO grade (P < 0.05) and those patients with high CtBP1 levels exhibited shorter survival time (P < 0.01). Silencing CtBP1 by short hairpin RNAi caused an inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, knockdown of CtBP1 increases E-cadherin expression and decreases vimentin expression. These data uncovered that CtBP1 protein is a valuable marker of glioma pathogenic process and that CtBP1 can serve as a novel prognostic marker for glioma therapy. PMID:27160109

  11. Identifying the genes regulated by IDH1 via gene-chip in glioma cell U87

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jie; Lou, Meiqing; Shi, Jinlong; Xue, Yajun; Cui, Daming

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Increasing evidence show that IDH1 gene mutation is implicated in glioma. However, the mechanism involved in the progression of glioma remains unclear until now. In the study reported here, we used gene chip to identifying the genes regulated with IDH mutanted at R132. The results showed that IDH1-mutant leads to 1255 up-regulated genes and 1862 down-regulated genes in U87 cell lines. Meanwhile, GO and gene-network was performed and shown IDH1-mutant mainly affect small molecule metabolic process, mitotic cell cycle and apoptosis. This result will lay a foundation for further study of IDH1 gene function in the future. PMID:26770405

  12. Mutant tristetraprolin: a potent inhibitor of malignant glioma cell growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant gliomas rely on the production of certain critical growth factors including VEGF, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, to fuel rapid tumor growth, angiogenesis, and treatment resistance. Post-transcriptional regulation through adenine and uridine-rich elements of the 3' untranslated region is one ...

  13. A multiscale model for glioma spread including cell-tissue interactions and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Engwer, Christian; Knappitsch, Markus; Surulescu, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Glioma is a broad class of brain and spinal cord tumors arising from glia cells, which are the main brain cells that can develop into neoplasms. They are highly invasive and lead to irregular tumor margins which are not precisely identifiable by medical imaging, thus rendering a precise enough resection very difficult. The understanding of glioma spread patterns is hence essential for both radiological therapy as well as surgical treatment. In this paper we propose a multiscale model for glioma growth including interactions of the cells with the underlying tissue network, along with proliferative effects. Our current accounting for two subpopulations of cells to accomodate proliferation according to the go-or-grow dichtomoty is an extension of the setting in [16]. As in that paper, we assume that cancer cells use neuronal fiber tracts as invasive pathways. Hence, the individual structure of brain tissue seems to be decisive for the tumor spread. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to provide such information, thus opening the way for patient specific modeling of glioma invasion. Starting from a multiscale model involving subcellular (microscopic) and individual (mesoscale) cell dynamics, we perform a parabolic scaling to obtain an approximating reaction-diffusion-transport equation on the macroscale of the tumor cell population. Numerical simulations based on DTI data are carried out in order to assess the performance of our modeling approach. PMID:27105989

  14. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  15. Magnetofection based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-mediated low lncRNA HOTAIR expression decreases the proliferation and invasion of glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kan; Liu, Peifeng; Dong, Suyan; Guo, Yanjie; Cui, Xinxin; Zhu, Xiaoying; Li, Xuan; Jiang, Lianghan; Liu, Te; Wu, Yuncheng

    2016-08-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a special subpopulation of glioma cells that are key to the sensitivity of tumors to treatments and to the possibility of tumor recurrence. Identifying new strategies that inhibit the growth of GSCs are therefore important for developing novel therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, CD133+ human glioma stem cells were isolated and cultured. Magnetic nanoparticles were used to mediate the expression of siRNAs targeting the HOTAIR (si-HOTAIR) sequence in human gliomas. Effect of downregulation of HOTAIR expression on proliferation, invasion and in vivo tumorigenicity of human GSCs and underlying molecular mechanisms were further evaluated. The results of the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that downregulation of HOTAIR expression inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Transwell assays demonstrated that downregulation of HOTAIR expression resulted in a decrease in the invasive capability of GSCs. Moreover, magnetic nanoparticle-mediated low expression of HOTAIR effectively reduced the tumorigenic capacity of glioma stem cells in vivo. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that downregulation of HOTAIR expression significantly increased the expression of PDCD4 in GSCs, in addition to reducing the expression of CCND1 and CDK4. An in-depth mechanistic analysis showed that downregulation of HOTAIR expression reduced the recruitment of downstream molecules, EZH2 and LSD1, thereby activating the expression of PDCD4 at the transcriptional level. In conclusion, downregulation of HOTAIR expression effectively promoted the expression of PDCD4, thereby inhibiting the proliferation, invasion and in vivo tumorigenicity of human GSCs. PMID:27277755

  16. Magnetofection based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-mediated low lncRNA HOTAIR expression decreases the proliferation and invasion of glioma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kan; Liu, Peifeng; Dong, Suyan; Guo, Yanjie; Cui, Xinxin; Zhu, Xiaoying; Li, Xuan; Jiang, Lianghan; Liu, Te; Wu, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a special subpopulation of glioma cells that are key to the sensitivity of tumors to treatments and to the possibility of tumor recurrence. Identifying new strategies that inhibit the growth of GSCs are therefore important for developing novel therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, CD133+ human glioma stem cells were isolated and cultured. Magnetic nanoparticles were used to mediate the expression of siRNAs targeting the HOTAIR (si-HOTAIR) sequence in human gliomas. Effect of downregulation of HOTAIR expression on proliferation, invasion and in vivo tumorigenicity of human GSCs and underlying molecular mechanisms were further evaluated. The results of the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that downregulation of HOTAIR expression inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Transwell assays demonstrated that downregulation of HOTAIR expression resulted in a decrease in the invasive capability of GSCs. Moreover, magnetic nanoparticle-mediated low expression of HOTAIR effectively reduced the tumorigenic capacity of glioma stem cells in vivo. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that downregulation of HOTAIR expression significantly increased the expression of PDCD4 in GSCs, in addition to reducing the expression of CCND1 and CDK4. An in-depth mechanistic analysis showed that downregulation of HOTAIR expression reduced the recruitment of downstream molecules, EZH2 and LSD1, thereby activating the expression of PDCD4 at the transcriptional level. In conclusion, downregulation of HOTAIR expression effectively promoted the expression of PDCD4, thereby inhibiting the proliferation, invasion and in vivo tumorigenicity of human GSCs. PMID:27277755

  17. ALA-PDT of glioma cell micro-clusters in BD-IX rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Angell-Petersen, Even; Spetalen, Signe; Carper, Stephen W.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2006-02-01

    A significant contributory factor to the poor prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme is the inability of conventional treatments to eradicate infiltrating glioma cells. A syngeneic rat brain tumor model is used to investigate the effects of aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on small clusters of tumor cells sequestered in normal brain. The intrinsic sensitivity of rat glioma cells to PDT was investigated by exposing ALA-incubated cells to a range of radiant exposures and irradiances using 635 nm light. Biodistribution studies were undertaken on tumor-bearing animals in order to determine the tumor selectivity of the photosensitizer following systemic administration (i.p.) of ALA. Effects of ALA-PDT on normal brain and gross tumor were evaluated using histopathology. Effects of PDT on isolated glioma cells in normal brain were investigated by treating animals 48 h after tumor cell implantation: a time when the micro-clusters of cells are protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Rat glioma cells in monolayer are susceptible to ALA-PDT - lower irradiances are more effective than higher ones. Fluorescence microscopy of frozen tissue sections showed that photosensitizer is produced with better than 200:1 tumor-to-normal tissue selectivity following i.p. ALA administration. ALA-PDT resulted in significant damage to both gross tumor and normal brain, however, the treatment failed to prolong survival of animals with newly implanted glioma cells compared to non-treated controls if the drug was delivered either i.p. or directly into the brain. In contrast, animals inoculated with tumor cells pre-incubated in vitro with ALA showed a significant survival advantage in response to PDT.

  18. Reduction of the invasiveness of human glioma cells by ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Sun, Chung-Ho; Madsen, Steen

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: High grade gliomas are characterised by rapid and invasive growth, that cause massive tissue destruction at both the tumour- brain boarder as well as in regions remote from the tumor core. Eradication or inhibition of infiltrating glioma cells poses a significant clinical challenge that is unlikely to be solved using conventional treatment regimens consisting of ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. In this study we evaluated the effects of ALA mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the invesivness of human glioma cells migrating from implanted multicell tumor spheroids. Materials and method 3-400nm diameter tumor spheroids, derived from the human glioma cell line ACBT, were implanted into a gel matrix of collagen type I. 24 hours following implantation there was a significant invasion of the surrounding gel by individual tumor cells to an average distance of 400nm. The cultures were incubated in increasing concentrations of ALA (10-1000 ug/ml) for four hours and then exposed to 635nm laser light in a titration of both fluence level and fluence rate. Results Fluences of 25J/cm2 were clearly cytotoxic for both the infiltrating cells as well as the spheroids at all ALA concentrations. Fluence levels of 6J did not stop the spheroid growth or prove cytotoxic to the glioma cells that had previously migrated into the gel, in a majority of cultures but inhibited further migration of the cells by 80-90% compared to control. Conclusion: Measurement of cell survival and cell proliferation indices seemed to indicate a direct migratory inhibition effect on the invading cells and not cytotoxicity as the most likely mechanism for this observation.

  19. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in CD133+ population in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Qiang; Tan, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bao-Wei; Wu, Tao; Liu, Ping; Sun, Shao-Jun; Cao, Yin-Guang

    2016-03-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the role of 3-bromopyruvate in inhibition of CD133+ U87 human glioma cell population growth. The results demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate inhibited the viability of both CD133+ and parental cells derived from U87 human glioma cell line. However, the 3-bromopyruvate-induced inhibition in viability was more prominent in CD133+ cells at 10 μM concentration after 48 h. Treatment of CD133+ cells with 3-bromopyruvate caused reduction in cell population and cell size, membrane bubbling, and degradation of cell membranes. Hoechst 33258 staining showed condensation of chromatin material and fragmentation of DNA in treated CD133+ cells after 48 h. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited the migration rate of CD133+ cells significantly compared to the parental cells. Flow cytometry revealed that exposure of CD133+ cells to 3-bromopyruvate increased the cell population in S phase from 24.5 to 37.9 % with increase in time from 12 to 48 h. In addition, 3-bromopyruvate significantly enhanced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3 in CD133+ cells compared to the parental cells. Therefore, 3-bromopyruvate is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of glioma by targeting stem cells selectively. PMID:26453119

  20. All reovirus subtypes show oncolytic potential in primary cells of human high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Alloussi, S H; Alkassar, M; Urbschat, S; Graf, N; Gärtner, B

    2011-09-01

    Reoviridae are non-human pathogenic viruses. The family of reoviridae consists of 4 different subtypes. Many studies have proven that the Dearing subtype 3 has oncolytic potential. This potential is related to the RAS protein expression in tumour cells. The aim of this study, was to investigate whether all reovirus subtypes have oncolytic potential and whether there are differences in their efficacy, in particular for high-grade glioma. To evaluate the oncolytic potential, we performed an in vitro head-to-head study for all reovirus subtypes in 5 primary cell cultures of high-grade gliomas. The oncolytic activity was determined using end-point titration with observation of the cytopathogenic effect. For measurement of RAS activity, we performed an immunofluorescent detection stain on all cell cultures. For quantification of the virus, an RT-PCR measurement for all subtypes was performed. All reovirus subtypes showed oncolytic activity in the observed glioma biopsies. These observations correlated with RAS overexpression in the observed cells. All glioma biopsies overexpressed the RAS protein. The quantitative oncolytic potential differed in relation to the single observed cell culture and in relation to the chosen reovirus subtype. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing oncolytic activity for all reovirus subtypes. We show the relationship and correlation between RAS protein overexpression and vulnerability of cells to reovirus. Efficacy of the different subtypes is interindividually different and cannot be forecast. PMID:21637921

  1. Centrosomal Protein of 55 Regulates Glucose Metabolism, Proliferation and Apoptosis of Glioma Cells via the Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangzhi; Liu, Mingna; Wang, Hongjun; Yu, Shan; Jiang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Jiahang; Han, Ke; Shen, Jia; Zhu, Minwei; Lin, Zhiguo; Jiang, Chuanlu; Guo, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glioma is one of the most common and most aggressive brain tumors in humans. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the onset and the progression of glioma are elusive and controversial. Centrosomal protein of 55 (CEP55) was initially described as a highly coiled-coil protein that plays critical roles in cell division, but was recently identified as being overexpressed in many human cancers. The function of CEP55 has not previously been characterized in glioma. We aim to discover the effect and mechanism of CEP55 in glioma development. Method: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze CEP55 expression. Glucose uptake, western blot, MTS, CCK-8, Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining assays were performed to investigate the role and mechanism of CEP55 on glioma cell process. Results: We found that the levels of CEP55 expression were upregulated in glioma. In addition, CEP55 appeared to regulate glucose metabolism of glioma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of CEP55 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in glioma. Finally, we provided preliminary evidence that knockdown of CEP55 inhibited glioma development via suppressing the activity of Akt/mTOR signaling. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that CEP55 regulates glucose metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis of glioma cells via the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and its promotive effect on glioma tumorigenesis can be a potential target for glioma therapy in the future. PMID:27471559

  2. Expression of CDC5L is associated with tumor progression in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jie; Wang, Donglin; Fan, Shaochen; Ban, Na; Zhu, Junya; Ji, Bin; Wang, Yuchan

    2016-03-01

    Cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) protein is a cell cycle regulator of the G2/M transition and has been reported to participate in the catalytic step of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and DNA damage repair. Recently, it was also found to act as a candidate oncogene in osteosarcoma and cervical tumors. However, the role of CDC5L expression in tumor biology was still unclear. Here, we analyzed the expression and clinical significance of CDC5L in gliomas. The expression of CDC5L in fresh glioma tissues and paraffin-embedded slices was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that CDC5L was highly expressed in glioma tissues. The expression of CDC5L was significantly associated with glioma pathology grade and Ki-67 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that high CDC5L expression was an independent prognostic factor for glioma patients' survival. To determine whether CDC5L could regulate the proliferation of glioma cells, we transfected glioma cells with interfering RNA target CDC5L, then investigated cell proliferation with cell counting kit (CCK)-8, flow cytometry assays and colony formation analyses. Our results indicated that knockdown of CDC5L would inhibit proliferation of glioma cells. Besides, reduced expression of CDC5L could induce the apoptosis of glioma cells. These findings suggested that CDC5L might play an important role in glioma and thus be a promising therapeutic target of glioma. PMID:26490980

  3. Overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant proteins renders glioma cells more sensitive to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sichen; Chou, Arthur P.; Chen, Weidong; Chen, Ruihuan; Deng, Yuzhong; Phillips, Heidi S.; Selfridge, Julia; Zurayk, Mira; Lou, Jerry J.; Everson, Richard G.; Wu, Kuan-Chung; Faull, Kym F.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Liau, Linda M.; Lai, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 2 (IDH2) are found in a subset of gliomas. Among the many phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type IDH1/2 gliomas, the most salient is that IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients demonstrate markedly improved survival compared with IDH1/2 wild-type glioma patients. To address the mechanism underlying the superior clinical outcome of IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients, we investigated whether overexpression of the IDH1R132H protein could affect response to therapy in the context of an isogenic glioma cell background. Stable clonal U87MG and U373MG cell lines overexpressing IDH1WT and IDH1R132H were generated, as well as U87MG cell lines overexpressing IDH2WT and IDH2R172K. In vitro experiments were conducted to characterize baseline growth and migration and response to radiation and temozolomide. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured under various conditions. U87MG-IDH1R132H cells, U373MG-IDH1R132H cells, and U87MG-IDH2R172K cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to radiation but not to temozolomide. Radiosensitization of U87MG-IDH1R132H cells was accompanied by increased apoptosis and accentuated ROS generation, and this effect was abrogated by the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Interestingly, U87MG-IDH1R132H cells also displayed decreased growth at higher cell density and in soft agar, as well as decreased migration. Overexpression of IDH1R132H and IDH2R172K mutant protein in glioblastoma cells resulted in increased radiation sensitivity and altered ROS metabolism and suppression of growth and migration in vitro. These findings provide insight into possible mechanisms contributing to the improved outcomes observed in patients with IDH1/2 mutant gliomas. PMID:23115158

  4. Origin of the U87MG glioma cell line: Good news and bad news.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marie; Bjerke, Mia; Edlund, Hanna; Nelander, Sven; Westermark, Bengt

    2016-08-31

    Human tumor-derived cell lines are indispensable tools for basic and translational oncology. They have an infinite life span and are easy to handle and scalable, and results can be obtained with high reproducibility. However, a tumor-derived cell line may not be authentic to the tumor of origin. Two major questions emerge: Have the identity of the donor and the actual tumor origin of the cell line been accurately determined? To what extent does the cell line reflect the phenotype of the tumor type of origin? The importance of these questions is greatest in translational research. We have examined these questions using genetic profiling and transcriptome analysis in human glioma cell lines. We find that the DNA profile of the widely used glioma cell line U87MG is different from that of the original cells and that it is likely to be a bona fide human glioblastoma cell line of unknown origin. PMID:27582061

  5. The Effects and Molecular Mechanisms of MiR-106a in Multidrug Resistance Reversal in Human Glioma U87/DDP and U251/G Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Zhenlian; Chu, LinYang; Li, Xu; Kan, Pengcheng; Xin, Xin; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy resistance is one of the major obstacles to effective glioma therapy. Currently, the mechanism underlying chemotherapy resistance is unclear. A recent study showed that miR-106a is an important molecule involved in chemotherapy resistance. To explore the effects and mechanisms of miR-106a on multidrug resistance reversal in human glioma cells, we silenced miR-106a expression in the cisplatin-resistant U87 (U87/DDP) and the gefitinib-resistant U251 (U251/G) glioma cell lines and measured the resulting drug sensitivity, cell apoptosis rate and rhodamine 123 content. In addition, we detected decreased expression of P-glycoprotein, MDR1, MRP1, GST-π, CDX2, ERCC1, RhoE, Bcl-2, Survivin and Topo-II, as well as reduced production of IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β in these cell lines. Furthermore, we found decreased expression of p-AKT and transcriptional activation of NF-κB, Twist, AP-1 and Snail in these cell lines. These results suggest that miR-106a is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of human multidrug resistant glioma. PMID:25950430

  6. Picosecond fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope for imaging of living glioma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiyin; Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Yinghua; Vernier, Thomas; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Jo, Javier; Thu, Mya M.; Gundersen, Martin A.; Marcu, Laura

    2005-03-01

    In this communication, we report the imaging of living glioma cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) technique. The growing interests in developing novel techniques for diagnosis and minimally invasive therapy of brain tumor have led to microscopic studies of subcellular structures and intracellular processes in glioma cells. Fluorescence microscopy has been used with a number of exogenous molecular probes specific for certain intracellular structures such as mitochondria, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), and calcium concentration. When probes with overlapping emission spectra being used, separate samples are required to image each probe individually under conventional fluorescence microscopy. We have developed a wide-field FLIM microscope that uses fluorescence lifetime as an additional contrast for resolving multiple markers in the same essay. The FLIM microscope consists of a violet diode laser and a nitrogen-pumped dye laser to provide tunable sub-nanosecond excitation from UV to NIR. The detection system is based on a time-gated ICCD camera with minimum 80 ps gate width. The performance of the system was evaluated using fluorescence dyes with reported lifetime values. Living rat glioma C6 cells were stained with JC-1 and Rhodamine 123. FLIM images were acquired and their lifetimes in living cells were found in good agreements with values measured in solutions by a time-domain fluorescence spectrometer. These results indicate that imaging of glioma cells using FLIM can resolve multiple spectrally-overlapping probes and provide quantitative functional information about the intracellular environment.

  7. Neural stem cells target intracranial glioma to deliver an oncolytic adenovirus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, MA; Ulasov, IV; Sonabend, AM; Nandi, S; Han, Y; Marler, S; Roth, J; Lesniak, MS

    2008-01-01

    Adenoviral oncolytic virotherapy represents an attractive treatment modality for central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. However, successful application of virotherapy in clinical trials has been hampered by inadequate distribution of oncolytic vectors. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been shown as suitable vehicles for gene delivery because they track tumor foci. In this study, we evaluated the capability of NSCs to deliver a conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) to glioma. We examined NSC specificity with respect to viral transduction, migration and capacity to deliver a CRAd to tumor cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of NSC shows that these cells express a variety of surface receptors that make them amenable to entry by recombinant adenoviruses. Luciferase assays with replication-deficient vectors possessing a variety of transductional modifications targeted to these receptors confirm these results. Real-time PCR analysis of the replication profiles of different CRAds in NSCs and a representative glioma cell line, U87MG, identified the CRAd-Survivin (S)-pk7 virus as optimal vector for further delivery studies. Using in vitro and in vivo migration studies, we show that NSCs infected with CRAd-S-pk7 virus migrate and preferentially deliver CRAd to U87MG glioma. These results suggest that NSCs mediate an enhanced intratumoral distribution of an oncolytic vector in malignant glioma when compared with virus injection alone. PMID:19078993

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of transparent yellow iron oxide nanoparticles on human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhu, Mo-Tao; Wang, Bing; Wang, Meng; Wang, Hua-Jian; OuYang, Hong; Feng, Wei-Yue

    2010-12-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology, concerns about the possible adverse health effects on human beings by using nanomaterials have been raised. Transparent yellow iron oxide (alpha-FeOOH) nanoparticles have been widely used in paints, plastic, rubber, building materials, papermaking, food products and pharmaceutical industry, thus the potential health implications by the exposure should be considered. The purpose of this study is to assess the cytotoxicity of transparent yellow iron oxide nanoparticles on U251 human glioma cells. The alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles are in clubbed shapes with 9 nm in diameter and 43 nm long. The specific surface area is 115.3 m2/g. After physicochemical characterization of the nanoparticles, U251 cells were exposed to a-FeOOH at the doses of 0, 3.75, 15, 60 and 120 microg/mL. The results showed that the alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles reduced the cell viability and induced necrosis and apoptosis in U251 cells. In addition, nanoparticle exposure significantly increased the levels of superoxide anion and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent fashion in the cells. Our results suggest that exposure to alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles induce significant free radical formation and cytotoxic effects. The large surface area that induced high surface reactivity may play an important role in the cytotoxic effect of alpha-FeOOH nanoparticles. PMID:21121365

  9. Enhanced MGMT expression contributes to temozolomide resistance in glioma stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Shen, Dong; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Yang, Qun-Ying; Guo, Cheng-Cheng; Feng, Bing-Hong; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) can remove DNA alkylation adducts, thereby repairing damaged DNA and contributing to the drug resistance of gliomas to alkylating agents. In addition, glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the recurrence and treatment resistance of gliomas. In this study, we aimed to investigate MGMT expression and regulatory mechanisms in GSCs and the association of MGMT with temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity. GSCs were enriched from one MGMT-positive cell line (SF-767) and 7 MGMT-negative cell lines (U251, SKMG-4, SKMG-1, SF295, U87, MGR1, and MGR2) through serum-free clone culture. GSCs from the U251G, SKMG-4G, SF295G, and SKMG-1G cell lines became MGMT-positive, but those from the U87G, MGR1G, and MGR2G cell lines remained MGMT-negative. However, all the GSCs and their parental glioma cell lines were positive for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, GSCs were more resistant to TMZ than their parental glioma cell lines (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of TMZ between MGMT-positive and MGMT-negative GSCs (P > 0.05). When we treated the MGMT-positive GSCs with TMZ plus MG-132 (an NF-κB inhibitor), the antitumor activity was significantly enhanced compared to that of GSCs treated with TMZ alone (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that MGMT expression decreased through the down-regulation of NF-κB expression by MG-132. Our results show that MG-132 may inhibit NF-κB expression and further decrease MGMT expression, resulting in a synergistic effect on MGMT-positive GSCs. These results indicate that enhanced MGMT expression contributes to TMZ resistance in MGMT-positive GSCs. PMID:23958055

  10. High-glucose and S100B stimulate glutamate uptake in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Nardin, Patrícia; Quincozes-Santos, André; Tortorelli, Lucas; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Andreazza, Ana Cristina; Braganhol, Elizandra; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with several changes in the central nervous system, including oxidative stress and abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission, and the astrocytes play an essential role in these alterations. In vitro studies of astroglial function have been performed using cultures of primary astrocytes or C6 glioma cells. Herein, we investigated glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase and S100B secretion in C6 glioma cells cultured in a high-glucose environment, as well as some parameters of oxidative stress and damage. C6 glioma cells, cultured in 12 mM glucose medium, exhibited signals of oxidative and nitrosative stress similar to those found in diabetes mellitus and other models of diabetic disease (decrease in glutathione, elevated NO, DNA damage). Interestingly, we found an increase in glutamate uptake and S100B secretion, and a decrease in glutamine synthetase, which might be linked to the altered glutamatergic communication in diabetes mellitus. Moreover, glutamate uptake in C6 glioma cells, like primary astrocytes, was stimulated by extracellular S100B. Aminoguanidine partially prevented the glial alterations induced by the 12 mM glucose medium. Together, these data emphasize the relevance of astroglia in diabetes mellitus, as well as the importance of glial parameters in the evaluation of diabetic disease progression and treatment. PMID:22359053